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Sample records for survival curves resulting

  1. Methods for Performing Survival Curve Quality-of-Life Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Walton; Ding, Eric; Fischer, Irene D; Hagen, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    Many medical decisions involve an implied choice between alternative survival curves, typically with differing quality of life. Common preference assessment methods neglect this structure, creating some risk of distortions. Survival curve quality-of-life assessments (SQLA) were developed from Gompertz survival curves fitting the general population's survival. An algorithm was developed to generate relative discount rate-utility (DRU) functions from a standard survival curve and health state and an equally attractive alternative curve and state. A least means squared distance algorithm was developed to describe how nearly 3 or more DRU functions intersect. These techniques were implemented in a program called X-Trade and tested. SQLA scenarios can portray realistic treatment choices. A side effect scenario portrays one prototypical choice, to extend life while experiencing some loss, such as an amputation. A risky treatment scenario portrays procedures with an initial mortality risk. A time trade scenario mimics conventional time tradeoffs. Each SQLA scenario yields DRU functions with distinctive shapes, such as sigmoid curves or vertical lines. One SQLA can imply a discount rate or utility if the other value is known and both values are temporally stable. Two SQLA exercises imply a unique discount rate and utility if the inferred DRU functions intersect. Three or more SQLA results can quantify uncertainty or inconsistency in discount rate and utility estimates. Pilot studies suggested that many subjects could learn to interpret survival curves and do SQLA. SQLA confuse some people. Compared with SQLA, standard gambles quantify very low utilities more easily, and time tradeoffs are simpler for high utilities. When discount rates approach zero, time tradeoffs are as informative and easier to do than SQLA. SQLA may complement conventional utility assessment methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1990-01-01

    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  3. Graphing survival curve estimates for time-dependent covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lonni R; Peterson, Edward L; Breslau, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Graphical representation of statistical results is often used to assist readers in the interpretation of the findings. This is especially true for survival analysis where there is an interest in explaining the patterns of survival over time for specific covariates. For fixed categorical covariates, such as a group membership indicator, Kaplan-Meier estimates (1958) can be used to display the curves. For time-dependent covariates this method may not be adequate. Simon and Makuch (1984) proposed a technique that evaluates the covariate status of the individuals remaining at risk at each event time. The method takes into account the change in an individual's covariate status over time. The survival computations are the same as the Kaplan-Meier method, in that the conditional survival estimates are the function of the ratio of the number of events to the number at risk at each event time. The difference between the two methods is that the individuals at risk within each level defined by the covariate is not fixed at time 0 in the Simon and Makuch method as it is with the Kaplan-Meier method. Examples of how the two methods can differ for time dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis are presented.

  4. Multivariate permutation test to compare survival curves for matched data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    ... for the comparison of survival curves cannot be applied in this setting. We demonstrate the validity of the proposed method with simulations, and we illustrate its application to data from an observational study for the comparison of bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in the treatment of paediatric leukaemia. The use of the multivariate permutation testing approach is recommended in the highly stratified context of survival matched data, especially when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.

  5. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2017-12-01

    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-01-01

    .... In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient...

  7. Longevity and survival curves of Rhinella icterica (Anura, Bufonidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S

    2014-05-01

    Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = -0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=-761.96Ln(x)+5298.5).

  8. Toward computer simulation of high-LET in vitro survival curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a Monte Carlo based computer program called MCSC (Monte Carlo Survival Curve) able to predict the survival fraction of cells irradiated in vitro with a broad beam of high linear energy transfer particles. Three types of cell responses are studied: the usual high dose response, the bystander effect and the low-dose hypersensitivity (HRS). The program models the broad beam irradiation and double strand break distribution following Poisson statistics. The progression of cells through the cell cycle is taken into account while the repair takes place. Input parameters are experimentally determined for A549 lung carcinoma cells irradiated with 10 and 20 keV µm-1 protons, 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles and for EAhy926 endothelial cells exposed to 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles. Results of simulations are presented and compared with experimental survival curves obtained for A549 and EAhy296 cells. Results are in good agreement with experimental data for both cell lines and all irradiation protocols. The benefits of MCSC are several: the gain of time that would have been spent performing time-consuming clonogenic assays, the capacity to estimate survival fraction of cell lines not forming colonies and possibly the evaluation of radiosensitivity parameters of given individuals.

  9. First Results From The Ultimate Spitzer Phase Curve Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline; Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    Exoplanet phase curves provide a wealth of information about exoplanet atmospheres, including longitudinal constraints on atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and energy transport, that continue to open new doors of scientific inquiry and propel future investigations. The measured heat redistribution efficiency (or ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) shows considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and planet temperature; however, the latest results are inconsistent with current predictions. We will present first results from a 660-hour Spitzer phase curve survey program that is targeting six short-period extrasolar planets. We will compare the measured heat redistribution efficiencies with planet temperature and rotation rate, examine trends in the phase curve peak offset, and discuss cloud coverage constraints. We will conclude with how to move forward with phase curve observations in the era of JWST.

  10. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kalderstam

    Full Text Available We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart, which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  11. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderstam, Jonas; Edén, Patrik; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox) is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart), which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  12. On differences in radiosensitivity estimation: TCP experiments versus survival curves. A theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Nahum, Alan

    2015-08-07

    We have compared two methods of estimating the cellular radiosensitivity of a heterogeneous tumour, namely, via cell-survival and via tumour control probability (TCP) pseudo-experiments. It is assumed that there exists intra-tumour variability in radiosensitivity and that the tumour consists predominantly of radiosensitive cells and a small number of radio-resistant cells.Using a multi-component, linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill, a pseudo-experimental cell-survival versus dose curve is derived. This curve is then fitted with a mono-component LQ model describing the response of a homogeneous cell population. For the assumed variation in radiosensitivity it is shown that the composite pseudo-experimental survival curve is well approximated by the survival curve of cells with uniform radiosensitivity.For the same initial cell radiosensitivity distribution several pseudo-experimental TCP curves are simulated corresponding to different fractionation regimes. The TCP model used accounts for clonogen proliferation during a fractionated treatment. The set of simulated TCP curves is then fitted with a mono-component TCP model. As in the cell survival experiment the fit with a mono-component model assuming uniform radiosensitivity is shown to be highly acceptable.However, the best-fit values of cellular radiosensitivity produced via the two methods are very different. The cell-survival pseudo-experiment yields a high radiosensitivity value, while the TCP pseudo-experiment shows that the dose-response is dominated by the most resistant sub-population in the tumour, even when this is just a small fraction of the total.

  13. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  14. ANTEROCOD: actuarial survival curves applied to medical coding support for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecornu, L; Le Guillou, C; Le Saux, F; Hubert, M; Puentes, J; Cauvin, J M

    2010-01-01

    For the practitioner, choosing diagnosis codes is a non-intuitive operation. Mistakes are frequent, causing severe consequences on healthcare performance evaluation and funding. French physicians have to assign a code to all their activities and are frequently prone to these errors. Given that most of the time and particularly for chronic diseases indexed information is already available, we propose a tool named AnterOcod, in order to support the medical coding task. It suggests the list of most relevant plausible codes, predicted from the patient's earlier hospital stays, according to a set of previously utilized diagnosis codes. Our method applies the estimation of code reappearance rates, based on an equivalent approach to actuarial survival curves. Around 33% of the expected correct diagnosis codes were retrieved in this manner, after evaluating 998 discharge abstracts, significantly improving the coding task.

  15. Development of prognostic model for predicting survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stent in advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and its evaluation by decision curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Shingo; Komai, Yoshinobu; Ishioka, Junichiro; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fuse, Nozomu; Ito, Masaaki; Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Norio

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stents and develop a prognostic model for advanced gastrointestinal tract (GIT: esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum) cancer patients. We examined the clinical records of 122 patients who underwent retrograde placement of a ureteral stent against malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction. A prediction model for survival after stenting was developed. We compared its clinical usefulness with our previous model based on the results from nephrostomy cases by decision curve analysis. Median follow-up period was 201 days (8-1490) and 97 deaths occurred. The 1-year survival rate in this cohort was 29%. Based on multivariate analysis, primary site of colon origin, absence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and serum albumin >3g/dL were significantly associated with a prolonged survival time. To develop a prognostic model, we divided the patients into 3 risk groups of favorable: 0-1 factors (N.=53), intermediate: 2 risk factors (N.=54), and poor: 3 risk factors (N.=15). There were significant differences in the survival profiles of these 3 risk groups (P<0.0001). Decision curve analyses revealed that the current model has a superior net benefit than our previous model for most of the examined probabilities. We have developed a novel prognostic model for GIT cancer patients who were treated with retrograde placement of a ureteral stent. The current model should help urologists and medical oncologists to predict survival in cases of malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction.

  16. The Survival of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy and the Flatness of the Rotation Curve of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, HongSheng

    1998-06-01

    How has the ``fluffy'' Sgr dwarf galaxy survived its 10-20 pericentric passages in the halo of the Milky Way for a Hubble time? The scenario that Sgr was deflected to its current orbit by the Magellanic Clouds after a rendezvous on the north Galactic pole 2-3 Gyr ago is examined. It is shown that the conditions of the collision fix both the sense of circulation of Sgr and the Large Magellanic Cloud around the Galaxy and the slope of the Galactic rotation curve. The model argues that the two orthogonal polar circles traced by a dozen or so Galactic halo dwarf galaxies and globular clusters (LMC-SMC-Magellanic Stream-Draco-Ursa Minor along l~270deg and M54-Ter 7-Ter 8-Arp 2-NGC 2419-Pal 15 along l~0deg) are streams of tidal relics from two ancient galaxies that were captured on two intersecting polar rosette orbits by the Galaxy. Our results favor the interpretation of microlensing toward the LMC being due to source or lens stars in tidal features of the Magellanic Clouds. We discuss direct and indirect observations to test the collision scenario.

  17. Why the Kantian ideal survives medical learning curves, and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, B

    2006-09-01

    The "Kantian ideal" is often misunderstood as invoking individual autonomy rather than rational self legislation. Le Morvan and Stock's otherwise insightful discussion of "Medical learning curves and the Kantian ideal"--for example--draws the mistaken inference that that ideal is inconsistent with the realities of medical practice. But it is not. Rationally to be a patient entails accepting its necessary conditions.

  18. Summary curves for patients transplanted for chronic myeloid leukaemia salvaged by a donor lymphocyte infusion: the current leukaemia-free survival curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, John P.; Keiding, Niels; Shu, Youyi

    2000-01-01

    CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods......CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods...

  19. NTCP modelling of lung toxicity after SBRT comparing the universal survival curve and the linear quadratic model for fractionation correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Berit M; Baumann, Pia; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Nyman, Jan; Drugge, Ninni; Hoyer, Morten; Traberg, Anders; Nilsson, Kristina; Morhed, Elisabeth; Ekberg, Lars; Wittgren, Lena; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Levin, Nina; Sederholm, Christer; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lax, Ingmar

    2011-05-01

    In SBRT of lung tumours no established relationship between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of lung toxicity is found. The aim of this study is to compare the LQ model and the universal survival curve (USC) to calculate biologically equivalent doses in SBRT to see if this will improve knowledge on this relationship. Toxicity data on radiation pneumonitis grade 2 or more (RP2+) from 57 patients were used, 10.5% were diagnosed with RP2+. The lung DVHs were corrected for fractionation (LQ and USC) and analysed with the Lyman- Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. In the LQ-correction α/β = 3 Gy was used and the USC parameters used were: α/β = 3 Gy, D(0) = 1.0 Gy, [Formula: see text] = 10, α = 0.206 Gy(-1) and d(T) = 5.8 Gy. In order to understand the relative contribution of different dose levels to the calculated NTCP the concept of fractional NTCP was used. This might give an insight to the questions of whether "high doses to small volumes" or "low doses to large volumes" are most important for lung toxicity. NTCP analysis with the LKB-model using parameters m = 0.4, D(50) = 30 Gy resulted for the volume dependence parameter (n) with LQ correction n = 0.87 and with USC correction n = 0.71. Using parameters m = 0.3, D(50) = 20 Gy n = 0.93 with LQ correction and n = 0.83 with USC correction. In SBRT of lung tumours, NTCP modelling of lung toxicity comparing models (LQ,USC) for fractionation correction, shows that low dose contribute less and high dose more to the NTCP when using the USC-model. Comparing NTCP modelling of SBRT data and data from breast cancer, lung cancer and whole lung irradiation implies that the response of the lung is treatment specific. More data are however needed in order to have a more reliable modelling.

  20. p-Curve and Effect Size: Correcting for Publication Bias Using Only Significant Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsohn, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the "choice overload" literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. [Analysis of survival and mortality curves with the model of vital receptors. The maximal life span. Effect of temperature on the life span. The mortality probability density function (mortality curve) and its parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltorakov, A P

    2001-01-01

    We have continued an analysis of survival curves by the model of the vital receptors (MVR). The main types survival function (E-, TW- and GM-distributions) have been considered. It was found that the maximal life span depends on the threshold concentration of vital receptors. Equations are obtained for the dependence of the maximal life span on the kinetic parameters in the reactions of inactivation, destruction and inactivation. Dependence of maximal time life on initial size of the population have been considered. The influence of temperature on the survival curves is analysed by E-distribution. Equations are founded for the description of thermosurvival and thermoinactivation curves. Equation are obtained for the dependence of density function and it characteristics (modal and antimodal age, coefficient of asymmetry) on the MVR parameters. It was shown that E-, TW- and GM-distribution has different types of asymmetry. The coefficient of asymmetry of GM-distribution is associated on the MVR parameters. It is assumed that symmetry of the curves of mortality and birth-rate is coordinated by the mechanisms of MVR.

  2. Brace modifications that can result in improved curve correction in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Grant

    2014-03-05

    The purpose of this paper is to share with scoliosis professionals the X-rays of different pad placement levels associated with improved curve correction in a case of idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Scoliosis braces of all types and brands utilize common principles of construction that ensure good fit and function. Equally important to the end result is good patient follow-up care and brace quality control by the orthotist. This report reviewed the case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with IS, focusing on the in and out-of-brace x-rays, as well as the fit and function of the braces. The first brace was a TLSO-type, the second a Cheneau-type brace using a B1 model following the Rigo classification of scoliosis. The first TLSO-type brace presented an in-brace X-ray that showed a curve increase. The Cheneau-type scoliosis brace reduced the Cobb angles over 50%. The biomechanical changes consequent to modifications in brace design and pad placements appeared to have improved the scoliosis and reduced the Cobb angles in this case. An orthotist must provide optimal fit and function of the brace which was prescribed by the referring physician. Adherence to certain basic design principles, and close follow up by the orthotist-especially during growth spurts - are critical to its effectiveness. Specifically, a skilled orthotist must be experienced with the particular brace-type, apply these principles, maintain a good working relationship with both physician and patient to ensure timely brace adjustments essential to continued brace comfort and efficacy.

  3. Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J; Schuster, M

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  4. Lichens Survive in Space: Results from the 2005 LICHENS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leopoldo G.; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J.; Schuster, M.

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  5. Well test analysis results interpretation: Combined type curve and pressure derivative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, P.; Matteotti, G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Idraulica)

    In reviewing theoretical concepts forming the basis for the interpretation of well test analyses, this paper focusses on the 'theoretical model' for the determination of the parameters and variables. It then applies this theory to the combined type curve and pressure derivative interpretation approaches. Finally, the paper illustrates an approach combining the combined type curve and pressure derivative methods for homogeneous and isotropic conditions in a thermal aquifer and in the presence of the skin effect and wellbore storage.

  6. Comparisons of Buckling Capacity Curves of Pressurized Spheres with EDR Provisions and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażejewski, Paweł; Marcinowski, Jakub

    2017-06-01

    Existing provisions leading to the assessment of the buckling resistance of pressurised spherical shells were published in the European Design Recommendations (EDR) [1]. This book comprises rules which refer to the stability of steel shells of different shapes. In the first step of the general procedure they require calculation of two reference quantities: the elastic critical buckling reference pRcr and the plastic reference resistance pRpl. These quantities should be determined in the linear buckling analysis (LBA) and in the materially nonlinear analysis (MNA) respectively. Only in the case of spherical shells the existing procedure has exceptional character. It is based on the geometrically nonlinear analysis (GNA) and on the geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis (GMNA), respectively. From this reason, in this particular case there was a need to change the existing approach. The new procedure was presented in the work of Błażejewski & Marcinowski in 2016 (comp. [2]). All steps of the procedure leading to the assessment of buckling resistance of pressurized steel, spherical shells were presented in this work. The elaborated procedure is consistent with provisions of Eurocode EN1993-1-6 (comp. [3]) and with recommendations inserted in Europeans Design Recommendations [1]. The proposed capacity curves were compared with existing proposal published in [1] for three different fabrication quality classes predicted in [3]. In this work also comparisons of author's proposals with experimental results obtained by other authors were presented.

  7. Trends in Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Incidence and Survival: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program at the National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Kenneth W.; Anderson, William F.; Devesa, Susan S.; Young, Heather A.; Levine, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) appears to be a clinicopathologic entity distinct from noninflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). We examined incidence and survival trends for IBC in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program data with a case definition designed to capture many of its unique clinical and pathologic characteristics. Methods We analyzed breast cancer cases diagnosed in the SEER 9 Registries (n = 180 224), between 1988 and 2000. Breast cancer cases were categorized using SEER’s “ Extent of Disease” codes in combination with International Classification of Diseases for Oncology morphology code 8530/3 and classified as IBC (n = 3648), LABC (n = 3636), and non-T4 breast cancer (n = 172 940). We compared changes in incidence rates over 3-year intervals by breast cancer subtype and race using SEER*Stat. Survival differences by breast cancer subtype and race were assessed using Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank statistics. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Between 1988 and 1990 and 1997 and 1999, IBC incidence rates (per 100 000 woman-years) increased from 2.0 to 2.5 (P10 years, P<.0001). Black women with IBC or LABC had poorer survival than white women with IBC or LABC, respectively (log-rank test, P<.001). Conclusions Throughout the 1990s, IBC incidence rose, and survival improved modestly. Substantial racial differences were noted in age at diagnosis, age-specific incidence rates, and survival outcomes. PMID:15998949

  8. Does higher anchor density result in increased curve correction and improved clinical outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A Noelle; Polly, David W; Diamond, Beverly; Ledonio, Charles; Richards, B Stephens; Emans, John B; Sucato, Daniel J; Johnston, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. To determine whether anchor density is associated with curve correction and patient-reported outcomes. There is limited information as to whether anchor density affects the results of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery. A total of 952 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis met inclusion criteria (Lenke 1, 2, and 5 curves) with predominantly screw constructs (no. of screws/no. of total anchors >75%). Anchor density was defined as the number of screws, hooks, and wires per level fused, with less than 1.54 considered low density. Analysis of covariance was undertaken to determine association of anchor density with percent curve correction, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), and Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) scores, controlling for flexibility, fusion length, demographics, and surgeon. High- compared with low-anchor density was associated with increased percent curve correction in Lenke 1 curves at 1 year (69% vs. 66% correction, P = 0.0022), controlling for percent preoperative curve flexibility, length of fusion, and sex (model, P anchor density for Lenke 1 and 2 curve patterns. There were no associations found between anchor density and Lenke 5 curves. For Lenke 1 curve patterns at 2 years postoperatively, in the high- versus low-anchor density cohorts, there were statistically higher SRS Activity (4.3 vs. 4.2, P = 0.019), Appearance (4.3 vs. 4.1, P = 0.0005), Satisfaction (4.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.028), and Total scores (4.3 vs. 4.2; P = 0.024). Similarly, the SAQ Appearance score at 1 year similarly was improved in the high-anchor density group (high: 14.1 vs. low: 15.0, P = 0.03) for Lenke 1 curve patterns only. For Lenke 1 and 2 curve patterns, improved percent correction of major coronal curve was noted in the high-screw density cohort. Although statistical significance was reached, it is unclear whether screw density resulted in clinically significant differences in patient-reported outcomes.

  9. Preliminary Results and Learning Curve of the Minimally Invasive Chevron Akin Operation for Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Charlie R J; Bedi, Harvinder S

    Minimally invasive surgery is increasing in popularity. It is relevant in hallux valgus surgery owing to the potential for reduced disruption of the soft tissues and improved wound healing. We present our results and assess the learning curve of the minimally invasive Chevron Akin operation for hallux valgus. A total of 120 consecutive feet underwent minimally invasive Chevron Akin for symptomatic hallux valgus, of which 14 were excluded. They were followed up for a mean of 25 (range 18 to 38) months. The patients were clinically assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score. Complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. The radiographs were analyzed and measurements recorded for hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle correction. The mean age of the patients undergoing surgery was 55 (range 25 to 81) years. Of the 78 patients, 76 (97.4%) were female and 2 (2.6%) were male; 28 (35.9%) cases were bilateral. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 56 (range 23 to 76) preoperatively to 87 (range 50 to 100) postoperatively (p hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles preoperatively were 29.7° (range 12° to 46°) and 14.0° (range 8° to 20°). The corresponding postoperative angles were 10.3° (range 0° to 25°) and 7.6° (range 3° to 15°; p hallux valgus surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  11. Multidimensional analysis of learning curves in laparoscopic sigmoid resection: eight-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçler, Selim; Koller, Michael T; Steurer, Johann; Bachmann, Lucas M; Christen, Daniel; Buchmann, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The number of operations to reach a plateau phase in colorectal laparoscopic surgery is still under debate. There are few publications reporting on multidimensional assessment of the learning curve, including operation time and complication and conversion rates. The purpose of this study was to define a multidimensional learning curve for sigmoid resection performed by two surgeons with experience in laparoscopic surgery. Between 1993 and 2001 from a total of 715 laparoscopic colorectal procedures, two surgeons performed self-educated 338 sigmoid resections. Demographic data, indications for surgery, procedure performed, operation time, frequency and kind of complications, conversion rate, and days to discharge were recorded. The moving average method was used to demonstrate the change of the operation time. The cumulative sum technique was used to chart the changes in the conversion and complication rates. Surgeon A performed 199 and Surgeon B 139 sigmoid resections. The operation time decreased from 225 minutes to 169 minutes after approximately 90 operations for Surgeon A and from 270 minutes to 223 minutes after 110 operations for Surgeon B. Based on a decline in intraoperative complications and conversion rate, the steady state was reached after approximately 70 to 80 interventions for both surgeons. The assessment of a learning curve should not be limited to measurement of a decrease in operation time but should also include the conversion and complication rates. The cumulative sum technique and moving average method as proposed in this study seem appropriate to evaluate the learning curve in this clinical domain. Our findings might be especially useful for those planning training programs in laparoscopic surgery.

  12. Quantum curves

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    One says that a pair (P,Q) of ordinary differential operators specify a quantum curve if [P,Q]=const. If a pair of difference operators (K,L) obey the relation KL=const LK we say that they specify a discrete quantum curve. This terminology is prompted by well known results about commuting differential and difference operators, relating pairs of such operators with pairs of meromorphic functions on algebraic curves obeying some conditions. ...

  13. Dual effects of phytoestrogens result in u-shaped dose-response curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Fernández, Mariana F; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2002-01-01

    by quantifying differences in the expression level of the estrogen-induced pS2 mRNA. Potential aromatase inhibitors can be identified by a dose-dependent reduction in the pS2 mRNA expression level after exposure to testosterone and the test compound. Using this assay, we have investigated several compounds......, including synthetic chemicals and phytoestrogens, for aromatase inhibition. The phytoestrogens, except genistein, were aromatase inhibitors at low concentrations (curves. None...... of the tested synthetic chemicals were aromatase inhibitors. The low-dose aromatase inhibition distinguished phytoestrogens from other estrogenic compounds and may partly explain reports about antiestrogenic properties of phytoestrogens. Aromatase inhibition may play an important role in the protective effects...

  14. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Curved-Sky Weak Lensing Mass Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We construct the largest curved-sky galaxy weak lensing mass map to date from the DES first-year (DES Y1) data. The map, about 10 times larger than previous work, is constructed over a contiguous $\\approx1,500 $deg$^2$, covering a comoving volume of $\\approx10 $Gpc$^3$. The effects of masking, sampling, and noise are tested using simulations. We generate weak lensing maps from two DES Y1 shear catalogs, Metacalibration and Im3shape, with sources at redshift $0.2

  15. Growth curves for Turkish Girls with Turner Syndrome: Results of the Turkish Turner Syndrome Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darendeliler, Feyza; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Bereket, Abdullah; Baş, Firdevs; Bundak, Rüveyde; Sarı, Erkan; Küçükemre Aydın, Banu; Darcan, Şükran; Dündar, Bumin; Büyükinan, Muammer; Kara, Cengiz; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M; Adal, Erdal; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Demirel, Fatma; Çelik, Nurullah; Özkan, Behzat; Özhan, Bayram; Orbak, Zerrin; Ersoy, Betül; Doğan, Murat; Ataş, Ali; Turan, Serap; Gökşen, Damla; Tarım, Ömer; Yüksel, Bilgin; Ercan, Oya; Hatun, Şükrü; Şimşek, Enver; Ökten, Ayşenur; Abacı, Ayhan; Döneray, Hakan; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Keskin, Mehmet; Önal, Hasan; Akyürek, Nesibe; Bulan, Kezban; Tepe, Derya; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Demir, Korcan; Kızılay, Deniz; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Eren, Erdal; Özen, Samim; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Abalı, Saygın; Akın, Leyla; Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Kaba, Sultan; Anık, Ahmet; Baş, Serpil; Ünüvar, Tolga; Sağlam, Halil; Bolu, Semih; Özgen, Tolga; Doğan, Durmuş; Çakır, Esra Deniz; Şen, Yaşar; Andıran, Nesibe; Çizmecioğlu, Filiz; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Karagüzel, Gülay; Pirgon, Özgür; Çatlı, Gönül; Can, Hatice Dilek; Gürbüz, Fatih; Binay, Çiğdem; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Sağlam, Celal; Gül, Davut; Polat, Adem; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Cinaz, Peyami

    2015-09-01

    Children with Turner syndrome (TS) have a specific growth pattern that is quite different from that of healthy children. Many countries have population-specific growth charts for TS. Considering national and ethnic differences, we undertook this multicenter collaborative study to construct growth charts and reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) from 3 years of age to adulthood for spontaneous growth of Turkish girls with TS. Cross-sectional height and weight data of 842 patients with TS, younger than 18 years of age and before starting any therapy, were evaluated. The data were processed to calculate the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th percentile values for defined ages and to construct growth curves for height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age of girls with TS. The growth pattern of TS girls in this series resembled the growth pattern of TS girls in other reports, but there were differences in height between our series and the others. This study provides disease-specific growth charts for Turkish girls with TS. These disease-specific national growth charts will serve to improve the evaluation of growth and its management with growth-promoting therapeutic agents in TS patients.

  16. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu

    2015-01-01

    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  17. Effect of VDRA on survival in incident hemodialysis patients: results of the FARO-2 observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Piergiorgio; Cozzolino, Mario; Brancaccio, Diego; Cannella, Giuseppe; Malberti, Fabio; Costanzo, Anna Maria; di Luzio Paparatti, Umberto; Festa, Vincenzo; Gualberti, Giuliana; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2015-02-06

    Mortality rate among patients with stage five chronic kidney disease (CKD) maintained on hemodialysis (HD) is high. Although evidence suggests that use of Vitamin D Receptor Activators (VDRA) in CKD patients increases survival, few studies have examined the effect of VDRA in incident HD patients. The FARO-2 study evaluated the clinical outcome of VDRA therapy on mortality in incident HD patients. FARO-2 was a longitudinal epidemiological study performed on 568 incident HD patients followed prospectively from 26 dialysis centers over a 3-year period. Data were collected every 6 months using a questionnaire, obtaining clinical, biochemical and therapeutic parameters. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine cumulative probability of time-to-death and adjusted hazard ratios. 568 patients (68% male) with an average age of 65.5 years were followed up. Mean dialysis duration at study entry was 3 months. VDRA use increased from 46% at 6 months to 54.7% at 36 months of follow-up (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in the presence of comorbid diseases at baseline in patients with and without VDRA therapy. Cumulative probability of survival at 24 months was 74.5% (95% CI: 70.2-78.3). Patients receiving VDRA therapy showed a significant increase in survival at 24 months (80.7%; 95% CI: 75.7-84.8) compared to those without (63.3%; 95% CI: 54.8-70.7, p FARO-2 indicate that in incident HD patients VDRA therapy was associated with increased survival.

  18. DICOM image quantification secondary capture (DICOM IQSC) integrated with numeric results, regions, and curves: implementation and applications in nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoyin; Voss, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we describe an enhanced DICOM Secondary Capture (SC) that integrates Image Quantification (IQ) results, Regions of Interest (ROIs), and Time Activity Curves (TACs) with screen shots by embedding extra medical imaging information into a standard DICOM header. A software toolkit of DICOM IQSC has been developed to implement the SC-centered information integration of quantitative analysis for routine practice of nuclear medicine. Primary experiments show that the DICOM IQSC method is simple and easy to implement seamlessly integrating post-processing workstations with PACS for archiving and retrieving IQ information. Additional DICOM IQSC applications in routine nuclear medicine and clinic research are also discussed.

  19. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-09-01

    Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer. We used original data from 21 studies, which included 12 390 women with ovarian carcinoma. We combined study-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models to estimate pooled HRs (pHR). We further explored associations by histologic subtype. Overall, 6715 (54%) deaths occurred during follow-up. A significant OS disadvantage was observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30-34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99-1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01-1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m(-2)) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m(-2)), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m(-2)) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among the majority of women with ovarian cancer.

  20. Survival of two post systems--five-year results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, Marc; Hamadi, Khaled; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To assess the survival rate of two different post systems after 5 years of service with a prospective randomized controlled trial. One hundred patients in need of a post were studied. Half of the patients received long glass fiber-reinforced posts, while the other half received long metal screw posts. The posts were assigned randomly. After at least 5 years (mean, 61.37 months), follow-ups were established. When a complication occurred prior to this recall, the type and time of the complication was documented. Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additionally, a Cox regression was performed to analyze risk factors. The survival rate of fiber-reinforced posts was 71.8%. In the metal screw post group, the survival rate was significantly lower, 50.0% (log-rank test, P = .026). Metal posts resulted more often in more unfavorable complications (eg, root fractures); consequently, more teeth (n = 17) had to be extracted. The Cox regression identified the following risk factors: position of the tooth (anterior vs posterior teeth), degree of coronal tooth destruction, and the post system (fiber-reinforced post vs metal screw post). Fiber-reinforced restorations loosened in several patients; in some of these cases (n = 6), patients did not notice this, leading to the extraction of teeth. Long metal screw posts should be used with great care in endodontically treated teeth. Besides the selection of the post system, other factors influence the survival of the restoration.

  1. Preliminary Light Curve Results of NEOs from the Characterization and Astrometric Follow-Up Program at Adler Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Hammergren, Mark; Sieben, Jennifer; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    We are nearing the halfway mark of a two-year program for near-Earth object (NEO) astrometric follow-up and characterization utilizing 500 hours of observing time per year with the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our observing is divided into two-hour blocks approximately every other night for astrometry (see poster by K. A. Nault et al.) and several half-nights per month for spectroscopy (see poster by M. Hammergren et al.) and light curve studies.We present preliminary results from variable photometry observations as part of the characterization portion of the Adler Planetarium’s NEO program. The frequent scheduling of half-night observing time allows us to capture data for small NEOs near the time when they are closest to Earth before their apparent magnitudes rapidly diminish beyond the range of detectability. We searched for variability in newly discovered NEOs that had close approaches to Earth near the time of observation. These include 2014 RQ17, 2014 SB145, 2014 SF304, 2014 WO4, 2014 WY119, and 2015 BC. In addition, we observed 2340 Hathor and 2007 EC when they each made a close approach to Earth to compare with light curves and magnitude variation constraints from previous apparitions. We will construct light curves for all of the objects listed above and determine rotational periods for those with sufficient temporal coverage.The targets were selected from candidates in the JPL NEO Earth Close Approaches table, Arecibo planetary radar targets, and the Goldstone asteroid radar schedule. Due to the sensitivity of AGILE, we restricted our targets to those with apparent magnitudes in V less than 19 magnitudes.Observations were made using the frame transfer CCD camera AGILE on the ARC 3.5-meter telescope. AGILE has a field-of-view of 2.2'x2.2' and a plate scale of 0.258”/pixel with 2x2 binning.This work is based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope

  2. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo

    1987-01-01

    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  3. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from gastric cancer: Local control and survival results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Trojan, Jörg [Department of Internal Medicine I, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer. Materials and methods: The study was retrospectively performed. 56 patients (mean age, 52.4) with unresectable liver metastases of gastric cancer who did not respond to systemic chemotherapy were repeatedly treated with TACE in 4-week intervals. In total, 310 chemoembolization procedures were performed (mean, 5.5 sessions per patient). The local chemotherapy protocol consisted of mitomycin alone (30.4%), mitomycin and gemcitabine (33.9%), or mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (35.7%). Embolization was performed with lipiodol and starch microspheres. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data from first chemoembolization were calculated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The local tumor control was: complete response in 1.8% (n = 1), partial response in 1.8% (n = 1), stable disease in 51.8% (n = 29) and progressive disease in 44.6% (n = 25) of patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate from the start of chemoembolization were 58%, 38%, and 23% respectively. The median and mean survival times were 13 and 27.1 months. A Statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted (ρ = 0.045) with the best survival time in the mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin group. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization is a minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of liver metastases in patients with gastric cancer.

  4. Impact of the Rainfall Duration and Temporal Rainfall Distribution Defined Using the Huff Curves on the Hydraulic Flood Modelling Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Bezak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the case of ungauged catchments, different procedures can be used to derive the design hydrograph and design peak discharge, which are crucial input data for the design of different hydrotechnical engineering structures, or the production of flood hazard maps. One of the possible approaches involves using a hydrological model where one can calculate the design hydrograph through the design of a rainfall event. This study investigates the impact of the design rainfall on the combined one-dimensional/two-dimensional (1D/2D hydraulic modelling results. The Glinščica Stream catchment located in Slovenia (central Europe is used as a case study. Ten different design rainfall events were compared for 10 and 100-year return periods, where we used Huff curves for the design rainfall event definition. The results indicate that the selection of the design rainfall event should be regarded as an important step, since the hydraulic modelling results for different scenarios differ significantly. In the presented experimental case study, the maximum flooded area extent was twice as large as the minimum one, and the maximum water velocity over flooded areas was more than 10 times larger than the minimum one. This can lead to the production of very different flood hazard maps, and consequently planning very different flood protection schemes.

  5. The learning curve is rapid in medical termination of pregnancy--first-year results from the Helsinki area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Tikka, Marja; Haukkamaa, Maija

    2003-03-01

    Medical termination of pregnancy by means of mifepristone and prostaglandin became available in Finland in May 2000. We summarize the first year results of medical abortion in a large tertiary care unit in Helsinki. A regimen of 200 mg of mifepristone followed by 0.4 mg vaginally administered misoprostol 2 days later was used. The maximum duration of pregnancy was 56 days. Four hundred and seventeen women, 47% of those with a pregnancy duration of up to 56 days, chose medical instead of surgical abortion. The monthly percentage of medical abortions varied from 27% to 63%. The percentage of complete terminations increased from 92% among the first quarter of the subjects to 97% among the fourth quarter, the overall success rate being 95%. Subject satisfaction, duration and self-estimated amount of bleeding, as well as analgesia needs were similar to those reported elsewhere. Most subjects (61%) chose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills for future contraception; 75% of the COCs were started around the day of misoprostol administration. The reported amounts and duration of bleeding were not influenced by the immediate start of oral contraceptives. Intrauterine contraception was planned for 28% of the subjects, and 16% of them chose a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device. We conclude that the learning curve in medical termination of pregnancy is rapid, and results comparable to those in centers with extensive experience with the method can be reached within the first year.

  6. Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura M.; Lau, Katherine S. L.; Perkins, Anthony; Monahan, Patrick; Grisso, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the provision of behavioral health services to youths detained in Indiana between 2008 and 2012 and the impact of services on recidivism. Method. We obtained information about behavioral health needs, behavioral health treatment received, and recidivism within 12 months after release for 8363 adolescents (aged 12–18 years; 79.4% male). We conducted survival analyses to determine whether behavioral health services significantly affected time to recidivating. Results. Approximately 19.1% of youths had positive mental health screens, and 25.3% of all youths recidivated within 12 months after release. Of youths with positive screens, 29.2% saw a mental health clinician, 16.1% received behavioral health services during detention, and 30.0% received referrals for postdetention services. Survival analyses showed that being male, Black, and younger, and having higher scores on the substance use or irritability subscales of the screen predicted shorter time to recidivism. Receiving a behavior precaution, behavioral health services in detention, or an assessment in the community also predicted shorter time to recidivating. Conclusions. Findings support previous research showing that behavioral health problems are related to recidivism and that Black males are disproportionately rearrested after detention. PMID:25973804

  7. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H; Cannioto, Rikki A; Friel, Grace; Szender, J Brian; Segal, Brahm; Odunsi, Kunle; Mayor, Paul; Diergaarde, Brenda; Zsiros, Emese; Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen; deFazio, Anna; Jordan, Susan J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goodman, Marc T; Dörk, Thilo; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mizuno, Mika; Karlan, Beth Y; Goode, Ellen L; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Sutphen, Rebecca; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Jensen, Allan; Webb, Penelope M; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-09-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic diseases were not associated with ovarian cancer overall or progression-free survival.Impact: These previously diagnosed chronic diseases do not appear to affect ovarian cancer prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1470-3. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Post-operative morbidity results in decreased long-term survival after resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aakash; House, Michael G; Pitt, Henry A; Nakeeb, Attila; Howard, Thomas J; Zyromski, Nicholas J; Schmidt, C Max; Ball, Chad G; Lillemoe, Keith D

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that post-operative morbidity (PM) associated with resections of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) is associated with short- and long-term patient survival. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, 51 patients with a median age of 64 years underwent resection for HCCA at a single institution. Associations between survival and clinicopathologic factors, including peri- and post-operative variables, were studied using univariate and multivariate models. Results Seventy-six per cent of patients underwent major hepatectomy with resection of the extrahepatic bile ducts. The 30- and 90-day operative mortality was 10% and 12%. The overall incidence of PM was 69%, with 68% of all PM as major (Clavien grades III–V). No difference in operative blood loss or peri-operative transfusion rates was observed for patients with major vs. minor or no PM. Patients with major PM received adjuvant chemotherapy less frequently than patients with minor or no complications 29% vs. 52%, P= 0.15. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates for all patients were 65%, 36%, 29% and 77%, 46%, 35%, respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, margin status (27% R1), nodal metastasis (35% N1) and major PM were associated with OS and DSS, P operations for HCCA can produce substantial post-operative morbidity. In addition to causing early mortality, major post-operative complications are associated with decreased long-term cancer-specific survival after resection of HCCA. PMID:21241432

  9. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: clinical features and survival. Results from the Danish HNPCC register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Bisgaard, M L; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other carcinomas. Our aim was to evaluate tumour parameters and survival in HNPCC. METHODS: One hundred and eight Danish HNPCC patients...... were compared with 870 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The median age at CRC diagnosis was 41 years in the HNPCC group. HNPCC patients had significantly more carcinomas located to the right colon (68% against 49% in controls), more synchromous tumours (7% versus 1%), more...

  10. Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges can survive anesthesia and result in asymmetric drug-induced burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced burst suppression (DIBS is bihemispheric and bisymmetric in adults and older children. However, asymmetric DIBS may occur if a pathological process is affecting one hemisphere only or both hemispheres disproportionately. The usual suspect is a destructive lesion; an irritative or epileptogenic lesion is usually not invoked to explain DIBS asymmetry. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with new-onset seizures who was found to have a hemorrhagic cavernoma and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs in the right temporal region. After levetiracetam and before anesthetic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs were administered, the electroencephalogram (EEG showed continuous PLEDs over the right hemisphere with maximum voltage in the posterior temporal region. Focal electrographic seizures also occurred occasionally in the same location. Propofol resulted in bihemispheric, but not in bisymmetric, DIBS. Remnants or fragments of PLEDs that survived anesthesia increased the amplitude and complexity of the bursts in the right hemisphere leading to asymmetric DIBS. Phenytoin, lacosamide, ketamine, midazolam, and topiramate were administered at various times in the course of EEG monitoring, resulting in suppression of seizures but not of PLEDs. Ketamine and midazolam reduced the rate, amplitude, and complexity of PLEDs but only after producing substantial attenuation of all burst components. When all anesthetics were discontinued, the EEG reverted to the original preanesthesia pattern with continuous non-fragmented PLEDs. The fact that PLEDs can survive anesthesia and affect DIBS symmetry is a testament to the robustness of the neurodynamic processes underlying PLEDs.

  11. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  12. Marital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries: does marriage affect cancer survival by gender and stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wilson, Sven E; Stewart, David B; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2011-10-01

    Marital status has been associated with outcomes in several cancer sites including breast cancer in the literature, but little is known about colon cancer, the fourth most common cancer in the US. A total of 127,753 patients with colon cancer were identified who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Marital status consisted of married, single, separated/divorced and widowed. Chi-square tests were used to examine the association between marital status and other variables. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to estimate the effect of marital status on survival. Married patients were more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage (and for men also at an older age) compared with single and separated/divorced patients, and more likely to receive surgical treatment than all other marital groups (all pfive-year survival rate for the single was six percentage points lower than the married for both men and women. After controlling for age, race, cancer stage and surgery receipt, married patients had a significantly lower risk of death from cancer (for men, HR: 0.86, CI: 0.82-0.90; for women, HR: 0.87, CI: 0.83-0.91) compared with the single. Within the same cancer stage, the survival differences between the single and the married were strongest for localized and regional stages, which had overall middle-range survival rates compared to in situ or distant stage so that support from marriage could make a big difference. Marriage was associated with better outcomes of colon cancer for both men and women, and being single was associated with lower survival rate from colon cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

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    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  14. Electroconvulsive stimulation results in long-term survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Wörtwein, Gitta; Folke, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    of the previous work aiming to test the hypothesis that rats subjected to ECS in combination with chronic restraint stress (CRS) display increased formation of new hippocampal neurons, which have a potential for long-term survival. Furthermore, using mediation analysis, we tested if an ECS-induced increase......U-positive neurons showed time-dependent attrition of ∼40% from day 1 to 3 months, with no further decline between 3 and 12 months. ECS did not affect the number of pre-existing dentate granule neurons or the volume of the dentate granule cell layer, suggesting no damaging effect of the treatment. Finally, we found...... that, while ECS increases neurogenesis, this formation of new neurons was not associated to ameliorated immobility in the FST. This implies that other ECS-induced effects than neurogenesis must be part of mediating the antidepressant action of ECS. Taken together, the results of the present study...

  15. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-01-01

    carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival...... with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic....... Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated...

  16. Survival of European patients diagnosed with lymphoid neoplasms in 2000–2002: results of the HAEMACARE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; De Angelis, Roberta; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Maynadie, Marc; Luminari, Stefano; Ferretti, Stefano; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Sankila, Risto; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Simonetti, Arianna; Martos, Maria Carmen; Raphaël, Martine; Giraldo, Pilar; Sant, Milena

    2011-01-01

    Background The European Cancer Registry-based project on hematologic malignancies (HAEMACARE), set up to improve the availability and standardization of data on hematologic malignancies in Europe, used the European Cancer Registry-based project on survival and care of cancer patients (EUROCARE-4) database to produce a new grouping of hematologic neoplasms (defined by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition and the 2001/2008 World Health Organization classifications) for epidemiological and public health purposes. We analyzed survival for lymphoid neoplasms in Europe by disease group, comparing survival between different European regions by age and sex. Design and Methods Incident neoplasms recorded between 1995 to 2002 in 48 population-based cancer registries in 20 countries participating in EUROCARE-4 were analyzed. The period approach was used to estimate 5-year relative survival rates for patients diagnosed in 2000–2002, who did not have 5 years of follow up. Results The 5-year relative survival rate was 57% overall but varied markedly between the defined groups. Variation in survival within the groups was relatively limited across European regions and less than in previous years. Survival differences between men and women were small. The relative survival for patients with all lymphoid neoplasms decreased substantially after the age of 50. The proportion of ‘not otherwise specified’ diagnoses increased with advancing age. Conclusions This is the first study to analyze survival of patients with lymphoid neoplasms, divided into groups characterized by similar epidemiological and clinical characteristics, providing a benchmark for more detailed analyses. This Europe-wide study suggests that previously noted differences in survival between regions have tended to decrease. The survival of patients with all neoplasms decreased markedly with age, while the proportion of ‘not otherwise specified’ diagnoses increased with

  17. The bolometric light curve of SN 1987A. I. Results from ESO and CTIO U to Q0 photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntzeff, N.B.; Bouchet, P. (Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, La Serena (Chile) European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile))

    1990-02-01

    The UV, optical, and IR (UVOIR) bolometric luminosity curve of SN 1987A was derived from ESO, CTIO, and NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory spectrophotometry for days 1-903 since outburst. It is found that the sum of this UVOIR flux and the high-energy flux predicted by models is consistent with the energy liberated by 0.071 solar mass of Co-56, with no need for additional energy sources for days 126-903 since outburst. By day 400, the flux at wavelegths larger than 5 microns was found to increase rapidly, and by day 650, the UVOIR flux shifted from the optical to a thermal IR source with a temperature of 200-300 K. The optical colors began to fade more rapidly at the time the FIR flux increased, consistent with dust formation local to the supernova. 61 refs.

  18. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minlikeeva, A.N.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Eng, K.H.; Cannioto, R.A.; Friel, G.; Szender, J.B.; Segal, B.; Odunsi, K.; Mayor, P.; Diergaarde, B.; Zsiros, E.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kobel, M.; Steed, H.; Defazio, A.; Jordan, S.J.; Fasching, P.A.; Beckmann, M.W.; Risch, H.A.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Goodman, M.T.; Dork, T.; Edwards, R.; Modugno, F.; Ness, R.B.; Matsuo, K.; Mizuno, M.; Karlan, B.Y.; Goode, E.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Hogdall, E.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Terry, K.L.; Cramer, D.W; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sutphen, R.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Pearce, C.L.; Wu, A.H.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Jensen, A.; Webb, P.M.; Moysich, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian

  19. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle, CM; Dixon, SC; Jensen, A; Kjaer, SK; Modugno, F; DeFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J.; Johnatty, SE; Fasching, PA; Beckmann, MW; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E.; Lambrechts, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Background: Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-s...

  20. Cancer survival in adult patients in Spain. Results from nine population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, M D; Salmerón, D; Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Mateos, A; Torrella, A; Jiménez, R; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Ardanaz, E; Sant, M; Minicozzi, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J

    2017-07-17

    With the aim of providing cancer control indicators, this work presents cancer survival in adult (≥15 years) patients in Spain diagnosed during the period 2000-2007 from Spanish cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE project. Cancer cases from nine Spanish population-based cancer registries were included and analysed as a whole. All primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed in adult patients were eligible for the analysis. Cancer patients were followed until 31 December 2008. For each type of cancer, 1-, 3- and 5-year observed and relative survival were estimated by sex, age and years from diagnosis. Furthermore, age-standardized 5-year relative survival for the period 2000-2007 has been compared with that of the period 1995-1999. Skin melanoma (84.6 95% CI 83.0-86.2), prostate (84.6% 95% CI 83.6-85.6) and thyroid (84.2% CI 95% 82.0-86.6) cancers showed the highest 5-year relative survival, whereas the worst prognosis was observed in pancreatic (6% 95% CI 5.1-7.0) and oesophageal (9.4% 95% CI 7.9-11.1) cancers. Overall, survival is higher in women (58.0%) than in men (48.9%). The absolute difference in relative survival between 2000-2007 and 1995-1999 was positive for all cancers as a whole (+4.8% in men, +1.6% in women) and for most types of tumours. Survival increased significantly for chronic myeloid leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectum cancer in both sexes, and for acute lymphoid leukaemia, prostate, liver and colon cancers in men and Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer in women. Survival patterns by age were similar in Europe and Spain. A decline in survival by age was observed in all tumours, being more pronounced for ovarian, corpus uteri, prostate and urinary bladder and less for head and neck and rectum cancers. High variability and differences have been observed in survival among adults in Spain according to the type of cancer diagnosed, from above 84% to below 10%, reflecting high heterogeneity. The differences in prognosis by age, sex

  1. CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL DATA AND SURVIVAL IN DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY: THREE-YEAR OBSERVATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zotova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — to assess survival of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM in 3‑year follow-up based on clinical history, clinical symptoms, indicators of instrumental methods of examination and tactics of the patients.Materials and methods. 105 patients with diagnosed cardiomyopathy were included in prospective single-center study. Follow‑up period was 3 years or until achieving primary endpoint. Complaints were collected, general clinical research, 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography in 12‑lead were performed annually. Also scale of evaluation of clinical status in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF in the modification of V.Y. Mareev and assessment of adherence were used annualy.Results. The group of patients with DCM was represented primarily by man, severe heart failure (III–IV functional class was originally diagnosed in almost 80 % of patients. During the 3 years of follow-up progression of heart failure, worsening of hemodynamic indices were identified in survivors. When evaluating recommended therapy with found that it meets the current guidelines of treatment of heart failure,however, low adherence to treatment of patients was revealed with statistically significant difference between groups of survivors and deceased patients. The annual mortality rate was 20 % and had no significant fluctuations. The main cause of death was heart failure decompensation.Conclusion. Progression of CHF in patients with DCM was confirmed .The most reliable method of assessing the progressive course of heart failure is 6‑minute walk test. The annual high mortality (20 % indicates an extremely poor prognosis for this disease. The major causes of death were progression of heart failure and sudden cardiac death.

  2. Per-oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) After the Learning Curve: Durable Long-term Results With a Low Complication Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungness, Eric S; Sternbach, Joel M; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E; Soper, Nathaniel J

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to report long-term outcomes for patients undergoing per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) after our initial 15-case learning curve. POEM has become an established, natural-orifice surgical approach for treating esophageal motility disorders. To date, published outcomes and comparative-effectiveness studies have included patients from the early POEM experience. Consecutive patients undergoing POEM after our initial 15 cases, with a minimum of 1-year postoperative follow-up, were included. Treatment success was defined as an Eckardt score ≤3 without reintervention. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined by abnormal pH-testing or reflux esophagitis >Los Angeles grade A. Between January 2012 and March 2015, 115 patients underwent POEM at a single, high-volume center. Operative time was 101 ± 29 minutes, with 95% (109/115) of patients discharged on postoperative day 1. Clavien-Dindo grade III complications occurred in 2.7%, one of which required diagnostic laparoscopy to rule out Veress needle injury to the gall bladder. The rate of grade I complications was 15.2%. At an average of 2.4 years post-POEM (range 12-52 months), the overall success rate was 92%. Objective evidence of reflux was present in 40% for all patients and 33% for patients with a body mass index POEM performed by experienced surgeons provided durable symptomatic relief in 94% of patients with nonspastic achalasia and 90% of patients with type 3 achalasia/spastic esophageal motility disorders, with a low rate of complications. The rate of gastroesophageal reflux was comparable with prior studies of both POEM and laparoscopic Heller myotomy.

  3. Meta-analysis of survival curve data using distributed health data networks: application to hip arthroplasty studies of the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art; Paxton, Liz; Furnes, Ove; Graves, Stephen; Marinac-Dabic, Danica

    2015-12-01

    The motivating example for this paper comes from a distributed health data network, the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries (ICOR), which aims to examine risk factors for orthopedic device failure for registries around the world. Unfortunately, regulatory, privacy, and propriety concerns made sharing of raw data impossible, even if de-identified. Therefore, this article describes an approach to extraction and analysis of aggregate time-to-event data from ICOR. Data extraction is based on obtaining a survival probability and variance estimate for each unique combination of the explanatory variables at each distinct event time for each registry. The extraction procedure allows for a great deal of flexibility; models can be specified after the data have been collected, for example, modeling of interaction effects and selection of subgroups of patients based on their values on the explanatory variables. Our analysis models are adapted from models presented elsewhere--but allowing for censoring in the calculation of the correlation between serial survival probabilities and using the square root of the covariance matrix to transform the data to avoid computational problems in model estimation. Simulations and a real-data example are provided with strengths and limitations of the approach discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Correlation of free-response and receiver-operating-characteristic area-under-the-curve estimates: Results from independently conducted FROC/ROC studies in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Federica; Hillis, Stephen L.; Claus, Filip; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Celis, Valerie; Provoost, Veerle; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Bosmans, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: From independently conducted free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments, to study fixed-reader associations between three estimators: the area under the alternative FROC (AFROC) curve computed from FROC data, the area under the ROC curve computed from FROC highest rating data, and the area under the ROC curve computed from confidence-of-disease ratings. Methods: Two hundred mammograms, 100 of which were abnormal, were processed by two image-processing algorithms and interpreted by four radiologists under the FROC paradigm. From the FROC data, inferred-ROC data were derived, using the highest rating assumption. Eighteen months afterwards, the images were interpreted by the same radiologists under the conventional ROC paradigm; conventional-ROC data (in contrast to inferred-ROC data) were obtained. FROC and ROC (inferred, conventional) data were analyzed using the nonparametric area-under-the-curve (AUC), (AFROC and ROC curve, respectively). Pearson correlation was used to quantify the degree of association between the modality-specific AUC indices and standard errors were computed using the bootstrap-after-bootstrap method. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed by comparison with computed Obuchowski-Rockette fixed reader correlations. Results: Average Pearson correlations (with 95% confidence intervals in square brackets) were: Corr(FROC, inferred ROC) = 0.76[0.64, 0.84] > Corr(inferred ROC, conventional ROC) = 0.40[0.18, 0.58] > Corr (FROC, conventional ROC) = 0.32[0.16, 0.46]. Conclusions: Correlation between FROC and inferred-ROC data AUC estimates was high. Correlation between inferred- and conventional-ROC AUC was similar to the correlation between two modalities for a single reader using one estimation method, suggesting that the highest rating assumption might be questionable. PMID:23039631

  5. Correlation of free-response and receiver-operating-characteristic area-under-the-curve estimates: Results from independently conducted FROC/ROC studies in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanca, Federica; Hillis, Stephen L.; Claus, Filip; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Celis, Valerie; Provoost, Veerle; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1077 and Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation (CADRE) Center, Iowa City VA Health Care System, Iowa City, Iowa 52246-2208 (United States); Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: From independently conducted free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments, to study fixed-reader associations between three estimators: the area under the alternative FROC (AFROC) curve computed from FROC data, the area under the ROC curve computed from FROC highest rating data, and the area under the ROC curve computed from confidence-of-disease ratings. Methods: Two hundred mammograms, 100 of which were abnormal, were processed by two image-processing algorithms and interpreted by four radiologists under the FROC paradigm. From the FROC data, inferred-ROC data were derived, using the highest rating assumption. Eighteen months afterwards, the images were interpreted by the same radiologists under the conventional ROC paradigm; conventional-ROC data (in contrast to inferred-ROC data) were obtained. FROC and ROC (inferred, conventional) data were analyzed using the nonparametric area-under-the-curve (AUC), (AFROC and ROC curve, respectively). Pearson correlation was used to quantify the degree of association between the modality-specific AUC indices and standard errors were computed using the bootstrap-after-bootstrap method. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed by comparison with computed Obuchowski-Rockette fixed reader correlations. Results: Average Pearson correlations (with 95% confidence intervals in square brackets) were: Corr(FROC, inferred ROC) = 0.76[0.64, 0.84] > Corr(inferred ROC, conventional ROC) = 0.40[0.18, 0.58] > Corr (FROC, conventional ROC) = 0.32[0.16, 0.46]. Conclusions: Correlation between FROC and inferred-ROC data AUC estimates was high. Correlation between inferred- and conventional-ROC AUC was similar to the correlation between two modalities for a single reader using one estimation method, suggesting that the highest rating assumption might be questionable.

  6. Survival of porcelain laminate veneers with different degrees of dentin exposure: 2-year clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Elif; Bolay, Sükran

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) after 2 years. Twenty-eight patients were treated with 125 PLVs. The experimental variables were preparation design (incisal overlap [IO] and incisal bevel [IB]) and adhesion surface (enamel [E], enamel with minimal dentin exposure [MDE], and enamel with severe dentin exposure (SDE)]. Marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity, and patient satisfaction were assessed according to the modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Each restoration was examined for fractures and debonding. In addition, gingival tissue health by gingival plaque, bleeding, and recession was recorded. An experienced clinician evaluated the restorations at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months, and survival rates evaluating relative and absolute failures were calculated (p = 0.05). Eleven (8.8%) veneers failed, and the overall cumulative survival rate was 91.2% after 2 years of followup. IB and IO preparation designs exhibited survival rates of 94% and 85.7%, respectively, but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). PLVs bonded to SDE were more likely to fail than those bonded to E and MDE (p bonded to E and those bonded to MDE (p > 0.05). PLVs have high survival rates when bonded to enamel only, as well as to enamel with minimal dentin exposure. However, extensive dentin exposure should be avoided during the preparation.

  7. Immune clearance of attenuated rabies virus results in neuronal survival with altered gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Gomme

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV is a highly neurotropic pathogen that typically leads to mortality of infected animals and humans. The precise etiology of rabies neuropathogenesis is unknown, though it is hypothesized to be due either to neuronal death or dysfunction. Analysis of human brains post-mortem reveals surprisingly little tissue damage and neuropathology considering the dramatic clinical symptomology, supporting the neuronal dysfunction model. However, whether or not neurons survive infection and clearance and, provided they do, whether they are functionally restored to their pre-infection phenotype has not been determined in vivo for RABV, or any neurotropic virus. This is due, in part, to the absence of a permanent "mark" on once-infected cells that allow their identification long after viral clearance. Our approach to study the survival and integrity of RABV-infected neurons was to infect Cre reporter mice with recombinant RABV expressing Cre-recombinase (RABV-Cre to switch neurons constitutively expressing tdTomato (red to expression of a Cre-inducible EGFP (green, permanently marking neurons that had been infected in vivo. We used fluorescence microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR to measure the survival of neurons after viral clearance; we found that the vast majority of RABV-infected neurons survive both infection and immunological clearance. We were able to isolate these previously infected neurons by flow cytometry and assay their gene expression profiles compared to uninfected cells. We observed transcriptional changes in these "cured" neurons, predictive of decreased neurite growth and dysregulated microtubule dynamics. This suggests that viral clearance, though allowing for survival of neurons, may not restore them to their pre-infection functionality. Our data provide a proof-of-principle foundation to re-evaluate the etiology of human central nervous system diseases of unknown etiology: viruses may trigger permanent neuronal

  8. Climatic effects on Salmonella survival in plant and soil irrigated with artificially inoculated wastewater: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M P; Lupiola, P; Tejedor, M T; Del-Nero, E; Pardo, A; Pita, L

    2001-01-01

    The use of wastewater to replace other water resources for irrigation is highly dependent on whether the health risk and environmental impacts entailed are acceptable or not. Total count and species of microorganisms found in wastewater vary widely because of climatic conditions, season, population sanitary habits and disease incidence. Salmonella, one of the genera associated with waterborne diseases, lives in the intestine. Thus, it is widely accepted that they have a limited survival period under environmental conditions. Wastewater management practices and the ability of Salmonella to survival under field conditions would determine the health risk associated with its presence in wastewater. Although chlorination is widely used, there are situations in which Salmonella is able to survive the sudden stress imposed by this technique. The aim of this experiment was to contribute to the study of the climatic and soil effects on pathogen survival under agricultural field conditions in order to assess which were the best wastewater management practices from both health and economic points of view. Five pots filled with soil seeded with Medicago sativa and an automatic weather station were used. A secondary effluent was artificially inoculated with Salmonella. In addition, open plates (filled with sterilised soil) and ultraviolet radiation isolated plates (filled with non-sterilised soil) were used. As soil heat emission contributes to the environmental conditions around the bacteria, standardised meteorological temperature data had to be carefully used in the bacterial survival studies under agricultural conditions. Radiation was the main cause of Salmonella mortality as its effect was more important than natural soil bacteria competence. Higher reduction of Salmonella counts could have been associated with longer spring days. Soil was able to effectively remove Salmonella. Subsurface drip irrigation methods could provide an effective tool to prevent health risk

  9. Interpreting overall survival results when progression-free survival benefits exist in today's oncology landscape: a metastatic renal cell carcinoma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yiyun Tang,1 Paul Bycott,1 Örjan Åkerborg,2 Linus Jönsson,2 Sylvie Negrier,3 Connie Chen4 1Pfizer Global Research and Development, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2OptumInsight, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Medical Oncology Department, University of Lyon, Lyon, France; 4Pfizer Global Outcomes Research, New York, NY, USA Background: The debate surrounding the acceptance of progression-free survival (PFS as an intermediate endpoint to overall survival (OS has grown in recent years, due to the challenges in demonstrating an OS benefit within clinical trials today. PFS is generally a good predictor of OS for cases where survival post-progression (SPP is short, and less so when SPP is long. SPP depends on multiple factors, including residual effect from experimental treatment and effect from crossover or other subsequent therapies, posing unique challenges into the translation of PFS benefit into OS. Methods: The objective of this analysis was to conduct simulations investigating how increasing SPP impacts PFS translation to OS, utilizing data from the AXIS (axitinib versus sorafenib in advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma trial. The underlying assumption was a treatment benefit in PFS (the PFS distribution parameters were chosen to be equal to median PFS in the AXIS trial but no treatment effect on SPP, implying that PFS improvement is directly reflected in OS improvement. Results: The probability of a statistically significant difference between arms for OS decreased from 54.7% to 6.1% when median SPP was increased from one to 20 months. The probability of the hazard ratio of OS being ≥0.9 was similarly increased from 24.3% to 72.6%, even though the hazard ratio for PFS was 0.69. Conclusion: The present study shows that when simulated SPP is added to trial PFS data, the existing PFS benefit is diluted. Knowing that the AXIS treatment arms are well balanced with respect to post-trial treatments, we conclude that the PFS to OS benefit translation is primarily

  10. Very prolonged stay in the intensive care unit after cardiac operations: early results and late survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Shuli; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay is a surrogate for advanced morbidity or perioperative complications, and resource utilization may become an issue. It is our policy to continue full life support in the ICU, even for patients with a seemingly grim outlook. We examined the effect of duration of ICU stay on early outcomes and late survival. Between 1993 and 2011, 6,385 patients were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery. Patients were grouped according to length of stay in the ICU: group 1, 2 days or less (n = 4,631; 73%); group 2, 3 to 14 days (n = 1,423; 22%); group 3, more than 14 days (n = 331; 5%). Length of stay in ICU for group 3 patients was 38 ± 24 days (range, 15 to 160; median 31). Clinical profile and outcomes were compared between groups. Patients requiring prolonged ICU stay were older, underwent more complex surgery, had greater comorbidity, and a higher predicted operative mortality (p Operative mortality as well as late survival of discharged patients was proportional to duration of ICU stay. Current technology enables keeping sick patients alive for extended periods of time. Nearly two thirds of patients requiring prolonged ICU leave hospital, and of these, 50% attain 5-year survival. These data support offering full and continued support even for patients requiring very prolonged ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ten-Year Survival Results of a Randomized Trial of Irradiation of Internal Mammary Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.hennequin@sls.aphp.fr [Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP et Université de Paris VII (France); Bossard, Nadine [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, and CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Equipe Biotatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne (France); Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie [Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon (France); Maingon, Philippe [Centre François Leclerc, Dijon (France); Dubois, Jean-Bernard [Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Datchary, Jean [Centre Hospitalier d' Annecy (France); Carrie, Christian [Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Roullet, Bernard [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Limoges (France); Suchaud, Jean-Philippe [Centre Hospitalier de Roanne (France); Teissier, Eric [Centre de Radiothérapie de Mougins (France); Lucardi, Audrey [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Gerard, Jean-Pierre [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Belot, Aurélien [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, and CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Equipe Biotatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne (France); Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Département des Maladies Chroniques et des Traumatismes, Saint-Maurice (France); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of irradiation of internal mammary nodes (IMN) on 10-year overall survival in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Methods and Patients: This multicenter phase 3 study enrolled patients with positive axillary nodes (pN+) or central/medial tumors with or without pN+. Other inclusion criteria were age <75 and a Karnofsky index ≥70. All patients received postoperative irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes and were randomly assigned to receive IMN irradiation or not. Randomization was stratified by tumor location (medial/central or lateral), axillary lymph node status, and adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy vs no chemotherapy). The prescribed dose of irradiation to the target volumes was 50 Gy or equivalent. The first 5 intercostal spaces were included in the IMN target volume, and two-thirds of the dose (31.5 Gy) was given by electrons. The primary outcome was overall survival at 10 years. Disease-free survival and toxicity were secondary outcomes. Results: T total of 1334 patients were analyzed after a median follow-up of 11.3 years among the survivors. No benefit of IMN irradiation on the overall survival could be demonstrated: the 10-year overall survival was 59.3% in the IMN-nonirradiated group versus 62.6% in the IMN-irradiated group (P=.8). According to stratification factors, we defined 6 subgroups (medial/central or lateral tumor, pN0 [only for medial/central] or pN+, and chemotherapy or not). In all these subgroups, IMN irradiation did not significantly improve overall survival. Conclusions: In patients treated with 2-dimensional techniques, we failed to demonstrate a survival benefit for IMN irradiation. This study cannot rule out a moderate benefit, especially with more modern, conformal techniques applied to a higher risk population.

  12. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, CHANG; HU, DONG-HUI; FENG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 μg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly

  13. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  14. Severe Obesity Impacts Recurrence-Free Survival of Women with High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Raimond, Emilie; Graesslin, Olivier; Hudry, Delphine; Coutant, Charles; Touboul, Cyril; Bleu, Géraldine; Collinet, Pierre; Darai, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Studies focusing on the impact of obesity on survival in endometrial cancer (EC) have reported controversial results and few data exist on the impact of obesity on recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS...

  15. SU-F-T-02: Estimation of Radiobiological Doses (BED and EQD2) of Single Fraction Electronic Brachytherapy That Equivalent to I-125 Eye Plaque: By Using Linear-Quadratic and Universal Survival Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y; Waldron, T; Pennington, E [University Of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for a single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p < 0.0527), 126 ± 43% (p < 0.0354), and 112 ± 32% (p < 0.0265) higher than those of I125-BT, respectively. The BED and EQD2 doses of the opposite retina were 52 ± 9% lower than I125-BT. The tumor SFED values were 25.2 ± 3.3 Gy and 29.1 ± 2.5 Gy when using USC and LQ models which can be delivered within 1 hour. All BED and EQD2 values using L-Q model were significantly larger when compared to the USC model (p < 0.0274) due to its large single fraction size (> 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.

  16. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praestegaard, Camilla; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Signe M; Nielsen, Thor S S; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; DeFazio, Anna; Høgdall, Estrid; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine G; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten; Ness, Roberta B; Edwards, Robert; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Fridley, Brooke L; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Massuger, Leon F; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm; Lee, Alice W; Sutphen, Rebecca; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Risch, Harvey A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival differs according to strata of ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis. In a large pooled analysis, we evaluated the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and survival among women with epithelial ovarian cancer. We obtained data from 19 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,114 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted study-specific hazard ratios (HRs), which were combined into pooled hazard ratios (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under random effects models. Overall, 5,149 (57%) women died during a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, both current (pHR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28) and former smokers (pHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.18) had worse survival compared with never smoking women. In histotype-stratified analyses, associations were observed for mucinous (current smoking: pHR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01-3.65) and serous histotypes (current smoking: pHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23; former smoking: pHR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20). Further, our results suggested that current smoking has a greater impact on survival among women with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Results after replantation of avulsed permanent teeth. III. Tooth loss and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Yango; Wahl, Gerhard; Filippi, Andreas; Kirschner, Horst

    2005-04-01

    Avulsed permanent teeth were replanted following immediate extraoral endodontic treatment by insertion of posts from a retrograde direction. Some teeth were rescued in a physiologic environment (tissue culture medium contained in a tooth rescue box), and in some cases antiresorptive-regenerative therapy (ART) was used. The aim of the study was to identify variables that influence the incidence of tooth loss and the survival of avulsed and replanted permanent incisors. Twenty-eight permanent teeth in 24 patients aged 7-17 years were investigated. In all teeth extraoral endodontic treatment by retrograde insertion of posts was performed. All nine teeth with functional healing (FH) were in situ. Of the 19 teeth with non-FH, seven were removed to allow transplantations. Two teeth were removed due to severe infrapositions. One tooth was lost following a new trauma. No tooth was lost due to acute infections. In descriptive statistics the incidence of tooth loss was significantly related to healing (P = 0.0098, Fisher's exact test), to treatment planning, i.e. consecutive replantation of premolars and primary canines (P = 0.0001, Fisher's exact test) and to immediate physiologic rescue (P = 0.0394). ART was related to tooth loss when tested in teeth with a compromised periodontal ligament (P = 0.0389). No influence could be found for the parameters maturity, age and all other factors. In a regression analysis treatment planning was the only factor left which had a significant influence (P = 0.0002). The estimated mean survival time (Kaplan-Meier analysis) for all teeth was 57.3 months. The survival was significantly reduced (P = 0.0002, log rank test) when consecutive transplantations were intended and performed. No influence could be found for maturity, age and all other factors. The different findings to previous studies can be explained by the prevention of complications related to conventional endodontic treatment approaches. Statistics have to be carefully

  18. A somewhat unexpected result from the deconvolution of DSC curves for human hair: There is no apparent relation between cortical cell fractions and hair curliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Franz J; Wortmann, Gabriele

    2017-11-04

    A deconvolution process has been developed for curves obtained by differential scanning calorimetry in water for Merino wool and the main ethnic hair types. This enables estimation of the fractions of ortho- and para-type cell groups. The results also indicate that hair may contain a further, low-sulphur subgroup of ortho-type cells. The sizes of the major cell fractions are in line with expectations from microscopical investigations. The fractions are comparable for hair types, and no consistent association between cell-type fractions and hair curvature is observed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Long-term regional chemotherapy for patients with epithelial malignant peritoneal mesothelioma results in improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, P H; Chang, D

    2017-07-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease with about 300 new cases per year in the USA. Its natural history is described as local progression within the peritoneal space in the absence of liver metastases or systemic disease. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is a series of peritonectomy procedures and visceral resections with a goal of complete removal of all visible disease from the abdomen and pelvis. Over 20 years, three protocols investigating increasing efficacy of additional chemotherapy treatments added to CRS have been initiated. Initially, hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) with doxorubicin and cisplatin was used in the operating room. Then, early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) with paclitaxel was added for the first 5 days after CRS. The third protocol employed HIPEC, then EPIC, and then long-term intraperitoneal (IP) paclitaxel or IP pemetrexed plus intravenous (IV) cisplatin as a adjuvant normothermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (NIPEC). The 5-year survival of 42 patients treated with CRS and HIPEC was 44%, for 58 patients treated with EPIC and HIPEC was 52% and 29 patients who received HIPEC, EPIC, and NIPEC was 75% (p = 0.0374). Prognostic variables of age, gender, treatment administered, peritoneal cancer index (PCI) and completeness of cytoreduction were significant by univariate analysis and treatments administered and completeness of cytoreduction significant by multivariate analysis. Long-term regional chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in patients with MPM. In this rare disease, additional phase 2 investigations are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic model for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the international kidney cancer working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Judith; Royston, Patrick; Elson, Paul; McCormack, Jennifer Bacik; Mazumdar, Madhu; Négrier, Sylvie; Escudier, Bernard; Eisen, Tim; Dutcher, Janice; Atkins, Michael; Heng, Daniel Y C; Choueiri, Toni K; Motzer, Robert; Bukowski, Ronald

    2011-08-15

    To develop a single validated model for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) using a comprehensive international database. A comprehensive database of 3,748 patients including previously reported clinical prognostic factors was established by pooling patient-level data from clinical trials. Following quality control and standardization, descriptive statistics were generated. Univariate analyses were conducted using proportional hazards models. Multivariable analysis using a log-logistic model stratified by center and multivariable fractional polynomials was conducted to identify independent predictors of survival. Missing data were handled using multiple imputation methods. Three risk groups were formed using the 25th and 75th percentiles of the resulting prognostic index. The model was validated using an independent data set of 645 patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Median survival in the favorable, intermediate and poor risk groups was 26.9 months, 11.5 months, and 4.2 months, respectively. Factors contributing to the prognostic index included treatment, performance status, number of metastatic sites, time from diagnosis to treatment, and pretreatment hemoglobin, white blood count, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and serum calcium. The model showed good concordance when tested among patients treated with TKI therapy (C statistic = 0.741, 95% CI: 0.714-0.768). Nine clinical factors can be used to model survival in mRCC and form distinct prognostic groups. The model shows utility among patients treated in the TKI era. ©2011 AACR.

  1. Extracorporeal life support with left ventricular decompression—improved survival in severe cardiogenic shock: results from a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Schmack

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Extracorporeal life support (ECLS is a life-saving procedure used in the treatment of severe cardiogenic shock. Within this retrospective single centre study, we examined our experience in this critically ill patient cohort to assess outcomes and clinical parameters by comparison of ECLS with or without selective left ventricular decompression. Methods Between 2004 and 2014 we evaluated 48 adult patients with INTERMACS level 1 heart failure (age 49.7 ± 19.5 years, who received either central ECLS with (n = 20, 41.7% or ECLS without (n = 28, 58.3%, including 10 peripheral ECLS integrated left ventricular vent in our retrospective single centre trial. Results Follow up was 100% with a mean of 0.83 ± 1.85 years. Bridge to ventricular assist device was feasible in 29.2% (n = 14, bridge to transplant in 10.4% (n = 5 and bridge to recovery in 8.3% (n = 4. Overall 30-day survival was 37.5%, 6-month survival 27.1% and 1-year survival 25.0%. ECLS support with left ventricular decompression showed favourable 30-day survival compared to ECLS without left ventricular decompression (p = 0.034. Thirty-day as well as long-term survival did not differ between the subgroups (central ECLS with vent, ECLS without vent and peripheral ECLS without vent. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age and gender revealed ECLS without vent as independent factor influencing 30-day survival. Conclusion ECLS is an established therapy for patients in severe cardiogenic shock. Independent of the ECLS approach, 30-day mortality is still high but with superior 30-day survival for patients with ECLS and left ventricular venting. Moreover, by unloading the ventricle, left ventricular decompression may provide an important time window for recovery or further treatment, such as bridge to bridge or bridge to transplant.

  2. Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Troisi, Rebecca J; Savage, Sharon A

    2009-04-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents, but there is a second incidence peak among individuals aged > 60 years. Most osteosarcoma epidemiology studies have been embedded in large analyses of all bone tumors or focused on cases occurring in adolescence. Detailed descriptions of osteosarcoma incidence and survival with direct comparisons among patients of all ages and ethnicities are not available. Frequency, incidence, and survival rates for 3482 patients with osteosarcoma from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2004 were investigated by age (ages 0-24 years, 25-59 years, and 60 to > or = 85 years), race, sex, pathology subtype, stage, and anatomic site. There were large differences in incidence and survival rates by age. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma among patients with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. Tumor site differences among age groups were noted. Survival rates varied by anatomic site and disease stage and did not improve significantly from 1984 to 2004. This comprehensive, population-based description of osteosarcoma, identified important differences in incidence, survival, pathologic subtype, and anatomic site among age groups, and quantified the impact of osteosarcoma in patients with Paget disease or as a second cancer on incidence and mortality rates. These findings may have implications in understanding osteosarcoma biology and epidemiology. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society

  3. Survival after surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple intracranial metastases: results of a single-center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Lall, Rohan R; Lall, Rishi R; Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Arnaout, Omar M; Marymont, MaryAnne H; Swanson, Kristin R; Chandler, James P

    2014-10-01

    -year survival for patients in this cohort was 52%, and the 1-year local control rate was 77%. The median (±standard error) overall survival was 13.2 ± 1.9 months. There was no difference in survival between patients with a single lesion and those with multiple lesions (p = 0.319) after controlling for age, sex, and histology of primary tumor. Patients with primary breast histology had the greatest overall median survival (22.9 ± 6.2 months); patients with colorectal cancer had the shortest overall median survival (5.3 ± 1.8 months). The most common cause of death in this series was systemic progression (79%). These results confirm that 1-year survival for patients with multiple intracranial metastases treated with resection followed by SRS to both the tumor bed and synchronous lesions is similar to established outcomes for patients with a single intracranial metastasis.

  4. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions - Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Rosa; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Horneck, Gerda; Ríos, Asunción de los; Wierzchos, Jacek; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Cockell, Charles S.; Rettberg, Petra; Berger, Thomas; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Ott, Sieglinde; Frías, Jesus Martinez; Melendi, Pablo Gonzalez; Lucas, Maria Mercedes; Reina, Manuel; Pintado, Ana; Demets, René

    2010-08-01

    In the space experiments Lithopanspermia, experimental support was provided to the likelihood of the lithopanspermia concept that considers a viable transport of microorganisms between the terrestrial planets by means of meteorites. The rock colonising lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, the vagrant lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa, and endolithic and endoevaporitic communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria with their natural rock substrate were exposed to space for 10 days onboard the Biopan facility of the European Space Agency (ESA). Biopan was closed during launch and re-entry. In addition, in the Stone facility, one sample of R. geographicum on its natural granitic substrate was attached at the outer surface of the re-entry capsule close to the stagnation point, only protected by a thin cover of glass textolite. Post-flight analysis, which included determination of the photosynthetic activity, LIVE/DEAD staining, and germination capacity of the ascospores, demonstrated that all three lichen were quite resistant to outer space conditions, which include the full spectrum of solar extraterrestrial electromagnetic radiation or selected wavelength ranges. This high resistance of the lichens to space appears to be due to their symbiotic nature and protection by their upper pigmented layer, the cortex. In contrast, the rock- or halite-inhabiting bacteria were severely damaged by the same exposure. After atmospheric re-entry, the granite of the Stone sample was transformed into a glassy, nearly homogenous material, with several friction striae. None of the lichen cells survived this re-entry process. The data suggest that lichens are suitable candidates for testing the concept of lithopanspermia, because they are extremely resistant to the harsh environment of outer space. The more critical event is the atmospheric re-entry after being captured by a planet. Experiments simulating the re-entry process of a microbe-carrying meteoroid did not show any

  5. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  6. Effect of positive surgical margins on biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival after radical prostatectomy: median long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Emre; Aydogmus, Yasin; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Dadali, Mumtaz; Karakan, Tolga; Emir, Levent; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the median long-term effects of positive surgical margin (PSM) and other prognostic factors on biochemical recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and biochemical failure in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Our study included 121 patients with pT2-3N0 disease treated between March 2006 and August 2012. The patients were divided into two groups: those with PSM and those with negative surgical margin (NSM). We analyzed the age, clinical and pathological stages, preoperative and postoperative Gleason scores, duration of the follow-up, adjuvant chemo-/radiotherapy, biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival in these patients. PSM was found in 25 (20%) patients, whereas 96 patients had NSM. The median follow-up time was 46.6 months (range 12-72 months) for the PSM group and 48.3 months (range 7-149 months) for the NSM group. The biochemical failure rate was 24% in the PSM group and 8.3% in the NSM group (p = 0.029). The biochemical recurrence-free survival was found as 76% in the PSM group and 91.7% in the NSM group. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). The overall survival was 100% in both groups. The surgical margins of the radical prostatectomy material is an important pathological indicator for biochemical failure at mid long-term follow-up. We did not find any effect of PSM on overall survival or biochemical recurrence-free survival. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. Long-term disability and survival in traumatic brain injury: results from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan C; Strauss, David J; Shavelle, Robert M; Paculdo, David R; Hammond, Flora M; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L

    2013-11-01

    To document long-term survival in 1-year survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI); to compare the use of the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and FIM as factors in the estimation of survival probabilities; and to investigate the effect of time since injury and secular trends in mortality. Cohort study of 1-year survivors of TBI followed up to 20 years postinjury. Statistical methods include standardized mortality ratio, Kaplan-Meier survival curve, proportional hazards regression, and person-year logistic regression. Postdischarge from rehabilitation units. Population-based sample of persons (N=7228) who were admitted to a TBI Model Systems facility and survived at least 1 year postinjury. These persons contributed 32,505 person-years, with 537 deaths, over the 1989 to 2011 study period. Not applicable. Survival. Survival was poorer than that of the general population (standardized mortality ratio=2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.3). Age, sex, and functional disability were significant risk factors for mortality (Pmodels had comparable predictive performance (C index: .80 vs .80; Akaike information criterion: 11,005 vs 11,015). Time since injury and current calendar year were not significant predictors of long-term survival (both P>.05). Long-term survival prognosis in TBI depends on age, sex, and disability. FIM and DRS are useful prognostic measures with comparable statistical performance. Age- and disability-specific mortality rates in TBI have not declined over the last 20 years. A survival prognosis calculator is available online (http://www.LifeExpectancy.org/tbims.shtml). Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival advantage of marriage in uterine cancer patients contrasts poor outcome for widows: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, William J; Stany, Michael P; Phippen, Neil T; Bunch, Kristen P; Oliver, Kate E; Tian, Chunqiao; Maxwell, G Larry; Darcy, Kathleen M; Hamilton, Chad A

    2015-02-01

    Marriage confers a survival advantage for many cancers but has yet to be evaluated in uterine cancer patients. We sought to determine whether uterine cancer survival varied by self-reported relationship status. Data were downloaded from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for women diagnosed with uterine cancer (between 1991 and 2010 in nine geographic regions). Patients with complete clinical data for analysis were categorized as married, single, widowed or other (divorced or separated). Differences in distributions were evaluated using Chi-square, exact and/or Mantel-Haenszel test. Uterine cancer survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Of 47,420 eligible patients, 56% were married, 15% were single and 19% were widows. Married vs. non-married women had a higher likelihood of having low risk (grade 1/2 endometrioid) endometrial cancer and local disease (pmarriage. This report identifies widows as a new high-risk subpopulation with significantly inferior outcomes potentially benefiting from personalized care and social support. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Higher Flexibility and Better Immediate Spontaneous Correction May Not Gain Better Results for Nonstructural Thoracic Curve in Lenke 5C AIS Patients: Risk Factors for Its Correction Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbin; Lin, Guanfeng; Wang, Shengru; Zhang, Jianguo; Shen, Jianxiong; Wang, Yipeng; Guo, Jianwei; Yang, Xinyu; Zhao, Lijuan

    2016-11-15

    Retrospective study. To study the behavior of the unfused thoracic curve in Lenke type 5C during the follow-up and to identify risk factors for its correction loss. Few studies have focused on the spontaneous behaviors of the unfused thoracic curve after selective thoracolumbar or lumbar fusion during the follow-up and the risk factors for spontaneous correction loss. We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients (41 females and 4 males) with AIS who underwent selective TL/L fusion from 2006 to 2012 in a single institution. The follow-up averaged 36 months (range, 24-105 months). Patients were divided into two groups. Thoracic curves in group A improved or maintained their curve magnitude after spontaneous correction, with a negative or no correction loss during the follow-up. Thoracic curves in group B deteriorated after spontaneous correction with a positive correction loss. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were built to identify the risk factors for correction loss of the unfused thoracic curves. The minor thoracic curve was 26° preoperatively. It was corrected to 13° immediately with a spontaneous correction of 48.5%. At final follow-up it was 14° with a correction loss of 1°. Thoracic curves did not deteriorate after spontaneous correction in 23 cases in group A, while 22 cases were identified with thoracic curve progressing in group B. In multivariate analysis, two risk factors were independently associated with thoracic correction loss: higher flexibility and better immediate spontaneous correction rate of thoracic curve. Posterior selective TL/L fusion with pedicle screw constructs is an effective treatment for Lenke 5C AIS patients. Nonstructural thoracic curves with higher flexibility or better immediate correction are more likely to progress during the follow-up and close attentions must be paid to these patients in case of decompensation. 4.

  10. Measuring adult mortality using sibling survival: a new analytical method and new results for 44 countries, 1974-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Obermeyer

    2010-04-01

    probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday-for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%-35% for females and 25%-45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries.Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    Treats the arithmetic theory of elliptic curves in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. This book discusses the necessary algebro-geometric results, and offers an exposition of the geometry of elliptic curves, and the formal group of an elliptic curve.

  12. Sociodemographic Predictors of Survival in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Results from the SEER Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lily E; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chang, David C; Bouvet, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is prognosticated upon a combination of tumor characteristics, such as histology and stage, and patient age. DTC is also notable for having a strong female predominance. Using a nationwide database with long follow-up times, we explored the interplay between tumor biology and patient characteristics in predicting mortality. Methods. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry data 1973-2005 was examined for patients with DTC as their only known malignancy. Cox multivariate analyses were used to generate mortality hazard ratios to evaluate the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and marital status. Results. We identified 55,995 patients with DTC as their only malignancy. Consistent with the existing literature, the tumors are primarily diagnosed in women (77.5%), and predominantly affect Caucasians (78.3%). Female gender had a protective effect resulting in a 37% decrease in mortality. Age at diagnosis predicted mortality over age 40. Black ethnicity was associated with a 51% increase in mortality compared to Caucasians. Conclusion. Multiple demographic factors predict mortality in patients with DTC after adjusting for tumor characteristics, and they appear to have complex interactions. Recognizing the importance of these factors may enable clinicians to better tailor therapy.

  13. Whole lichen thalli survive exposure to space conditions: results of Lithopanspermia experiment with Aspicilia fruticulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, J; Pintado, A; Ascaso, C; De La Torre, R; De Los Ríos, A; Wierzchos, J; Horneck, G; Sancho, L G

    2011-05-01

    The Lithopanspermia space experiment was launched in 2007 with the European Biopan facility for a 10-day spaceflight on board a Russian Foton retrievable satellite. Lithopanspermia included for the first time the vagrant lichen species Aspicilia fruticulosa from Guadalajara steppic highlands (Central Spain), as well as other lichen species. During spaceflight, the samples were exposed to selected space conditions, that is, the space vacuum, cosmic radiation, and different spectral ranges of solar radiation (λ ≥ 110, ≥200, ≥290, or ≥400 nm, respectively). After retrieval, the algal and fungal metabolic integrity of the samples were evaluated in terms of chlorophyll a fluorescence, ultrastructure, and CO(2) exchange rates. Whereas the space vacuum and cosmic radiation did not impair the metabolic activity of the lichens, solar electromagnetic radiation, especially in the wavelength range between 100 and 200 nm, caused reduced chlorophyll a yield fluorescence; however, there was a complete recovery after 72 h of reactivation. All samples showed positive rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration in the gas exchange experiment. Although the ultrastructure of all flight samples showed some probable stress-induced changes (such as the presence of electron-dense bodies in cytoplasmic vacuoles and between the chloroplast thylakoids in photobiont cells as well as in cytoplasmic vacuoles of the mycobiont cells), we concluded that A. fruticulosa was capable of repairing all space-induced damage. Due to size limitations within the Lithopanspermia hardware, the possibility for replication on the sun-exposed samples was limited, and these first results on the resistance of the lichen symbiosis A. fruticulosa to space conditions and, in particular, on the spectral effectiveness of solar extraterrestrial radiation must be considered preliminary. Further testing in space and under space-simulated conditions will be required. Results of this study indicate

  14. Flexible survival strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms result in increased fitness compared with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-12-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage.

  15. Flexible Survival Strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Result in Increased Fitness Compared with Candida albicans *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage. PMID

  16. Expected utility versus expected regret theory versions of decision curve analysis do generate different results when treatment effects are taken into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Iztok; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2016-12-15

    Decision curve analysis (DCA) is a widely used method for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. It was developed based on expected utility theory (EUT) and has been reformulated using expected regret theory (ERG). Under certain circumstances, these 2 formulations yield different results. Here we describe these situations and explain the variation. We compare the derivations of the EUT- and ERG-based formulations of DCA for a typical medical decision problem: "treat none," "treat all," or "use model" to guide treatment. We illustrate the differences between the 2 formulations when applied to the following clinical question: at which probability of death we should refer a terminally ill patient to hospice? Both DCA formulations yielded identical but mirrored results when treatment effects are ignored; they generated significantly different results otherwise. Treatment effect has a significant effect on the results derived by EUT DCA and less so on ERG DCA. The elicitation of specific values for disutilities affected the results even more significantly in the context of EUT DCA, whereas no such elicitation was required within the ERG framework. EUT and ERG DCA generate different results when treatment effects are taken into account. The magnitude of the difference depends on the effect of treatment and the disutilities associated with disease and treatment effects. This is important to realize as the current practice guidelines are uniformly based on EUT; the same recommendations can significantly differ if they are derived based on ERG framework. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Malignant central nervous system tumors among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years old) in 14 Southern-Eastern European registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program: Mortality and survival patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Themistocleous, Marios; Tolia, Maria; Tzanis, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A; Papanikolaou, Panagiotis G; Nomikos, Panagiotis; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Petridou, Eleni T

    2017-11-15

    Unique features and worse outcomes have been reported for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years old). The aim of this study was to explore the mortality and survival patterns of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors among AYAs in Southern-Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison with the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Malignant CNS tumors diagnosed in AYAs during the period spanning 1990-2014 were retrieved from 14 population-based cancer registries in the SEE region (n = 11,438). Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated and survival patterns were evaluated via Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses, and they were compared with respective 1990-2012 figures from SEER (n = 13,573). Mortality rates in SEE (range, 11.9-18.5 deaths per million) were higher overall than the SEER rate (9.4 deaths per million), with decreasing trends in both regions. Survival rates increased during a comparable period (2001-2009) in SEE and SEER. The 5-year survival rate was considerably lower in the SEE registries (46%) versus SEER (67%), mainly because of the extremely low rates in Ukraine; this finding was consistent across age groups and diagnostic subtypes. The highest 5-year survival rates were recorded for ependymomas (76% in SEE and 92% in SEER), and the worst were recorded for glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (28% in SEE and 37% in SEER). Advancing age, male sex, and rural residency at diagnosis adversely affected outcomes in both regions. Despite definite survival gains over the last years, the considerable outcome disparities between the less affluent SEE region and the United States for AYAs with malignant CNS tumors point to health care delivery inequalities. No considerable prognostic deficits for CNS tumors are evident for AYAs versus children. Cancer 2017;123:4458-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Radiation Therapy in Addition to Gross Total Resection of Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Results in Prolonged Survival: Results from a Single Institutional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Zagar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Typical treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs is surgery with or without radiation therapy for localized disease. With surgery alone, local failure rates are as high as 90%; this led to radiation therapy playing an important role in the treatment of RPSs. Methods. Thirty-one patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma treated with gross total resection and radiation therapy make up this retrospective analysis. Nineteen were treated preoperatively and 12 postoperatively (median dose, 59.4 Gy—sixteen also received intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT (median dose, 11 Gy. Patients were followed with stringent regimens, including frequent CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Results. With a median follow-up of 19 months (range 1–66 months, the 2-year overall survival (OS rate is 70% (median, 52 months. The 2-year locoregional control (LRC rate is 77% (median, 61.6 months. The 2-year distant disease free survival (DDFS rate is 70% (median not reached. There were no differences in radiation-related acute and late toxicities among patients treated pre- versus postoperatively, whether with or without IORT. Conclusions. Compared to surgery alone, neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiation therapy offers patients with RPS an excellent chance for long-term LRC, DDS, and OS. The integration of modern treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy and IORT allows for higher doses to be delivered with acceptable toxicities.

  19. Postoperative Survival for Patients with Thymoma Complicating Myasthenia Gravis
- Preliminary Retrospective Results of the ChART Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangrui WANG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is so far not clear that how myasthenia gravis (MG affected the prognosis of thymoma patients. The aim of this assay is to compare the postoperative survival between patients with thymoma only and those with both thymoma and MG. Methods The Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART registry recruited patients with thymoma from 18 centers over the country on an intention to treat basis from 1992 to 2012. Two groups were formed according to whether the patient complicated MG. Demographic and clinical data were reviewed, Patients were followed and their survival status were analyzed. Results There were 1,850 patients included in this study, including 421 with and 1,429 without MG. Complete thymectomy were done in 91.2% patients in MG group and 71.0% in non-MG group (P<0.05. There were more percentage of patients with the histology of thymoma AB, B1, or B2 (P<0.05 in MG group, and more percentage of patients with MG were in Masaoka stage I and II. The 5 year and 10 year OS rates were both higher in MG group (93% vs 88%; 83% vs 81%, P=0.034 respectively. The survival rate was significantly higher in patients with MG when the Masaoka staging was III/IV (P=0.003. Among patients with advanced stage thymoma (stage III, IVa, IVb, the constituent ratios of III, IVa, IVb were similar between MG and Non-MG group. Histologically, however, there were significantly more proportion of AB/B1/B2/B3 in the MG group while there were more C in the non-MG group (P=0.000. Univariate analyses for all patients showed that MG, WHO classification, Masaoka stage, surgical approach, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and resectability were significant factors, and multivariate analysis showed WHO Classification, Masaoka stage, and resectability were strong independent prognostic indicators. Conclusion Although MG is not an independent prognostic factor, the survival of patients with thymoma was superior when MG was present, especially in late

  20. Five-year survival and durability results of brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robert; Gopal, Ajay K; Smith, Scott E; Ansell, Stephen M; Rosenblatt, Joseph D; Savage, Kerry J; Connors, Joseph M; Engert, Andreas; Larsen, Emily K; Huebner, Dirk; Fong, Abraham; Younes, Anas

    2016-09-22

    Presented here are the 5-year end-of-study results from the pivotal phase 2 trial of brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after failed hematopoietic autologous stem cell transplantation. At 5 years, the overall patient population (N = 102) had an estimated overall survival (OS) rate of 41% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31-51) and progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 22% (95% CI: 13-31). Patients who achieved a complete response (CR) to brentuximab vedotin (N = 34) had estimated OS and PFS rates of 64% (95% CI: 48-80%) and 52% (95% CI: 34-69%), respectively. The median OS and PFS were not reached in CR patients, with 13 patients (38% of all CR patients) remaining in follow-up and in remission at study closure. Of the 13 patients, 4 received consolidative hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplant, and 9 (9% of all enrolled patients) remain in sustained CR without receiving any further anticancer therapy after treatment with brentuximab vedotin. Of the patients who experienced treatment-emergent peripheral neuropathy, 88% experienced either resolution (73%) or improvement (14%) in symptoms. These 5-year follow-up data demonstrate that a subset of patients with R/R HL who obtained CR with single-agent brentuximab vedotin achieved long-term disease control and may potentially be cured. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00848926. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame for Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenyurt, Süleyman; Altun, Yasin; Cevahir, Ceyda

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigated special Smarandache curves belonging to Sabban frame drawn on the surface of the sphere by Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve. We created Sabban frame belonging to this curve. It was explained Smarandache curves position vector is consisted by Sabban vectors belonging to this curve. Then, we calculated geodesic curvatures of this Smarandache curves. Found results were expressed depending on the Mannheim curve.

  2. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praestegaard, C.; Jensen, A.; Jensen, S.M.; Nielsen, T.S.; Webb, P.M.; Nagle, C.M.; Defazio, A.; Hogdall, E.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.; Matsuo, K.; Hosono, S.; Goode, E.L.; Winham, S.J.; Fridley, B.L.; Cramer, D.W; Terry, K.L.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Wentzensen, N.; Pharoah, P.; Song, H.; Whittemore, A.; McGuire, V.; Sieh, W.; Rothstein, J.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Pike, M.; Lee, A.W.; Sutphen, R.; Chang-Claude, J.; Risch, H.A.; Kjaer, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival

  3. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Gotti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC diagnosis in the modern cART era. METHODS: Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51% were ADCs and 431 (49% were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; p<0.001. Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14% than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%, liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4% or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%. Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. CONCLUSIONS: cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  4. Survival results in five malignant neoplasms separated by a decade at Institut Català d'Oncologia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germá-Lluch, José Ramón; Petriz, Lourdes; Lopez, Pau; Asensio, Esther

    2018-02-23

    Five years' data relative survival (RS) is presented in 3 solid tumours: breast, colorectal (CRC) and lung and 2 haematologic neoplasms: large B cell lymphoma (NHL-B) and multiple myeloma (MM) treated at Institut Català d'Oncologia between 2010-2011 in comparison with the results obtained in a historical special cohort from 1998-1999. A database was created in a common safe and accessible repository. We have introduced more than 5,000 medical records. To analyse the results the statistical package R ® was used for RS. The overall RS at 5 years for 2010-2011 was: CRC 67%, breast 93.6%, lung 28%, NHL-B 68% and MM 62%, while for 1998-1999 is was: CRC 61.8%, breast 88.8%, lung 23.1%, NHL-B 67.7%, and MM 43.4%. Comparative results have shown a 5% overall improvement in RS for the 3 solid tumours, a significant increase in MM and a stabilisation in the NHL-B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation of free-response and receiver-operating-characteristic area-under-the-curve estimates: results from independently conducted FROC∕ROC studies in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Federica; Hillis, Stephen L; Claus, Filip; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Celis, Valerie; Provoost, Veerle; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Bosmans, Hilde

    2012-10-01

    From independently conducted free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments, to study fixed-reader associations between three estimators: the area under the alternative FROC (AFROC) curve computed from FROC data, the area under the ROC curve computed from FROC highest rating data, and the area under the ROC curve computed from confidence-of-disease ratings. Two hundred mammograms, 100 of which were abnormal, were processed by two image-processing algorithms and interpreted by four radiologists under the FROC paradigm. From the FROC data, inferred-ROC data were derived, using the highest rating assumption. Eighteen months afterwards, the images were interpreted by the same radiologists under the conventional ROC paradigm; conventional-ROC data (in contrast to inferred-ROC data) were obtained. FROC and ROC (inferred, conventional) data were analyzed using the nonparametric area-under-the-curve (AUC), (AFROC and ROC curve, respectively). Pearson correlation was used to quantify the degree of association between the modality-specific AUC indices and standard errors were computed using the bootstrap-after-bootstrap method. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed by comparison with computed Obuchowski-Rockette fixed reader correlations. Average Pearson correlations (with 95% confidence intervals in square brackets) were: Corr(FROC, inferred ROC) = 0.76[0.64, 0.84] > Corr(inferred ROC, conventional ROC) = 0.40[0.18, 0.58] > Corr (FROC, conventional ROC) = 0.32[0.16, 0.46]. Correlation between FROC and inferred-ROC data AUC estimates was high. Correlation between inferred- and conventional-ROC AUC was similar to the correlation between two modalities for a single reader using one estimation method, suggesting that the highest rating assumption might be questionable.

  6. Prediction of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results of a community-based study in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, G B; Gruska, M; Titscher, G; Blazek, G; Havelec, L; Marktl, W; Muellner, W; Kaff, A

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was the assessment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the definition of possible predictive factors for final hospital discharge. Out of a database of 89,557 consecutive missions of the Vienna emergency medical system (EMS) during 1990, there were 623 missions due to a collapse of non-traumatic origin: in 374 cases (60.0%) the patients were declared dead without further attempts at resuscitation. The remaining 249 patients were analysed for predictive factors at site. Survival to hospital admission: 109 patients survived to hospital admission (43.7%); bystander support had a small impact (P < 0.05) on survival to hospital arrival whereas age and gender had no predictive power. Most patients with ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) survived primarily (69 of 117, i.e. 59.0%). Survival to hospital discharge: 27 patients were discharged from hospital care (10.8%). ECG findings on arrival of the EMS physician at the site proved to be the only powerful predictor for survival: 24 of 117 patients with VT/VF survived compared with only one of 81 with primary asystole, two of 39 with severe bradycardia, and no patient with electromechanical dissociation.

  7. Smarandache Curves In Terms of Sabban Frame of Fixed Pole Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Şenyurt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve interms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

  8. Effect of distal venous drainage on the survival of four-territory flaps with no pedicle vein: Results from a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Oh; Cho, Jeongmok; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Chang, Hak

    2018-03-01

    Venous super-drainage can improve flap survival not only because it prevents congestion, but also because it affects the dominant circulation in multi-territory thin skin flaps. We aimed to evaluate the survival of various flap areas and detect vascular changes in artery-based, four-territory skin flaps after different distal venous drainage procedures. 4 x 12 cm sized flaps were elevated based only on the deep circumflex iliac artery. Fifty rats were divided into five groups, as follows: group 1, flaps drained with the deep circumflex iliac vein; group 2, flaps drained with the ipsilateral superficial inferior epigastric vein; group 3, flaps drained with the contralateral superficial inferior epigastric vein; group 4, flaps drained with the contralateral deep circumflex iliac vein; and group 5, flaps super-drained with the contralateral deep circumflex iliac vein. On the fourth postoperative day, the survival of the flaps was assessed by measuring the necrotic and surviving areas, and vascular changes were evaluated angiographically. Compared to flaps with only arterial-based pedicles, most flaps with distant drainage showed significantly greater survival. The flap survival area percentages were 37.82 ± 5.01%, 49.23 ± 10.47%, 68.22 ± 9.24%, 83.90 ± 12.03%, and 89.17 ± 10.42% for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Furthermore, distal vein drainage above the ventral midline resulted in significantly better flap survival. Super-drainage and drainage via the most distal vein resulted in similar flap survival. Distal vein drainage is effective for increasing survival in artery-based flaps. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for {sup 60}Co: preliminary results; Validacao da curva dose-resposta do CRCN-NE para {sup 60}Co: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2014-07-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses.

  10. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB: assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perisano Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months. Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1, one year after the beginning of treatment (t2, intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3, end of weaning (t4, 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5. Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves.

  11. Extracorporeal life support with left ventricular decompression-improved survival in severe cardiogenic shock: results from a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Bastian; Seppelt, Philipp; Weymann, Alexander; Alt, Christina; Farag, Mina; Arif, Rawa; Doesch, Andreas O; Raake, Philip W; Kallenbach, Klaus; Mansur, Ashham; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Karck, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a life-saving procedure used in the treatment of severe cardiogenic shock. Within this retrospective single centre study, we examined our experience in this critically ill patient cohort to assess outcomes and clinical parameters by comparison of ECLS with or without selective left ventricular decompression. Between 2004 and 2014 we evaluated 48 adult patients with INTERMACS level 1 heart failure (age 49.7 ± 19.5 years), who received either central ECLS with (n = 20, 41.7%) or ECLS without (n = 28, 58.3%, including 10 peripheral ECLS) integrated left ventricular vent in our retrospective single centre trial. Follow up was 100% with a mean of 0.83 ± 1.85 years. Bridge to ventricular assist device was feasible in 29.2% (n = 14), bridge to transplant in 10.4% (n = 5) and bridge to recovery in 8.3% (n = 4). Overall 30-day survival was 37.5%, 6-month survival 27.1% and 1-year survival 25.0%. ECLS support with left ventricular decompression showed favourable 30-day survival compared to ECLS without left ventricular decompression (p = 0.034). Thirty-day as well as long-term survival did not differ between the subgroups (central ECLS with vent, ECLS without vent and peripheral ECLS without vent). Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age and gender revealed ECLS without vent as independent factor influencing 30-day survival. ECLS is an established therapy for patients in severe cardiogenic shock. Independent of the ECLS approach, 30-day mortality is still high but with superior 30-day survival for patients with ECLS and left ventricular venting. Moreover, by unloading the ventricle, left ventricular decompression may provide an important time window for recovery or further treatment, such as bridge to bridge or bridge to transplant.

  12. The dChip survival analysis module for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minvielle Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide expression signatures are emerging as potential marker for overall survival and disease recurrence risk as evidenced by recent commercialization of gene expression based biomarkers in breast cancer. Similar predictions have recently been carried out using genome-wide copy number alterations and microRNAs. Existing software packages for microarray data analysis provide functions to define expression-based survival gene signatures. However, there is no software that can perform survival analysis using SNP array data or draw survival curves interactively for expression-based sample clusters. Results We have developed the survival analysis module in the dChip software that performs survival analysis across the genome for gene expression and copy number microarray data. Built on the current dChip software's microarray analysis functions such as chromosome display and clustering, the new survival functions include interactive exploring of Kaplan-Meier (K-M plots using expression or copy number data, computing survival p-values from the log-rank test and Cox models, and using permutation to identify significant chromosome regions associated with survival. Conclusions The dChip survival module provides user-friendly way to perform survival analysis and visualize the results in the context of genes and cytobands. It requires no coding expertise and only minimal learning curve for thousands of existing dChip users. The implementation in Visual C++ also enables fast computation. The software and demonstration data are freely available at http://dchip-surv.chenglilab.org.

  13. Multipulse phase resetting curves

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbatio...

  14. Curved geometry and Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Caravelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose--Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.

  15. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  16. Survival and cause of death in multiple sclerosis: results from a 50-year follow-up in Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten Torkildsen, N; Lie, S A; Aarseth, J H; Nyland, H; Myhr, K M

    2008-11-01

    Survival time among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has varied considerably according to previous reports. Survival and cause of death were analyzed among all patients with MS (878) with onset of MS in Hordaland County, Western Norway during 1953-2003, of whom 198 were dead at follow-up on January 1, 2005. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative mortality ratios (RMRs) were calculated based on observed mortality in MS and expected mortality. Median survival from onset was 41 years versus 49 years in the corresponding population, and mortality (SMR) was 2.7-fold increased in MS. The median survival was 43 years among women and 36 years among men, but women had higher relative mortality, when compared with the corresponding population, than men (RMR = 1.40). The median survival time was 45 years among young-onset patients (21-30 years) and 23 years among older-onset patients (51-60 years), but young-onset patients had higher relative mortality than older-onset patients, as shown by a significant reduction by 10-year interval of age at onset (RMR = 0.65). Median survival from onset was longer (43 years) among relapsing-remitting MS than primary progressive MS ([PPMS]; 49 years), and the relative mortality was higher in the PPMS group, (RMR = 1.55). According to death certificates, 57% died from MS. Female patients and patients with young onset had longer median time to death but higher relative risk of dying compared with the corresponding population. PPMS had both shorter median time to death from onset and a higher relative risk of dying.

  17. The interaction between Candida krusei and murine macrophages results in multiple outcomes, including intracellular survival and escape from killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodas, Rocío; González-Camacho, Fernando; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2011-06-01

    Candida krusei is a fungal pathogen of interest for the scientific community for its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. Little is known about the interaction of this yeast with host immune cells. In this work, we have characterized the outcome of the interaction between C. krusei and murine macrophages. Once C. krusei was internalized, we observed different phenomena. In a macrophage-like cell line, C. krusei survived in a significant number of macrophages and induced filamentation and macrophage explosion. Phagocytosis of C. krusei led to actin polymerization around the yeast cells at the site of entry. Fluorescent specific staining with anti-Lamp1 and LysoTracker indicated that after fungal internalization, there was a phagolysosome maturation defect, a phenomenon that was more efficient when the macrophages phagocytosed killed yeast cells. Using cell line macrophages, we also observed macrophage fusion after cell division. When we used primary resident peritoneal macrophages in addition to macrophage explosion, we also observed a strong chemotaxis of uninfected macrophages to regions where C. krusei-infected macrophages were present. We also noticed yeast transfer phenomena between infected macrophages. Primary macrophages inhibited pseudohypha elongation more efficiently than the macrophage-like cell line, suggesting that C. krusei infection was better controlled by the former macrophages. Primary macrophages induced more tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) than the macrophage-like cell line. Our results demonstrate that C. krusei can exploit the macrophages for replication, although other different outcomes are also possible, indicating that the interaction of this pathogen with phagocytic cells is very complex and regulated by multiple factors.

  18. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    This thesis is concerned with computational and theoretical aspects of Riemannian metrics on spaces of regular curves, and their applications. It was recently proved that second order constant coefficient Sobolev metrics on curves are geodesically complete. We extend this result to the case...... of Sobolev metrics with coefficient functions depending on the length of the curve. We show how to apply this result to analyse a wide range of metrics on the submanifold of unit and constant speed curves. We present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves...... on parametrization of immersions by B-splines, which ties in naturally with Isogeometric Analysis to solve the PDE. We give numerical examples of solutions, and compare the Riemannian optimization algorithms with different choices of metrics to a naive unregularized discretize-first approach....

  19. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  20. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  1. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  2. VDRA therapy is associated with improved survival in dialysis patients with serum intact PTH ≤ 150 pg/mL: results of the Italian FARO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mario; Brancaccio, Diego; Cannella, Giuseppe; Messa, Piergiorgio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Marangella, Martino; LoDeserto, Cosimo; Pozzato, Marco; Rombolà, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Anna Maria; di Luzio Paparatti, Umberto; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2012-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients affected by mineral bone disorders (MBD) have higher rates of all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality. Approximately, one-third of dialysis patients have low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (≤ 150 pg/mL). However, the reason why these patients have higher mortality compared to patients with normal PTH levels has not yet been fully elucidated. The FARO study was performed on 2453 Italian patients followed prospectively from 28 dialysis centres over a 2-year period. Data were collected every 6 months and end points included time-to-death cumulative probability in patients with serum intact PTH (iPTH) ≤ 150 pg/mL and the effect of vitamin D receptor activation (VDRA) therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards regression models stratified by PTH levels (i.e. ≤ 150 and >150 pg/mL) were used to determine cumulative probability of time-to-death and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for demographic, clinical and CKD-MBD treatment characteristics. The cumulative probability of death was higher (P < 0.01) for patients with serum iPTH levels ≤ 150 pg/mL [25.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 22.1-28.5 at 18 months] versus those with serum iPTH levels within the normal range (18.0%, 95% CI: 16.1-20.1). In a model with time-dependent covariates restricted to time periods when patients had iPTH levels ≤ 150 pg/mL, lower mortality was observed in patients treated with VDRA [i.e. HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.92 for oral or intravenous (IV) calcitriol; HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04-0.8 for IV paricalcitol] versus those not receiving any VDRA (P < 0.01) independently of other variables. Patients who received IV paricalcitol, compared with either oral or IV calcitriol, showed reduced mortality, but this was not statistically significant (HR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.07-1.31, P = 0.11). Results from this observational study suggest that VDRA therapy was associated with improved survival in dialysis patients, even with low serum i

  3. Effect of mechanical site preparation treatments on oak survival in a retired field afforestation effort -- first-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Damon B. Hollis; Derek. Alkire

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate poor soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, oak seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research...

  4. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Opinya, G.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical

  5. Survival in Malnourished Older Patients Receiving Post-Discharge Nutritional Support; Long-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F; van Keeken, S; Langius, J A E; de van der Schueren, M A E; Thijs, A; Bosmans, J E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous analyses have shown that a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention had positive effects on body weight, lean body mass, functional limitations and fall incidents in malnourished older patients. However, the impact of this intervention on survival has not yet been

  6. Differences in management of older women influence breast cancer survival: results from a population-based database in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Eaker

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown that less aggressive patterns of diagnostic activity and care are provided to elderly breast carcinoma patients. We sought to investigate whether differences in the management of older women with breast cancer are associated with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an observational study using a population-based clinical breast cancer register of one health-care region in Sweden, we identified 9,059 women aged 50-84 y diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 1992 and 2002. The 5-y relative survival ratio was estimated for patients classified by age group, diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment. The 5-y relative survival for breast cancer patients was lower (up to 13% in women 70-84 y of age compared to women aged 50-69 y, and the difference was most pronounced in stage IIB-III and in the unstaged. Significant differences in disease management were found, as older women had larger tumors, had fewer nodes examined, and did not receive treatment by radiotherapy or by chemotherapy as often as the younger women. Adjustment for diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment diminished the relative excess mortality in stages III and in the unstaged, whereas the excess mortality was only marginally affected in stage IIB. CONCLUSIONS: Less diagnostic activity, less aggressive treatment, and later diagnosis in older women are associated with poorer survival. The large differences in treatment of older women are difficult to explain by co-morbidity alone.

  7. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR SURVIVAL OF MEN1 PATIENTS WITH DUODENOPANCREATIC TUMORS METASTATIC TO THE LIVER : RESULTS FROM THE DMSG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conemans, Elfi B.; Nell, Sjoerd; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Hermus, Ad R.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Drent, Madeleine L.; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    Objective: Duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (DP-NETs) develop in a majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and are the leading cause of death. Overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors for patients with liver metastases from DP-NETs are not known. Methods: This

  8. Survival of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR): results of ten to nineteen years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigg, Arno; Germann, Ursula; Huber, Martin; Horisberger, Monika

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival and clinical outcome of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR) prosthesis after a minimum of ten years up to a maximum of 19 years. Fifty STAR prostheses in 46 patients with end stage ankle osteoarthritis operated between 1996 and 2006 by the same surgeon (MH) were included. Minimal follow-up was ten years (median 14.6 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-16.4). Clinical (Kofoed score) and radiological assessments were taken before the operation and at one, ten (+2), and 16 (±3) years after implantation. The primary endpoint was defined as exchange of the whole prosthesis or conversion to arthrodesis (def. 1), exchange of at least one metallic component (def. 2), or exchange of any component including the inlay (due to breakage or wear) (def. 3). Survival was estimated according to Kaplan-Meier. Further reoperations related to STAR were also recorded. The ten year survival rate was (def. 1) 94% (CI 82-98%), (def. 2) 90% (CI, 77-96%), and (def. 3) 78% (CI 64-87%). The 19-year survival rate was (def. 1) 91% (CI 78-97%), (def. 2) 75% (CI 53-88%), and (def. 3) 55% (CI 34-71%). Considering any re-operations related to STAR, 52% (26/50) of prostheses were affected by re-operations. Mean pre-operative Kofoed score was 49, which improved to 84 after one year (n = 50), to 90 after ten years (n = 46), and to 89 after 16 years (n = 28). The survival rate for def. 1 and 2 was high. However, re-operations occurred in 52% of all STAR prosthesis. Retrospective cohort study, evidence Level 4.

  9. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  10. Curva de sobrevida e fatores prognósticos no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico infanto-juvenil Survival curve and prognosis factors in the childhood systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Appenzeller

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar as curvas de sobrevida em uma amostra de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES infanto-juvenil, as variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais e o tipo de tratamento associado ao óbito. MÉTODOS: de uma coorte de 519 pacientes seguidos prospectivamente, 55 foram identificados como tendo LES infanto-juvenil. Análise univariada e regressão de Cox foram utilizadas para determinar as variáveis associadas com a sobrevida nesta coorte. RESULTADOS: o óbito foi identificado em 12 dos pacientes (21,8% com LES infanto-juvenil. A causa de óbito em freqüência decrescente foi septicemia em 6 (50%, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC em 4 (33.3% e insuficiência renal em 2 (16,7% pacientes. Na análise univariada o sexo masculino, a presença de infecções e o uso de ciclofosfamida oral estiveram associados ao óbito. Na regressão multivariada, somente o sexo masculino influenciou negativamente o tempo de sobrevida (odds ratio 5,8. CONCLUSÕES: em um período de 27 anos o óbito foi observado em 21,8% dos pacientes. Embora infecções tenham sido causa de morte em metade desses pacientes, a sobrevida não estava associada à presença de infecções ou à insuficiência renal, mas ao fato de o paciente ser do sexo masculino. Prestar maior atenção aos meninos com LES, com diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento adequados pode influenciar o prognóstico nesses casos.OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical, laboratory, serological and treatment factors associated with death in a childhood onset childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE population. METHODS: 55 patients out of 519 prospectively followed-up cohorts were identified as having childhood onset SLE in the State University of Campinas. Univariate analysis and Cox regression model were used to determinate the variables associated with death in this cohort. RESULTS: Death occurred in 12 patients (21.8%, caused by sepsis in 6 (50%, stroke in 4 (33.3%, and renal insufficiency in two (16.7% cases. In

  11. The curve of Spee revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Hnat, W P; Johnson, B E

    1996-08-01

    Through the use of a sophisticated measuring device and support computer technology, accurate arch circumferences were determined for 27 casts that exhibited moderate to severe curves of Spee. Arch circumference differences were subsequently obtained by comparing the measured arch length to a planar projection formed by the center of the incisal tips anteriorly and the distobuccal cusp tips of the second molars distally. A general relationship has been derived for the arch circumference differential, resulting from the elimination of the curve of Spee, versus the severity of the curve. The arch circumference reduction is considerably less than that found by earlier investigators, implying that the incisor protrusion often associated with leveling the curve of Spee is not primarily due to the aforementioned differential, but rather more directly due to the mechanics used in leveling the curve of Spee.

  12. Testing Romanian seed sources of Norway spruce (Picea abies: results on growth traits and survival at age 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Budeanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits and survival rate were evaluated in two field trialsconsisting of 33 provenances (seed stands spread across the entire natural distribution range of Norway spruce in Romania. Total tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH and survival rate were measured at 30 years after planting. Both growth and adaptation traits show substantial genetic variation among the tested seed stands. The amplitude of variation depends markedly on trait and testing site. This fact suggests that the best performing seed stands for growth and adaptation traits at each testing site can be selected. Two groups of valuable populations from Romanian Carpathians - the Northern and Western part (Apuseni Mountains - were identified. Survival rate was negatively correlated with growth traits, the average values in the two field trials were 68% and 70%. By analyzing growth and adaptation traits together with stem and wood qualitative traits, the best performing populations will be considered as tested seed sourcesand the forest reproductive material they can provide will be recommended for use in the regions of provenance where the two field trials are located.

  13. Mammographic Density Reduction as a Prognostic Marker for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Results Using a Joint Longitudinal-Survival Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Crowther, Michael J; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have linked reductions in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis to an improved prognosis. These studies focused on short-term change, using a 2-stage process, treating estimated change as a fixed covariate in a survival model. We propose the use of a joint longitudinal-survival model. This enables us to model long-term trends in density while accounting for dropout as well as for measurement error. We studied the change in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis and its association with prognosis (measured by cause-specific mortality), overall and with respect to hormone replacement therapy and tamoxifen treatment. We included 1,740 women aged 50-74 years, diagnosed with breast cancer in Sweden during 1993-1995, with follow-up until 2008. They had a total of 6,317 mammographic density measures available from the first 5 years of follow-up, including baseline measures. We found that the impact of the withdrawal of hormone replacement therapy on density reduction was larger than that of tamoxifen treatment. Unlike previous studies, we found that there was an association between density reduction and survival, both for tamoxifen-treated women and women who were not treated with tamoxifen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  14. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study.

  15. Risk of Early Onset Substance Use among Students with and without Mild Academic Disabilities: Results of a Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepper, Annelies; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Monshouwer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the age of onset of substance use among 536 students with mild academic disabilities and 906 students without academic disabilities, and the extent to which emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems explain the differences between these two groups. Using discrete-time survival analysis, the results of this study showed…

  16. Adjuvant Sunitinib for High-risk Renal Cell Carcinoma After Nephrectomy: Subgroup Analyses and Updated Overall Survival Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motzer, Robert J; Ravaud, Alain; Patard, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    the relationship between baseline factors and DFS, pattern of recurrence, and updated overall survival (OS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data for 615 patients randomized to sunitinib (n=309) or placebo (n=306) in the S-TRAC trial. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subgroup DFS analyses...... by baseline risk factors were conducted using a Cox proportional hazards model. Baseline risk factors included: modified University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system criteria, age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), weight, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio...

  17. Bevacizumab reduces the growth rate constants of renal carcinomas: a novel algorithm suggests early discontinuation of bevacizumab resulted in a lack of survival advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2008-10-01

    To hasten cancer drug development, new paradigms are needed to assess therapeutic efficacy. In a randomized phase II study in patients with renal cell carcinoma, 10 microg/kg bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) administered every 2 weeks resulted in a longer time to progression but a statistically significant difference in overall survival could not be demonstrated. We developed a novel two-phase equation to estimate concomitant rates of tumor regression (regression rate constant) and tumor growth (growth rate constant). This method allows us to assess therapeutic efficacy using tumor measurements gathered while a patient receives therapy in a clinical trial. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas were significantly lower during therapy with 10 microg/kg bevacizumab than those of tumors in patients receiving placebo. In all cohorts the tumor growth rate constants were correlated with survival. That a survival advantage was not demonstrated with bevacizumab appears to have been a result of early discontinuation of bevacizumab. Single-agent bevacizumab significantly affects the growth rate constants of renal cell carcinoma. Extrapolating from the growth rate constants, we conclude that the failure to demonstrate a survival advantage in the original study was a result of premature discontinuation of bevacizumab. The mathematical model described herein has applications to many tumor types and should aid in evaluating the relative efficacies of different therapies. Quantitating tumor growth rate constants using data gathered while patients are enrolled in a clinical trial, as in the present study, may streamline and assist in drug development.

  18. The role of early magnetic resonance imaging in predicting survival on bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma: Results from a prospective clinical trial (CABARET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kathryn M; Phal, Pramit M; Fitt, Greg; Goh, Christine; Nowak, Anna K; Rosenthal, Mark A; Simes, John; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Sawkins, Kate; Cher, Lawrence M; Hovey, Elizabeth J; Wheeler, Helen

    2017-09-15

    Bevacizumab has been associated with prolonged progression-free survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma; however, not all derive a benefit. An early indicator of efficacy or futility may allow early discontinuation for nonresponders. This study prospectively assessed the role of early magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) and its correlation with subsequent routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and survival. Patients were part of a randomized phase 2 clinical trial (CABARET) comparing bevacizumab with bevacizumab plus carboplatin for recurrent glioblastoma. eMRI was conducted after 4 weeks in the trial (after 2 treatments with bevacizumab [10 mg/kg every 2 weeks]). The results were compared with the results of the subsequent 8-week MRI standard. For 119 of 122 patients, eMRI was available, and 111 had subsequent MRI for comparison. Thirty-six (30%) had an early radiological response, and 17 (14%) had progressive disease. The concordance between eMRI and 8-week MRI was moderate (κ = 0.56), with most providing the same result (n = 79 [71%]). There was strong evidence that progression-free survival and overall survival were predicted by the eMRI response (both P values < .001). The median survival was 8.6 months for an eMRI response, 6.6 months for stable disease, and 3.7 months for progressive disease; the hazard ratio (progressive disease vs stable disease) was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.0). Landmark analyses showed that eMRI progression was a strong predictor of mortality independent of other potential baseline predictors. In this study, early progression on MRI appears to be a robust marker of a poor prognosis for patients on bevacizumab. Cancer 2017;123:3576-82. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Breast Milk from Smokers Contains Less Cholesterol and Protein and Smaller Size of Apolipoprotein A-I Resulting in Lower Zebrafish Embryo Survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Suk-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    To determine the quality of breast milk (BM), we compared the functions of BM from ex-smokers and nonsmokers. We analyzed the contents of lipids, glucose, and protein in BM from ex-smokers (10 cigarettes/day for 13 ± 3 years) as well as infant formula. Nonsmokers' BM showed 2.4- and 1.4-fold higher cholesterol and protein contents, respectively, than BM from smokers. Infant formula contained almost no cholesterol, but did show remarkably higher glucose and triglyceride levels than BM. Microinjection of BM (50 nL) from nonsmokers and smokers into zebrafish embryos resulted in 59% and 44% survival, respectively, whereas formula injection resulted in 31% survival. The higher cholesterol and protein contents of BM were directly correlated with higher embryo survivability, suggesting that cholesterol content is directly and critically associated with growth of neonate infants. Smokers' BM contained smaller-sized apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) (24.4 ± 0.2 kDa) than BM from nonsmokers (26.7 ± 0.4 kDa), suggesting that putative modification and cleavage occurred in apoA-I. BM containing higher molecular weight apoA-I resulted in higher embryo survivability. Smoking before pregnancy can affect the composition and quality of BM, resulting in almost complete loss of cholesterol and protein, especially lactoferrin, lactalbumin, and apoA-I, accompanied by proteolytic degradation. These impairment effects of BM are associated with elevation of oxidative stress and lower embryo survivability.

  20. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34+ and CD34− populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14+ cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion. Conversely, the yield was increased upon co-culture of CD34+ cells with CD14+ cells (full contact or transwell assays) or CD34+ cells re-constituted in conditioned medium from CD14+ cells. In particular, CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes/macrophages enhanced erythroblast outgrowth from CD34+ cells. No effect of CD14+ cells on erythroblasts themselves was observed. However, 2 days of co-culturing CD34+ and CD14+ cells increased CD34+ cell numbers and colony-forming units 5-fold. Proliferation assays suggested that CD14+ cells sustain CD34+ cell survival but not proliferation. These data identify previously unrecognized erythroid and non-erythroid CD34− and CD34+ populations in blood that contribute to the erythroid yield. A flow cytometry panel containing CD34/CD36 can be used to follow specific stages during CD34+ differentiation to erythroblasts. We have shown modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival by CD14+ cells present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells which can also be found near specific hematopoietic niches in the bone marrow. PMID:26294724

  1. Type-2 Fuzzy Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesah, R. S.; Zakaria, R.; Wahab, A. F.; Talibe, A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses about the formulation of type-2 fuzzy curve model. The generalization is carried out due to the existence of complex uncertainty which cannot be represented with classical type-1 fuzzy set. Hence, type-2 fuzzy set is proposed to define this type of complex uncertainty. Based on the complex uncertainty of data, fuzzy set theory type-2 with fuzzy number type-2 concept is used to represent the data with complex uncertainty. This process re-defines the data as type-2 fuzzy data which is also the result obtained by generalizing type-1 fuzzy data. Therefore, B-spline function is chosen to show the development of type-2 B-spline curve model via generalization. It is then followed by a number of processes, i.e. fuzzification, reduction and defuzzification are defined to model type-2 fuzzy B-spline curve to obtain a crisp type-2 fuzzy curve.

  2. Legendre Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, Roland; Top, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    We show that every elliptic curve over a finite field of odd characteristic whose number of rational points is divisible by 4 is isogenous to an elliptic curve in Legendre form, with the sole exception of a minimal respectively maximal elliptic curve. We also collect some results concerning the

  3. Overall survival and final efficacy and safety results from a Japanese phase II study of axitinib in cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Masatoshi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Kanayama, Hiroomi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Kamei, Yoichi; Fujii, Yosuke; Umeyama, Yoshiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Naito, Seiji; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    In an open-label, multicenter phase II study of Japanese patients with cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma, axitinib showed substantial antitumor activity with an acceptable safety profile. Here, we report overall survival and updated efficacy and safety results. Sixty-four Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma following prior therapy with cytokines were treated with axitinib at a starting dose of 5 mg b.i.d. Following median treatment duration of 14.2 months, median overall survival was 37.3 months (95% CI, 28.6–49.9). The objective response rate, the primary endpoint of the study, was 51.6% (95% CI, 38.7–64.2); the median duration of response, 11.1 months (95% CI, 8.2–13.7); and the median progression-free survival was 11.0 months (95% CI, 9.2–12.0), assessed by the independent review committee. Common treatment-related all-grade adverse events were hypertension (88%), hand-foot syndrome (75%), diarrhea (66%), proteinuria (63%), fatigue (55%) and dysphonia (53%). In an exploratory analysis, median overall survival was found to be significantly longer in patients who had greater decreases in plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 during the first cycle of treatment. In conclusion, the present study showed axitinib to be effective, and toxicities with long-term treatment were generally controllable with axitinib dose modification and/or standard medications in these Japanese patients. Some frequently reported adverse events warrant close monitoring and management. Changes in the plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 may be used as a prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma following axitinib treatment. This study is registered at http://ClinicalTrial.gov (identifier NCT00569946). PMID:25283266

  4. Conditional survival in pediatric malignancies: analysis of data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ann C; Yong, Jian; Dietz, Andrew C; Kreiter, Erin; Yasui, Yutaka; Bleyer, Archie; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Long-term survivors of pediatric cancer are at risk of life-threatening late effects of their cancer. Previous studies have shown excesses in long-term mortality within high-risk groups defined by demographic and treatment characteristics. To investigate conditional survival in a pediatric cancer population, the authors performed an analysis of conditional survival in the original Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database registry. The overall probability of death for patients at 5 years and 10 years after they survived 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since cancer diagnosis and cause-specific death in 10 years for 5-year survivors were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Among patients in the CCSS and SEER cohorts who were alive 5 years after their cancer diagnosis, within each diagnosis group at least 92% were alive in the subsequent 5 years, except for patients with leukemia, of whom only 88% of 5-year survivors remained alive in the subsequent 5 years. The probability of all-cause mortality in the next 10 years among patients who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis was 8.8% in CCSS and 10.6% in SEER, approximately 75% of which was due to neoplasms as the cause of death. The risk of death among survivors of pediatric cancer in 10 years can vary between diagnosis groups by at most 12%, even up to 20 years after diagnosis. This information is clinically significant when counseling patients regarding their conditional survival, particularly when survivors are seen in long-term follow-up. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine/cisplatin and methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin in patients with locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, J T; von der Maase, H; Sengeløv, L

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare long-term survival in patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) or methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin (MVAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Efficacy data from a large....... These results strengthen the role of GC as a standard of care in patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC)....

  6. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  7. Alcohol use at time of injury and survival following traumatic brain injury: results from the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung M; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Yoon, Young-Hee; Dong, Chuanhui

    2012-07-01

    Premised on biological evidence from animal research, recent clinical studies have, for the most part, concluded that elevated blood alcohol concentration levels are independently associated with higher survival or decreased mortality in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to provide some counterevidence to this claim and to further future investigations. Incident data were drawn from the largest U.S. trauma registry, the National Trauma Data Bank, for emergency department admission years 2002-2006. TBI was identified according to the National Trauma Data Bank's definition using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), codes. To eliminate confounding, the exact matching method was used to match alcohol-positive with alcohol-negative incidents on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and facility. Logistic regression compared in-hospital mortality between 44,043 alcohol-positive and 59,817 matched alcohol-negative TBI incidents, with and without causes and intents of TBI and Injury Severity Score as covariates. A sensitivity analysis was performed within a subsample of isolated moderate to severe TBI incidents. Alcohol use at the time of injury was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for TBI. Including varied causes and intents of TBI and Injury Severity Score as potential confounders in the regression model explained away the statistical significance of the seemingly protective effect of alcohol against TBI mortality for all TBIs and for isolated moderate to severe TBIs. The null finding shows that the purported reduction in TBI mortality attributed to positive blood alcohol likely is attributable to residual confounding. Accordingly, the risk of TBI associated with alcohol use should not be overlooked.

  8. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  9. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  10. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  11. Patterns of care and survival outcomes after treatment for uveal melanoma in the post-coms era (2004-2013: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan James Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS established modern treatment recommendations for uveal melanoma. We aim to evaluate patterns of care and survival outcomes in the time after COMS. Material and methods : The retrospective study population includes 2,611 patients in the SEER database treated for uveal melanoma between 2004-2013. Patients stage were T1-4N0M0. Data analyzed included age, clinical stage, tumor size, race, and treatment. Treatments included enucleation (EN and globe preserving therapy (GPT, which consisted of limited surgical resection or ablation (LSRA, external beam radiation (EBRT, or brachytherapy (BT. Patients treated with radiation may receive radiation therapy alone (RTA or radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy (RT+SLT. We evaluated disease specific survival (DSS and overall survival (OS using log-rank statistics, and Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Results : The median follow-up was 44 months. Treatment strategy was EN in 538 (20.6% patients, LSRA in 80 (3.1%, EBRT in 609 (23.3%, and BT in 1,384 (53.0%. 1,876 patients received RTA and 117 received RT+SLT. Enucleation was associated with inferior DSS and OS compared to GPT in multivariate analysis (MVA (p < 0.01. Limited surgical resection or ablation and radiation had similar DSS and OS. Brachytherapy and EBRT had similar DSS and OS. Radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy was associated with improved DSS compared to RTA in UVA (p = 0.03, but not MVA. The 5-year DSS for enucleation, RTA, and RT+SLT were 66.7%, 87.0%, and 94.7% (p < 0.01, respectively. Conclusions : Globe preserving treatments such as limited surgery or radiation are commonly utilized alternatives to enucleation, and resulted in favorable survival outcomes. Additional research is required to compare the outcomes of the various globe preserving treatment strategies.

  12. Which is the Role of Pneumonectomy in the Era of Parenchymal-Sparing Procedures? Early/Long-Term Survival and Functional Results of a Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet-Vendroux, Aurélie; Loi, Mauro; Bobbio, Antonio; Lococo, Filippo; Lupo, Audrey; Ledinot, Pauline; Magdeleinat, Pierre; Roche, Nicolas; Damotte, Diane; Regnard, Jean-François; Alifano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing adoption of parenchymal-sparing procedures, pneumonectomy is still necessary in several pleural and pulmonary (benign or malignant) diseases. We reviewed clinical data of a large cohort of patients treated by pneumonectomy with the aim of better define its impact on early and long-term results. Clinical and pathological characteristics of all consecutive patients treated by pneumonectomy between January 2005 and May 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty- and 90-day mortality, as well as long-term survival was assessed. Factors associated to long-term survival were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Evaluation of quality of life was carried out by a standard questionnaire (SF-12) administrated by phone to patients surviving beyond 1 year. A total of 398 patients (293 men; mean age 61 ± 10.9 years) were operated on in the study period. Indication was malignancy in 380 patients (350 primary lung cancers). Thirty-day mortality was 9 % (right: 12.6 % vs. left: 6.3 %, p = 0.013), significantly correlating with age (p = 0.021), comorbidities (p = 0.034), PS > 1 (p = 0.018), preoperative dyspnea (p = 0.0013), and FEV1 (p = 0.0071). Overall 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 76.6, 46.6, 34.4, and 29.2 %. In case of primary lung cancer, these figures were 76.8, 46.4, 34.5, and 29.7 %. At univariate analysis, a less favorable survival was associated to PS > 1 (p = 0.0078), right side (p = 0.044), occurrence of postoperative complications (p = 0.00079), and T3-4 status (p = 0.013). At multivariate analysis, PS > 1, right side, and occurrence of postoperative complications were identified as independent worse prognostic factors. SF12 physical score was 39.1 ± 9.0 and was correlated to the presence of preoperative symptoms (p = 0.013). Mental score was 50.68 ± 9.63 and was correlated to preoperative FEV1/FVC ratio (p = 0.023) and side of disease (p = 0.023). In current practice, pneumonectomy is still performed for malignancy

  13. The roles of herbal remedies in survival and quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors - results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan-Halley Jane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data exist on survival or health-related quality of life (QOL related to herbal remedy use among long-term breast cancer survivors. The objective of this report is to examine whether herbal remedy use is associated with survival or the health-related QOL of these long-term breast cancer survivors. Methods In 1999-2000, we collected the information of herbal remedy use and QOL during a telephone interview with 371 Los Angeles Non-Hispanic/Hispanic white women who had survived more than 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. QOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were followed for mortality from the baseline interview through 2007. 299 surviving patients completed a second telephone interview on QOL in 2002-2004. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards methods to estimate relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for mortality and applied multivariable linear regression models to compare average SF-36 change scores (follow-up - baseline between herbal remedy users and non-users. Results Fifty-nine percent of participants were herbal remedy users at baseline. The most commonly used herbal remedies were echinacea, herbal teas, and ginko biloba. Herbal remedy use was associated with non-statistically significant increases in the risks for all-cause (44 deaths, RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62-2.64 and breast cancer (33 deaths, RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.72-4.40 mortality. Both herbal remedy users' and non-users' mental component summary scores on the SF-36 increased similarly from the first survey to the second survey (P = 0.16, but herbal remedy users' physical component summary scores decreased more than those of non-users (-5.7 vs. -3.2, P = 0.02. Conclusions Our data provide some evidence that herbal remedy use is associated with poorer survival and a poorer physical component score for health-related QOL among women who have survived breast cancer for at least

  14. Mesothelioma in the United States: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER–Medicare investigation of treatment patterns and overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beebe-Dimmer JL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer,1,2 Jon P Fryzek,3 Cecilia L Yee,1,2 Tapashi B Dalvi,4 David H Garabrant,3 Ann G Schwartz,1,2 Shirish Gadgeel1,2 1Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, 3EpidStat Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, 4AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Introduction: Mesothelioma is a rare malignancy typically associated with exposure to asbestos and poor survival. The purpose of this investigation was to describe mesothelioma patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and overall survival (OS utilizing the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Materials and methods: Patients in this study were diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 with follow-up for survival through December 31, 2010. We examined both patient and tumor characteristics at time of diagnosis and subsequent treatment patterns (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Among patients treated with chemotherapy, we determined chemotherapy regimen and OS by line of therapy. Results: Of the 1,625 patients considered eligible for this investigation, the median age at diagnosis was 78 years. Nearly a third of patients (30% had surgery as part of their treatment and 45% were given chemotherapy. The median OS was 8 months (range 1–69 months. Among chemotherapy patients, the most commonly (67% prescribed regimen for first-line therapy was cisplatin or carboplatin (Ca/Ci combined with pemetrexed (Pe. Among those prescribed Ca/Ci + Pe as first-line therapy, retreatment with Ca/Ci + Pe (28% or treatment with gemcitabine (30% were the most common second-line therapies. Median OS for those receiving first-line chemotherapy was 7 months, and among those receiving second-line therapy median OS was extended an additional 5 months. Conclusion: Irrespective of surgical resection, mesothelioma patients

  15. Second-order advantage obtained from standard addition first-order instrumental data and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Calculation of the feasible bands of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Naimeh; Bahram, Morteza; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2014-03-25

    In order to achieve the second-order advantage, second-order data per sample is usually required, e.g., kinetic-spectrophotometric data. In this study, instead of monitoring the time evolution of spectra (and collecting the kinetic-spectrophotometric data) replicate spectra are used to build a virtual second order data. This data matrix (replicate mode×λ) is rank deficient. Augmentation of these data with standard addition data [or standard sample(s)] will break the rank deficiency, making the quantification of the analyte of interest possible. The MCR-ALS algorithm was applied for the resolution and quantitation of the analyte in both simulated and experimental data sets. In order to evaluate the rotational ambiguity in the retrieved solutions, the MCR-BANDS algorithm was employed. It has been shown that the reliability of the quantitative results significantly depends on the amount of spectral overlap in the spectral region of occurrence of the compound of interest and the remaining constituent(s). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  17. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  18. Severe Obesity Impacts Recurrence-Free Survival of Women with High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Raimond, Emilie; Graesslin, Olivier; Hudry, Delphine; Coutant, Charles; Touboul, Cyril; Bleu, Géraldine; Collinet, Pierre; Darai, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    Studies focusing on the impact of obesity on survival in endometrial cancer (EC) have reported controversial results and few data exist on the impact of obesity on recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of obesity on surgical staging and RFS in EC according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) risk groups. Data of 729 women with EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2000 and December 2012 were abstracted from a multicenter database. RFS distributions according to body mass index (BMI) in each ESMO risk group were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival was evaluated using the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine influence of multiple variables. Distribution of the 729 women with EC according to BMI was BMI obese women in the low-/intermediate-risk groups, but a BMI ≥ 35 was independently correlated to a poorer RFS (hazard ratio 12.5; 95 % confidence interval 3.1-51.3) for women in the high-risk group. Severe obesity negatively impacts RFS in women with high-risk EC, underlining the importance of complete surgical staging and adapted adjuvant therapies in this subgroup of women.

  19. Final overall survival results of phase III GCIG CALYPSO trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin vs paclitaxel and carboplatin in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Marth, C; Largillier, R; Kaern, J; Brown, C; Heywood, M; Bonaventura, T; Vergote, I; Piccirillo, M C; Fossati, R; Gebski, V; Lauraine, E P

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CALYPSO phase III trial compared CD (carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD)) with CP (carboplatin-paclitaxel) in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC). Overall survival (OS) data are now mature. Methods: Women with ROC relapsing >6 months after first- or second-line therapy were randomised to CD or CP for six cycles in this international, open-label, non-inferiority trial. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The OS analysis is presented here. Results: A total of 976 patients were randomised (467 to CD and 509 to CP). With a median follow-up of 49 months, no statistically significant difference was observed between arms in OS (hazard ratio=0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85, 1.16); log-rank P=0.94). Median survival times were 30.7 months (CD) and 33.0 months (CP). No statistically significant difference in OS was observed between arms in predetermined subgroups according to age, body mass index, treatment-free interval, measurable disease, number of lines of prior chemotherapy, or performance status. Post-study cross-over was imbalanced between arms, with a greater proportion of patients randomised to CP receiving post-study PLD (68%) than patients randomised to CD receiving post-study paclitaxel (43% P<0.001). Conclusion: Carboplatin-PLD led to delayed progression and similar OS compared with carboplatin-paclitaxel in platinum-sensitive ROC. PMID:22836511

  20. Down-regulated E-cadherin expression is associated with poor five-year overall survival in bone and soft tissue sarcoma: results of a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    Full Text Available To conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of E-cadherin expression in bone and soft tissue sarcomas.The PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched using terms related to E-cadherin, sarcoma, and prognosis for all articles published in English before March 2014. Pooled effect was calculated from the available data to evaluate the association between negative E-cadherin expression and 5-year overall survival and tumor clinicopathological features in sarcoma patients. Pooled odds ratios (OR and risk ratios (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using a fixed-effects model.Eight studies met the selection criteria and reported on 812 subjects. A total of 496 subjects showed positive E-cadherin expression (59.9%. Negative E-cadherin expression in bone and soft tissue sarcomas was correlated with lower 5-year overall survival (OR = 3.831; 95% CI: 2.246-6.534, and was associated with higher clinical stage (RR = 1.446; 95% CI: 1.030-2.028 and with male sex (RR = 0.678; 95% CI: 0.493-0.933.In the E-cadherin negative group, 5-year overall survival was significantly worse than in the E-cadherin positive group. However, further studies are required to confirm these results.

  1. Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve results in protective conventional ventilation comparable to high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Rossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies comparing high frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome have used low values of positive end-expiratory pressure and identified a need for better recruitment and pulmonary stability with high frequency. OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional and high frequency ventilation using the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve as the determinant of positive end-expiratory pressure to obtain similar levels of recruitment and alveolar stability. METHODS: After lung lavage of adult rabbits and lower inflection point determination, two groups were randomized: conventional (positive end-expiratory pressure = lower inflection point; tidal volume=6 ml/kg and high frequency ventilation (mean airway pressures= lower inflection point +4 cmH2O. Blood gas and hemodynamic data were recorded over 4 h. After sacrifice, protein analysis from lung lavage and histologic evaluation were performed. RESULTS: The oxygenation parameters, protein and histological data were similar, except for the fact that significantly more normal alveoli were observed upon protective ventilation. High frequency ventilation led to lower PaCO2 levels. DISCUSSION: Determination of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve is important for setting the minimum end expiratory pressure needed to keep the airways opened. This is useful when comparing different strategies to treat severe respiratory insufficiency, optimizing conventional ventilation, improving oxygenation and reducing lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve in the ventilation strategies considered in this study resulted in comparable efficacy with regards to oxygenation and hemodynamics, a high PaCO2 level and a lower pH. In addition, a greater number of normal alveoli were found after protective conventional ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. Patterns of care and survival outcomes after treatment for uveal melanoma in the post-coms era (2004-2013): a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuan James; Sein, Julia; Badiyan, Shahed; Schwarz, Julie K; DeWees, Todd; Grigsby, Perry; Rao, Prabakar Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) established modern treatment recommendations for uveal melanoma. We aim to evaluate patterns of care and survival outcomes in the time after COMS. The retrospective study population includes 2,611 patients in the SEER database treated for uveal melanoma between 2004-2013. Patients stage were T1-4N0M0. Data analyzed included age, clinical stage, tumor size, race, and treatment. Treatments included enucleation (EN) and globe preserving therapy (GPT), which consisted of limited surgical resection or ablation (LSRA), external beam radiation (EBRT), or brachytherapy (BT). Patients treated with radiation may receive radiation therapy alone (RTA) or radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy (RT+SLT). We evaluated disease specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) using log-rank statistics, and Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. The median follow-up was 44 months. Treatment strategy was EN in 538 (20.6%) patients, LSRA in 80 (3.1%), EBRT in 609 (23.3%), and BT in 1,384 (53.0%). 1,876 patients received RTA and 117 received RT+SLT. Enucleation was associated with inferior DSS and OS compared to GPT in multivariate analysis (MVA) (p < 0.01). Limited surgical resection or ablation and radiation had similar DSS and OS. Brachytherapy and EBRT had similar DSS and OS. Radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy was associated with improved DSS compared to RTA in UVA (p = 0.03), but not MVA. The 5-year DSS for enucleation, RTA, and RT+SLT were 66.7%, 87.0%, and 94.7% (p < 0.01), respectively. Globe preserving treatments such as limited surgery or radiation are commonly utilized alternatives to enucleation, and resulted in favorable survival outcomes. Additional research is required to compare the outcomes of the various globe preserving treatment strategies.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Modulates miR-106b-5p to Control Cathepsin S Expression Resulting in Higher Pathogen Survival and Poor T-Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of tuberculosis (TB bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, relies on the ability to survive in host cells and escape to immune surveillance and activation. We recently demonstrated that Mtb manipulation of host lysosomal cathepsins in macrophages leads to decreased enzymatic activity and pathogen survival. In addition, while searching for microRNAs (miRNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation during mycobacteria infection of human macrophages, we found that selected miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p were specifically upregulated by pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we show that miR-106b-5p is actively manipulated by Mtb to ensure its survival in macrophages. Using an in silico prediction approach, we identified miR-106b-5p with a potential binding to the 3′-untranslated region of cathepsin S (CtsS mRNA. We demonstrated by luminescence-based methods that miR-106b-5p indeed targets CTSS mRNA resulting in protein translation silencing. Moreover, miR-106b-5p gain-of-function experiments lead to a decreased CtsS expression favoring Mtb intracellular survival. By contrast, miR-106b-5p loss-of-function in infected cells was concomitant with increased CtsS expression, with significant intracellular killing of Mtb and T-cell activation. Modulation of miR-106b-5p did not impact necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy arguing that miR-106b-5p directly targeted CtsS expression as a way for Mtb to avoid exposure to degradative enzymes in the endocytic pathway. Altogether, our data suggest that manipulation of miR-106b-5p as a potential target for host-directed therapy for Mtb infection.

  4. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  5. Survival Rates and Bone and Soft Tissue Level Changes Around One-Piece Dental Implants Placed with a Flapless or Flap Protocol: 8.5-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froum, Stuart J; Khouly, Ismael

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the survival rates and to measure marginal bone changes and peri-implant conditions 8.5 years after placement of one-piece implants with an anodically oxidized surface (AOS). A total of 52 subjects who received a one-piece implant with an AOS using a flapless or flap protocol and completed a previous randomized clinical trial were contacted for a recall visit 8.5 years after implant placement (T8.5). Implant success and survival rates, probing pocket depth (PPD), presence of bleeding on probing (BoP), papilla level, and incidence of complications and peri-implant disease were assessed by a single, blinded examiner. A second blinded examiner evaluated marginal bone level changes. Results for 8.5 years were compared to those at the time of implant placement, implant loading (0.5 year), and 1 and 1.5 years follow-up. The results based on 28 patients who attended the follow-up visit (half had flapless and half a flap protocol) showed a 100% implant survival rate and a 96.4% implant success rate 8.5 years after implant placement using one-piece implants, with no difference in survival and success rates between the flapless and the flap protocol. During the same follow-up period, a significant increase in crestal bone height from 1.5 to 8.5 years was observed. Analysis suggested decreasing mean levels of bone loss with time (P rates of BoP (22.8% vs 17.9%, respectively). Papilla levels increased during the first year after implant loading. However, there was little additional change between 1.5 and 8.5 years. A total of eight fractured porcelain crowns and three crown loosenings were reported. One-piece implants with an AOS showed high survival rates and stable marginal bone and periimplant soft tissue levels regardless of whether a flapless or flap protocol was used.

  6. Uncontrolled non-heartbeating donors (types i-ii) with normothermic recirculation vs. heartbeating donors: evaluation of functional results and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Utrera, N; Medina-Polo, J; Pamplona-Casamayor, M; Passas-Martínez, J B; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; de la Rosa Kehrmann, F; Duarte-Ojeda, J M; Tejido-Sánchez, A; Villacampa Aubá, F; Andrés Belmonte, A

    2015-09-01

    Non-heartbeating donors (NHBD) are an alternative to heartbeating donors (HBD). Our objective was to compare functional results and kidney survival from NHBDs and HBDs. A retrospective study comparing the results of 236 normothermically preserved kidneys from type i and ii type NHBDs with the results of 250 from HBDs that were transplanted in our center between 2005 and 2012. Homogeneity between groups was tested and we evaluated the presence of delayed graft function (DGF) associated with pretransplant variables of the donor and recipient. Both groups show homogeneity in pretransplant characteristics in terms of: age, HLA incompatibilities, and recipient hemodialysis time. Average follow-up time was 33 months (range 0-87) for NHBDs and 38 months (range 0-90) for HBDs. 5.5% of NHBDs showed primary non-function (PNF) vs. 4% of HBDs (P=.42) and 80.9% of DGF vs. 46.8% of HBDs (P<.001). At the end of the follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences in the survival of grafts (92.8% for NHBD vs. 93.6% for HBD, P=.71) and recipients (99.1% NHBD vs. 98.6% HBD, P=.28). Although the DGF percentage was greater for NHBDs, final creatinine as well as graft and recipient survival were similar for both groups. Therefore, in our experience, kidneys from NHBDs have similar results to those from HBDs and are an excellent source of organs for transplantation. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  8. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  9. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  10. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  11. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Dependency and Hyperferritinemia Are Associated with Impaired Survival in Patients Diagnosed with Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Results from the First Polish MDS-PALG Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Mądry, Krzysztof; Machowicz, Rafał; Drozd-Sokołowska, Joanna; Stella-Hołowiecka, Beata; Mital, Andrzej; Obara, Agata; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Sikorska, Anna; Subocz, Edyta; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław W; Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, cytopenias and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Anemia is the most frequent cytopenia diagnosed in patients with MDS. Regular RBC transfusions are the only treatment option for about 40% of patients. Transfusion-dependent patients develop secondary iron overload. The influence of serum ferritin (SF) concentration on survival and acute myeloid leukemia transformation in MDS patients remains controversial. The data for the Central European population is scarce and so far there is no description for Poland. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the relationship of SF concentration with red blood cell transfusion dependency, survival and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. We retrospectively evaluated the data of the 819 MDS patients (58% male; median age 70 years) included in the MDS Registry of the MDS Section of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG). Analyses were performed on 190 patients diagnosed with MDS, maximal 6 months before inclusion to the registry in order to avoid selection bias (a shorter survival of higher risk MDS patients). Patients with hyperferritinemia higher than 1000 ng/L vs. patients with SF concentration lower than 1000 ng/L had a median survival of 320 days vs. 568 days, respectively (p log-rank = 0.014). The following factors were found to significantly worsen survival: RBC-transfusion dependence (p = 0.0033; HR 2.67L), platelet transfusion dependence (p = 0.0071; HR 3.321), hemoglobin concentration lower than 10 g/dL (p = 0.0036; HR 2.97), SF concentration higher than 1000 ng/L (p = 0.0023; HR = 2.94), platelet count lower than 10 G/L (p = 0.0081 HR = 5.04), acute leukemia transformation (p = 0.0081; HR 1.968). Taking into account the relatively low number of patients in previous studies exploring hyperferritinemia in MDS, the results of the first Polish

  12. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  13. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  14. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  15. Duration of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2 positive breast cancer: Overall and disease free survival results from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Niraula, Saroj

    2017-11-01

    One year of trastuzumab, chosen empirically, improves survival of women with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer but also adds substantially to cost, toxicity, and inconvenience. Longer treatment does not improve outcomes, but potentiates toxicities. Medline, Embase, and major conference proceedings were searched systematically in June 2017 to identify Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing one year versus shorter durations of trastuzumab in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Reported Hazard-Ratios (HR) for Overall Survival (OS) and Disease-Free Survival (DFS), and Odds-Ratio for cardiac events, with respective 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) from each study was weighted using generic inverse-variance, and pooled in a meta-analysis. Inter-study heterogeneity and sub-group difference (based on hormone-receptors and node-positivity) were assessed using I 2 , and chi 2 statistics, respectively. Four studies (n=7614) satisfied inclusion criteria. Individual RCTs had diverse pre-specified upper-limits of 95% CI for declaring non-inferiority (range: <1.15 to <1.53). Pooled results demonstrated significant improvements in OS (HR 1.28, p=0.04), and DFS (HR 1.24, p=0.005) with 1year of trastuzumab compared to shorter durations. Absence of multiplicity argument allowed for declaring superiority of 1year of trastuzumab based on our results despite non-inferiority designs of individual trials. No influence on overall effect by duration of trastuzumab in experimental arm (9weeks versus 6months) was noted. No statistical interaction by hormone-receptor status and node-positivity on overall results was noticed [p(sub-group difference) 0.73, and 0.52, respectively]. Odds-Ratio for cardiac events was 2.65 (p<0.001) favoring shorter duration. One year of trastuzumab prolongs overall, and disease-free survivals in women with early-stage HER2 positive breast cancer compared to shorter durations and this should remain as the standard of care. Cardiotoxicity increased

  16. Military medical advances resulting from the conflict in Korea, Part I: Systems advances that enhanced patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    The Korean War started several years after the World War II had ended and no recognition of the threat or preparation was made for this possibility. The military and its medical service had been downsized after World War II and had to quickly ramp up to meet the surprise attack. The war provided the laboratory for trials and experimentation with the new technological developments of the era. The Korean conflict led to numerous advances in medical systems and patient care. The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital came of age, and was instrumental in saving many lives. Helicopters saw their first regular use as flying ambulances to take the injured to definitive care in a timely fashion. The national blood banking program was rapidly geared up and new techniques such as plastic bags for collection and delivery resulted. Body armor was developed that would allow mobility while offering protection and was widely used for the first time. Each of these systems improvements saved the lives of soldiers in combat and were soon to be used in the civilian sector to save and improve lives around the world.

  17. Disparities by race, age, and sex in the improvement of survival for major cancers: Results from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in United States, 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K.; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race and sex remains unclear. OBJECTIVE to quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race and sex in the United States. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data. SETTING Cancer diagnosis data for 1990–2009 and follow-up data to 2010 from nine population-based registries, part of the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. PARTICIPANTS Approximately 1.02 million patients from SEER registries diagnosed with cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990–2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed with any of these cancers during, 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009, compared diagnoses in 1990–1994. RESULTS Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For example, for patients aged 50–64 and diagnosed between 2005–2009, adjusted HRs (95%CI) were 0.57 (0.55–0.60), 0.48 (0.45–0.51), 0.61 (0.57–0.68), and 0.32 (0.30–0.36), for cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, liver and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age group of patients diagnosed during 1990–94. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (aged 75–85) were only 0.88 (0.84–0.82), 0.88 (0.84–0.92), 0.76 (0.69–0.84), and 0.65 (0.61–0.70), for the same four cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95%CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95%CI, 0.73–0.77) and 0.84 (95%CI, 0.81–0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed

  18. Evaluation of the water retention curve of Abidjan Quaternary aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Results: The water retention curve is difficult to measure in situ on large sites like this aquifer. Kovac's modified model to predict the water retention curve is tested. Predicted curves are compared with in situ measurements points. The results show that, overall, the model predicts well the water retention curves.

  19. Effect of radiotherapy on survival of women with locally excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian GW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo-Wei Qian,1,* Xiao-Jian Ni,1,* Zheng Wang,2 Yi-Zhou Jiang,1 Ke-Da Yu,1 Zhi-Ming Shao1 1Department of Breast Surgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center and Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although it has been previously reported that radiotherapy (RT effectively reduced the incidence of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS following breast-conserving surgery (BCS, little is known about the effect of RT on survival of patients with locally excised DCIS. Patients and methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data, we selected 56,968 female DCIS patients treated with BCS between 1998 and 2007. Overall survival (OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS were compared among patients who received RT or no RT using the Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Median follow-up was 91 months. In the multivariable model, patients receiving postoperative RT had better OS than those undergoing BCS alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–0.67, P<0.001. This pattern remained after stratification by estrogen receptor (ER status and age. In contrast, RT delivery was not significantly associated with improved BCSS (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.03, P=0.073. However, after stratifying by the above two variables, RT contributed to better BCSS in ER-negative/borderline patients (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.88, P=0.023 and younger patients (≤50 years old; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.030. Conclusion: Our analysis confirms the beneficial effect of RT on OS in women with locally excised DCIS and reveals the specific protective effect of RT on BCSS in ER-negative/borderline and younger patients. Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy, survival

  20. Bronchial sleeve resection or pneumonectomy for non-small cell lung cancer: a propensity-matched analysis of long-term results, survival and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Saana E M; Rauma, Ville H S; Sihvo, Eero I; Räsänen, Jari V; Ilonen, Ilkka K; Salo, Jarmo A

    2015-10-01

    No randomized studies exist comparing pneumonectomy (PN) and sleeve lobectomy (SL). We evaluated surgical results and long-term quality of life in patients operated on for central non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using either SL or PN. A total of 641 NSCLC patients underwent surgery 2000-2010. SL was performed in 40 (6.2%) and PN in 67 (10.5%). In 2011, all surviving patients were sent a 15D Quality of Life Questionnaire which 83% replied. Propensity-score-matching analysis was utilized to compare the groups. Thirty-two bronchial (18 right/14 left), seven vasculobronchial (3 right/4 left), one right wedge SL, and 18 right and 22 left PN were performed. Preoperatively, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and diffusion capacity did not differ between groups. The perioperative complication rate and pattern were similar, but SL group had less major complications (P<0.027). One perioperative death (2.5%) occurred in SL group and four (6%) in PN. The 90-day mortality rate was 5% (n=2) for SL and 7.5% (n=5) for PN. In the follow-up total cancer recurrence did not differ (P=0.187). Quality of life measured by 15D showed no significant difference in separate dimensions or total score, except tendency to favor SL in moving or breathing. The 5-year survival did not differ between groups (P=0.458), but no deaths were observed in SL group after 5 years. Due to less major operative complications and better long-term survival, we would advocate using SL when feasible, but in patients tolerating PN it should be considered if SL seems not to be oncologically sufficiently radical.

  1. Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoying Rong; Dewei Qi; Guowei He; Jun Yong Zhu; Tim Scott

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity are simulated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The results of migration and rotation of the curved fiber at different Reynolds numbers are reported. The results show that the rotation and migration processes are sensitive to the curvature of the fiber.

  2. A Comparative Study of Defibrillator Leads at a Large-Volume Implanting Hospital: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Todd J; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Patel, Dhimesh

    2015-06-01

    .35% failure rate); none were recalled. Kaplan Meier analysis also showed lead failure occurred sooner in the recalled leads (P=.01). A total of 1493 patients died during the study (mechanism of death was largely unknown). There was a significant increase in mortality in the recalled lead group as compared with non-recalled leads (P=.01), but no significant difference in survival when comparing recalled leads from Medtronic with St. Jude Medical (P=.67). A multivariable Cox regression model revealed younger age, history of percutaneous coronary intervention, baseline rhythm other than atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, combination polyurethane and silicone lead insulation, a second defibrillation coil, and recalled lead status all contributed to lead failure. This study demonstrated a significantly improved lead performance in the Boston Scientific and St. Jude leads as compared with Medtronic leads. Some lead construction variables (insulation and number of coils) also had a significant impact on lead failure, which was independent of the manufacturer. Recalled St. Jude leads performed better than recalled Medtronic leads in our study. Recalled St. Jude leads had no significant difference in lead failure when compared with the other manufacturer's non-recalled leads. Defibrillator recalled lead status was associated with an increased mortality as compared with non-recalled leads. This correlation was independent of the lead manufacturer and clinically significant even when considering known mortality risk factors. These results must be tempered by the largely unknown mechanism of death in these patients.

  3. Family history of colorectal cancer and its impact on survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer: results from NCCTG Trial N0147 (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Knodell, Claire L.; Foster, Nathan R.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Limburg, Paul J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Goldberg, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Family history of colon cancer often portends increased risk of disease development; however, the prognostic significance of family history related to disease and survival outcomes is unclear. Methods To investigate the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients, a prospective cohort of 1,935 patients with resected stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (N0147), comparing the standard of care FOLFOX to FOLFOX with cetuximab, was studied. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire on family history and were followed every 6 months until death or 5 years after randomization. Results We examined the endpoints of disease-free survival (DFS), time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), comparing patients with a positive versus negative family history of colorectal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients with a positive family history were 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78–1.16] for DFS, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76–1.16) for TTR, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74–1.15) for OS (all adjusted P>0.47). A non-significant trend toward improved DFS (P=0.17; adjusted P=0.34) was observed when 2 or more relatives were affected as compared to 0 relatives (multivariate HR: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45–1.15), whereas subjects with histories of 0 or 1 affected relatives had similar DFS (multivariate HR for 1 vs. 0: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81–1.24). Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored. The only significant interaction was for deficient MMR (dMMR) and first-degree relatives with a family history of colorectal cancer (0 vs. 1 vs. 2+ relatives) for a benefit on OS (univariate P=0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for other factors (P=0.029). Conclusions Among patients with stage III resected colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX, a family history of colorectal cancer did not significantly impact DFS

  4. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  5. Moduli of Trigonal Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stankova-Frenkel, Z E

    1997-01-01

    We study the moduli of trigonal curves. We establish the exact upper bound of ${36(g+1)}/(5g+1)$ for the slope of trigonal fibrations. Here, the slope of any fibration $X\\to B$ of stable curves with smooth general member is the ratio Hodge class $\\lambda$ on the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ to the base $B$. We associate to a trigonal family $X$ a canonical rank two vector bundle $V$, and show that for Bogomolov-semistable $V$ the slope satisfies the stronger inequality ${\\delta_B}/{\\lambda_B}\\leq 7+{6}/{g}$. We further describe the rational Picard group of the {trigonal} locus $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$ in the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ of genus $g$ curves. In the even genus case, we interpret the above Bogomolov semistability condition in terms of the so-called Maroni divisor in $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$.

  6. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  7. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhao

    Full Text Available Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444 was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT. This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival.

  8. Earthworm survival and behavior results from a Clark Fork River Superfund site: Grant-Kohrs Ranch N.H.S., Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.R.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the boundaries of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, have exceeded those typically found in uncontaminated soils. Upstream mining activities along the Clark Fork River in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, have produced substantial quantities of mine waste which have been deposited throughout the watershed. Releases and re-releases of these contaminated substances continue to occur, and appear to be preventing the germination and establishment of critical riparian plant species and depressing soil microbe activity. Slickens, bare spots devoid of all vegetation, occur frequently in the floodplain along the Clark Fork River. This research investigates the toxicity of slicken soils using a series of earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei) survival and behavior tests. In dilution tests, earthworm survival was reduced significantly in as little as 12.5% slicken soil. Results from earthworm behavior tests currently being conducted using non-lethal slicken soil dilutions will also be presented.

  9. The sales learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  10. Dose Effects of Ion Beam Exposure on Deinococcus Radiodurans: Survival and Dose Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dao-jun; Wu, Li-fang; Wu, Li-jun; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2001-02-01

    To explore the survival and dose response of organism for different radiation sources is of great importance in the research of radiobiology. In this study, the survival-dose response of Deinococcus radiodurans (E.coli, as the control) for ultra-violet (UV), γ-rays radiation and ion beam exposure was investigated. The shoulder type of survival curves were found for both UV and γ-ray ionizing radiation, but the saddle type of survival curves were shown for H+, N+(20keV and 30keV) and Ar+ beam exposure. This dose effect of the survival initially decreased with the increase in dose and then increased in the high dose range and finally decreased again in the higher dose range. Our experimental results suggest that D. radiodurans, which is considerably radio-resistant to UV and x-ray and γ-ray ionizing radiation, do not resist ion beam exposure.

  11. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  12. Using the Hilbert curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, John

    2004-04-01

    The aim is to compute random samples from the posterior probability distribution for some object, modelled as a mixture distribution with a variable number of component "atoms", usually having relatively few attributes. We use a space-filling curve (specifically the Hilbert curve) to parameterise an atom's attributes by a single number, This simplifies the geometry, and we describe seven "engines" (LifeStory1&2, GuidedWalk, Leapfrog1&2, Chameleon1&2) for driving a MCMC exploration program. A binary variant of slice sampling underlies the engines.

  13. Algebraic curves and one-dimensional fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Fedor

    2002-01-01

    Algebraic curves have many special properties that make their study particularly rewarding. As a result, curves provide a natural introduction to algebraic geometry. In this book, the authors also bring out aspects of curves that are unique to them and emphasize connections with algebra. This text covers the essential topics in the geometry of algebraic curves, such as line and vector bundles, the Riemann-Roch Theorem, divisors, coherent sheaves, and zeroth and first cohomology groups. The authors make a point of using concrete examples and explicit methods to ensure that the style is clear an

  14. On enumeration of Hilbert-like curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrek, Jan; Y Grosberg, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We present an analytical method to explicitly enumerate all self-similar space-filling curves similar to Hilbert curve, and find their number grows with length L as {{Z}L}∼ {{1.35699}L}. This presents a first step in the exact characterization of the crumpled globule ensemble relevant for dense topologically constrained polymer matter and DNA folding. Moreover, this result gives a stringent lower bound on the number of Hamiltonian walks on a simple cubic lattice. Additionally, we compute the exact number of crumpled curves with arbitrary endpoints, and the closed crumpled curves on a 4× 4× 4 cube.

  15. Disparities by Race, Age, and Sex in the Improvement of Survival for Major Cancers: Results From the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program in the United States, 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race, and sex remains unclear. To quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race, and sex in the United States. Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data from 1990 to 2010, from 1.02 million patients who had been diagnosed as having cancer of the colon or rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990 to 2009 and who were included in 1 of 9 population-based registries of the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed as having any of these cancers during 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, and 2005 to 2009, compared with those diagnosed in 1990 to 1994. Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon or rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For patients aged 50 to 64 years and diagnosed from 2005 to 2009, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.55-0.60), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.45-0.51), 0.61 (95% CI, 0.57-0.69), and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.30-0.36), for cancer of the colon or rectum, breast, liver, and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age groups of patients diagnosed during 1990 to 1994. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (those 75-85 years old) were only 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.84), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61-0.70), for the same 4 cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.77) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed between 2005 and 2009, compared with the same

  16. Does mycorrhizal inoculation benefit plant survival, plant development and small-scale soil fixation? Results from a perennial eco-engineering field experiment in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Grimm, Maria; Graf, Frank; Baumhauer, Roland; Gärtner, Holger

    2015-04-01

    aggregate stabilization relative to the non-inoculated site but resulted in a significantly higher aggregate stability compared to the control and the non-inoculated site at the end of the third growing season. (ii) Plant survival was significantly improved by the inoculation. Fine-root development was stimulated but not immediately. At the end of the third growing season, root length density tended to be higher and mean root diameter was significantly increased at the mycorrhizal treated site. (iii) Analyses on plant performance of Alnus and Salix demonstrated that the inoculated saplings achieved significantly higher survival rates. There was no treatment effect on plant growth properties except in 2010, where plant height and main stem diameter of Alnus was increased at the mycorrhizal treated site. The estimated total biomass of Alnus and Salix was higher at the mycorrhizal treated site. (iv) There was a positive correlation between root length density and aggregate stability, whereas roots effects tested in greenhouse/laboratory and the presented field experiment. However, the application of a commercial mycorrhizal inoculum in eco-engineering measures is a beneficial promoter to mitigate slope instability and surface erosion but needs to be tested at other sites. The contribution is mainly based on Bast (2014) and was funded by the Wolfermann Nägeli Stiftung Zürich and the Swiss Federal Office for Environment (BAFU No.: 09.0027.PJ/I211-3446). Bast, A. (2014): Mycorrhizal inoculation as a promoter for sustainable eco-engineering measures in steep alpine environments? Results of a three-year field experiment in the Arieschbach catchment, Fideris, eastern Swiss Alps. PhD Thesis. University of Berne: 149pp.

  17. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif.j.khan@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rafique, Raza [Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Zafar, Waleed [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Jamshed, Arif [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhao, Yao [Rutgers University School of Business, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  18. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  19. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  20. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  2. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    painting and reading. Unlike most others he dislikes computers. Figure 1. Ritabrata Munshi. Introd uction. In the first part of the article (Resonance, Vol. 4, No.9 ) we proved the Jordan sepa.ration theorem which says that a simple closed curve in E2 separates it into at least two components. In this concluding part after some ...

  3. Graphing Polar Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  4. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  5. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  6. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  7. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  8. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  9. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  10. Improved Survival With Radiation Therapy in Stage I-II Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew W., E-mail: matthew.jackson@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G.; Jones, Bernard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kamdar, Manali [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is an uncommon lymphoma for which trials are few with small patient numbers. The role of radiation therapy (RT) after standard immunochemotherapy for early-stage disease has never been studied prospectively. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to evaluate PMBCL and the impact of RT on outcomes. Methods and Materials: We queried the SEER database for patients with stage I-II PMBCL diagnosed from 2001 to 2011. Retrievable data included age, gender, race (white/nonwhite), stage, extranodal disease, year of diagnosis, and use of RT as a component of definitive therapy. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) estimates, univariate (UVA) log-rank and multivariate (MVA) Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Results: Two hundred fifty patients with stage I-II disease were identified, with a median follow-up time of 39 months (range, 3-125 months). The median age was 36 years (range, 18-89 years); 61% were female; 76% were white; 45% had stage I disease, 60% had extranodal disease, and 55% were given RT. The 5-year OS for the entire cohort was 86%. On UVA, OS was improved with RT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.446, P=.029) and decreased in association with nonwhite race (HR 2.70, P=.006). The 5-year OS was 79% (no RT) and 90% (RT). On MVA, white race and RT remained significantly associated with improved OS (P=.007 and .018, respectively). The use of RT decreased over time: 61% for the 67 patients whose disease was diagnosed from 2001 to 2005 and 53% in the 138 patients treated from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: This retrospective population-based analysis is the largest PMBCL dataset to date and demonstrates a significant survival benefit associated with RT. Nearly half of patients treated in the United States do not receive RT, and its use appears to be declining. In the absence of phase 3 data, the use of RT should be strongly considered for its survival benefit in early

  11. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Atif J; Rafique, Raza; Zafar, Waleed; Shah, Chirag; Haffty, Bruce G; Vicini, Frank; Jamshed, Arif; Zhao, Yao

    2017-02-01

    Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term survival among older patients with myocardial infarction differs by educational level: results from the MONICA/KORA myocardial infarction registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic disparities in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been found in many countries. However, population-based results from Germany are lacking so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the association between educational status and long-term mortality in a population-based sample of people with AMI. Methods The sample consisted of 2,575 men and 844 women, aged 28–74 years, hospitalized with a first-time AMI between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, recruited from a population-based AMI registry. Patients were followed up until December 2011. Data on education, risk factors and co-morbidities were collected by individual interviews; data on clinical characteristics and AMI treatment by chart review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between educational status and long-term mortality. Results During follow-up, 19.1% of the patients with poor education died compared with 13.1% with higher education. After adjustment for covariates, no effect of education on mortality was found for the total sample and for patients aged below 65 years. In older people, however, low education level was significantly associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.98, p = 0.023). Stratified analyses showed that women older than 64 years with poor education were significantly more likely to die than women in the same age group with higher education (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02–2.41, p = 0.039). Conclusions Elderly, poorly educated patients with AMI, and particularly women, have poorer long-term survival than their better educated peers. Further research is required to illuminate the reasons for this finding. PMID:24552463

  13. Spectral Curves of Operators with Elliptic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chris Eilbeck

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer-algebra aided method is carried out, for determining geometric objects associated to differential operators that satisfy the elliptic ansatz. This results in examples of Lamé curves with double reduction and in the explicit reduction of the theta function of a Halphen curve.

  14. Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cardoulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ  n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.

  15. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  16. [Survival in renal transplant recipients in Colombia, 2008-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Arango, Karime; Beltrán-Durán, Mauricio; Arias-Murillo, Yazmín; Prieto, Franklyn; Robayo, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    The Red Nacional de Donación y Trasplantes of the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud reported that in 2014, 1,059 organ transplants were performed, of which 761 were kidney transplants, and 643 (84.5%) of these were from cadaveric organ donors. To describe the socio-demographic characteristics of patients who received renal transplants, as well as their outcomes in terms of survival. National kidney transplants were analyzed through an observational retrospective cohort study. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The survival curves by sex, age, type of donor, type of insurance, and time on the waiting list were compared utilizing the log rank hypothesis and a Cox regression. A total of 3,980 patients were included, of whom 338 died according to the Registry of Affiliates. The median follow-up time was 49 months, overall survival was 6.35 years (95% CI: 6.30 to 6.40), the one-year survival following transplantation was 97.2%, the three-year survival, 93.2%, and the five-year survival, 90.8%. The survival rate was higher in patients under 50 years of age, receptors of living donor transplants, and with less than six months on the waiting list. The results obtained serve as the basis for future studies with strict monitoring of survival among kidney transplant recipients in Colombia.

  17. Single-Fraction Versus 5-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Limited Survival Prognoses: Results of a Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Šegedin, Barbara; Perpar, Ana [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Conde, Antonio J.; Garcia, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Consorcio Hospital Provincial de Castellón, Castellón (Spain); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacicedo, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: This study compared single-fraction to multi-fraction short-course radiation therapy (RT) for symptomatic metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients with limited survival prognosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients who received 8 Gy × 1 fraction were matched (1:1) to 121 patients treated with 4 Gy × 5 fractions for 10 factors including age, sex, performance status, primary tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, interval between tumor diagnosis and MESCC, pre-RT ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits prior to RT. Endpoints included in-field repeated RT (reRT) for MESCC, overall survival (OS), and impact of RT on motor function. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for in-field reRT for MESCC and OS and with the ordered-logit model for effect of RT on motor function. Results: Doses of 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 4 Gy × 5 fractions were not significantly different with respect to the need for in-field reRT for MESCC (P=.11) at 6 months (18% vs 9%, respectively) and 12 months (30% vs 22%, respectively). The RT regimen also had no significant impact on OS (P=.65) and post-RT motor function (P=.21). OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively, after 8 Gy × 1 fraction versus 25% and 13%, respectively, after 4 Gy × 5 fractions. Improvement of motor function was observed in 17% of patients after 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 23% after 4 Gy × 5 fractions, respectively. Conclusions: There were no significant differences with respect to need for in-field reRT for MESCC, OS, and motor function by dose fractionation regimen. Thus, 8 Gy × 1 fraction may be a reasonable option for patients with survival prognosis of a few months.

  18. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Miles, David; Vukelja, Svetislava; Moiseyenko, Vladimir; Ayoub, Jean-Pierre; Cervantes, Guadalupe; Fumoleau, Pierre; Jones, Stephen; Lui, Wing-Yiu; Mauriac, Louis; Twelves, Chris; Van Hazel, Guy; Verma, Shailendra; Leonard, Robert

    2002-06-15

    Docetaxel and capecitabine, a tumor-activated oral fluoropyrimidine, show high single-agent efficacy in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and synergy in preclinical studies. This international phase III trial compared efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine/docetaxel therapy with single-agent docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated patients with MBC. Patients were randomized to 21-day cycles of oral capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1 to 14 plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 (n = 255) or to docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) on day 1 (n = 256). Capecitabine/docetaxel resulted in significantly superior efficacy in time to disease progression (TTP) (hazard ratio, 0.652; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.545 to 0.780; P =.0001; median, 6.1 v 4.2 months), overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.775; 95% CI, 0.634 to 0.947; P =.0126; median, 14.5 v 11.5 months), and objective tumor response rate (42% v 30%, P =.006) compared with docetaxel. Gastrointestinal side effects and hand-foot syndrome were more common with combination therapy, whereas myalgia, arthralgia, and neutropenic fever/sepsis were more common with single-agent docetaxel. More grade 3 adverse events occurred with combination therapy (71% v 49%, respectively), whereas grade 4 events were slightly more common with docetaxel (31% v 25% with combination). The significantly superior TTP and survival achieved with the addition of capecitabine to docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), with the manageable toxicity profile, indicate that this combination provides clear benefits over single-agent docetaxel 100 mg/m(2). Docetaxel/capecitabine therapy is an important treatment option for women with anthracycline-pretreated MBC.

  19. Long-term survival among older patients with myocardial infarction differs by educational level: results from the MONICA/KORA myocardial infarction registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Inge; Meisinger, Christa; Golüke, Hildegard; Heier, Margit; Kuch, Bernhard; Peters, Annette; Quinones, Philip A; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Mielck, Andreas

    2014-02-19

    Socioeconomic disparities in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been found in many countries. However, population-based results from Germany are lacking so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the association between educational status and long-term mortality in a population-based sample of people with AMI. The sample consisted of 2,575 men and 844 women, aged 28-74 years, hospitalized with a first-time AMI between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, recruited from a population-based AMI registry. Patients were followed up until December 2011. Data on education, risk factors and co-morbidities were collected by individual interviews; data on clinical characteristics and AMI treatment by chart review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between educational status and long-term mortality. During follow-up, 19.1% of the patients with poor education died compared with 13.1% with higher education. After adjustment for covariates, no effect of education on mortality was found for the total sample and for patients aged below 65 years. In older people, however, low education level was significantly associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.98, p = 0.023). Stratified analyses showed that women older than 64 years with poor education were significantly more likely to die than women in the same age group with higher education (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02-2.41, p = 0.039). Elderly, poorly educated patients with AMI, and particularly women, have poorer long-term survival than their better educated peers. Further research is required to illuminate the reasons for this finding.

  20. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  2. Carbon Lorenz curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Loek [Utrecht University School of Economics (USE), Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram. (author)

  3. Improvement of cam performance curve using B-Spline curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriman, A. B.; Syafiq, A. K. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Z. M.; Wan, K.; Daud, R.; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.; Azizan, Azizi

    2017-10-01

    The mathematical modeling approach has been applied in order to increase the cam profile curve of Modenas CT115s performance by using MATLAB software as a programmed to calculate the mechanism of the cam profile. Cam is used inside the engine to push the rocker and consequently open and close the engine valve that allows the fuel-air mixture to be entered during the combustion process. The B-Spline curve was implemented in order to enhance the current performance of the cam profile. The calculation had been done by using manual and MATLAB software. The results obtained has been analyzed and interpreted in plotting the graphs. From the analysis, the profile that had the highest displacement factor, sk produced higher cam curve performance of the engine. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of the displacement factor, sk can increase the engine performance as the valve displace further in which allow higher fuel-air mixture entrance during the combustion process.

  4. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  5. Closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, K S

    1993-01-01

    This lecture reviews recent research on closed timelike curves (CTCS), including these questions: Do the laws of physics prevent CTCs from ever forming in classical spacetime? If so, by what physical mechanism are C'I‘Cs prevented? Can the laws of physics be adapted in any reasonable way to a. spacetime that contains C'I‘Cs, or do they necessarily give nonsense? What insights into quantum gravity can one gain by asking questions such as these?

  6. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  7. Wolff: straight not curved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, A

    2017-11-01

    It was 140 years ago that George von Meyer presented his anatomical diagrams of human bones to a meeting in Zurich. There he was told by Prof. Karl Culmann that the trabecular lines shown within the diagram of the upper femur closely resembled those lines of force which Culmann had determined with Graphic Statics to be passing through a curved, loaded Fairbairn crane. This drew the attention of Julius Wolff, who used this as the basis for his 'Trajectorial theory' which was widely accepted and, to date, has been the underlying basis for all biomechanical investigations of this region. Following Wolff and Culmann, the upper femur is considered to be a curved structure and is investigated as such. Unfortunately, this concept is wrong. The upper femur is not curved but is angular. It is formed by the junction of two straight bones, the femoral neck and the femoral shaft, as may be simply seen as the neck/shaft angle constructed on the antero-posterior radiograph of any normal femur. The internal trabecular bone forms only part of the load bearing structure of the femoral neck. The configuration of this trabecular substance in this region suggests that it is related specifically to the force present during flexion and extension movements of the hip joint. This being so, combined with the delayed timing of the appearance of the trabecular columns, it must be questioned as to whether the remodelling of the upper femur is in response to one or to two distinct forces.

  8. A digital algorithm for characteristic film curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, J.; Cash, T.; Craven, P.; Edwards, T.

    1975-01-01

    The task of establishing a film calibration scheme for magnitude studies of Skylab photographic images of Comet Kohoutek is examined. Since the data are recorded in terms of film density and have to be used in terms of exposure, the conversion from density to exposure is critical. In this film calibration scheme, the hardware deals with the data sources, recording medium, and data conversion to a computer compatible program, whereas the software deals with signal to noise enhancement, stepwedge calibration curve and leads to modeling of the film characteristic curves. A mathematical model of the characteristic curve is obtained using a modified version of Efroymson's (1960) stepwise multiple linear regression algorithm, which gives log exposure as a function of density. The difference in the calibration curves from pre- and postflight exposures is well accounted for in the model as a result of sensitive statistical tests. The characteristic curve modeling program requires about 4K of core and is executed in about 3 min.

  9. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  10. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Glioblastoma Multiforme-Assessing Risk and Survival: Results of a Large Retrospective Study and Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barami, Kaveh; Lyon, Liisa; Conell, Carol

    2017-10-01

    Despite studies showing a positive correlation between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), a modifiable risk factor, and various cancer types, the link remains controversial in the setting of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this study, we assessed whether DM2 and DM2-associated factors were associated with a higher risk of developing GBM and also determined if DM2 affected the survival of patients with GBM. A cross-sectional case-control study of 1144 GBM cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 of which 969 patients matched for age and sex was performed to assess the association between DM2, hyperlipidemia, and obesity with the incidence of GBM. A longitudinal study of the patients with GBM was also performed to assess the association between the effect of DM2 and GBM survival. No association was seen between DM2, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and GBM. DM2 was associated with poorer survival in univariate testing yet not in multivariate testing. Diabetic patients with GBM had good glycemic control. Older patients had poorer survival and overall survival improved over years of study. DM2, hyperlipidemia, and obesity were not associated with increased risk of developing GBM, and DM2 itself does not seem to influence survival among these patients. This finding might be related to good glycemic control in this cohort. Survey of the literature consistently shows that hyperglycemia is associated with poorer survival. Our findings suggest that rather than the presence or absence of DM2, glycemic control seems to be more important in the survival of patients with GBM, which warrants future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperorthogonal well-folded Hilbert curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Bos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available R-trees can be used to store and query sets of point data in two or more dimensions. An easy way to construct and maintain R-trees for two-dimensional points, due to Kamel and Faloutsos, is to keep the points in the order in which they appear along the Hilbert curve. The R-tree will then store bounding boxes of points along contiguous sections of the curve, and the efficiency of the R-tree depends on the size of the bounding boxes---smaller is better. Since there are many different ways to generalize the Hilbert curve to higher dimensions, this raises the question which generalization results in the smallest bounding boxes. Familiar methods, such as the one by Butz, can result in curve sections whose bounding boxes are a factor $\\Omega(2^{d/2}$ larger than the volume traversed by that section of the curve. Most of the volume bounded by such bounding boxes would not contain any data points. In this paper we present a new way of generalizing Hilbert's curve to higher dimensions, which results in much tighter bounding boxes: they have at most 4 times the volume of the part of the curve covered, independent of the number of dimensions. Moreover, we prove that a factor 4 is asymptotically optimal.

  12. Plant Survival and Mortality during Drought Can be Mediated by Co-occurring Species' Physiological and Morphological Traits: Results from a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X.; Mackay, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions among co-occurring species are mediated by plant physiology, morphology and environment. Without proper mechanisms to account for these factors, it remains difficult to predict plant mortality/survival under changing climate. A plant ecophysiological model, TREES, was extended to incorporate co-occurring species' belowground interaction for water. We used it to examine the interaction between two commonly co-occurring species during drought experiment, pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma), with contrasting physiological traits (vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water potential regulation). TREES was parameterized and validated using field-measured plant physiological traits. The root architecture (depth, profile, and root area to leaf area ratio) of juniper was adjusted to see how root morphology could affect the survival/mortality of its neighboring pine under both ambient and drought conditions. Drought suppressed plant water and carbon uptake, as well increased the average percentage loss of conductivity (PLC). Pine had 59% reduction in water uptake, 48% reduction in carbon uptake, and 38% increase in PLC, while juniper had 56% reduction in water uptake, 50% reduction in carbon and 29% increase in PLC, suggesting different vulnerability to drought as mediated by plant physiological traits. Variations in juniper root architecture further mediated drought stress on pine, from negative to positive. Different juniper root architecture caused variations in response of pine over drought (water uptake reduction ranged 0% ~63%, carbon uptake reduction ranged 0% ~ 70%, and PLC increase ranged 2% ~ 91%). Deeper or more uniformly distributed roots of juniper could effectively mitigate stress experienced by pine. In addition, the total water and carbon uptake tended to increase as the ratio of root area to leaf area increased while PLC showed non-monotonic response, suggesting the potential trade-off between maximizing resource uptake and

  13. High Expression of DARPP-32 in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated With Liver Metastases and Predicts Survival for Dukes A and B Patients: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopljar, Mario; Patrlj, Leonardo; Korolija-Marinic, Dragan; Horzic, Matija; Cupurdija, Kristijan; Bakota, Bore

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prognostic significance of Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated neuronal Phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32) expression in primary colorectal cancer. The study material consisted of clinical and histopathological data of 100 patients operated for colorectal cancer between 1994 and 1997. For immunohistochemical analysis, specific rabbit antibodies for DARPP-32 were used and the percentage of stained tumor cells was calculated under gross magnification (400 times) on a sample of 500 tumor cells. DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor was significantly greater in patients with distant metastases compared to patients with no distant metastases (p=0.002). In multivariate regression analysis, DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor was a significant predictor of distant metastases. With a cut-off point of 76.5%, DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor significantly influenced both overall and disease free survival, especially for Dukes A and B patients (p=0.037). The results of this study indicate that DARPP-32 may be a potential marker of worse prognosis and a valuable tool for managing further adjuvant treatment in patients with stages Dukes A and B colorectal cancer.

  14. Prognostic factors for remission of and survival in acquired hemophilia A (AHA): results from the GTH-AH 01/2010 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Andreas; Klamroth, Robert; Scharf, Rüdiger E; Trappe, Ralf U; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Gottstein, Saskia; Geisen, Ulrich; Schenk, Joachim; Scholz, Ute; Schilling, Kristina; Neumeister, Peter; Miesbach, Wolfgang; Manner, Daniela; Greil, Richard; von Auer, Charis; Krause, Manuela; Leimkühler, Klaus; Kalus, Ulrich; Blumtritt, Jan-Malte; Werwitzke, Sonja; Budde, Eva; Koch, Armin; Knöbl, Paul

    2015-02-12

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII). Immunosuppressive treatment (IST) results in remission of disease in 60% to 80% of patients over a period of days to months. IST is associated with frequent adverse events, including infections as a leading cause of death. Predictors of time to remission could help guide IST intensity but have not been established. We analyzed prognostic factors in 102 prospectively enrolled patients treated with a uniform IST protocol. Partial remission (PR; defined as no active bleeding, FVIII restored >50 IU/dL, hemostatic treatment stopped >24 hours) was achieved by 83% of patients after a median of 31 days (range 7-362). Patients with baseline FVIII <1 IU/dL achieved PR less often and later (77%, 43 days) than patients with ≥1 IU/dL (89%, 24 days). After adjustment for other baseline characteristics, low FVIII remained associated with a lower rate of PR (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.81, P < .01). In contrast, PR achieved on steroids alone within ≤21 days was more common in patients with FVIII ≥1 IU/dL and inhibitor concentration <20 BU/mL (odds ratio 11.2, P < .0001). Low FVIII was also associated with a lower rate of complete remission and decreased survival. In conclusion, presenting FVIII and inhibitor concentration are potentially useful to tailor IST in AHA. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  16. "Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, M.; Biswal, B.

    2011-12-01

    The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

  17. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. The second part studies the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. This new edition provides many advancements, including more figures and exercises, and-as a new feature-a good number of so

  18. First Results of the Expedition to the Highest Lake on Earth: Studying a Martian Paleolake in Bolivia and the Survival Strategies Developed by Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; McKay, C. P.; Friedmann, I.; Diaz, D. Chong; Demergasso, C.; Kisse, K.; Grigorszky, I.; Friedmann, R. Ocampo; Murbach, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 16th and November 9th 2002, the first NASA Ames DDF Licancabur multidisciplinary expedition initiated the investigation of the biology and environment for life in the highest lake on Earth located at the summit of the Licancabur volcano (6017 m/20,056 ft) at the boundary of Chile and Bolivia. The low oxygen, low atmospheric pressure, high-UV radiation, average temperature, volcano-tectonic and hydrothermal environment make the site a close analog to Martian paleolakes 3.5 billion years ago. The overall goal of the project is to understand through a series of high altitude scientific expeditions what strategies life is using to defend itself against killer-level UV radiation and environmental extreme conditions at this altitude. Several other lakes are located at 4300 m at the foot of the Licancabur volcano (hereafter named laguna Blanca and Laguna Verde). They were also investigated using identical experiments and methods as for the summit lake in order to compare the results and better understand the evolution of survival strategies at transitioning elevations. The lagunas are geothermally heated and many springs provide water at various temperatures. Sources of heat are also suspected for the summit lake as its surface water temperature was measured during the successful ascent at +6 C in a -9 C ambient crater environment (with a wind chill factor of -25 C with a wind blowing almost constantly). Results of this project are expected to provide critical keys to help searching and identifying potential sites for life (extant/extinct) on Mars and developing instruments, experiments and technologies for future missions.

  19. The impact of personalized medicine on survival: comparisons of results in metastatic breast, colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Antonio; Torri, Valter; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Porcu, Luca; Galetta, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Breast, colorectal and lung cancers represent the three most incident forms of cancer worldwide. Among these three "big killers", lung cancer is considered the one with the worst prognosis due to its high mortality even in early stages. Due to their more favorable prognosis, breast and colorectal cancers might appear to have benefited from major advances. Most oncologists who are faced with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) find the reported results very frustrating when compared with those for metastatic breast (MBC) and colorectal cancers (MCRC). The aim of this analysis was to quantify and compare the relative magnitude of overall survival (OS) improvements in the first-line approaches in metastatic NSCLC, MBC and MCRC through the analysis of the main landmark meta-analyses and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of commercially available drugs. Five items were considered and analyzed for each cancer. Moreover we evaluated the real clinical impact of the results reported by each item on the entire population; for each "big killer" an overall hazard ratio (HR) was estimated: 0.88 (95%(+) CI: 0.72-1.07) for MBC, 0.94 (95%(+) CI: 0.82-1.07) for MCRC, and about 0.80 (95%(+) CI: 0.73-0.90) for advanced NSCLC. We showed that, in the last decades, these three tumors had important and constant OS improvements reached step by step. The relative magnitude of OS improvement seems higher in metastatic NSCLC than MBC and MCRC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chilling curves for Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) embryos stored at -8°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Taís da S; Streit, Danilo Pedro; Fornari, Darci Carlos; de Oliveira, Diego; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; Romagosa, Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the effect of different slow chilling curves on the storage of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) embryos submitted to chilling at -8°C. Embryos at the blastopore closure stage were divided into two groups: G1 - embryos exposed to cryoprotectant solution containing methanol (10%) and sucrose (0.5 M), treated as follows: (T1) taken directly from room temperature to the refrigerator without being submitted to the curve; (T2) chilling curve of 0.5°C/min; and (T3) chilling curve of 1°C/min; and G2 - the cryoprotectant solution alone was submitted to these same temperatures, receiving the embryos only after temperature had decreased, corresponding to treatments T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Treatments were kept at -8°C for a period of 6 h. Embryo development was evaluated for each treatment, with six replicates in an entirely randomized design. Survival among embryos not submitted to refrigeration was 94.3 ± 8.05%. Percentage of total larvae (TL) and addled eggs (AE) did not differ statistically between the groups, although percentage of swimming larvae (SL) exhibited higher values in G1 for the 1°C/min curve. Furthermore, when comparing the three chilling curves, a decrease of 1°C/min resulted in the highest TL percentage (90.85%), followed by the 0.5°C/min curve (78.52%). Thus, the use of 1°C/min chilling curves is recommended for P. mesopotamicus embryos stored for 6 h at -8°C.

  1. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  2. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  3. Tetranectin positive expression in tumour tissue leads to longer survival in Danish women with ovarian cancer. Results from the 'Malova' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Rask, Lene; Høgdall, Claus K

    2015-01-01

    of the disease. Using tissue arrays we analysed the expression levels in tissues from 166 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) and 592 women with ovarian cancer (OC). A panel of three antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry: a polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies. Serum TN was measured using......The primary objective of this study was to analyse Tetranectin (TN) expression in tumour tissues and TN serum concentration in 758 women with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate, whether TN tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis...... the polyclonal antibody A-371. Univariate survival analyses stratified for chemotherapy showed that positive tissue TN as demonstrated by the polyclonal antibody indicated a significantly longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0001) as well as cancer specific survival (CSS) (p

  4. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, L C M; Lezirovitz, K; Zanatta, D B; Strauss, B E; Mingroni-Netto, R C; Oiticica, J; Haddad, L A; Bento, R F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350 g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4) received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4) received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  5. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4 received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4 received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  6. Residual disease detected by flow cytometry is an independent predictor of survival in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia; results of the NOPHO-AML 2004 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierens, Anne; Bjørklund, Elizabeth; Siitonen, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Early response after induction is a prognostic factor for disease outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Residual disease (RD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) was performed at day 15 and before consolidation therapy in 101 patients enrolled in the Nordic Society...... of Paediatric Haemato-Oncology AML 2004 study. A multicentre laboratory approach to RD analysis was used. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was significantly different in patients with and without RD at both time points, using a 0·1% RD cut-off level. RD-negative and -positive patients after...

  7. Gain Estimation of Doubly Curved Reflector Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Schejbal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple formula of approximate gain estimation is verified for the doubly curved reflector antenna. Numerical simulations using physical optics and experimental results of the shaped-beam doubly curved reflector antenna are compared with the simple approximation of gain. That approximation could be very valuable for system engineers to accurately estimate antenna gain and coverage pattern and perform EMC calculations (estimations of interferences and susceptibilities even for the operation and out of operation frequency bands of shapedbeam antenna.

  8. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  9. Age and case mix-standardised survival for all cancer patients in Europe 1999–2007: Results of EUROCARE-5, a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baili, Paolo; Di Salvo, Francesca; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Siesling, Sabine; Mallone, Sandra; Santaquilani, Mariano; Micheli, Andrea; Lillini, Roberto; Francisci, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background Overall survival after cancer is frequently used when assessing a health care service’s performance as a whole. It is mainly used by the public, politicians and the media, and is often dismissed by clinicians because of the heterogeneous mix of different cancers, risk factors and

  10. Salivary gland carcinoma : Independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival: Results of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, CHJ; Lubsen, H; Van der Tweel, [No Value; Hilgers, FJM; Eijkenboom, WMH; Marres, HAM; Tjho-Heslinga, RE; de Jong, JMA; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background. We analyzed the records of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors, as diagnosed in centers of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in search of independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival. Methods. In 565

  11. Improved overall survival after implementation of targeted therapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DARENCA) study-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne V.; Donskov, Frede; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractAim To evaluate the implementation of targeted therapy on overall survival (OS) in a complete national cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods All Danish patients with mRCC referred for first line treatment with immunotherapy, TKIs or mTOR-inhibitors between...

  12. Pneumonia, Intake Problems, and Survival Among Nursing Home Residents With Variable Stages of Dementia in the Netherlands: Results From a Prospective Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Gageldonk-Lafeber, A.B. van; Galindo-Garre, F.; Schipper, M.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Steen, J.T. van der

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We explored how pneumonia and intake problems affect survival in nursing home residents in variable stages of dementia. METHODS: In a longitudinal observational study (372 residents) with up to 3.5 years of follow-up, we examined relationships between dementia severity, the development

  13. Clinical response, drug survival and predictors thereof in 432 patients with ankylosing spondylitis switching anti tumor necrosis factor α therapy: Results from the Danish nationwide Danbio registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Østergaard, Mikkel; Krogh, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies and reasons for switching, treatment responses and drug survival in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) switching tumour-necrosis-factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) treatment in routine clinical care. METHODS: AS patients were identified in the Danish nationwide...

  14. Post-diagnosis hemoglobin change associates with overall survival of multiple malignancies - results from a 14-year hospital-based cohort of lung, breast, colorectal, and liver cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shaogui; Lai, Yinzhi; Myers, Ronald E; Li, Bingshan; Palazzo, Juan P; Burkart, Ashlie L; Chen, Guokai; Xing, Jinliang; Yang, Hushan

    2013-07-10

    Anemia refers to low hemoglobin (Hb) level and is a risk factor of cancer patient survival. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recently suggested that post-diagnosis Hb change, regardless of baseline Hb level, indicates the potential presence of anemia. However, there is no epidemiological study evaluating whether Hb change has direct prognostic values for cancer patients at the population level. We identified 6675 patients with a diagnosis of primary lung, breast, colorectal, or liver cancer who visited the Kimmel Cancer Center at the Thomas Jefferson University from 1998 to 2011. All patients had at least two Hb measurements within the first six months after diagnosis. We analyzed the main, dose-dependent, and time-dependent effects of Hb changes on patient survival. Compared to patients with a low Hb change (|∆Hb|≤2.6), those having a |∆Hb|>2.6 exhibited a significantly shorter survival (hazard ratio=1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.31-1.50, P=4.5 × 10(-22), Plog rank=1.6 × 10(-39)). This association remained significant across the four cancer types. Bootstrap resampling validated these findings 100% of the time with P<0.01 in all patients and in patients of individual cancers. The association exhibited an apparent U-shape dose-dependent pattern. Time-dependent modeling demonstrated that the effect of Hb change on the survival of the overall patient population persisted for approximately 4.5 years after diagnosis. Post-diagnosis Hb change associates with the survival of multiple cancers and may have clinical values in tailoring anti-anemia treatments. Because Hb level is frequently measured during cancer treatment, Hb changes may be a potentially important variable in building cancer prognosis models.

  15. [(90)Yttrium-DOTA]-TOC response is associated with survival benefit in iodine-refractory thyroid cancer: long-term results of a phase 2 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Fabienne; Muller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Rasch, Helmut; Rochlitz, Christoph; Oertli, Daniel; Maecke, Helmut R; Muller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2009-05-15

    The authors aimed to explore the efficacy of (90)Yttrium-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid [(90)Y-DOTA]-Tyr(3)-octreotide (TOC) in advanced iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. In a phase 2 trial, the authors investigated biochemical response (assessed by serum thyroglobulin levels), survival, and the long-term safety profile of systemic [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. Adverse events were assessed according to the National Cancer Institute criteria. Survival analyses were performed by using multiple regression models. A total of 24 patients were enrolled. A median cumulative activity of 13.0 GBq (range, 1.7-30.3 GBq) was administered. Response was found in 7 (29.2%) patients. Eight (33.3%) patients developed hematologic toxicity grade 1-3, and 4 (16.7%) patients developed renal toxicity grade 1-4. The median survival was 33.4 months (range, 3.6-126.8 months) from time of diagnosis and 16.8 months (range, 1.8-99.1 months) from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. Response to treatment was associated with longer survival from time of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.92; P = .04) and from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94; P = .04). The visual grade of scintigraphic tumor uptake was not associated with treatment response (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.26-3.14; P = 1.00). Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer was associated with longer survival. Upcoming trials should aim to increase the number of treatment cycles.

  16. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van; Godthelp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  17. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W.; Godthelp, J

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  18. Radioprotective effect of chlorpromazine on the survival of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, R.K.; Chandra, D. [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Dalhi (India). School of Life Sciences

    2000-05-01

    Importance of radiomodification by phenothiazines like chlorpromazine (CPZ) in improving the radiation therapy of cancer has recently been suggested. To achieve a greater application and wide acceptance, the radioprotective potential of CPZ is examined in terms of survival of animals. Swiss albino mice were administered CPZ intraperitonially and irradiated with different doses of g-rays at the dose rate of 1.38 Gy/min. The death profile, median survival time and temporal survival pattern was determined. Administration of CPZ prior to irradiation resulted in decrease of death rate, enhancement of median survival time and significant delay in early decline in survival of animals. Radioprotective ability of CPZ was clearly visible from the temporal survival pattern. CPZ shifted the survival curves towards the right side. The protective action of CPZ against radiation effect was reversed in presence of ferrous (Fe2+) ions and on the other hand, the protective effect of CPZ was enhanced considerably in presence of ferric (Fe3+) ions. CPZ provided considerable protection to mice irradiated with g-rays. Radioprotective effectiveness of CPZ could be attributed to multiple mechanisms of action. The enhanced radioprotection in presence of Fe3+ ions and radiosensitization in presence of Fe2+ ions by CPZ were an important observations and probably be ascribed to the altered redox activity of Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions by CPZ or vice-versa. Since, CPZ is in regular chemical use, these findings might be significant for the improvement radiation therapy of cancer. (author)

  19. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  20. Avoiding radical surgery improves early survival in elderly patients with rectal cancer, demonstrating complete clinical response after neoadjuvant therapy: results of a decision-analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fraser McLean; Rao, Christopher; Oliva Perez, Rodrigo; Bujko, Krzysztof; Athanasiou, Thanos; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Faiz, Omar

    2015-02-01

    In elderly and comorbid patients with rectal cancer, radical surgery is associated with significant perioperative mortality. Data suggest that a watch-and-wait approach where a complete clinical response is obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy might be oncologically safe. This study aimed to determine whether patient age and comorbidity should influence surgeon and patient decision making where a complete clinical response is obtained. Decision-analytic modeling consisting of a decision tree and Markov chain simulation was used. Modeled outcome parameters were elicited both from comprehensive literature review and from a national patient outcomes database. Outcomes for 3 patient cohorts treated with neoadjuvant therapy were modeled after either surgery or watch and wait. Patients included 60-year-old and 80-year-old men with mild comorbidities (Charlson score 3). Absolute survival, disease-free survival, and quality-adjusted life years were measured. The model found that absolute survival was similar in 60-year-old patients but was significantly improved in fit and comorbid 80-year-old patients at 1 year after treatment where watch and wait was implemented instead of radical surgery, with a survival advantage of 10.1% (95% CI, 7.9-12.6) and 13.5% (95% CI, 10.2-16.9). At all of the other time points, absolute survival was equivalent for both techniques. There were no short- or long-term differences among any patient groups managed either by radical surgery or watch and wait in terms of either disease-free survival or quality-adjusted life years. Oncologic data for the watch-and-wait approach used for this study is derived from only a small number of studies pertaining to a highly selected group of patients. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate derived from the United Kingdom population-based study might be lower in other countries or individual institutions. This study suggests competing effects of oncologic and surgical risk when using watch

  1. Significant survival advantage of high pulmonary vein index and the presence of native pulmonary artery in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries: results from preoperative computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Cen, Jianzheng; Zhuang, Jian; Zhong, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Jiahua; Liang, Changhong; Huang, Meiping

    2017-08-01

    The prognosis of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA-VSD-MAPCAs) after surgery shows substantial clinical heterogeneity and predictors for outcomes are lacking. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of preoperative cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) for survival in patients with PA-VSD-MAPCAs. We retrospectively analysed PA-VSD-MAPCA patients with preoperative CTA who underwent both right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and MAPCA unifocalization ( n  = 24) or pulmonary artery rehabilitation ( n  = 28). The end-point was overall survival. Prognostic values of CTA were assessed using Cox univariate and multivariate analyses. The significant threshold of independent parameters was calculated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. During a median follow-up of 1145 days, a total of 13 deaths were observed. Multivariate analysis identified a high pulmonary vein index (PVI) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.28; P  advantage in PA-VSD-MAPCA patients. A PVI ≥438 mm 2 /m 2 may be a reliable positive prognosticator that could improve the decision-making strategy for PA-VSD-MAPCA patients.

  2. Beneficial impact of multidisciplinary team management on the survival in different stages of oral cavity cancer patients: results of a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Shih-Ting; Huang, Kuang-Hua; Liu, Shih-An

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and survival of oral cavity cancer patients using a nationwide database in Taiwan. A nationwide cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2008. The follow-up end point was 2010. Claims data of oral cavity cancer patients were retrieved from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Secondary data were obtained from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Among 19,766 newly diagnosed oral cavity cancer patients, we identified 16,991 patients who underwent treatment between 2004 and 2008 for further analyses. Overall survival was compared between patients who received MDT management (n=3324) and those who did not (n=13,367). Hazard ratios (HR) of death in patients with MDT management were also analyzed. Patients with MDT management had a lower risk of death when compared with that of patients without MDT management (HR: 0.94, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.89-1.00; P=0.032). The effect of MDT management on survival was stronger for male patients than for female patients (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-1.00; P=0.040 versus HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.75-1.27; P=0.866). In addition, the effect of MDT management was strong among patients with a Charlson Comorbidity Index between 4 and 6, in those without coexisting catastrophic illness/injury, and in patients with stage IV diseases. Survival rates in oral cavity cancer patients with MDT management appeared to be marginally better than those of patients without MDT management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender and survival in patients with heart failure: interactions with diabetes and aetiology. Results from the MAGGIC individual patient meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Doughty, Robert N; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian A; Earle, Nikki; Tribouilloy, Christophe; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; Køber, Lars; Berry, Colin; Squire, Iain

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender and survival of patients with heart failure, using data from both randomized trials and observational studies, and the relative contribution of age, left ventricular systolic function, aetiology, and diabetes to differences in prognosis between men and women. Data from 31 studies (41 949 patients; 28 052 men, 13 897 women) from the Meta-Analysis Global Group In Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC) individual patient meta-analysis were used. We performed survival analysis to assess the association of gender with mortality, adjusting for predictors of mortality, including age, reduced or preserved ejection fraction (EF), and ischaemic or non-ischaemic aetiology. Women were older [70.5 ( standard deviation 12.1) vs. 65.6 (standard deviation 11.6) years], more likely to have a history of hypertension (49.9% vs. 40.0%), and less likely to have a history of ischaemic heart disease (46.3% vs. 58.7%) and reduced EF (62.6% vs. 81.6%) compared with men. During 3 years follow-up, 3521 (25%) women and 7232 (26%) men died. After adjustment, male gender was an independent predictor of mortality, and the better prognosis associated with female gender was more marked in patients with heart failure of non-ischaemic, compared with ischaemic, aetiology (P-value for interaction = 0.03) and in patients without, compared with those with, diabetes (P-value for interaction <0.0001). This large, individual patient data meta-analysis has demonstrated that survival is better for women with heart failure compared with men, irrespective of EF. This survival benefit is slightly more marked in non-ischaemic heart failure but is attenuated by concomitant diabetes.

  4. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin, with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maase, Hans von der; Sengeløv, Lisa; Roberts, James T.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare long-term survival in patients with locally advanced       or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium treated       with gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC) or       methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin (MVAC). PATIENTS AND       METHODS: Efficacy data...... in patients with locally advanced or       metastatic TCC...

  5. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  6. The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene Lopez; Christensen, Palle Mark; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials. SETTING: A systematic literature review of all statin trials that presented all-cause survival curves for treated and untreated. INTERVENTION: Statin treatment compared to placebo. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The average...... postponement of death as represented by the area between the survival curves. RESULTS: 6 studies for primary prevention and 5 for secondary prevention with a follow-up between 2.0 and 6.1 years were identified. Death was postponed between -5 and 19 days in primary prevention trials and between -10 and 27 days...... in secondary prevention trials. The median postponement of death for primary and secondary prevention trials were 3.2 and 4.1 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Statin treatment results in a surprisingly small average gain in overall survival within the trials' running time. For patients whose life expectancy...

  7. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  8. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  9. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  10. Association between smoking at diagnosis and cause-specific survival in patients with rectal cancer: Results from a population-based analysis of 10,794 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; McDevitt, Joseph; Brown, Christopher; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Comber, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Currently, the 5-year survival rate for rectal cancer remains at associations between smoking and survival in rectal cancer; however, the evidence is inconsistent, and most of these studies were relatively small. In a large population-based cohort study, we investigated whether smoking at diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival in rectal cancer and whether the association varies by sex, age, or treatment. Rectal cancers (ICD10 C19-20) diagnosed between 1994 and 2012 were abstracted from the National Cancer Registry Ireland and classified by smoking status at diagnosis. Follow-up was for 5 years or until December 31, 2012. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare cancer-specific death rates in current smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers. Subgroup analyses by age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment were conducted. A total of 10,794 rectal cancers were diagnosed. At diagnosis, 25% were current smokers, 24% were ex-smokers, and 51% were never smokers. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a significantly greater rate of death from cancer (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.24), but ex-smokers did not (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11). The association was slightly stronger in men (current versus never smokers: HR = 1.13, 95% CI, 1.02-1.24) than females (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90-1.23), but the test for interaction was not significant (P = .75). The effect of smoking was not modified by age or receipt of tumor-directed surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Rectal cancer patients who smoke at diagnosis have a statistically significant increased cancer death rate. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is urgently required. Cancer 2017;123:2543-50. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Does a groin node dissection in vulvar cancer affect groin recurrence and overall survival?: Results from a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gien, Lilian T; Sutradhar, Rinku; Thomas, Gillian; Covens, Allan; Elit, Laurie; Rakovitch, Eileen; Fyles, Anthony; Khalifa, Mahmoud A; Liu, Ying; Barbera, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    To determine, in a population-based cohort of vulvar cancer patients, if groin node dissection (GND) decreases the risk of groin recurrence and increases overall survival. This population-based retrospective cohort study includes all cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma identified in a provincial cancer registry from 1998 to 2007. Data collection was completed for all clinical and pathologic factors by chart abstraction. Cumulative incidence functions for recurrence were estimated, accounting for death before recurrence as a competing risk. Multivariable Cox regression models examined the associations between GND and groin recurrence, and overall survival. Clinical and pathologic data were collected for 1109 patients, of which 1038 patients were eligible for GND. 647 patients (62%) had a GND, while 391 patients (38%) did not. Median follow-up was 2.8years. Cumulative incidence plots demonstrate that the risk of death without recurrence was consistently higher than groin recurrence in each year after diagnosis. On multivariate analysis, GND was not significantly associated with decreased groin recurrence (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.58-1.44, p=0.70). The hazard of death was 15% lower for women who received GND (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63-1.16, p=0.32), but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in groin recurrence or overall survival in those with or without GND in this population-based cohort, raising questions whether a subgroup of patients may not benefit from GND. Patients had a higher probability of dying before groin recurrence could occur. Future trial design should consider death as a competing risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Family history of colorectal cancer and its impact on survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer: results from NCCTG Trial N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Knodell, Claire L; Foster, Nathan R; Sargent, Daniel J; Limburg, Paul J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Smyrk, Thomas C; Sinicrope, Frank A; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Goldberg, Richard M; Alberts, Steven R

    2017-02-01

    Family history of colon cancer often portends increased risk of disease development; however, the prognostic significance of family history related to disease and survival outcomes is unclear. To investigate the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients, a prospective cohort of 1,935 patients with resected stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (N0147), comparing the standard of care FOLFOX to FOLFOX with cetuximab, was studied. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire on family history and were followed every 6 months until death or 5 years after randomization. We examined the endpoints of disease-free survival (DFS), time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), comparing patients with a positive versus negative family history of colorectal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients with a positive family history were 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.16] for DFS, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76-1.16) for TTR, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74-1.15) for OS (all adjusted P>0.47). A non-significant trend toward improved DFS (P=0.17; adjusted P=0.34) was observed when 2 or more relatives were affected as compared to 0 relatives (multivariate HR: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45-1.15), whereas subjects with histories of 0 or 1 affected relatives had similar DFS (multivariate HR for 1 vs. 0: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81-1.24). Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored. The only significant interaction was for deficient MMR (dMMR) and first-degree relatives with a family history of colorectal cancer (0 vs. 1 vs. 2+ relatives) for a benefit on OS (univariate P=0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for other factors (P=0.029). Among patients with stage III resected colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX, a family history of colorectal cancer did not significantly impact DFS, TTR, or OS outcomes, with the exception of

  13. A clinical review of treatment outcomes in glioblastoma multiforme - the validation in a non-trial population of the results of a randomised Phase III clinical trial: has a more radical approach improved survival?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, K

    2012-01-03

    Objective: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for up to 60% of all malignant primary brain tumours in adults, occurring in 2-3 cases per 100 000 in Europe and North America. In 2005, a Phase III clinical trial demonstrated a significant improvement in survival over 2, and subsequently, 5 years with the addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) to radical radiotherapy (RT) (Stupp R, Hegi M, van den Bent M, et al. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Lancet Oncol 2009:10:459-66). The aim of this study was to investigate if the demonstrated improved survival in the literature translated to clinical practice.Methods: This was a retrospective study including all patients with histologically proven GBM diagnosed from 1999 to 2008 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. A total of 273 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v18.Results: The median survival for the whole group (n = 273) over the 10-year period was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval 6.7-8.4 months). Overall, the cumulative probability of survival at 1 and 2 years was 31.5 and 9.4%, respectively. In total, 146 patients received radical RT. 103 patients were treated with radical RT and TMZ and 43 patients received radical RT alone. The median survival for patients receiving radical RT with TMZ was 13.4 months (95% CI 10.9-15.8 months) vs 8.8 months for radical RT alone (95% CI 6.9 - 10.7 months, p = 0.006). 2-year survival figures were 21.2 vs 4.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of survival included KPS, RT dose, TMZ and extent of surgery. The strongest predictors of poorer outcome based on the hazard ratio were palliative RT, followed by not receiving TMZ chemotherapy, then KPS <90 and a biopsy only surgical approach.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates

  14. A clinical review of treatment outcomes in glioblastoma multiforme - the validation in a non-trial population of the results of a randomised Phase III clinical trial: has a more radical approach improved survival?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for up to 60% of all malignant primary brain tumours in adults, occurring in 2-3 cases per 100 000 in Europe and North America. In 2005, a Phase III clinical trial demonstrated a significant improvement in survival over 2, and subsequently, 5 years with the addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) to radical radiotherapy (RT) (Stupp R, Hegi M, van den Bent M, et al. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Lancet Oncol 2009:10:459-66). The aim of this study was to investigate if the demonstrated improved survival in the literature translated to clinical practice.Methods: This was a retrospective study including all patients with histologically proven GBM diagnosed from 1999 to 2008 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. A total of 273 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v18.Results: The median survival for the whole group (n = 273) over the 10-year period was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval 6.7-8.4 months). Overall, the cumulative probability of survival at 1 and 2 years was 31.5 and 9.4%, respectively. In total, 146 patients received radical RT. 103 patients were treated with radical RT and TMZ and 43 patients received radical RT alone. The median survival for patients receiving radical RT with TMZ was 13.4 months (95% CI 10.9-15.8 months) vs 8.8 months for radical RT alone (95% CI 6.9 - 10.7 months, p = 0.006). 2-year survival figures were 21.2 vs 4.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of survival included KPS, RT dose, TMZ and extent of surgery. The strongest predictors of poorer outcome based on the hazard ratio were palliative RT, followed by not receiving TMZ chemotherapy, then KPS <90 and a biopsy only surgical approach.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates improved

  15. Logarithmic Spiral - A Splendid Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. In this article some properties of logarithmic spiral have been described along with the ap- pearance as well as applications of the curve in art and nature. After the discovery of anq,lytical geometry by Rene Des- cartes (1596-1650) in 1637, the custom of represent- ing various curves with the help of equations came into.

  16. Space curves, anholonomy and nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vector at each point on the chain can be regarded as defining the local tangent to some space curve [6,7]. Clearly, it is possible to have moving space curves as well. This happens when a vortex filament, a polymer or an elastic rod is in motion. Again, as one changes some parameters in a dynamical system, a given phase.

  17. Pulse Characteristic Curves of Vidicons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    microamps, and in vidicons with heterotransition screens, up to 10 microamps. The use of static modulation characteristic curves of vidicons for the...determination of the pulse beam current can lead to an error > 100%. With the help of pulse-modulation characteristic curves, it is possible to obtain the

  18. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...

  19. Survival rate of one-piece dental implants placed with a flapless or flap protocol--a randomized, controlled study: 12-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froum, Stuart J; Cho, Sang Choon; Elian, Nicholas; Romanos, George; Jalbout, Ziad; Natour, Mazen; Norman, Robert; Neri, Dinah; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical study was to compare the survival of a one-piece anodically oxidized surface implant when placed with a flapless or flap protocol. Bone loss measurements on radiographs and changes in clinical probing depths 1 year post-definitive restoration placement were recorded and compared. Fifty-two of 60 patients (implants) remained in the study at the 1-year follow-up. At the time of final evaluation, no implant was lost in either group. At the time of placement of the definitive restoration, there was a mean mesial and distal bone gain in both groups compared to bone levels present at the time of implant insertion. There were no significant changes in bone levels between placement of the definitive restoration and those recorded 12 months later, and no significant differences in bone levels between the flap or flapless group at 6 or 12 months were noted. No significant differences were seen either in pocket depth or change in pocket depth at 6 and 12 months in the flapless and flap groups. It was therefore concluded that one-piece anodically oxidized surface implants, 1 year post-definitive restoration insertion, had high survival rates (100%) and stable marginal bone and probing depth levels whether a flapless or flap protocol was used for implant insertion.

  20. Comparison of power curve monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Philippe; Masson, Christian; Tahan, Antoine; Torres, David; Pelletier, Francis

    2017-11-01

    Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM) of wind turbines (WT). In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.

  1. Comparison of power curve monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambron Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM of wind turbines (WT. In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.

  2. Contrasting treatment-specific survival using double-robust estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Schaubel, Douglas E

    2012-12-30

    In settings where a randomized trial is infeasible, observational data are frequently used to compare treatment-specific survival. The average causal effect (ACE) can be used to make inference regarding treatment policies on patient populations, and a valid ACE estimator must account for imbalances with respect to treatment-specific covariate distributions. One method through which the ACE on survival can be estimated involves appropriately averaging over Cox-regression-based fitted survival functions. A second available method balances the treatment-specific covariate distributions through inverse probability of treatment weighting and then contrasts weighted nonparametric survival function estimators. Because both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, we propose methods that essentially combine both estimators. The proposed methods are double robust, in the sense that they are consistent if at least one of the two working regression models (i.e., logistic model for treatment and Cox model for death hazard) is correct. The proposed methods involve estimating the ACE with respect to restricted mean survival time, defined as the area under the survival curve up to some prespecified time point. We derive and evaluate asymptotic results through simulation. We apply the proposed methods to estimate the ACE of donation-after-cardiac-death kidney transplantation with the use of data obtained from multiple centers in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Ewan [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade [University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. (orig.)

  4. Implant survival and success rates in patients with risk factors: results from a long-term retrospective study with a 10 to 18 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, F; Papi, P; Mencio, F; Rosella, D; Di Carlo, S; Pompa, G

    2017-02-01

    Risk factors for implant therapy are represented by all general and local conditions that through various mechanisms can increase either short-term and long-term failure risk. The aim of this study is to assess the implant survival and implant success rates with single and multiple risk factors. To address the research purpose, a retrospective cohort study was designed and implemented, including a sample of 225 patients with a total of 871 implants placed. The following risk factors were considered: smoking, bruxism, bone augmentation procedures and the presence of load risk (implants with crown/implant relation > 0.8; angulation > 25°; presence of cantilever). Follow-up ranged from 10 years to 18 years (average follow-up 13.6 years). Failures were subdivided into short-term failures, before the prosthetic phase, and long-term failures, after definitive prosthesis. The success criteria published by Albrektsson and Zarb were adopted. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio, with a statistically significant p-value implants placed, 138 did not meet the success criteria, (success rate 84.16%), sixty (43.47%) were classified as "early failure" and seventy-eight as "late failure" (56.53%). A total of 70 dental implants were removed, with a survival rate of 91.96%. The presence of a single risk factor does not imply a marked increase of failure risk. Among the analyzed factors, the one that proved to be the most dangerous was bruxism, even when presented as the only risk factor. Bruxism with load risk proved to be the most dangerous association (success rate 69.23%) and could be included among the absolute contraindications for implant treatment.

  5. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  6. Critical Factors for Inducing Curved Somatosensory Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Nakano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We are able to make a saccade toward a tactile stimuli to one hand, but trajectories of many saccades curved markedly when the arms were crossed (Groh & Sparks, 2006. However, it remains unknown why some curved and others did not. We therefore examined critical factors for inducing the curved somatosensory saccades. Participants made a saccade as soon as possible from a central fixation point toward a tactile stimulus delivered to one of the two hands, and switched between arms-crossed and arms-uncrossed postures every 6 trials. Trajectories were generally straight when the arms were uncrossed, but all participants made curved saccades when the arms were crossed (12–64%. We found that the probability of curved saccades depended critically on the onset latency: the probability was less than 5% when the latency was larger than 250 ms, but the probability increased up to 70–80% when the onset latency was 160 ms. This relationship was shared across participants. The results suggest that a touch in the arms-crossed posture was always mapped to the wrong hand in the initial phase up to 160 ms, and then remapped to the correct hand during the next 100 ms by some fundamental neural mechanisms shared across participants.

  7. Tuning curves, neuronal variability, and sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Butts

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuning curves are widely used to characterize the responses of sensory neurons to external stimuli, but there is an ongoing debate as to their role in sensory processing. Commonly, it is assumed that a neuron's role is to encode the stimulus at the tuning curve peak, because high firing rates are the neuron's most distinct responses. In contrast, many theoretical and empirical studies have noted that nearby stimuli are most easily discriminated in high-slope regions of the tuning curve. Here, we demonstrate that both intuitions are correct, but that their relative importance depends on the experimental context and the level of variability in the neuronal response. Using three different information-based measures of encoding applied to experimentally measured sensory neurons, we show how the best-encoded stimulus can transition from high-slope to high-firing-rate regions of the tuning curve with increasing noise level. We further show that our results are consistent with recent experimental findings that correlate neuronal sensitivities with perception and behavior. This study illustrates the importance of the noise level in determining the encoding properties of sensory neurons and provides a unified framework for interpreting how the tuning curve and neuronal variability relate to the overall role of the neuron in sensory encoding.

  8. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  9. Multiphasic growth curve analysis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, W J; Grossman, M; Michalska, E

    1987-01-01

    Growth curves of mean body weights were compared to those of individual weights when fitted to data of male and female mice using monophasic (logistic) and triphasic growth functions. Goodness-of-fit was determined by residual variances and Durbin-Watson statistics. These criteria suggest that the triphasic function, with smaller and less correlated residuals, describes the data better than the monophasic function. For the triphasic function, residual variances were higher when fitting individual weights than mean weights. Males had higher residual variances than females. Auto-correlation was negligible when fitting individual weights for males and for females. Parameters of the triphasic function were higher when fitting curves of individual weights than curves of mean weights; differences between curves within sex were small. Parameters were similar for males and females, especially in the first phase of growth. Half asymptotic weights for the second and third phases were higher for males than for females. From these results, it should be clear that using a multiphasic function to describe growth curves in mice provides greater insight for understanding the biology of growth.

  10. Galaxy rotation curves with lognormal density distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, John H.

    2015-04-01

    The lognormal distribution represents the probability of finding randomly distributed particles in a micro canonical ensemble with high entropy. To a first approximation, a modified form of this distribution with a truncated termination may represent an isolated galactic disc, and this disc density distribution model was therefore run to give the best fit to the observational rotation curves for 37 representative galaxies. The resultant curves closely matched the observational data for a wide range of velocity profiles and galaxy types with rising, flat or descending curves in agreement with Verheijen's classification of `R', `F' and `D' type curves, and the corresponding theoretical total disc masses could be fitted to a baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Nine of the galaxies were matched to galaxies with previously published masses, suggesting a mean excess dynamic disc mass of dex 0.61 ± 0.26 over the baryonic masses. Although questionable with regard to other measurements of the shape of disc galaxy gravitational potentials, this model can accommodate a scenario in which the gravitational mass distribution, as measured via the rotation curve, is confined to a thin plane without requiring a dark matter halo or the use of modified Newtonian dynamics.

  11. CYCLING CURVES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAICU Lucian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the cyclic curves that can be considered as some of the most important regarding their applications in science, technique, design, architecture and art. These curves include the following: cycloid, epicycloid, hypocycloid, spherical cycloid and special cases thereof. In the first part of the paper the main curves of cycloids family are presented with their methods of generating and setting parametric equations. In the last part some of cycloid applications are highlighted in different areas of science, technology and art.

  12. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  13. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-11-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal families of a given surface.The classification of minimal families of curves can be reduced to the classification of minimal families which cover weak Del Pezzo surfaces. We classify the minimal families of weak Del Pezzo surfaces and present a table with the number of minimal families of each weak Del Pezzo surface up to Weyl equivalence.As an application of this classification we generalize some results of Schicho. We classify algebraic surfaces that carry a family of conics. We determine the minimal lexicographic degree for the parametrization of a surface that carries at least 2 minimal families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. BEST FIT MODEL FOR YIELD CURVE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravka Aljinović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield curve represents a relationship between the rate of return and maturity of certain securities. A range of activities on the market is determined by the abovementioned relationship; therefore its significance is unquestionable. Besides that, its shape reflects the shape of the economy, i.e. it can predict recession. These are the reasons why it is very important to properly and accurately estimate the yield curve. There are various models evolved for its estimation; however the most used are parametric models: Nelson-Siegel model and Svensson model. In this paper the yield curves are estimated on Croatian financial market, based on weekly data in years 2011 and 2012 both with Nelson-Siegel and Svensson model, and the obtained results are compared.

  15. Remote sensing used for power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...

  16. Characteristic Classes for Curves of Genus One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taelman, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compute the cohomology of the stackM1 over C with coefficients in Z[12 ], and in low degrees with coefficients in Z. Cohomology classes onM1 give rise to characteristic classes, cohomological invariants of families of curves of genus one. We prove a number of vanishing results for those

  17. S-shaped learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M J

    2014-04-01

    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish words and one with Italian words. In both, S-shaped learning curves were observed, which were most obvious if the subjects were not very familiar with the materials and if they were slow learners. With prolonged learning, the S shapes disappeared. Three different mathematical functions are proposed to explain these S-shaped curves. A further analysis clarifies why S-shaped learning curves may go unnoticed in many experiments.

  18. Development of a Summarized Health Index (SHI for use in predicting survival in sea turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Li

    Full Text Available Veterinary care plays an influential role in sea turtle rehabilitation, especially in endangered species. Physiological characteristics, hematological and plasma biochemistry profiles, are useful references for clinical management in animals, especially when animals are during the convalescence period. In this study, these factors associated with sea turtle surviving were analyzed. The blood samples were collected when sea turtles remained alive, and then animals were followed up for surviving status. The results indicated that significantly negative correlation was found between buoyancy disorders (BD and sea turtle surviving (p < 0.05. Furthermore, non-surviving sea turtles had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotranspherase (AST, creatinine kinase (CK, creatinine and uric acid (UA than surviving sea turtles (all p < 0.05. After further analysis by multiple logistic regression model, only factors of BD, creatinine and UA were included in the equation for calculating summarized health index (SHI for each individual. Through evaluation by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, the result indicated that the area under curve was 0.920 ± 0.037, and a cut-off SHI value of 2.5244 showed 80.0% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity in predicting survival. Therefore, the developed SHI could be a useful index to evaluate health status of sea turtles and to improve veterinary care at rehabilitation facilities.

  19. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  20. Active motion on curved surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Sevilla, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of active motion on curved surfaces is presented in terms of a generalization of the Telegrapher's equation. Such generalized equation is explicitly derived as the polar approximation of the hierarchy of equations obtained from the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation of active particles diffusing on curved surfaces. The general solution to the generalized telegrapher's equation is given for a pulse with vanishing current as initial data. Expressions for the probability...

  1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Survival Score (ALS-SS): A simple scoring system for early prediction of patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetta, Christian; Lizio, Andrea; Melazzini, Mario Giovanni; Maestri, Eleonora; Sansone, Valeria A

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were: (1) to identify independent prognostic factors to determine a survival score for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a cohort of patients followed in the NEMO Centre (NEuroMuscular Omnicentre); (2) to replicate results in an independent cohort obtained from the Pooled Resource Open Access ALS Clinical Trial Consortium (PRO-ACT) database. Samples were collected from 428 ALS patients from the NEMO database and 2481 patients from the PRO-ACT database. Study design was a retrospective analysis with clinical and biochemical variables, using univariable and multivariable Cox models of analysis. Results showed that, in multivariable analysis, age at diagnosis, diagnostic delay, ALSFRS-R total score, Body Mass Index, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine level were independently related to survival. These factors were recoded as categorical variables assigning a score from 5 to 15, and the sums of these scores were used to obtain the ALS-Survival Score (ALS-SS). This then allowed to identify three groups having different survival curves. The ALS-SS results were also replicated using data from the PRO-ACT database. In conclusion, considering independent prognostic factors, we were able to give an estimate of survival in our cohort of ALS patients. Whether this ALS-SS may be useful in clinical practice, and potentially in clinical trials, will have to be determined prospectively.

  2. ABO blood groups and pancreatic cancer risk and survival: results from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Campa, Daniele; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Soucek, Pavel; Greenhalf, William; Capurso, Gabriele; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Heller, Anette; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Tim J; Bambi, Franco; Landi, Stefano; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Vodickova, Ludmila; Büchler, Markus W; Bugert, Peter; Vodicka, Pavel; Neoptolemos, John P; Werner, Jens; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Bauer, Andrea S; Giese, Nathalia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-04-01

    There is strong epidemiologic evidence indicating that common genetic variability could be implicated in pancreatic cancer risk and, to date, various loci have been proposed. In particular, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of ABO gene variability and pancreatic cancer risk. In a large multicentric study of 1,028 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and 2,257 controls in the context of the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium, we investigated the suggested association with increased risk for carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determining the A or B allele in comparison with the O allele, which encodes for a non-functional enzyme. Since glycosyltransferase activity, encoded by ABO, is higher for the A1 variant compared with the A2 variant, we investigated the hypothesis that A1 carriers were at an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. In our analysis, carriers of the A1 were indeed at greater risk of developing the disease. In addition, we investigated the possible influence that genetic variability at the ABO locus may have in pancreatic cancer survival, but we observed no effect in our population.

  3. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  4. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  5. Tumor expression of calcium sensing receptor and colorectal cancer survival: Results from the nurses' health study and health professionals follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Masugi, Yohei; Qian, Zhi Rong; Nishihara, Reiko; Liu, Li; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Keum, NaNa; Zhang, Lanjing; Tchrakian, Nairi; Nowak, Jonathan A; Yang, Wanshui; Ma, Yanan; Bowden, Michaela; da Silva, Annacarolina; Wang, Molin; Fuchs, Charles S; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Ng, Kimmie; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Ogino, Shuji; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-12-15

    Although experimental evidence suggests calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) as a tumor-suppressor, the prognostic role of tumor CASR expression in colorectal carcinoma remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher tumor CASR expression might be associated with improved survival among colorectal cancer patients. We evaluated tumor expression levels of CASR by immunohistochemistry in 809 incident colorectal cancer patients within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate multivariable hazard ratio (HR) for the association of tumor CASR expression with colorectal cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. We adjusted for potential confounders including tumor biomarkers such as microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation level, expressions of PTGS2, VDR and CTNNB1 and mutations of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA. There were 240 colorectal cancer-specific deaths and 427 all-cause deaths. The median follow-up of censored patients was 10.8 years (interquartile range: 7.2, 15.1). Compared with patients with no or weak expression of CASR, the multivariable HRs for colorectal cancer-specific mortality were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-1.16] in patients with moderate CASR expression and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.32-0.79) in patients with intense CASR expression (p-trend = 0.003). The corresponding HRs for overall mortality were 0.85 (0.64-1.13) and 0.81 (0.58-1.12), respectively. Higher tumor CASR expression was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer-specific mortality. This finding needs further confirmation and if confirmed, may lead to better understanding of the role of CASR in colorectal cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Effects of coal combustion residues on survival, antioxidant potential, and genotoxicity resulting from full-lifecycle exposure of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmick, Danika M; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Hopkins, William A; Rowe, Christopher L

    2007-02-01

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs), largely derived from coal-fired electrical generation, are rich in numerous trace elements that have the potential to induce sublethal effects including oxidative stress, alterations in antioxidant status and DNA single strand breaks (SSB). CCRs are frequently discharged into natural and man-made aquatic systems. As the effects of CCRs have received relatively little attention in estuarine systems, the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was chosen for this study. Grass shrimp were exposed in the laboratory to CCR-enriched sediments and food over a full life cycle. Survival to metamorphosis was significantly reduced in CCR-exposed larvae (17+/-4 versus 70+/-13% in the controls) but not in the juveniles or adults. The COMET assay, a general but sensitive assay for genotoxicity, was used to quantify DNA SSB in the adults. Total antioxidant potential was examined to assess the overall antioxidant scavenging capacity of CCR-exposed and non-exposed adult grass shrimp. Grass shrimp exposed to CCR significantly accumulated selenium and cadmium compared to unexposed shrimp, although an inverse relationship was seen for mercury accumulation. Chronic CCR exposure caused DNA SSB in hepatopancreas cells, as evidenced by the significantly increased percent tail DNA, tail moment, and tail length as compared to reference shrimp. However, no significant difference was observed in total antioxidant potential. Our findings suggest that genotoxicity may be an important mode of toxicity of CCR, and that DNA SSB may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure and effect of this very common, complex waste stream.

  7. Final overall survival results and effect of prolonged (≥ 1 year) first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy for metastatic breast cancer in the ATHENA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Biganzoli, Laura; Cortes-Funes, Hernan; Thomssen, Christoph; Saracchini, Silvana; Nisenbaum, Bella; Pelaez, Ignacio; Duenne, Anja-Alexandra; Pritchard, Kathleen I

    2011-11-01

    The ATHENA study expanded on the safety and efficacy data derived from first-line trials of bevacizumab combined with standard chemotherapy for locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC). In ATHENA, 2,264 patients received first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy in routine oncology practice. Overall survival (OS) data are now mature; additional analyses from this large data set can provide insights into treatment duration and the effect of prolonged bevacizumab exposure, where data are currently limited. Patients with HER2-negative LR/mBC received first-line bevacizumab with standard chemotherapy until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or physician/patient decision. We performed subgroup analyses on data from patients treated for ≥12 months and those who continued single-agent bevacizumab after stopping chemotherapy. After median follow-up of 20.1 months, median OS was 25.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-26.3 months) in the entire population. Median OS was 30.0 months (95% CI 28.5-32.7 months) in 1,205 patients who continued bevacizumab after discontinuation of chemotherapy and 18.4 months (95% CI 17.2-19.7 months) in 1,058 patients who discontinued bevacizumab before or at the same time as stopping chemotherapy. Bevacizumab treatment was continued for ≥12 months in 473 patients (21%). In most, bevacizumab was administered as monotherapy for extended periods after stopping chemotherapy. In the subgroup of patients treated for ≥12 months, the median time to onset of grade 3-5 adverse events was 5.0 months. There was no evidence that first onset of adverse events of special interest, except for proteinuria, was more common in later than earlier cycles. No relationship was detected between development of hypertension and OS. Findings from these analyses suggest that patients with LR/mBC can receive bevacizumab for prolonged periods without major toxicity or progression of disease. In the absence of progression, continuation of

  8. The Number of Recalled Leads is Highly Predictive of Lead Failure: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Daniel J; Yi, Jinju; Feldman, Alyssa M; Brahmbhatt, Kunal; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Cohen, Todd J

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if implantation of multiple recalled defibrillator leads is associated with an increased risk of lead failure. The authors of the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS") have previously reported a relationship between recalled lead status, lead failure, and patient mortality. This substudy analyzes the relationship in a smaller subset of patients who received more than one recalled lead. The specific effects of having one or more recalled leads have not been previously examined. This study analyzed lead failure and mortality of 3802 patients in PAIDLESS and compared outcomes with respect to the number of recalled leads received. PAIDLESS includes all patients at Winthrop University Hospital who underwent defibrillator lead implantation between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Patients with no recalled ICD leads, one recalled ICD lead, and two recalled ICD leads were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Sidak adjustment method was used to correct for multiple comparisons. All calculations were performed using SAS 9.4. P-values leads implanted during the trial period. There were 2400 leads (59%) in the no recalled leads category, 1620 leads (40%) in the one recalled lead category, and 58 leads (1%) in the two recalled leads category. No patient received more than two recalled leads. Of the leads categorized in the two recalled leads group, 12 experienced lead failures (21%), which was significantly higher (Pleads group (60 failures, 2.5%) and one recalled lead group (81 failures; 5%). Multivariable Cox's regression analysis found a total of six significant predictive variables for lead failure including the number of recalled leads (Pleads group). The number of recalled leads is highly predictive of lead failure. Lead-based multivariable Cox's regression analysis produced a total of six predictive variable categories for lead failure, one of which was the number

  9. Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets.

  10. More Unusual Light Curves from Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    -main-sequence stars ever obtained.In these light curves, Stauffer and collaborators found a set of 23 very low-mass, mid-to-late-type M dwarfs with unusual variability in their light curves. The variability is consistent with the stars rotation period where measured which suggests that whatever causes the dips in the light curve, its orbiting at the same rate as the star spins.Causes of Variability?These plots show how the properties of these 23 stars compare to those of the rest of the stars in their cluster (click for a closer look!). For all but the rotation rate, they are typical. But the stars with scallop-shaped light curves have among the shortest periods in Upper Sco, with somenear the theoretical break-up for stars of their age. [Stauffer et al. 2017]The authors categorize the 23 stars into two main groups.The first group consists of 19 stars with short periods; more than half of them rotate within a factor of two of their predicted breakup period! Many of these show sudden changes in their light-curve morphology, often after a stellar flare. The authors propose that the variability in these light curves might be caused by warm coronal gas clouds that are organized into a structured toroidal shape around the star.The second group consists of the remaining four stars, which have slightly longer periods. The light curves show a single short-duration flux dip with highly variable depth and shape superposed on normal, spotted-star light curves. The authors best guess for these four stars is that there are clouds of dusty debris circling the star, possibly orbiting a close-in planet or resulting from a recent collisional event.Stauffer and collaborators are currently developing more detailed models for these stars based on the possible variability scenarios. The next step, they state, is to determine if the gas in these structures have properties necessary to generate the light-curve features we see.CitationJohn Stauffer et al 2017 AJ 153 152. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa5eb9

  11. Research Waste: How Are Dental Survival Articles Indexed and Reported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Research waste occurs when research is ignored, cannot be found, cannot be used, or is unintentionally repeated. This article aims to investigate how dental survival analyses were indexed and reported, and to discuss whether errors in indexing and writing articles are affecting identification and use of survival articles, contributing to research waste. Articles reporting survival of dental prostheses in humans (also known as time-to-event) were identified by searching 50 dental journals that had the highest Impact Factor in 2008. These journals were hand searched twice (Kappa 0.92), and the articles were assessed by two independent reviewers (Kappa 0.86) to identify dental survival articles ("case" articles, n = 95), likely false positives (active controls, n = 91), and all other true negative articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). This means that the study used a case:control method. Once identified, the different groups of articles were assessed and compared. Allocation of medical subject headings (MeSH) by MEDLINE indexers that related to survival was sought, use of words by authors in the abstract and title that related to survival was identified, and use of words and figures by authors that related to survival in the articles themselves was also sought. Differences were assessed with chi-square and Fisher's Exact statistics. Reporting quality was also assessed. The results were reviewed to discuss their potential impact on research waste. Allocation of survival-related MeSH index terms across the three article groups was inconsistent and inaccurate. Statistical MeSH had not been allocated to 30% of the dental survival "case" articles and had been incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Additionally, information reported by authors in titles and abstracts varied, with only two-thirds of survival "case" articles mentioning survival "statistics" in the abstract. In the articles themselves, time-to-event statistical methods, survival curves, and life

  12. A comparison of the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of major and minor salivary glands versus less common sites within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Xu, Li; Zhao, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Sturgis, Erich M

    2012-08-15

    The scientific literature to date lacks population-based studies on the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of different anatomic sites. The authors identified 5349 patients who had ACC of the major salivary glands (N = 1850), minor salivary glands (N = 2077), breast (N = 696), skin (N = 291), lung and bronchus (N = 203), female genital system (N = 132), and eye and orbit (N = 100) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Differences in demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients were assessed. ACC of the eye and orbit was associated with younger age at presentation (mean age,49.9 years). ACC of the skin or breast tended to present with less aggressive prognostic features, whereas ACC of the lung and bronchus or eye and orbit tended to present with more aggressive prognostic features. In a multivariate survival analysis of patients who presented with localized disease, patients with ACC of the breast (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40) or skin (HR, 0.40) had a significantly lower risk death than patients with ACC of the major salivary glands; whereas patients with ACC of the lung and bronchus (HR, 3.72) or the eye and orbit (HR, 3.67) had a significantly higher risk. For patients who presented with regional disease, the only clear prognostic difference in multivariate analysis was that patients with ACC of skin fared significantly better. The demographics and clinical features of patients with ACC differ by disease site. The current results indicated that site may be an important predictor of survival for patients who present with localized disease but is less important for patients who present with regional disease. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  13. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  14. Elliptic curves a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Susanne; Pethö, Attila

    2003-01-01

    The basics of the theory of elliptic curves should be known to everybody, be he (or she) a mathematician or a computer scientist. Especially everybody concerned with cryptography should know the elements of this theory. The purpose of the present textbook is to give an elementary introduction to elliptic curves. Since this branch of number theory is particularly accessible to computer-assisted calculations, the authors make use of it by approaching the theory under a computational point of view. Specifically, the computer-algebra package SIMATH can be applied on several occasions. However, the book can be read also by those not interested in any computations. Of course, the theory of elliptic curves is very comprehensive and becomes correspondingly sophisticated. That is why the authors made a choice of the topics treated. Topics covered include the determination of torsion groups, computations regarding the Mordell-Weil group, height calculations, S-integral points. The contents is kept as elementary as poss...

  15. Space filling curves in steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfeld, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a new method to increase the reliability of current steganalytic techniques by optimising the sample order. Space filling curves (e.g., Hilbert curve) take advantage of the correlation of adjacent pixels and thus make the detection of steganographic messages with low change densities more reliable. The findings are applicable, but not limited to LSB steganalysis. An experimental comparison of five different sampling paths reveals that recursive principles achieve by far the best performance. All measures, such as mean distance, median autocorrelation, and the ability to detect even tiny modifications show substantial improvements compared to conventional methods. We elaborate the relationship between those parameters and quantify the effectiveness with a large test database of small images, which are usually hard to detect. Apart from quantitative advances, visualisation of steganalytic measures can also gain from the application of reverse space filling curves.

  16. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assirati, J.L.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  17. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  18. Elliptic Curved Component Macro-Programming and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibo; Hu, Junchen; Li, Kaiqiang; Zhang, Shiyu; Liu, Aiju

    2017-10-01

    Most conventional numerical control systems do not have the function of noncircular curve interpolation instruction. Manual programming is extremely challenging, automatic programming by computer-aided manufacturing software is highly sophisticated, and processing parameters cannot be easily modified. Therefore, macro-programs, which possess powerful parametric programming, are applied for the processing of noncircular curved components. The values of arguments were determined using transfer and loop statements (IF and WHILE), and elliptic curved macro-programs were achieved using normal and parameter equations in this study. The elliptic curved components were fitted using micro-sized segments or arcs. The numerical control machining tests verified the validity and viability of the macro-programs, and elliptic curved components were processed. The results indicated that the elliptic curved components processed using macro-programs met the design requirements.

  19. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  20. Holomorphic curves in loop groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, M.A.; Pressley, A.N.

    1988-09-01

    It was observed by Atiyah that there is a correspondence between based gauge equivalence classes of SU/sub n/-instantons over S/sup 4/ of charge d on the one hand, and based holomorphic curves of genus zero in ..cap omega..SU/sub n/ of degree d on the other hand. In this paper we study the parameter space of such holomorphic curves which have the additional property that they lie entirely in the subgroup ..cap omega../sub alg/SU/sub n/ of algebraic loops. We describe a cell decomposition of this parameter space, and compute its complex dimension to be (2n-1)d.

  1. Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Suciu, Stefan; Punt, Cornelis J A

    2007-01-01

    of neutrophils and leukocytes were analyzed together with other known prognostic factors: serum lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, metastatic site, and sex. Two multivariate prognostic factor analyses were carried out in the model: one with leukocyte counts and one with neutrophil counts. RESULTS......: A total of 363 patients were randomly assigned and baseline blood neutrophil and leukocyte counts were available from 316 and 350 patients, respectively. A high neutrophil count (> 7.5 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor for short overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P...... = 0.02), and a high leukocyte count (> 10 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor of both short overall survival (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.0005) and short progression-free survival (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: A high pretreatment count of neutrophils in blood...

  2. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  3. Spacelike and timelike admissible Smarandache curves in pseudo-Galilean space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalifa Saad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study space and timelike admissible Smarandache curves in the pseudo-Galilean space G31. Also, we obtain Smarandache curves of the position vector of space and timelike arbitrary curve with some of its special curves. Finally, we defray and illustrate some examples to confirm our main results.

  4. Visualizing Nonlinear Narratives with Story Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Wook; Bach, Benjamin; Im, Hyejin; Schriber, Sasha; Gross, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present story curves, a visualization technique for exploring and communicating nonlinear narratives in movies. A nonlinear narrative is a storytelling device that portrays events of a story out of chronological order, e.g., in reverse order or going back and forth between past and future events. Many acclaimed movies employ unique narrative patterns which in turn have inspired other movies and contributed to the broader analysis of narrative patterns in movies. However, understanding and communicating nonlinear narratives is a difficult task due to complex temporal disruptions in the order of events as well as no explicit records specifying the actual temporal order of the underlying story. Story curves visualize the nonlinear narrative of a movie by showing the order in which events are told in the movie and comparing them to their actual chronological order, resulting in possibly meandering visual patterns in the curve. We also present Story Explorer, an interactive tool that visualizes a story curve together with complementary information such as characters and settings. Story Explorer further provides a script curation interface that allows users to specify the chronological order of events in movies. We used Story Explorer to analyze 10 popular nonlinear movies and describe the spectrum of narrative patterns that we discovered, including some novel patterns not previously described in the literature. Feedback from experts highlights potential use cases in screenplay writing and analysis, education and film production. A controlled user study shows that users with no expertise are able to understand visual patterns of nonlinear narratives using story curves.

  5. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  6. S-shaped learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish

  7. Managing bias in ROC curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert D.; Webster-Clark, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Two modifications to the standard use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for evaluating virtual screening methods are proposed. The first is to replace the linear plots usually used with semi-logarithmic ones (pROC plots), including when doing "area under the curve" (AUC) calculations. Doing so is a simple way to bias the statistic to favor identification of "hits" early in the recovery curve rather than late. A second suggested modification entails weighting each active based on the size of the lead series to which it belongs. Two weighting schemes are described: arithmetic, in which the weight for each active is inversely proportional to the size of the cluster from which it comes; and harmonic, in which weights are inversely proportional to the rank of each active within its class. Either scheme is able to distinguish biased from unbiased screening statistics, but the harmonically weighted AUC in particular emphasizes the ability to place representatives of each class of active early in the recovery curve.

  8. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  9. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  10. Trends in incidence, survival, and management of uveal melanoma: a population-based study of 7,516 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraraj K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Injoon Lee,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–3 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2St George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort.Methods: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012.Results: A total of 7,516 cases of UM represented 3.2% of all recorded cases of melanoma. The mean age-adjusted incidence was 5.1 per million (95% CI 4.2–6.1 and was higher in males (5.9, CI =4.4–7.6 compared to females (4.5, CI =3.3–5.8, P<0.001. UM occurred most commonly in the sixth decade of life (61.4±15 and among Caucasians (94.7%. A total of 52.3% of cases were reported in the Western US (35.7% in California. The initial diagnoses in 65.2% of cases were by histopathology, followed by clinical diagnosis (18.8% and radiographic imaging (16.0%. The percentage of UM cases managed by surgery alone decreased by 69.4% between the 1973–1977 and 2006–2012 time periods, concomitant with a 62% increase in primary radiotherapy, P<0.001. The UM mean overall and cancer-specific 5-year relative survival rates were 79.8%±5.8% and 76%±5.3%, respectively. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rate (76% remained stable during the study period between 1973 and 2012. The mean survival for patients treated with

  11. Failure pattern and survival after breast conserving therapy. Long-term results of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 89 TM cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, C D; Laurberg, T; Alsner, J

    2016-01-01

    Based on the results from the DBCG 82 trial, breast conserving therapy (BCT) has been implemented as standard in Denmark since 1989, and today constitutes more than 70% of the primary treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the implementation of BCT as a routine procedure in patients treated according...

  12. [Comparison among various software for LMS growth curve fitting methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Wu, Wenhong; Wei, Qiuxia

    2015-03-01

    To explore the methods to realize the growth curve fitting of coefficients of skewness-median-coefficient of variation (LMS) using different software, and to optimize growth curve statistical method for grass-root child and adolescent staffs. Regular physical examination data of head circumference for normal infants aging 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in Baotou City were analyzed. Statistical software such as SAS, R, STATA and SPSS were used to fit the LMS growth curve and the results were evaluated upon the user 's convenience, study circle, user interface, results display forms, software update and maintenance and so on. Growth curve fitting results showed the same calculation outcome and each of statistical software had its own advantages and disadvantages. With all the evaluation aspects in consideration, R software excelled others in LMS growth curve fitting. R software have the advantage over other software in grass roots child and adolescent staff.

  13. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  14. Bezier Curve Modeling for Neutrosophic Data Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Tas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophic set concept is defined with membership, non-membership and indeterminacy degrees. This concept is the solution and representation of the problems with various fields. In this paper, a geometric model is introduced for Neutrosophic data problem for the first time. This model is based on neutrosophic sets and neutrosophic relations. Neutrosophic control points are defined according to these points, resulting in neutrosophic Bezier curves.

  15. Long Term Survival Results of Surgery Alone versus Surgery plus 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin for Stage II and Stage III Colon Cancer: Pooled Analysis of NSABP C-01 through C-05 Baseline from Which to Compare Modern Adjuvant Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Neal W.; Yothers, Greg; Lopa, Samia; Costantino, Joseph P.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to conduct a pooled analysis of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) colon trials involving surgery and surgery plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) to compare survival and establish a baseline from which to evaluate future studies. Methods All patients enrolled in NSABP adjuvant trials C-01 through C-05 with stage II and III disease who were treated with surgery or with surgery plus 5-FU/LV were examined for overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), and recurrence free interval (RFI). Time-to-event by treatment group was examined using adjusted Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Results There were 2,966 eligible patients: 693 (23%) surgery and 2,273 (77%) surgery plus 5-FU/LV; 1,255 (42%) stage II and 1,711 (58%) stage III. Age ≥ 60 years {hazard ratio (HR)=1.36, P<0.000], male gender (HR=1.20, P=0.0012), and more nodes positive or fewer nodes examined (P< 0.0001) were associated with worse survival. At 5 years, the adjusted OS was 0.62 [confidence interval (CI)= 0.60-0.63] in the surgery group and 0.76 (CI= 0.74- 0.78) in the surgery plus 5-FU/LV group. Treatment with 5-FU/LV was associated with improved outcome compared with surgery: OS (HR=0.62, P<0.0001), DFS (HR=0.66, P<0.0001) and RFI (HR=0.64, P<0.0001). Improved OS with adjuvant treatment was seen in both stage II (HR=0.58, 95% CI=0.48-0.71) and stage III disease (HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.55-0.75). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that treatment of colon cancer patients with 5-FU/LV following surgery provides benefit over surgery alone and can provide anticipated survival outcomes from which to compare modern adjuvant trials. PMID:20082144

  16. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  17. Effect of dialyzer membrane materials on survival in chronic hemodialysis patients: Results from the annual survey of the Japanese Nationwide Dialysis Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masanori; Hamano, Takayuki; Wada, Atsushi; Nakai, Shigeru; Masakane, Ikuto

    2017-01-01

    Little information is available regarding which type of dialyzer membrane results in good prognosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study from a nationwide registry of hemodialysis patients in Japan to establish the association between different dialyzer membranes and mortality rates. We followed 142,412 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (female, 39.1%; mean age, 64.8 ± 12.3 years; median dialysis duration, 7 [4-12] years) for a year from 2008 to 2009. We included patients treated with seven types of high-flux dialyzer membranes at baseline, including cellulose triacetate (CTA), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyester polymer alloy (PEPA), polyethersulfone (PES), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polysulfone (PS). Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline dialyzers and all-cause mortality as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for 1-year mortality adjusting for potential confounders, and propensity score matching analysis was performed. The distribution of patients treated with each membrane was as follows: PS (56.0%), CTA (17.3%), PES (12.0%), PEPA (7.5%), PMMA (4.9%), PAN (1.2%), and EVAL (1.1%). When data were adjusted using basic factors, with PS as a reference group, the mortality rate was significantly higher in all groups except for the PES group. When data were further adjusted for dialysis-related factors, HRs were significantly higher for the CTA, EVAL, and PEPA groups. When the data were further adjusted for nutrition-and inflammation-related factors, HRs were significantly lower for the PMMA and PES groups compared with the PS group. After propensity score matching, HRs were significantly lower for the PMMA group than for the PS group. The results suggest that the use of different membrane types may affect mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, further long-term prospective studies are needed to clarify these findings, including whether the

  18. Computation of Smarandache curves according to Darboux frame in Minkowski 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Abdel-Aziz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study Smarandache curves according to Darboux frame in the three-dimensional Minkowski space E13. Using the usual transformation between Frenet and Darboux frames, we investigate some special Smarandache curves for a given timelike curve lying fully on a timelike surface. Finally, we defray a computational example to confirm our main results. Keywords: Smarandache curves, Timelike curves, Timelike surfaces, Darboux frame, Minkowski 3-space, MSC: 53A04, 53A35, 53C50

  19. New Data for the Mesoamerican Directional Secular Variation Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoamerican direction secular variation curve is an endless project, new data has been incorporated each year. The new data have radiocarbon dates associated. Wolfman in 1990 proposed the First Curve of Mesoamerica from 1 to 1200 DC. Since 2000 the UNAM´s Archaeomagnetism team has been working continuously by sampling 9 new sites and resampling new stages of Teotihuacan, Teopancazco and Tula. As a result of these investigations more than 70 new data has been annexed and the curve grows until 1600 DC. Data from El Tejar and DuBois has allowed to expand the curve until 1200 BC. An analysis of the incorporation of these new data is presented and the resultant curve is compared to the ARCH3K model.

  20. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  1. Survival outcome of malignant minor salivary tumors in Pakistani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malignant tumors of minor salivary glands (MSG are rare. Survival outcome in Pakistani population with malignant MSG tumors remains to be defined. The objective of this study was to report the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and survival outcome of radically treated malignant tumors of MSG in Pakistani population. Materials and Methods: Between April 2003 and March 2011, 45 patients with malignant tumors of MSG were treated at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital and included in the study. Patient characteristics and treatment modalities were assessed and local, regional, and distant failures determined. Relapse-free (RFS and overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves, and log-rank test was used to determine significance. Results: Median age was 40 (17-83 years. Male to female ratio was 1.25:1. Most common site was hard palate in 31 (69% patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (51% was the most common histological diagnosis. Nine patients (20% underwent surgery as the only treatment modality, six patients received (13% radiotherapy alone, and 30 patients (67% had surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Eight patients developed recurrence (four local, two regional, one locoregional, and one distant. The 5-year actuarial overall OS and RFS was 77 and 66%, respectively. Age, T-stage, and treatment modality were significant for RFS, whereas T-stage and treatment modality were significant factors for OS. Conclusion: Surgery as single modality or combined with radiation therapy resulted in acceptable survival in Pakistani population with malignant minor salivary tumors.

  2. Learning curve in fenestrated and branched grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Mastracci, Tara M

    2017-04-01

    In surgical practice new technologies and techniques require a period of adjustment before the main operator becomes familiar with the new procedure, improving the results and the performances. This period, called learning curve, could be applied into the endovascular aortic treatment. The CUSUM technique had been used to define the learning curve in new procedures and through the literature some studies applied it to demonstrate the improving outcomes in complex endovascular aneurysm repair during increasing experience time. However, in the complex endovascular field this period included also other factors besides the proficiency in the deployment, as the improvement in patient selection and device design, making difficult to determine the level of experience needed to become an expert.

  3. Infinite swapping in curved spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo

    2014-01-07

    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  4. Triangular Numbers and Elliptic Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahal, Jasbir S.; Top, Jaap

    1996-01-01

    Some arithmetic of elliptic curves and theory of elliptic surfaces is used to find all rational solutions (r, s, t) in the function field Q(m, n) of the pair of equations r(r + 1)/2 = ms(s + 1)/2 r(r + 1)/2 = nt(t + 1)/2. It turns out that infinitely many solutions exist. Several examples will be

  5. Fast polygonal approximation of digital curves using relaxed straightness properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Partha; Bhattacharya, Bhargab B

    2007-09-01

    Several existing DSS (digital straight line segment) recognition algorithms can be used to determine the digital straightness of a given one-pixel-thick digital curve. Because of the inherent geometric constraints of digital straightness, these algorithms often produce a large number of segments to cover a given digital curve representing a real-life object=image. Thus, a curve segment, which is not exactly digitally straight, but appears to be visually straight, is fragmented into multiple DSS when these algorithms are run. In this paper, a new concept of approximate straightness is introduced by relaxing certain conditions of DSS, and an algorithm is described to extract those segments from a digital curve. The number of such segments required to cover the curve is found to be significantly fewer than that of the exact DSS-cover. As a result, the data set required for representing a curve also reduces to a large extent. The extracted set of segments can further be combined to determine a compact polygonal approximation of a digital curve based on certain approximation criteria and a specified error tolerance. The proposed algorithm involves only primitive integer operations and thus runs very fast compared to those based on exact DSS. The overall time complexity becomes linear in the number of points present in the representative set. Experimental results on several digital curves demonstrate the speed, elegance and efficacy of the proposed method.

  6. Archaeomagnetic SV curve for Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ech-chakrouni, Souad; Hus, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    Archaeomagnetic secular variation curves have been established for different countries in Europe, especially when different archeological sites are more or less uniformly distributed in time are available. The disadvantage in that case is that data had to be relocated to a single reference site. The proximity of the reference locality Paris to Belgium makes that we used the French archaeomagnetic SV curve for the last three millennia up to the present for archaeomagnetic dating undated baked structures. In total, 85 baked structures have been examined, unearthed in 24 archaeological sites of the territory of Belgium. The ChRM of each sample was obtained by principal component analysis for at least three demagnetisation steps (Kirschvink 1980). Except for some outliers, the ChRM directions are very coherent with a high confidence factor (α95Belgium with Uccle as reference locality, where the first measurement of the geomagnetic field was done in 1895. This curve would include all the available reference data in a radius of about 500 km around Uccle. Keywords: secular variation, archaeomagnetic dating, Belgium.

  7. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-06-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I.

  8. Spontaneous Thoracic Curve Correction After Selective Posterior Fusion of Thoracolumbar/Lumbar Curves in Lenke 5C Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-ming; Wei, Xian-zhao; Zhu, Xiao-dong; Li, Ming

    2015-07-01

    Selective fusion of the thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve is an effective method for the treatment of Lenke type 5C curves. Several studies have demonstrated that spontaneous correction of the thoracic curve does indeed occur. However, how this correction occurs after isolated posterior segmental instrumentation of the structural lumbar curve has not been well described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the thoracic curve to selective TL/L curve fusion in patients with Lenke type 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and assess the correlative clinical outcomes. Thirty-four consecutive patients with Lenke type 5C AIS were included in this study. All patients underwent selective TL/L curve instrumentation and fusion via the posterior approach. Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery and at least 2 years after surgery. The preoperative coronal Cobb angle of the major TL/L curve was 45.4° ± 7.0°, and that of the minor thoracic curve was 25.4° ± 8.8°. The major TL/L and minor thoracic curves were corrected to postoperative angles of 9.5° ± 5.0° and 11.2° ± 5.2°, respectively, and measured 10.5° ± 6.0° and 13.4° ± 7.5° at the follow-up, respectively. The supine side-bending average Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 9.9°. These results demonstrate satisfactory improvements because of coronal and sagittal restoration. Significant correlations were found between the preoperative and early postoperative conditions and the Cobb angle changes of the minor thoracic curve and the major TL/L curves (r = 0.42, P = 0.01). Significant correlations were also observed between the early and final follow-up postoperative conditions and the Cobb angle changes of the minor thoracic curve and the major TL/L curves (r = 0.57, P 5C AIS patients. Supine side-bending radiographs are an effective method of predicting the spontaneous correction of thoracic curves. The correction of LL is important for

  9. Parameter Deduction and Accuracy Analysis of Track Beam Curves in Straddle-type Monorail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is strongly related to the production quality of the entire beam. Many factors may affect the parameters of the bottom curve, such as the superelevation of the curve and the deformation of a PC track beam. At present, no effective method has been developed to determine the bottom curve of a PC track beam; therefore, a new technique is presented in this paper to deduce the parameters of such a curve and to control the accuracy of the computation results. First, the domain of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is assumed to be a spindle plane. Then, the corresponding supposed top curve domain is determined based on a geometrical relationship that is the opposite of that identified by the conventional method. Second, several optimal points are selected from the supposed top curve domain according to the dichotomy algorithm; the supposed top curve is thus generated by connecting these points. Finally, one rigorous criterion is established in the fractal dimension to assess the accuracy of the assumed top curve deduced in the previous step. If this supposed curve coincides completely with the known top curve, then the assumed bottom curve corresponding to the assumed top curve is considered to be the real bottom curve. This technique of determining the bottom curve of a PC track beam is thus proven to be efficient and accurate.

  10. Injury risk curves for the WorldSID 50th male dummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, Audrey; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Irwin, Annette; Hassan, Joe; Praxl, Norbert

    2009-11-01

    The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonised dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria). In 2008, the ACEA- Dummy Task Force (TFD) decided to contribute to this work and offered resources for a project manager to coordinate of the effort of a group of volunteer biomechanical experts from international institutions (ISO, EEVC, VRTC/NHTSA, JARI, Transport Canada), car manufacturers (ACEA, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Toyota, Chrysler) and universities (Wayne State University, Ohio State University, John Hopkins University, Medical College of Wisconsin) to develop harmonized injury risk curves. An in-depth literature review was conducted. All the available PMHS datasets were identified, the test configurations and the quality of the results were checked. Criteria were developed for inclusion or exclusion of PMHS tests in the development of the injury risk curves. Data were processed to account for differences in mass and age of the subjects. Finally, injury risk curves were developed using the following statistical techniques, the certainty method, the Mertz/Weber method, the

  11. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  12. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Learning curve for radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. A. Saito

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The learning curve is a period in which the surgical procedure is performed with difficulty and slowness, leading to a higher risk of complications and reduced effectiveness due the surgeon's inexperience. We sought to analyze the residents' learning curve for open radical prostatectomy (RP in a training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to January 2008 in the academic environment of the University of São Paulo. Five residents operated on 184 patients during a four-month rotation in the urologic oncology division, mentored by the same physician assistants. We performed sequential analyses according to the number of surgeries, as follows: = 10, 11 to 19, 20 to 28, and = 29. RESULTS: The residents performed an average of 37 RP each. The average psa was 9.3 ng/mL and clinical stage T1c in 71% of the patients. The pathological stage was pT2 (73%, pT3 (23%, pT4 (4%, and 46% of the patients had a Gleason score 7 or higher. In all surgeries, the average operative time and estimated blood loss was 140 minutes and 488 mL. Overall, 7.2% of patients required blood transfusion, and 23% had positive surgical margins. CONCLUSION: During the initial RP learning curve, we found a significant reduction in the operative time; blood transfusion during the procedures and positive surgical margin rate were stable in our series.

  14. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribet, K A; Takahashi, S

    1997-10-14

    Fix an isogeny class of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements A of have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes--i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X(0)D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A [symbol; see text] A in for which one has a nonconstant map piD : X(0)D(N/D) --> A whose pullback A --> Pic0(X(0)D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of piD is an integer deltaD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class A). We investigate the behavior of deltaD as D varies.

  15. [Learning curve--calculation and value in laparoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, P; Dinçler, S

    2005-02-01

    The learning curve shows the progress in mastering a new method. It is completed when the monitored parameters reach a steady state and when the final results can be compared with literature. The earlier used analysis of the performance-improvement with its "on the spots" appraisals at certain time-intervals is replaced by a continuous assessment. The multimode learning curve is particularly useful for it, because not only one parameter (f.e. operation-time), but also several important factors can be put together into one single graphic. For the operation-time, the Moving Average Method is useful. For incidents, which may happen or not like a conversion from laparoscopy to laparotomy as well as complications, the Cusum-method is of practical use. The learning curves of the technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, colo-rectal surgery, fundoplicatio and hernia surgery have been completed. Also, the learning curve of the industry is well advanced. Reliable data for the learning curves of individual surgeons for certain operations cannot be given, as, only now, young doctors are being trained on a large scale in laparoscopic technique as used to be the case in the open abdominal surgery. This will influence greatly the learning curves and will shorten the time till their completion. Different bias concerning the individual surgeons and their clinics prohibit the production of comparable curves. Several factors like the patient respectively his abdomen are complicating all this. That's why the learning curves cannot be used as benchmarks to compare different surgeons or clinics, as long as no valid scoring system concerning the complexity of a surgical intervention exists. Learning curves which become quality curves after reaching a steady state, can be used for the individual monitoring of a surgeon's performance and serve as a quality measurement of a clinic. The learning curves of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, fundoplicatio, colo-rectal surgery and hernia

  16. Applied the additive hazard model to predict the survival time of patient with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma and determine the effective genes, using microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefa Jafarzadeh Kohneloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have shown that effective genes on survival time of cancer patients play an important role as a risk factor or preventive factor. Present study was designed to determine effective genes on survival time for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients and predict the survival time using these selected genes. Materials & Methods: Present study is a cohort study was conducted on 40 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For these patients, 2042 gene expression was measured. In order to predict the survival time, the composition of the semi-parametric additive survival model with two gene selection methods elastic net and lasso were used. Two methods were evaluated by plotting area under the ROC curve over time and calculating the integral of this curve. Results: Based on our findings, the elastic net method identified 10 genes, and Lasso-Cox method identified 7 genes. GENE3325X increased the survival time (P=0.006, Whereas GENE3980X and GENE377X reduced the survival time (P=0.004. These three genes were selected as important genes in both methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the elastic net method outperformed the common Lasso method in terms of predictive power. Moreover, apply the additive model instead Cox regression and using microarray data is usable way for predict the survival time of patients.

  17. Weights, growth, and survival of timber wolf pups in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ballenberghe, V.; Mech, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Weights, growth rates, canine tooth lengths, and survival data were obtained from 73 wild wolf (Canis lupus) pups that were 8 to 28 weeks old when live-trapped in three areas of northern Minnesota from 1969 to 1972. Relative weights of wild pups are expressed as percentages of a standard weight curve based on data from captive pups of similar age. These relative weights varied greatly within litters, between litters, and between years; extremes of 31 to 144 percent of the standard were observed. Growth rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.23 kilograms per day were observed, and similar variations in general devel pment and in replacement and growth of canine teeth were noted. Survival data based on radio-tracking and tag returns indicated that pups with relative weights less than 65 percent of standard have a poor chance of survival, whereas pups of at least 80 percent of standard weight have a high survivability. Pups born in 1972 were especially underweight, probably a result of declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities in the interior of the Superior National Forest study area.

  18. Cancer survival among children and adolescents at a state referral hospital in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Perini Zouain-Figueiredo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the patient characteristics and evaluate overall survival, survival according to demographic variables, the most common tumor groups and subgroups, the stages of disease, and risk factors after at least 5 years among children and adolescents with cancer who were admitted to a state referral hospital between 2000 and 2005. METHODS: the Kaplan-Meier method was employed to estimate survival. The survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. The Cox regression model was used to estimate the effect of independent variables. RESULTS: a total of 571 new cases were registered. The most frequent cancer groups were leukemia (34%, lymphoma (18%, and central nervous system (CNS tumors (15%.The overall survival rate was 59%. The risk factors associated with lower survival were an age of more than 4 years or less than 1 year, the presence of CNS tumors, and non-localized disease. CONCLUSION: although this was not a populationbased study, it provides important epidemiological information about a state where population data on childhood and adolescent cancer are scarce and where hospital-based data do not exist. The survival rate found here should serve as a framework for future improvements, helping to guide policymakers focused on pediatric oncology in the state.

  19. Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

  20. Reconfigurable Double-Curved Mould

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Christian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    , double curved surfaces like facades or walls, where the curvature of each element is relatively small in comparison to the overall shape. In the proposed dynamic mould system, where only a set of points is defined, a stiff membrane interpolates the surface between points. To function as a surface...... suitable for casting concrete or other substances against without the need for further manual treatment, the membrane should be durable and maintain a perfectly smooth and non-porous surface as well. A membrane with these properties has been developed for this project, and it is the core of the dynamic...

  1. General investigations of curved surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gauss, Karl Friedrich; Morehead, James

    2005-01-01

    Gauss's theory of surfaces is among the purely mathematical achievements inspired by ideas that arose in connection with surveys of the surface of the earth. Long regarded as a masterpiece in content and form, this work features one of the author's most original contributions to mathematics--the discovery that Gauss termed the ""Theorema Egregium."" It consists of his penetrating definition of the concept of surface curvature and the theorem that the ""Gauss curvature"" is invariant under arbitrary isometric deformation of a curved surface. The profound effects of these concepts were soon gene

  2. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  3. Survival of gynecological cancers in Turkey: where are we at?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Murat; Dundar, Selin; Kucukyildiz, Irem; Karaca, Mujdegul Zayifoglu; Boztas, Guledal; Turan, Semra Hatice; Hacikamiloglu, Ezgi; Keskinkilic, Bekir

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the 5-year relative survival rates in gynecological cancers diagnosed and treated in Turkey by year 2009 and to compare the results with developed countries. Data of patients diagnosed for ovarian, corpus uteri or cervix uteri cancer at year 2009 are collected from 9 national cancer registry centers. Date of deaths are retracted from governmental Identity Information Sharing System (KPS). In order to calculate relative survival rates, national general population mortality tables are obtained from Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). Hakulinen method is used for computing curves by R program. Data for European, Asian and some developed countries were obtained from official web pages. A total of 1,553 patients are evaluated. Among these, 713 (45.9%) are corpus uteri cancers, while remaining 489 (31.5%) are ovarian and 351 (22.6%) are cervix uteri. Five-year overall relative survival rates are 85%, 50%, and 62% for corpus uteri, ovarian, and cervix uteri, respectively. These figures are between 73%-87% for corpus uteri, 31%-62% for ovarian and 61%-80% for cervix uteri in developed countries. Stage is the most important factor for survival in all cancers. Five-year relative survival rates in corpus uteri cancers are 92%, 66%, and 38% for localized, regional, and distant metastatic disease, respectively. These figures are 77%, 57%, and 29% for ovarian; 80%, 50%, and 22% for cervix uteri. This is the first report from Turkey giving national overall relative survival for gynecological cancers from a population based cancer registry system.

  4. Failure-free survival of the Durata defibrillator lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jeffrey; Patel, Divyang; Rattan, Rohit; Brumberg, Genevieve; Saini, Aditya; Vaghasia, Nishit; Bazaz, Raveen; Adelstein, Evan; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2013-07-01

    Given design similarities and a common manufacturer, there have been suspicions regarding the Durata™ defibrillator (ICD) lead, in the aftermath of the Riata™ class I recall. We therefore examined the failure-free survival rates of the Durata™ compared with the Riata™ and Sprint Quattro™ ICD leads. All patients (n = 2475) implanted with a Durata (n = 828), Riata [n = 627; 8 Fr. (n = 472) and 7 Fr. (n = 155)], or Sprint Quattro (n = 1020) leads at our institution were included and Kaplan-Meier failure-free survival curves were constructed for all leads. Lead failure was defined as electrical malfunction resulting in lead replacement, excluding dislodgements or perforations. Annual electrical failure rates were 0.3%, 1.7, and 0.3% for the Durata, Riata, and Sprint Quattro leads, respectively (P < 0.0001 for the comparison of Durata to Riata and P = 0.1.0 for the comparison of Durata to Sprint Quattro). The failure-free survival of the Durata lead was significantly better than that of the Riata lead (P < 0.0001) and similar to that of the Sprint Quattro (P = 0.94). The 7 Fr. Riata ST lead had better survival compared with the 8 Fr. Riata lead (P = 0.050) and comparable survival with the Durata lead (P = 0.12). The Durata lead failure-free survival is significantly better than the 8 Fr. Riata, albeit at a shorter follow-up time. Riata and comparable with that of the 7 Fr. Riata ST and the Sprint Quattro ICD leads. These data provide an insight into the mechanism of electrical failure of Riata leads and have implications for patient management.

  5. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  6. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of retention curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. H.; Houvenaghel, G.; Janz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curves are presented. Baumberger sandstone and Sander sandstone were used as test materials.Repeatability standard deviation and reproducibility standard deviation for t...... for the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curve moisture content have been estimated from the results of the interlaboratory comparison. The statical analysis was made along the guidelines given in ISO 5725-2....

  8. Curved spiral antennas for underwater biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Ruben

    We developed curved spiral antennas for use in underwater (freshwater) communications. Specifically, these antennas will be integrated in so-called mussel backpacks. Backpacks are compact electronics that incorporate sensors and a small radio that operate around 300 MHz. Researchers attach these backpacks in their freshwater mussel related research. The antennas must be small, lightweight, and form-fit the mussel. Additionally, since the mussel orientation is unknown, the antennas must have broad radiation patterns. Further, the electromagnetic environment changes significantly as the mussels burrow into the river bottom. Broadband antennas, such a spiral antennas, will perform better in this instance. While spiral antennas are well established, there has been little work on their performance in freshwater. Additionally, there has been some work on curved spiral antennas, but this work focused on curving in one dimension, namely curving around a cylinder. In this thesis we develop spiral antennas that curve in two dimensions in order to conform the contour of a mussel's shell. Our research has three components, namely (a) an investigation of the relevant theoretical underpinning of spiral antennas, (b) extensive computer simulations using state-of-the art computational electromagnetics (CEM) simulation software, and (c) experimental validation. The experimental validation was performed in a large tank in a laboratory setting. We also validated some designs in a pool (~300,000 liters of water and ~410 squared-meter dive pool) with the aid of a certified diver. To use CEM software and perform successful antenna-related experiments require careful attention to many details. The mathematical description of radiation from an antenna, antenna input impedance and so on, is inherently complex. Engineers often make simplifying assumptions such as assuming no reflections, or an isotropic propagation environment, or operation in the antenna far field, and so on. This makes

  9. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  10. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  11. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  12. J-holomorphic curves and symplectic topology

    CERN Document Server

    McDuff, Dusa

    2012-01-01

    The theory of J-holomorphic curves has been of great importance since its introduction by Gromov in 1985. In mathematics, its applications include many key results in symplectic topology. It was also one of the main inspirations for the creation of Floer homology. In mathematical physics, it provides a natural context in which to define Gromov-Witten invariants and quantum cohomology, two important ingredients of the mirror symmetry conjecture. The main goal of this book is to establish the fundamental theorems of the subject in full and rigorous detail. In particular, the book contains comple

  13. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the examples of a curved waveguide embedded in a photonic crystal and cold atoms moving in a waveguide created by a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we examine the effects of geometry in a 'quantum channel' of parabolic form. Starting with the linear case we derive exact...... as well as approximate expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the linear problem. We then proceed to the nonlinear setting and its stationary states in a number of limiting cases that allow for analytical treatment. The results of our analysis are used as initial conditions in direct...

  14. Discreteness of Curved Spacetime from GUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adel Abutaleb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse theories of quantum gravity expect modifications of the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle near the Planck scale to a so-called Generalized uncertainty principle (GUP. It was shown by some authors that the GUP gives rise to corrections to the Schrodinger , Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. By solving the GUP corrected equations, the authors arrived at quantization not only of energy but also of box length, area, and volume. In this paper, we extend the above results to the case of curved spacetime (Schwarzschild metric. We showed that we arrived at the quantization of space by solving Dirac equation with GUP in this metric.

  15. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  16. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  17. Long-term Survival Outcomes Following Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Results of a Large Retrospective Study With 12-Year Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jee Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae, E-mail: sjhuh@smc.samsung.co.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 396 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were treated with postmastectomy radiation therapy with (n=197) or without (n=199) IMNI. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. IMNI was administered at the clinical discretion of the treating physician. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45.0-59.4 Gy) in 28 fractions, with inclusion of the supraclavicular fossa in 96% of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 99.7% of the patients and endocrine therapy to 53%. Results: The median follow-up was 149 months (range, 124-202). IMNI patients had more advanced nodal stage and non-high grade tumors than those without IMNI (P<.001). Otherwise, disease and treatment characteristics were well balanced. The 10-year DFS with and without IMNI was 65% and 57%, respectively (P=.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IMNI was an independent, positive predictor of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P=.02). Benefits of IMNI in DFS were seen most apparently in N2 patients (HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.74) and inner/central tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90). The 10-year OS with and without IMNI was 72% and 66%, respectively (P=.62). The 10-year DFS and OS were 61%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Internal mammary node irradiation significantly improved DFS in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Pending long-term results from randomized trials, treatment of internal mammary nodes should be considered in postmastectomy radiation therapy.

  18. The RBE-LET relationship for rodent intestinal crypt cell survival, testes weight loss, and multicellular spheroid cell survival after heavy-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E. L.; Powers-Risius, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data for survival of mouse intestinal crypt cells, mouse testes weight loss as an indicator of survival of spermatogonial stem cells, and survival of rat 9L spheroid cells after irradiation in the plateau region of unmodified particle beams ranging in mass from 4He to 139La. The LET values range from 1.6 to 953 keV/microns. These studies examine the RBE-LET relationship for two normal tissues and for an in vitro tissue model, multicellular spheroids. When the RBE values are plotted as a function of LET, the resulting curve is characterized by a region in which RBE increases with LET, a peak RBE at an LET value of 100 keV/microns, and a region of decreasing RBE at LETs greater than 100 keV/microns. Inactivation cross sections (sigma) for these three biological systems have been calculated from the exponential terminal slope of the dose-response relationship for each ion. For this determination the dose is expressed as particle fluence and the parameter sigma indicates effect per particle. A plot of sigma versus LET shows that the curve for testes weight loss is shifted to the left, indicating greater radiosensitivity at lower LETs than for crypt cell and spheroid cell survival. The curves for cross section versus LET for all three model systems show similar characteristics with a relatively linear portion below 100 keV/microns and a region of lessened slope in the LET range above 100 keV/microns for testes and spheroids. The data indicate that the effectiveness per particle increases as a function of LET and, to a limited extent, Z, at LET values greater than 100 keV/microns. Previously published results for spread Bragg peaks are also summarized, and they suggest that RBE is dependent on both the LET and the Z of the particle.

  19. Quaternion wave equations in curved space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The quaternion formulation of relativistic quantum theory is extended to include curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time in order to provide a framework for a unified quantum/gravity theory. Six basic quaternion fields are identified in curved space-time, the four-vector basis quaternions are identified, and the necessary covariant derivatives are obtained. Invariant field equations are derived, and a general invertable coordinate transformation is developed. The results yield a way of writing quaternion wave equations in curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time as well as a natural framework for solving the problem of second quantization for gravity.

  20. Limits of PGL(3)-translates of plane curves, II

    OpenAIRE

    Aluffi, Paolo; Faber, Carel

    2007-01-01

    Every complex plane curve C determines a subscheme S of the $P^8$ of 3x3 matrices, whose projective normal cone (PNC) captures subtle invariants of C. In "Limits of PGL(3)-translates of plane curves, I" we obtain a set-theoretic description of the PNC and thereby we determine all possible limits of families of plane curves whose general element is isomorphic to C. The main result of this article is the determination of the PNC as a cycle; this is an essential ingredient in our computation in ...

  1. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  2. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribet, Kenneth A.; Takahashi, Shuzo

    1997-01-01

    Fix an isogeny class 𝒜 of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements of 𝒜 have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes—i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X0D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A ∈ 𝒜 for which one has a nonconstant map πD : X0D(N/D) → A whose pullback A → Pic0(X0D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of πD is an integer δD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class 𝒜). We investigate the behavior of δD as D varies. PMID:11607751

  3. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  4. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  5. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Gayawan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  6. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  7. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  8. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  9. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a

  10. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  11. ROC Curve Analysis in the Presence of Imperfect Reference Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peizhou; Wu, Hao; Yu, Tianwei

    2017-06-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is an important tool for the evaluation and comparison of predictive models when the outcome is binary. If the class membership of the outcomes are known, ROC can be constructed for a model, and the ROC with greater area under the curve (AUC) indicates better performance. However in practice, imperfect reference standards often exist, in which class membership of every data point are not fully determined. This situation is especially prevalent in high-throughput biomedical data because obtaining perfect reference standards for all data points is either too costly or technically impractical. To construct ROC curves for these data, the common practice is to either ignore the uncertainties in references, or remove data points with high uncertainties. Such approaches may cause bias to the ROC curves and generate misleading results in method evaluation. Here we present a framework to incorporate membership uncertainties into the construction of ROC curve, termed the expected ROC or "eROC" curve. We develop an efficient procedure for the estimation of eROC curve. The advantages of using eROC are demonstrated using simulated and real data.

  12. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry...

  13. Chest computed tomography scores are predictive of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    /inflammation" (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR) and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each component was computed using semi-automated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox-regression models. Measurements and main results: 366 (186 males) out of 411......Rationale: Up to a third of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients awaiting lung transplantation (LTX) die while waiting. Inclusion of computed tomography (CT) scores may improve survival prediction models such as the lung allocation score (LAS). Objectives: This study investigated the association between...... CT and survival in CF patients screened for LTX. Methods: Clinical data and chest CTs of 411 CF patients screened for LTX between 1990 and 2005 were collected from 17 centers. CTs were scored with the Severe Advanced Lung Disease (SALD) 4-category scoring system, including the components "infection...

  14. Similar survival of patients with multiple vs. single primary melanomas based on Utah SEER data (1973-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Douglas; Farnham, James M; Hyngstrom, John; Klapperich, Marki E; Secrest, Aaron M; Empey, Sarah; Bowen, Glen M; Wada, David; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Grossmann, Kenneth; Bowles, Tawnya L; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2018-02-27

    Survival data are mixed comparing patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) to those with single primary melanomas (SPM). To compare MPM vs. SPM patient survival, using a matching method that avoids potential biases associated with other analytic approaches. Records of 14,138 individuals obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results registry of all melanomas diagnosed or treated in Utah from 1973-2011 were reviewed. A single matched control patient was selected randomly from the SPM cohort for each MPM patient, with the restriction that they survived at least as long as the interval between the first and second diagnoses for the matched MPM patient. Survival curves (n=887 MPM, 887 SPM) without covariates showed a significant survival disadvantage for MPM patients (chi-squared = 39.29, p < 0.001). However, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed no significant survival difference (hazard ratio = 1.07, p = 0.55). Restricting the multivariate analysis to invasive melanomas also showed no significant survival difference (hazard ratio = 0.99, p = 0.96). Breslow depth, ulceration status, and specific cause of death was not available for all patients. Patients with MPM had similar survival time as patients with SPM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Research Into Automobile Movement on a Curve Under Winter Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kemzūraitė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the movement of the car on the curve on the slippery and snowy road surface with asphalted ruts. The paper reviews literature related to lateral and longitudinal vehicle acceleration and dynamics of vehicle movement. The experimental facts of vehicle lateral acceleration are given in graphical charts. The article also describes the acceleration values and stability of the automobile depending on the speed in the curve. The findings are given based on the results.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Wage curves for Spain evidence from the family budget survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanromà, Esteve; Ramos Lobo, Raúl

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the existence of a wage curve for Spain. To quantify this relationship for the Spanish economy, we used individual data from the EPF 1990-1991. The results show the presence of a wage curve with an elasticity of -0.13. The availability of very detailed information on wages and unemployment has also shown that less protected labour market groups - young workers, manual workers and building sector workers- have a higher elasticity of wages to local unemployment. These ...

  17. Light Curve Solution of the Contact Binary AW UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Jeong

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1088 observations (272 in B,272 in V, 272 in R, and 272 in I were made from January to February in 1995 at Chungbuk National University observatory(CbNUO. We constructed BVRI light curves with our data. The photometric solution of these light curves was obtained by means of the Wilson-Devinney method. Our result was compared with those by previous investigators.

  18. Analytical and numerical analysis of PEM fuel cell performance curve

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikovsky, A. A.; Wuester, T.; Egmen, A.; D. Stolten

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel approach for analyzing the experimental voltage-current curves of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. State-of-the-art numerical models involve many poorly known parameters. This makes a comparison of numerical and experimental polarization curves unreliable. We suggest characterizing the cell by first using a simplified analytical model, which contains a minimal number of parameters and ignores three-dimensional (3D) effects. The resulting physical parameters a...

  19. Galaxy rotation curves with log-normal density distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The log-normal distribution represents the probability of finding randomly distributed particles in a micro canonical ensemble with high entropy. To a first approximation, a modified form of this distribution with a truncated termination may represent an isolated galactic disk, and this disk density distribution model was therefore run to give the best fit to the observational rotation curves for 37 representative galaxies. The resultant curves closely matched the observational data for a wid...

  20. Estimation of Survival Probabilities for Use in Cost-effectiveness Analyses: A Comparison of a Multi-state Modeling Survival Analysis Approach with Partitioned Survival and Markov Decision-Analytic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire; Lewsey, James D; Mackay, Daniel F; Briggs, Andrew H

    2017-05-01

    Modeling of clinical-effectiveness in a cost-effectiveness analysis typically involves some form of partitioned survival or Markov decision-analytic modeling. The health states progression-free, progression and death and the transitions between them are frequently of interest. With partitioned survival, progression is not modeled directly as a state; instead, time in that state is derived from the difference in area between the overall survival and the progression-free survival curves. With Markov decision-analytic modeling, a priori assumptions are often made with regard to the transitions rather than using the individual patient data directly to model them. This article compares a multi-state modeling survival regression approach to these two common methods. As a case study, we use a trial comparing rituximab in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide v. fludarabine and cyclophosphamide alone for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We calculated mean Life Years and QALYs that involved extrapolation of survival outcomes in the trial. We adapted an existing multi-state modeling approach to incorporate parametric distributions for transition hazards, to allow extrapolation. The comparison showed that, due to the different assumptions used in the different approaches, a discrepancy in results was evident. The partitioned survival and Markov decision-analytic modeling deemed the treatment cost-effective with ICERs of just over £16,000 and £13,000, respectively. However, the results with the multi-state modeling were less conclusive, with an ICER of just over £29,000. This work has illustrated that it is imperative to check whether assumptions are realistic, as different model choices can influence clinical and cost-effectiveness results.

  1. Comparison of growth curve models in partridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyel, V; Aygun, A; Keskin, I

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the goodness of fit of Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, and von Bertalanffy growth curve models in partridge (Alectoris chukar). The growth curve parameters A (upper asymptote or mature weight parameter), B (scale parameter related to initial weight), and K (instantaneous growth rate parameter) were determined as 623.4, 1.05, and 0.075 for females and 723.8, 1.06, and 0.073 for males in the Brody model, respectively, 472.9, 3.47, and 0.207 for females and 565.3, 3.59, and 0.192 for males in the Gompertz model, respectively, 440.2, 12.89, and 0.332 for females and 517.0, 14.13, and 0.319 for males in the Logistic model, respectively, and 498.9, 0.77, and 0.164 for females and 608.8, 0.79, and 0.150 for males in the von Bertalanffy model, respectively. While determining which growth curve model presented the better fit, the coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted the coefficient of determination (adj.R2), mean square predicted error (MSPE), Durbin-Watson value, correlation between estimated live weight and residual values (RESC), Akaike's information criteria (AIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were used. As a consequence of the study, it was determined that the Gompertz model yields a better fit to the data for the partridge, as its coefficient of determination and adjusted coefficient of determination are high, its values of MSPE, RESC, AIC, BIC are low and there is not an autocorrelation between the residual values. As a result, the Gompertz model presented a better fit with the partridge data. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Forced convective heat transfer in curved diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity characteristics of the flows in two curved diffusers of rectangular cross section with C and S-shaped centerlines are presented and related to measurements of wall heat transfer coefficients along the heated flat walls of the ducts. The velocity results were obtained by laser-Doppler anemometry in a water tunnel and the heat transfer results by liquid crystal thermography in a wind tunnel. The thermographic technique allowed the rapid and inexpensive measurement of wall heat transfer coefficients along flat walls of arbitrary boundary shapes with an accuracy of about 5 percent. The results show that an increase in secondary flow velocities near the heated wall causes an increase in the local wall heat transfer coefficient, and quantify the variation for maximum secondary-flow velocities in a range from 1.5 to 17 percent of the bulk flow velocity.

  3. Influence of horizontally curved roadway section characteristics on motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J; Li, Xiaolong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency on horizontally curved roadway sections in Washington State using police-reported crash data linked with roadway data and augmented with barrier presence information. Data included 4915 horizontal curved roadway sections with 252 of these sections experiencing 329 motorcycle-to-barrier crashes between 2002 and 2011. Negative binomial regression was used to predict motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency using horizontal curvature and other roadway characteristics. Based on the model results, the strongest predictor of crash frequency was found to be curve radius. This supports a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure placement criterion based, at the very least, on horizontal curve radius. With respect to the existing horizontal curve criterion of 820 feet or less, curves meeting this criterion were found to increase motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency rate by a factor of 10 compared to curves not meeting this criterion. Other statistically significant predictors were curve length, traffic volume and the location of adjacent curves. Assuming curves of identical radius, the model results suggest that longer curves, those with higher traffic volume, and those that have no adjacent curved sections within 300 feet of either curve end would likely be better candidates for a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New symmetry of intended curved reaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Elizabeth B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement regularities are inherently present in automated goal-directed motions of the primate's arm system. They can provide important signatures of intentional behaviours driven by sensory-motor strategies, but it remains unknown if during motor learning new regularities can be uncovered despite high variability in the temporal dynamics of the hand motions. Methods We investigated the conservation and violation of new movement regularity obtained from the hand motions traced by two untrained monkeys as they learned to reach outwardly towards spatial targets while avoiding obstacles in the dark. The regularity pertains to the transformation from postural to hand paths that aim at visual goals. Results In length-minimizing curves the area enclosed between the Euclidean straight line and the curve up to its point of maximum curvature is 1/2 of the total area. Similar trend is found if one examines the perimeter. This new movement regularity remained robust to striking changes in arm dynamics that gave rise to changes in the speed of the reach, to changes in the hand path curvature, and to changes in the arm's postural paths. The area and perimeter ratios characterizing the regularity co-varied across repeats of randomly presented targets whenever the transformation from posture to hand paths was compliant with the intended goals. To interpret this conservation and the cases in which the regularity was violated and recovered, we provide a geometric model that characterizes arm-to-hand and hand-to-arm motion paths as length minimizing curves (geodesics in a non-Euclidean space. Whenever the transformation from one space to the other is distance-metric preserving (isometric the two symmetric ratios co-vary. Otherwise, the symmetric ratios and their co-variation are violated. As predicted by the model we found empirical evidence for the violation of this movement regularity whenever the intended goals mismatched the actions. This

  5. Hematological Changes as Prognostic Indicators of Survival: Similarities Between Gottingen Minipigs, Humans, and Other Large Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    using the PASW Statistic 18 software, SPSS Inc, IL, USA. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results and Discussion ...of the Gottingen minipig raises questions concerning the possibility of genetic mutations, defects in DNA repair, the effects of inbreeding , etc. In...NHPs (C. Redon, personal communica- tion). Inbreeding for this strain is controlled and kept under 10% [10–11]. Mapping of the minipig genome is ongoing

  6. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  7. Red blood cell motion and deformation in a curved microvessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Li, Yu

    2017-12-08

    The flow of cells through curved vessels is often encountered in various biomedical and bioengineering applications, such as red blood cells (RBCs) passing through the curved arteries in circulation, and cells sorting through a shear-induced migration in a curved channels. Most of past numerical studies focused on the cell deformation in small straight microvessels, or on the flow pattern in large curved vessels without considering the cell deformation. However, there have been few attempts to study the cell deformation and the associated flow pattern in a curved microvessel. In this work, a particle-based method, smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), is used to simulate the motion and deformation of a RBC in a curved microvessel of diameter comparable to the RBC diameter. The emphasis is on the effects of the curvature, the type and the size of the curved microvessel on the RBC deformation and the flow pattern. The simulation results show that a small curved shape of the microvessel has negligible effect on the RBC behavior and the flow pattern which are similar to those in a straight microvessel. When the microvessel is high in curvature, the secondary flow comes into being with a pair of Dean vortices, and the velocity profile of the primary flow is skewed toward the inner wall of the microvessel. The RBC also loses the axisymmetric deformation, and it is stretched first and then shrinks when passing through the curved part of the microvessel with the large curvature. It is also found that a pair of Dean vortices arise only under the condition of De>1 (De is the Dean number, a ratio of centrifugal to viscous competition). The Dean vortices are more easily observed in the larger or more curved microvessels. Finally, it is observed that the velocity profile of primary flow is skewed toward the inner wall of curved microvessel, i.e., the fluid close to the inner wall flows faster than that close to the outer wall. This is contrary to the common sense in

  8. Machine learning models in breast cancer survival prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Mitra; Montazeri, Mohadeseh; Montazeri, Mahdieh; Beigzadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with a high mortality rate among women. With the early diagnosis of breast cancer survival will increase from 56% to more than 86%. Therefore, an accurate and reliable system is necessary for the early diagnosis of this cancer. The proposed model is the combination of rules and different machine learning techniques. Machine learning models can help physicians to reduce the number of false decisions. They try to exploit patterns and relationships among a large number of cases and predict the outcome of a disease using historical cases stored in datasets. The objective of this study is to propose a rule-based classification method with machine learning techniques for the prediction of different types of Breast cancer survival. We use a dataset with eight attributes that include the records of 900 patients in which 876 patients (97.3%) and 24 (2.7%) patients were females and males respectively. Naive Bayes (NB), Trees Random Forest (TRF), 1-Nearest Neighbor (1NN), AdaBoost (AD), Support Vector Machine (SVM), RBF Network (RBFN), and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) machine learning techniques with 10-cross fold technique were used with the proposed model for the prediction of breast cancer survival. The performance of machine learning techniques were evaluated with accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and area under ROC curve. Out of 900 patients, 803 patients and 97 patients were alive and dead, respectively. In this study, Trees Random Forest (TRF) technique showed better results in comparison to other techniques (NB, 1NN, AD, SVM and RBFN, MLP). The accuracy, sensitivity and the area under ROC curve of TRF are 96%, 96%, 93%, respectively. However, 1NN machine learning technique provided poor performance (accuracy 91%, sensitivity 91% and area under ROC curve 78%). This study demonstrates that Trees Random Forest model (TRF) which is a rule-based classification model was the best model with the highest level of

  9. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  10. Page curves for tripartite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Yeom, Dong-han; Zoe, Heeseung

    2017-07-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A, B, and C) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem.

  11. Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-03-01

    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by Deutsch.

  12. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    CERN Document Server

    Terra, Pedro; Farina, C

    2016-01-01

    The answer to this question is no. In fact, in addition to the solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658, given by the cycloid, we show that there is an infinite number of tautochrone curves. With this goal, we start by briefly reviewing an the problem of finding out the possible potential energies that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many solutions, called sheared potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a P\\"oschl-Teller and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same periods of oscillations for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of an uniform gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the period of oscillations, there is an infinity of tracks w...

  13. Some Characterizations of Constant Breadth Spacelike Curves in Minkowski 4-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kocayiğit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the differential equation characterizations of constant breadth spacelike curves are given in the Minkowski 4-space . Furthermore, a criterion for a spacelike curve to be a curve of constant breadth in Minkowski 4-space is introduced. As an example, the obtained results are applied to the case that the curvatures are constants and are discussed.

  14. Growth curves in Down syndrome with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline D’Azevedo Sica

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: To assess dietary habits, nutritional status and food frequency in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS and congenital heart disease (CHD. Additionally, we attempted to compare body mass index (BMI classifications according to the World Health Organization (WHO curves and curves developed for individuals with DS. Method: Cross-sectional study including individuals with DS and CHD treated at a referral center for cardiology, aged 2 to 18 years. Weight, height, BMI, total energy and food frequency were measured. Nutritional status was assessed using BMI for age and gender, using curves for evaluation of patients with DS and those set by the WHO. Results: 68 subjects with DS and CHD were evaluated. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD was the most common heart disease (52.9%. There were differences in BMI classification between the curves proposed for patients with DS and those proposed by the WHO. There was an association between consumption of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion: Results showed that individuals with DS are mostly considered normal weight for age, when evaluated using specific curves for DS. Reviews on specific curves for DS would be the recommended practice for health professionals so as to avoid precipitated diagnosis of overweight and/or obesity in this population.

  15. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from postmortem human subject tests under axial impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Szabo, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. The study reexamined lower leg postmortem human subjects (PMHS) data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and noninjury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the covariable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal, and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike information criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. The mean age, stature, and weight were 58.2±15.1 years, 1.74±0.08 m, and 74.9±13.8 kg, respectively. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other 2 distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-olds at 5, 25, and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45, and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 k

  16. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  17. Microorganism billiards in closed plane curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Madison

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have demonstrated that many species of microorganisms reflect aspecularly from a solid surface -- due to steric and hydrodynamic interactions with the wall, their outgoing angle is fixed and independent of the angle of incidence. Motivated by these results, we discuss theory and computation of the ``aspecular billiard'', a modification of the classical billiard in which the outgoing angle is constant. We restrict our attention to closed plane curves, focusing on three canonical examples: the ellipse, the Bunimovich stadium, and the Sinai billiard. These systems can have a rich array of orbits, and the Lyapunov exponent is shown to be dependent on the billiard geometry and the outgoing angle. We apply these results to the design of tunable passive sorting mechanisms.

  18. Preoperative Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Independently Predicts Overall Survival in Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma following Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Cross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the relationship between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and overall survival in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC following nephrectomy. Methods. 167 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized RCC had ESR levels measured preoperatively. Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were used to determine Area Under the Curve and relative sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ESR in predicting overall survival. Cut-offs for low (0.0–20.0 mm/hr, intermediate (20.1–50.0 mm/hr, and high risk (>50.0 mm/hr groups were created. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the univariate impact of these ESR-based groups on overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential of these groups to predict overall survival, adjusting for other patient and tumor characteristics. Results. Overall, 55.2% were low risk, while 27.0% and 17.8% were intermediate and high risk, respectively. Median (95% CI survival was 44.1 (42.6–45.5 months, 35.5 (32.3–38.8 months, and 32.1 (25.5–38.6 months, respectively. After controlling for other patient and tumor characteristics, intermediate and high risk groups experienced a 4.5-fold (HR: 4.509, 95% CI: 0.735–27.649 and 18.5-fold (HR: 18.531, 95% CI: 2.117–162.228 increased risk of overall mortality, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperative ESR values represent a robust predictor of overall survival following nephrectomy in localized RCC.

  19. Multiple MTS Assay as the Alternative Method to Determine Survival Fraction of the Irradiated HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mahdi; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin

    2016-01-01

    A multiple colorimetric assay has been introduced to evaluate the proliferation and determination of survival fraction (SF) of irradiated cells. The estimation of SF based on the cell-growth curve information is the major advantage of this assay. In this study, the utility of multiple-MTS assay for the SF estimation of irradiated HT-29 colon cancer cells, which were plated before irradiation, was evaluated. The SF of HT-29 colon cancer cells under irradiation with 9 MV photon was estimated using multiple-MTS assay and colony assay. Finally, the correlation between two assays was evaluated. Results showed that there are no significant differences between the SF obtained by two assays at different radiation doses (P > 0.05), and the survival curves have quite similar trends. In conclusion, multiple MTS-assay can be a reliable method to determine the SF of irradiated colon cancer cells that plated before irradiation.

  20. Breast Cancer Heterogeneity: MR Imaging Texture Analysis and Survival Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Ko, Eun Sook; Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Boo-Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between tumor heterogeneity assessed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging texture analysis and survival outcomes in patients with primary breast cancer. Materials and Methods Between January and August 2010, texture analysis of the entire primary breast tumor in 203 patients was performed with T2-weighted and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction MR imaging for preoperative staging. Histogram-based uniformity and entropy were calculated. To dichotomize texture parameters for survival analysis, the 10-fold cross-validation method was used to determine cutoff points in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to determine the association of texture parameters and morphologic or volumetric information obtained at MR imaging or clinical-pathologic variables with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results There were 26 events, including 22 recurrences (10 local-regional and 12 distant) and four deaths, with a mean follow-up time of 56.2 months. In multivariate analysis, a higher N stage (RFS hazard ratio, 11.15 [N3 stage]; P = .002, Bonferroni-adjusted α = .0167), triple-negative subtype (RFS hazard ratio, 16.91; P breast cancers that appeared more heterogeneous on T2-weighted images (higher entropy) and those that appeared less heterogeneous on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images (lower entropy) exhibited poorer RFS. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. Long-term survival results of a randomized phase III trial of vinflunine plus best supportive care versus best supportive care alone in advanced urothelial carcinoma patients after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellmunt, J; Fougeray, R; Rosenberg, J E

    2013-01-01

    To compare long-term, updated overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) treated with vinflunine plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone, after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy.......To compare long-term, updated overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) treated with vinflunine plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone, after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy....

  2. Forces in the complex octonion curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to extend major equations in the electromagnetic and gravitational theories from the flat space into the complex octonion curved space. Maxwell applied simultaneously the quaternion analysis and vector terminology to describe the electromagnetic theory. It inspires subsequent scholars to study the electromagnetic and gravitational theories with the complex quaternions/octonions. Furthermore Einstein was the first to depict the gravitational theory by means of tensor analysis and curved four-space-time. Nowadays some scholars investigate the electromagnetic and gravitational properties making use of the complex quaternion/octonion curved space. From the orthogonality of two complex quaternions, it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex quaternion curved space, describing the gravitational properties in the complex quaternion curved space. Further it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex octonion curved space by means of the orthogonality of two comp...

  3. Growth curves in Down syndrome with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Caroline D'Azevedo; Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2016-01-01

    To assess dietary habits, nutritional status and food frequency in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) and congenital heart disease (CHD). Additionally, we attempted to compare body mass index (BMI) classifications according to the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and curves developed for individuals with DS. Cross-sectional study including individuals with DS and CHD treated at a referral center for cardiology, aged 2 to 18 years. Weight, height, BMI, total energy and food frequency were measured. Nutritional status was assessed using BMI for age and gender, using curves for evaluation of patients with DS and those set by the WHO. 68 subjects with DS and CHD were evaluated. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) was the most common heart disease (52.9%). There were differences in BMI classification between the curves proposed for patients with DS and those proposed by the WHO. There was an association between consumption of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results showed that individuals with DS are mostly considered normal weight for age, when evaluated using specific curves for DS. Reviews on specific curves for DS would be the recommended practice for health professionals so as to avoid precipitated diagnosis of overweight and/or obesity in this population.

  4. An analysis on the environmental Kuznets curve of Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zijian; Peng, Yue; Zhao, Yue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper based on the environmental and economic data of Chengdu from 2005 to 2014, the measurement models were established to analyze 3 kinds of environmental flow indicators and 4 kinds of environmental stock indicators to obtain their EKC evolution trajectories and characters. The results show that the relationship curve between the discharge of SO2 from industry and the GDP per capita is a positive U shape, just as the curve between discharge of COD from industry and the GDP per person. The relationship curve between the dust discharge from industry and the GDP per capita is an inverted N shape. In the central of the urban the relationship curve between the concentration of SO2 in the air and the GDP per person is a positive U shape. The relationship curves between the concentration of NO2 in the air and the GDP per person, between the concentration of the particulate matters and the GDP per person, and between the concentration of the fallen dusts and the GDP per person are fluctuating. So the EKC curves of the 7 kinds of environmental indicators are not accord with inverted U shape feature. In the development of this urban the environmental problems can’t be resolved only by economic growth. The discharge of industrial pollutants should be controlled to improve the atmospheric environmental quality and reduce the environmental risks.

  5. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stephan B; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  6. Probabilistic Lane Estimation using Basis Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Albert S.; Teller, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Lane estimation for autonomous driving can be formulated as a curve estimation problem, where local sensor data provides partial and noisy observations of spatial curves. The number of curves to estimate may be initially unknown and many of the observations may be outliers or false detections (due e.g. to to tree shadows or lens flare). The challenges lie in detecting lanes when and where they exist, and updating lane estimates as new observations are made. This paper ...

  7. Efficient detection of symmetries polynomially parametrized curves

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar Arribas, Juan Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    We present efficient algorithms for detecting central and mirror symmetry for the case of algebraic curves defined by means of polynomial parametrizations. The algorithms are based on an algebraic relationship between proper parametrizations of a same curve, which leads to a triangular polynomial system that can be solved in a very fast way; in particular, curves parametrized by polynomials of serious degrees/coefficients can be analyzed in a few seconds. In our analysis we provide a good num...

  8. Survival analysis of orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Jae; Ahn, Sug-Joon; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2010-02-01

    Survival analysis is useful in clinical research because it focuses on comparing the survival distributions and the identification of risk factors. Our aim in this study was to investigate the survival characteristics and risk factors of orthodontic mini-implants with survival analyses. One hundred forty-one orthodontic patients (treated from October 1, 2000, to November 29, 2007) were included in this survival study. A total of 260 orthodontic mini-implants that had sandblasted (large grit) and acid-etched screw parts were placed between the maxillary second premolar and the first molar. Failures of the implants were recorded as event data, whereas implants that were removed because treatment ended and those that were not removed during the study period were recorded as censored data. A nonparametric life table method was used to visualize the hazard function, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated to identify the variables associated with implant failure. Prognostic variables associated with implant failure were identified with the Cox proportional hazard model. Of the 260 implants, 22 failed. The hazard function for implant failure showed that the risk is highest immediately after placement. The survival function showed that the median survival time of orthodontic mini-implants is sufficient for relatively long orthodontic treatments. The Cox proportional hazard model identified that increasing age is a decisive factor for implant survival. The decreasing pattern of the hazard function suggested gradual osseointegration of orthodontic mini-implants. When implants are placed in a young patient, special caution is needed to lessen the increased probability of failure, especially immediately after placement.

  9. Sieving for rational points on hyperelliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Siksek, Samir

    2001-01-01

    We give a new and efficient method of sieving for rational points\\ud on hyperelliptic curves. This method is often successful in proving that a\\ud given hyperelliptic curve, suspected to have no rational points, does in fact\\ud have no rational points; we have often found this to be the case even when our\\ud curve has points over all localizations Qp. We illustrate the practicality of the\\ud method with some examples of hyperelliptic curves of genus 1.

  10. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  11. A Probabilistic Framework for Curve Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between the distributi......In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between...

  12. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  13. Secular variation curves of Mexico, progress, problems and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Three cases of secular variation of Mexico will be analyzed. The first is the preliminary results of the record of the transition Bruhnes-Matuyama in a paleosol sequence. The second is the research of a rock shelter since late Pliocene-early Holocene to Posclassic (AD 900-1527). Finally the improvement of the first archaeomagnetic secular variation curve of Mesoamerica from 1973 to 2012 with the inclusion of new results like La Ciudadela and Teopancazco of Teotihuacan, Tlatelolco and Templo Mayor of Mexico City and Tula. Our results will be compared with previous records from lake sediments and volcanic rocks, the models available like CALS*K or other published curves.

  14. Line transect sampling from a curving path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, L; Krishna, M B

    2001-09-01

    Cutting straight line transects through dense forest is time consuming and expensive when large areas need to be surveyed for rare or highly clustered species. We argue that existing paths or game trails may be suitable as transects for line transect sampling even though they will not, in general, run straight. Formulas and software currently used to estimate local density using perpendicular distance data can be used with closest approach distances measured from curving transects. Suitable paths or trails are those for which the minimum radius of curvature is rarely less than the width of the shoulder in the detection probability function. The use of existing paths carries the risk of bias resulting from unrepresentative sampling of available habitats, and this must be weighed against the increase in coverage available.

  15. Check-Operators and Quantum Spectral Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei

    2017-06-01

    We review the basic properties of effective actions of families of theories (i.e., the actions depending on additional non-perturbative moduli along with perturbative couplings), and their description in terms of operators (called check-operators), which act on the moduli space. It is this approach that led to constructing the (quantum) spectral curves and what is now nicknamed the EO/AMM topological recursion. We explain how the non-commutative algebra of check-operators is related to the modular kernels and how symplectic (special) geometry emerges from it in the classical (Seiberg-Witten) limit, where the quantum integrable structures turn into the well studied classical integrability. As time goes, these results turn applicable to more and more theories of physical importance, supporting the old idea that many universality classes of low-energy effective theories contain matrix model representatives.

  16. Curved Casimir Operators and the BGG Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Cap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the Casimir operator acting on sections of a homogeneous vector bundle over a generalized flag manifold naturally extends to an invariant differential operator on arbitrary parabolic geometries. We study some properties of the resulting invariant operators and compute their action on various special types of natural bundles. As a first application, we give a very general construction of splitting operators for parabolic geometries. Then we discuss the curved Casimir operators on differential forms with values in a tractor bundle, which nicely relates to the machinery of BGG sequences. This also gives a nice interpretation of the resolution of a finite dimensional representation by (spaces of smooth vectors in principal series representations provided by a BGG sequence.

  17. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  18. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  19. Survival and hepatitis status among Asian Americans with hepatocellular carcinoma treated without liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Manal M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are established causes of HCC. HCC patients are often diagnosed late and receive palliative therapies, however, the survival of Asian American patients with HCC treated without transplantation has not been well studied. We reviewed our institution's experience to determine predictors and rates of survival in Asian American HCC patients treated without transplantation. Methods We identified Asian American patients with HCC referred to M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patients were tested for HBV and HCV. Survival curves were generated by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the relationship between prognostic factors and survival. Results Of 82 Asian American HCC patients, most had advanced disease (65% and received treatment (68%; however, only 11% had surgical resection. 94% had positive anti-HBc and 61% had positive HBsAg. 20% had positive anti-HCV. There were no significant changes in the rates of HBV and HCV over time. Male gender, high alpha-fetoprotein levels, and stage IV disease were associated with shorter survival Overall median survival was 9.2 months (95% CI 6.5–11.9, and the survival of HCV and HBV patients was not statistically different. Conclusion The survival rate of Asian American patients with advanced HCC, for whom transplantation was not available, was low. Timely hepatitis screening and interventions by primary care physicians may be the most logical solution to reduce the burden of hepatitis-associated HCC among Asian Americans.

  20. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve functions of Iranian primiparous Holsteins. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The suitability of seven mathematical models (with three, four and five parameters) for describing the 305-day milk yield lactation curve of Holstein cows, were examined in this ...

  1. Sibling curves of polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in papers [2, 3] as a novel way to visualize the zeros of complex valued functions. In this paper, we continue the work done in those papers by focusing solely on polynomials. We proceed to prove that the number of sibling curves of a polynomial is the degree of the polynomial. Keywords: ...

  2. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  3. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  4. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...

  5. Modular curves, Arakelov theory, algorithmic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Pieter Jan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about arithmetic, analytic and algorithmic aspects of modular curves and modular forms. The arithmetic and analytic aspects are linked by the viewpoint that modular curves are examples of arithmetic surfaces. Therefore, Arakelov theory (intersection theory on arithmetic surfaces)

  6. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  7. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this section, various types of families of algebraic curves are considered. Equations of these curves are written either in Cartesian coordinates (x, y) or in terms of plane polar coordinates (r, θ). In some cases, para- metric equations are also considered. 3.1 Astroid. In Cartesian coordinates, the equation of an astroid (Fig-.

  8. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  9. Meta-analysis of survival prediction with Palliative Performance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Michael; Lau, Francis; Lesperance, Mary; Karlson, Nicholas; Shaw, Jack; Kuziemsky, Craig; Bernard, Steve; Hanson, Laura; Olajide, Lola; Head, Barbara; Ritchie, Christine; Harrold, Joan; Casarett, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to reconcile the use of Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) for survival prediction in palliative care through an international collaborative study by five research groups. The study involves an individual patient data meta-analysis on 1,808 patients from four original datasets to reanalyze their survival patterns by age, gender, cancer status, and initial PPS score. Our findings reveal a strong association between PPS and survival across the four datasets. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves show each PPS level as distinct, with a strong ordering effect in which higher PPS levels are associated with increased length of survival. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model to adjust for study differences, we found females lived significantly longer than males, with a further decrease in hazard for females not diagnosed with cancer. Further work is needed to refine the reporting of survival times/probabilities and to improve prediction accuracy with the inclusion of other variables in the models.

  10. On the Quasi-stationary curving dynamics of a railroad truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Hansen, T. G.; Lundell, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examine three aspects of the dynamics of the Cooperrider truck travelling in a curve with constant radius. First the critical speed is found. Second we investigate the existence of multiple steady solutions to the curving problem. Third - and it is related to the second problem - we examine...... the position of the truck frame and the wheelsets during curving. One interesting result is that for a given superelevation there exist curve radii for which the critical speed is exceeded, when the vehicle negotiates the curve with the allowed maximum cant deficiency. These critical speeds are lower than...

  11. Tree survival and maximum density of planted forests – Observations from South African spacing studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus v. Gadow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Among the most important aspects of risk and hazard studies relating to forest ecosystems are maximum forest density and density-dependent tree survival. Methods Long-term observations about the maximum density of unthinned Pinus patula and P. elliottii field plots based on the Correlated Curve Trend (CCT spacing studies which were established almost 8 decades ago by O’Connor (Forest Research with Special Reference to Planting Distances and Thinning, 1935 in South Africa. Three specific approaches were introduced for analysing maximum density and tree survival, namely the ‘limiting line’, Nilson’s sparsity and tree survival with the Weibull function. Results The main results are: a Maximum densities differ greatly among the two species grown on the same site and within the same species grown on different sites; it is possible to relate these differences to site index in both species. b The relationship between the quadratic mean diameter and the minimum average spacing of surviving trees (known as Nilson’s Sparsity appears to be surprisingly similar in both species. c An analysis of tree survival in response to different initial planting espacements shows that the Weibull survival function parameters can be estimated if the initial planting density is known. This result is presented for each of the eight large experiments used in this study. Conclusions This study contributes to a better understanding of tree survival and maximum density which are the key factors required for estimating risk and uncertainty. The risk of tree mortality is not constant, but varies with tree species, planting density, tree age and growing site. For estimating that risk, therefore, continuous long-term observation on different sites and with varying planting densities, as provided by the unthinned CCT series, are essential.

  12. N-Covers of hyperelliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, N.; Flynn, E. V.

    2003-05-01

    For a hyperelliptic curve {ax C} of genus g with a divisor class of order n = g + 1, we shall consider an associated covering collection of curves {ax D}_delta, each of genus g(2) . We describe, up to isogeny, the Jacobian of each {ax D}_delta via a map from {ax D}_delta to {ax C}, and two independent maps from {ax D}_delta to a curve of genus g(g-1)/2. For some curves, this allows covering techniques that depend on arithmetic data of number fields of smaller degree than standard 2-coverings; we illustrate this by using 3-coverings to find all {Bbb Q}-rational points on a curve of genus 2 for which 2-covering techniques would be impractical.

  13. Prognostic factors for survival and for biochemical cure in medullary thyroid carcinoma: results in 899 patients. The GETC Study Group. Groupe d'étude des tumeurs à calcitonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modigliani, E; Cohen, R; Campos, J M; Conte-Devolx, B; Maes, B; Boneu, A; Schlumberger, M; Bigorgne, J C; Dumontier, P; Leclerc, L; Corcuff, B; Guilhem, I

    1998-03-01

    Prognostic factors of sporadic or inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are still controversial and have been assessed in old and small series. A better knowledge of these factors would improve patient management. To evaluate factors involved in the prognosis of MTC in a large series of cases, using uni- and multivariate analysis. Clinical, biological, surgical and epidemiological data on 899 MTC patients, diagnosed between 1952 and 1996, were collected by the French Calcitonin Tumors Study Group (GETC) with a standardized questionnaire, and processed in a national database. Survival and biochemical cure (i.e. normal basal post-operative serum calcitonin levels) were analysed with Kaplan and Meier and log-rank test statistical procedures. Data are presented as adjusted rather than observed survival, to consider only patients who died of MTC. Cox's forward-stepping proportional hazard model was used to analyse factors with a significant influence on survival by univariate analysis. Apart from the large proportion of familial forms (43%), the general characteristics of our population were similar to those in other studies: mean age at surgery = 43.4 years; sex ratio = 1 male/1.35 female; stage I = 20.8%; stage II = 21.2%; stage III = 46.5% and stage IV = 11.5%. 863 (96%) patients underwent surgery; 43% of operated patients were biochemically cured. Adjusted survival was 85.7 +/- 1.5% at 5 years and 78.4 +/- 2.1% at 10 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age and stage were independent predictive factors of survival. Gender, type of surgery, type of familial form were predictive only in univariate analysis. Biochemical cure predicts a survival rate of 97.7% at 10 years. Authentic recurrence, that is subsequent elevation of calcitonin (CT) after post-operative normalization, was found in 4.9%. In non-cured patients (57%), survival was still good: 80.2% (+/- 2.2%) and 70.3% (+/- 2.9%) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Similarly, prediction of biochemical cure

  14. Electromagnetic field limits set by the V-Curve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hudson, Howard Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    When emitters of electromagnetic energy are operated in the vicinity of sensitive components, the electric field at the component location must be kept below a certain level in order to prevent the component from being damaged, or in the case of electro-explosive devices, initiating. The V-Curve is a convenient way to set the electric field limit because it requires minimal information about the problem configuration. In this report we will discuss the basis for the V-Curve. We also consider deviations from the original V-Curve resulting from inductive versus capacitive antennas, increases in directivity gain for long antennas, decreases in input impedance when operating in a bounded region, and mismatches dictated by transmission line losses. In addition, we consider mitigating effects resulting from limited antenna sizes.

  15. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  16. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  17. Obesity in cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V

    2012-08-21

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

  18. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of heavy soils water retention curves with respect to volume changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, B.; Tall, A.; Gomboš, M.; Pavelková, D.

    2017-10-01

    This work analyses the problem of measuring water retention curves in heavy soils. The results present the differences between soil water retention curves measured in soil samples collected from the selected localities of the Czech and Slovak area. In the drying process, the results showed an increased rate of soil shrinkage depending on clay content and water content. The rate of shrinkage affected the results of the water retention curves points measurement.

  20. The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results: II. Effects on lactation performance, including clinical mastitis recurrence, somatic cell count, milk production, and cow survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; Godden, S M; Bey, R; Ruegg, P L; Leslie, K

    2011-09-01

    case. In summary, the selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture resulted in no differences in long-term outcomes, such as recurrence of clinical mastitis in the same quarter, somatic cell count, milk production, and cow survival for the rest of the lactation after clinical mastitis. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of atypical APTT derivative curves on the ACL TOP coagulation analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, C; Zerafa, P; Bird, R

    2011-02-01

    The graphical representation of clotting data can provide useful information. A novel feature of the ACL TOP software allows display of clot reaction curves with superimposed first and second derivative curves. We noted atypical derivative plots associated with normal 'S'-shaped clot reaction curves in some abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). We tested 179 citrate plasmas with four different APTT reagents on the ACL TOP. We documented the prevalence and utility of these APTT atypical derivative curves in these patients. Ellagic acid APTT reagents commonly produce atypical derivative curves despite normal 'S'-shaped clot reaction curves. Occasionally, these atypical second derivative curves may cause incorrect APTT results. With silica activator APTT reagents, atypical derivative curves were associated with genuine coagulation abnormalities such as single factor deficiencies and lupus anticoagulants (LAs). To our knowledge, this novel finding has not been reported. Atypical derivative curves seen in ellagic acid APTTs are of limited diagnostic use because of the frequency with which they occur. This may be related to the need to optimize the data reduction utilized on the ACL TOP for these reagents. With silica activator APTTs, the presence of atypical derivative curves proved to be a very simple tool when troubleshooting unexpected abnormal APTT results, commonly predicting a factor deficiency or LA that would warrant further investigation. The cause of these aberrant derivative curves is probably related to abnormal thrombin generation in the APTT test and warrants further study. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Predicting survival of Salmonella in low-water activity foods: an analysis of literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana Farakos, Sofia M; Schaffner, Donald W; Frank, Joseph F

    2014-09-01

    Factors such as temperature, water activity (aw), substrate, culture media, serotype, and strain influence the survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods. Predictive models for Salmonella survival in low-aw foods at temperatures ranging from 21 to 80(u) C and water activities below 0.6 were previously developed. Literature data on survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods were analyzed in the present study to validate these predictive models and to determine global influencing factors. The results showed the Weibull model provided suitable fits to the data in 75% of the curves as compared with the log-linear model. The secondary models predicting the time required for log-decimal reduction (log δ) and shape factor (log β) values were useful in predicting the survival of Salmonella in low-aw foods. Statistical analysis indicated overall fail-safe secondary models, with 88% of the residuals in the acceptable and safe zones (survival kinetics of Salmonella in low-aw foods and its influencing factors.

  3. Survival in Women with NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katcoff, Hannah; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, few studies have investigated the hormonal influence on survival after a lung cancer diagnosis and results have been inconsistent. We evaluated the role of reproductive and hormonal factors in predicting overall survival in women with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Population-based lung cancer cases diagnosed between November 1, 2001 and October 31, 2005 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Interview and follow-up data were collected for 485 women. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for death after an NSCLC diagnosis associated with reproductive and hormonal variables. Results Use of hormone therapy (HT) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–0.89), adjusting for stage, surgery, radiation, education level, pack-years of smoking, age at diagnosis, race, and a multiplicative interaction between stage and radiation. No other reproductive or hormonal factor was associated with survival after an NSCLC diagnosis. Increased duration of HT use before the lung cancer diagnosis (132 months or longer) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37–0.78), and this finding remained significant in women taking either estrogen alone or progesterone plus estrogen, never smokers, and smokers. Conclusion These findings suggest that HT use, in particular use of estrogen plus progesterone, and long-term HT use are associated with improved survival of NSCLC. PMID:24496005

  4. Treatment response, drug survival, and predictors thereof in 764 patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy: results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Østergaard, Mikkel; Dreyer, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Score. Male sex, CRP level >10 mg/liter, concomitant methotrexate use, and low patient health visual analog scale score at baseline were associated with longer drug survival. Improvement was achieved by 59%, 45%, 24%, and 54% of patients according to the ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 response criteria and EULAR...

  5. Determination of the human spine curve based on laser triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredoš, Primož; Čelan, Dušan; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2015-02-05

    The main objective of the present method was to automatically obtain a spatial curve of the thoracic and lumbar spine based on a 3D shape measurement of a human torso with developed scoliosis. Manual determination of the spine curve, which was based on palpation of the thoracic and lumbar spinous processes, was found to be an appropriate way to validate the method. Therefore a new, noninvasive, optical 3D method for human torso evaluation in medical practice is introduced. Twenty-four patients with confirmed clinical diagnosis of scoliosis were scanned using a specially developed 3D laser profilometer. The measuring principle of the system is based on laser triangulation with one-laser-plane illumination. The measurement took approximately 10 seconds at 700 mm of the longitudinal translation along the back. The single point measurement accuracy was 0.1 mm. Computer analysis of the measured surface returned two 3D curves. The first curve was determined by manual marking (manual curve), and the second was determined by detecting surface curvature extremes (automatic curve). The manual and automatic curve comparison was given as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) for each patient. The intra-operator study involved assessing 20 successive measurements of the same person, and the inter-operator study involved assessing measurements from 8 operators. The results obtained for the 24 patients showed that the typical RMSD between the manual and automatic curve was 5.0 mm in the frontal plane and 1.0 mm in the sagittal plane, which is a good result compared with palpatory accuracy (9.8 mm). The intra-operator repeatability of the presented method in the frontal and sagittal planes was 0.45 mm and 0.06 mm, respectively. The inter-operator repeatability assessment shows that that the presented method is invariant to the operator of the computer program with the presented method. The main novelty of the presented paper is the development of a new, non-contact method

  6. DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the DNA repair genes are suspected to be related to the survival of lung cancer patients due to their possible influence on DNA repair capacity (DRC. However, the study results are inconsistent. Methods: A follow-up study of 610 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients was conducted to investigate genetic polymorphisms associated with the DNA repair genes in relation to NSCLC survival; 6 SNPs were genotyped, including XRCC1 (rs25487 G>A, hOGG1 (rs1052133 C>G, MUTYH (rs3219489 G>C, XPA (rs1800975 G>A, ERCC2 (rs1799793 G>A and XRCC3 (rs861539 C>T. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. SNP-SNP interaction was also examined using the survival tree analysis. Results: Advanced disease stage and older age at diagnosis were associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC. Patients with the variant ‘G' allele of hOGG1 rs1052133 had poor overall survival compared with those with the homozygous wild ‘CC' genotype, especially in female patients, adenocarcinoma histology, early stage, light smokers and without family history of cancer. For never smoking female lung cancer patients, individuals carrying homozygous variant ‘AA' genotype of XPA had shorter survival time compared to those with wild ‘G' alleles. Furthermore, females carrying homozygous variant XPA and hOGG1 genotypes simultaneously had 2.78-fold increased risk for death. Among all 6 polymorphisms, the homozygous variant ‘AA' of XPA carriers had poor prognosis compared to the carriers of wild ‘G' alleles of XPA together with other base excision repair (BER polymorphisms. Conclusions: Besides disease stage and age, the study found DNA repair gene polymorphisms were associated with lung cancer survival.

  7. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  8. Comparison Algorithm Kernels on Support Vector Machine (SVM To Compare The Trend Curves with Curves Online Forex Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At this time, the players Forex Trading generally still use the data exchange in the form of a Forex Trading figures from different sources. Thus they only receive or know the data rate of a Forex Trading prevailing at the time just so difficult to analyze or predict exchange rate movements future. Forex players usually use the indicators to enable them to analyze and memperdiksi future value. Indicator is a decision making tool. Trading forex is trading currency of a country, the other country's currency. Trading took place globally between the financial centers of the world with the involvement of the world's major banks as the major transaction. Trading Forex offers profitable investment type with a small capital and high profit, with relatively small capital can earn profits doubled. This is due to the forex trading systems exist leverage which the invested capital will be doubled if the predicted results of buy / sell is accurate, but Trading Forex having high risk level, but by knowing the right time to trade (buy or sell, the losses can be avoided. Traders who invest in the foreign exchange market is expected to have the ability to analyze the circumstances and situations in predicting the difference in currency exchange rates. Forex price movements that form the pattern (curve up and down greatly assist traders in making decisions. The movement of the curve used as an indicator in the decision to purchase (buy or sell (sell. This study compares (Comparation type algorithm kernel on Support Vector Machine (SVM to predict the movement of the curve in live time trading forex using the data GBPUSD, 1H. Results of research on the study of the results and discussion can be concluded that the Kernel Dot, Kernel Multiquaric, Kernel Neural inappropriately used for data is non-linear in the case of data forex to follow the pattern of trend curves, because curves generated curved linear (straight and then to type of kernel is the closest curve

  9. The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Malene Lopez; Christensen, Palle Mark; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-09-24

    To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials. A systematic literature review of all statin trials that presented all-cause survival curves for treated and untreated. Statin treatment compared to placebo. The average postponement of death as represented by the area between the survival curves. 6 studies for primary prevention and 5 for secondary prevention with a follow-up between 2.0 and 6.1 years were identified. Death was postponed between -5 and 19 days in primary prevention trials and between -10 and 27 days in secondary prevention trials. The median postponement of death for primary and secondary prevention trials were 3.2 and 4.1 days, respectively. Statin treatment results in a surprisingly small average gain in overall survival within the trials' running time. For patients whose life expectancy is limited or who have adverse effects of treatment, withholding statin therapy should be considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Relationship Between Metformin Use and Recurrence and Survival in Patients With Resected Stage III Colon Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: Results From North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Paul; Shi, Qian; Foster, Nathan R; Grothey, Axel; Nair, Suresh G; Chan, Emily; Shields, Anthony F; Goldberg, Richard M; Gill, Sharlene; Kahlenberg, Morton S; Sinicrope, Frank A; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical and epidemiological data suggest that metformin might have antineoplastic properties against colon cancer (CC). However, the effect of metformin use on patient survival in stage III CC after curative resection is unknown. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use. Before randomization to FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab, 1,958 patients with stage III CC enrolled in the N0147 study completed a questionnaire with information on diabetes mellitus (DM) and metformin use. Cox models were used to assess the association between metformin use and disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and the time to recurrence (TTR), adjusting for clinical and/or pathological factors. Of the 1,958 patients, 1,691 (86%) reported no history of DM, 115 reported DM with metformin use (6%), and 152 reported DM without metformin use (8%). The adjuvant treatment arms were pooled, because metformin use showed homogeneous effects on outcomes across the two arms. Among the patients with DM (n = 267), DFS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.35; p = .60), OS (aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.65-1.49; p = .95), and TTR (aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.35; p = .53) were not different for the metformin users compared with the nonusers after adjusting for tumor and patient factors. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use (colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin)-based chemotherapy. This relationship was not modified by KRAS or BRAF mutation or DNA mismatch repair status. Metformin use did not increase or decrease the likelihood of chemotherapy-related grade 3 or higher adverse events. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Minimum action curves in degenerate Finsler metrics existence and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Heymann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a study of geometric action functionals (i.e., non-negative functionals on the space of unparameterized oriented rectifiable curves), this monograph focuses on the subclass of those functionals whose local action is a degenerate type of Finsler metric that may vanish in certain directions, allowing for curves with positive Euclidean length but with zero action. For such functionals, criteria are developed under which there exists a minimum action curve leading from one given set to another. Then the properties of this curve are studied, and the non-existence of minimizers is established in some settings. Applied to a geometric reformulation of the quasipotential of Wentzell-Freidlin theory (a subfield of large deviation theory), these results can yield the existence and properties of maximum likelihood transition curves between two metastable states in a stochastic process with small noise. The book assumes only standard knowledge in graduate-level analysis; all higher-level mathematical concept...

  12. Extracting information from S-curves of language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Gerlach, Martin; Miotto, José M; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2014-12-06

    It is well accepted that adoption of innovations are described by S-curves (slow start, accelerating period and slow end). In this paper, we analyse how much information on the dynamics of innovation spreading can be obtained from a quantitative description of S-curves. We focus on the adoption of linguistic innovations for which detailed databases of written texts from the last 200 years allow for an unprecedented statistical precision. Combining data analysis with simulations of simple models (e.g. the Bass dynamics on complex networks), we identify signatures of endogenous and exogenous factors in the S-curves of adoption. We propose a measure to quantify the strength of these factors and three different methods to estimate it from S-curves. We obtain cases in which the exogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of German orthographic reforms and of one irregular verb) and cases in which endogenous factors are dominant (in the adoption of conventions for romanization of Russian names and in the regularization of most studied verbs). These results show that the shape of S-curve is not universal and contains information on the adoption mechanism. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated “trial-and-error” protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  14. Smooth time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Pardo-Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method often used to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous (bio)markers. When the considered outcome is a time-dependent variable, two main extensions have been proposed: the cumulative/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve and the incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve. In both cases, the main problem for developing appropriate estimators is the estimation of the joint distribution of the variables time-to-event and marker. As usual, different approximations lead to different estimators. In this article, the authors explore the use of a bivariate kernel density estimator which accounts for censored observations in the sample and produces smooth estimators of the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves. The performance of the resulting cumulative/dynamic and incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curves is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, the influence of the choice of the required smoothing parameters is explored. Finally, two real-applications are considered. An R package is also provided as a complement to this article.

  15. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Dong, ZhiBao; Han, FengQing

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR) model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated "trial-and-error" protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves) are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  16. Survival Processing Eliminates Collaborative Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B; Bliss, Heather; Baker, Melissa A

    2017-04-11

    The present experiments examined the effect of processing words for their survival value, relevance to moving, and pleasantness on participants' free recall scores in both nominal groups (non-redundant pooled individual scores) and collaborative dyads. Overall, participants recalled more words in the survival processing conditions than in the moving and pleasantness processing conditions. Furthermore, nominal groups in both the pleasantness condition (Experiment 1) and the moving and pleasantness conditions (Experiment 2) recalled more words than collaborative groups, thereby replicating the oft-observed effect of collaborative inhibition. However, processing words for their survival value appeared to eliminate the deleterious effects of collaborative remembering in both Experiments 1 and 2. These results are discussed in the context of the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis and the effects of both expertise and collaborative skill on group remembering.

  17. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...... administrative micro data we find that the elasticity of the wage-setting curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with an university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase...

  18. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  19. Magnetization curve modelling of soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, I, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bertalan L. street 7., Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the so called hyperbolic model of magnetization. The model was modified and it was applied for nine different soft magnetic alloys. The tested samples were electro-technical steels (FeSi alloys) and a permalloy (FeNi alloy) with strongly different magnetic properties. Among them there are top, medium and definitely poor quality soft magnetic materials as well. Their minor hysteresis loops and normal magnetization curves were measured by alternating current measurement. The hyperbolic model of magnetization was applied for the experimental normal magnetization curves. It was proved that the applied model is excellent for describing mathematically the experimental magnetization curves.

  20. Intersection cohomology of moduli spaces of vector bundles over curves

    OpenAIRE

    Mozgovoy, Sergey; Reineke, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We compute the intersection cohomology of the moduli spaces $M(r,d)$ of semistable vector bundles of arbitrary rank $r$ and degree $d$ over a curve. To do this, we introduce new invariants, called Donaldson-Thomas invariants of a curve, which can be effectively computed by methods going back to Harder, Narasimhan, Desale and Ramanan. Our main result relates the Hodge-Euler polynomial of the intersection cohomology of $M(r,d)$ to the Donaldson-Thomas invariants. More generally, we introduce Do...

  1. The antiproton depth–dose curve in water

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, N; Jäkel, O; Knudsen, H V; Kovacevic, S

    2008-01-01

    We have measured the depth–dose curve of 126 MeV antiprotons in a water phantom using ionization chambers. Since the antiproton beam provided by CERN has a pulsed structure and possibly carries a high-LET component from the antiproton annihilation, it is necessary to correct the acquired charge for ion recombination effects. The results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations and were found to be in good agreement. Based on this agreement we calculate the antiproton depth–dose curve for antiprotons and compare it with that for protons and find a doubling of the physical dose in the peak region for antiprotons.

  2. Mössbauer spectral curve fitting combining fundamentally different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanto, Ferry [School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Footscray, VIC 3011 (Australia); Data61, CSIRO, College Road, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); Souza, Paulo de [School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); Data61, CSIRO, College Road, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    We propose the use of fundamentally distinctive techniques to solve the problem of curve fitting a Mössbauer spectrum. The techniques we investigated are: evolutionary algorithm, basin hopping, and hill climbing. These techniques were applied in isolation and combined to fit different shapes of Mössbauer spectra. The results indicate that complex Mössbauer spectra can be automatically curve fitted using minimum user input, and combination of these techniques achieved the best performance (lowest statistical error). The software and sample of Mössbauer spectra have been made available through a link at the reference.

  3. Equal autophonic level curves under different room acoustics conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Mendizábal, Oier Fuentes; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The indirect auditory feedback from one’s own voice arises from sound reflections at the room boundaries or from sound reinforcement systems. The relative variations of indirect auditory feedback are quantified through room acoustic parameters such as the room gain and the voice support, rather...... curves. These curves give an indication of the amount of variation in voice level induced by the acoustic environment as a consequence of the sidetone compensation or Lombard effect. In the range of typical rooms for speech, the variations in overall voice level that result in a constant autophonic level...

  4. Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Piantelli, S. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Rivet, M.F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Raduta, Ad.R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bonnet, E. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Gruyer, D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Marini, P. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-10

    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4–12 AMeV [S. Piantelli, et al., INDRA Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. A 809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  5. Method for estimating spin-spin interactions from magnetization curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ryo; Hukushima, Koji

    2017-02-01

    We develop a method to estimate the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian from the observed magnetization curve by machine learning based on Bayesian inference. In our method, plausible spin-spin interactions are determined by maximizing the posterior distribution, which is the conditional probability of the spin-spin interactions in the Hamiltonian for a given magnetization curve with observation noise. The conditional probability is obtained with the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations combined with an exchange Monte Carlo method. The efficiency of our method is tested using synthetic magnetization curve data, and the results show that spin-spin interactions are estimated with a high accuracy. In particular, the relevant terms of the spin-spin interactions are successfully selected from the redundant interaction candidates by the l1 regularization in the prior distribution.

  6. Receiver operating characteristic curve in diagnostic test assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrekar, Jayawant N

    2010-09-01

    The performance of a diagnostic test in the case of a binary predictor can be evaluated using the measures of sensitivity and specificity. However, in many instances, we encounter predictors that are measured on a continuous or ordinal scale. In such cases, it is desirable to assess performance of a diagnostic test over the range of possible cutpoints for the predictor variable. This is achieved by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve that includes all the possible decision thresholds from a diagnostic test result. In this brief report, we discuss the salient features of the ROC curve, as well as discuss and interpret the area under the ROC curve, and its utility in comparing two different tests or predictor variables of interest.

  7. Design and Performance Test of Locking Curved-Nut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min Cheol; Kang, Ho Sung; Kim, Do Yeop; Lee, Suk Yong; Lee, Eung Suk [Chungbuk Nat’l Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hui Jong [Viblock Company, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Many types of locking nut are commercializing in the various industries where has heavy vibration. Because Nut's loosing causes a serious accident. But the most locking nuts are too expensive as the complicate manufacturing process. In this study, we design the new type of locking nut, 'Curved-Nut' that is relatively simple making process. We study a relation between the elastic energy and the nut loosing mechanism. So it is analysed, the elastic energy of Curved-Nut comparing with the locking test. The Curved-Nut was manufactured on the commercial nut using a milling tool with horizontal cutting, one or two time under the nut. As the result, the more elastic energy the more prevent the loosing of the nut. We verified the performance of the loosing nut using the vibration testing equipment (NAS3350).

  8. The effect of pavement markings on driving behaviour in curves: a simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariën, Caroline; Brijs, Kris; Vanroelen, Giovanni; Ceulemans, Wesley; Jongen, Ellen M M; Daniels, Stijn; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of two pavement markings (transverse rumble strips (TRS) and a backward pointing herringbone pattern (HP)) on speed and lateral control in and nearby curves. Two real-world curves with strong indications of a safety problem were replicated as realistic as possible in the simulator. Results show that both speed and lateral control differ between the curves. These behavioural differences are probably due to curve-related dissimilarities with respect to geometric alignment, cross-sectional design and speed limit. TRS and HP both influenced mean speed and mean acceleration/deceleration but not lateral control. TRS generated an earlier and more stable speed reduction than HP which induced significant speed reductions along the curve. The TRS gives drivers more time to generate the right expectations about the upcoming curve. When accidents occur primarily near the curve entry, TRS is recommended. The HP has the potential to reduce accidents at the curve end. Practitioner Summary: Two pavement markings (transversal rumble strips and HP) nearby dangerous curves were investigated in the driving simulator. TRS generated an earlier and more stable speed reduction than HP which induced speed reductions along the curve. The TRS gives drivers more time to generate right expectations about the upcoming curve.

  9. Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ity for the primary and secondary components of PV Pup, HD 141929, EE Cet and. V921 Her, respectively. The solid closed curves are the result of the nonlinear regres- sion of equation (14), which their good coincidence with the measured data yields to derive the optimized parameters K, e and ω. Figures show that also ...

  10. Analysis of Item Difficulty Parameters on Item Characteristic Curves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed a significant difference between the difficulty levels of test items in WAEC and NECO mathematics objective test instruments, with NECO having more difficulty level in their instruments, as reflected in the item characteristic curves. Thus, the NECO examination mathematics objective test was more difficult ...

  11. Catmull-Rom Curve Fitting and Interpolation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Computer graphics and animation experts have been using the Catmull-Rom smooth curve interpolation equations since 1974, but the vector and matrix equations can be derived and simplified using basic algebra, resulting in a simple set of linear equations with constant coefficients. A variety of uses of Catmull-Rom interpolation are demonstrated,…

  12. Theory of viscous flow in curved shallow channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1972-01-01

    The axisymmetrical, viscous flow in curved channels is considered in the case where the hydraulic radius of the cross-section is small with respect to the average radius of curvature of the bend. First Ananyan's theory on this subject is reconsidered, using a regular perturbation method. The results

  13. Potential energy curves for neutral and multiply charged carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Potential energy curves of various electronic states of CO+ (0 ≤ ≤ 6) are generated at MRCI/CASSCF level using cc-pvQZ basis set and the results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data. Author Affiliations. Pradeep Kumar1 N Sathyamurthy1 2 3. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  14. The Antiproton Depth Dose Curve Measured with Alanine Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, Johnny Witterseh; Palmans, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on the measurement of the antiproton depth dose curve, with alanine detectors. The results are compared with simulations using the particle energy spectrum calculated by FLUKA, and using the track structure model of Hansen et Olsen for conversion of calculated dose...

  15. Plane sections of space curves in positive characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonacini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that if C is a curve of degree d ≥ 6 in P^3 over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0 such that its plane section is contained in an irreducible conic, then C lies on a quadric surface. We show under which conditions this result holds also in positive characteristic.

  16. Nestling Weight and Survival in Individual Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Boerlijst, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    (1) The aim of this paper is to estimate the shape of the curve relating first year survival to nestling weight in individual great tits (Parus major) and to study the causality of this relationship. (2) Data were collected in a mainland and an island population. Nestlings were weighed and sexed in

  17. Learning Curve of Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ersagun Arslan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer (PrC is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the second most common malignancy in men. Currently, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP has become a popular treatment for localised PrC treatment worldwide. We aimed to assess the learning curve of RARP in our institution. Methods: A total of 391 patients who underwent RARP in our clinic between February 2009 and April 2013 were included in the study. We retrospectively evaluated patient data that were recorded prospectively. The demographic, perioperative, postoperative functional, and oncological results of six surgeons’ patient groups (n=72, n=110, n=103, n=38, n=36, and n=32 and three consecutive series formed by dividing the patient groups of the three surgeons with the highest volume of cases were analysed. Results: There was no significant difference between patient groups with regard to age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score, number of previously performed operations, prostate-specific antigen levels, clinical stage, biopsy pathology, pathological stage, positive surgical margin (PSM rate, biochemical recurrence (BCR rate, potency, and continence rate at postoperative Month 12. When we assessed the three consecutive series of the three highest-volume surgeons we found that, over time, operation time (OT decreased significantly (p0.05, and median IIEF score at 12 months improved significantly (p0.05, and median IIEF score at 12 months improved significantly (p=0.01 in the series of Surgeon 2; OT decreased significantly (p0.05 for both in the series of Surgeon 3. The overall complication rate was 11.7% and 34% of these complications were major ones. The overall blood transfusion rate was 2%. The overall PSM rate was 20.4% (9.3% for pT2 tumours and 44% for pT3 tumours. The overall rate of BCR was 9.4%. Conclusion: In

  18. Water Retention Curves of Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Romero, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    The water retention curve of Opalinus clay samples was determined under different conditions: total and matric suction, stress or no-stress conditions, wetting and drying paths. Through the fitting of these results to the van Genuchten expression the P parameter, related to the air entry value (AEV), was obtained. The AEV is the suction value above which air is able to enter the pores of the sample, and consequently, above which 2-phase flow can take place in the soil pore structure. The samples used in this research came from two different boreholes, BHT-1 and BHG-D1, but the behaviour of them did not depend on their location, what was probably due to the fact that both were drilled in the shay facies of the Opalinus clay. There was not a distinct difference between the results obtained under total or matric suctions. In the drying paths, both the water contents and the degrees of saturation tended to be higher when total suction was applied, however the reverse trend was observed for the water contents reached in wetting paths. As well, no clear difference was observed in the water retention curves obtained in odometers under matric and total suctions, what points to the osmotic component of suction in Opalinus clay not being significant. Overall, the water contents were lower and the degrees of saturation higher when suction was applied under vertical stress, what would indicate that the water retention capacity was lower under 8 MPa vertical stress than under free volume conditions. This vertical stress value is slightly higher than the maximum in situ stress. Also, the samples showed hysteresis according to the expected behaviour, i.e. the water contents for a given suction were higher during a drying path than during a wetting path. The P values obtained were between 6 and 34 MPa, and tended to be higher for the samples tested under stress, in drying paths and when total suction was used. The air entry value calculated from the mercury intrusion porosimetry

  19. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  20. Aluminized fiberglass insulation conforms to curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Layers of fiber glass with outer reflective films of vacuum-deposited aluminum or other reflective metal, provide thermal insulation which conforms to curved surfaces. This insulation has good potential for cryogenic systems.