Sample records for survival curves derived

  1. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J


    .... In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient...

  2. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim


    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  3. Methods for Performing Survival Curve Quality-of-Life Assessments. (United States)

    Sumner, Walton; Ding, Eric; Fischer, Irene D; Hagen, Michael D


    Many medical decisions involve an implied choice between alternative survival curves, typically with differing quality of life. Common preference assessment methods neglect this structure, creating some risk of distortions. Survival curve quality-of-life assessments (SQLA) were developed from Gompertz survival curves fitting the general population's survival. An algorithm was developed to generate relative discount rate-utility (DRU) functions from a standard survival curve and health state and an equally attractive alternative curve and state. A least means squared distance algorithm was developed to describe how nearly 3 or more DRU functions intersect. These techniques were implemented in a program called X-Trade and tested. SQLA scenarios can portray realistic treatment choices. A side effect scenario portrays one prototypical choice, to extend life while experiencing some loss, such as an amputation. A risky treatment scenario portrays procedures with an initial mortality risk. A time trade scenario mimics conventional time tradeoffs. Each SQLA scenario yields DRU functions with distinctive shapes, such as sigmoid curves or vertical lines. One SQLA can imply a discount rate or utility if the other value is known and both values are temporally stable. Two SQLA exercises imply a unique discount rate and utility if the inferred DRU functions intersect. Three or more SQLA results can quantify uncertainty or inconsistency in discount rate and utility estimates. Pilot studies suggested that many subjects could learn to interpret survival curves and do SQLA. SQLA confuse some people. Compared with SQLA, standard gambles quantify very low utilities more easily, and time tradeoffs are simpler for high utilities. When discount rates approach zero, time tradeoffs are as informative and easier to do than SQLA. SQLA may complement conventional utility assessment methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Multivariate permutation test to compare survival curves for matched data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia


    ... for the comparison of survival curves cannot be applied in this setting. We demonstrate the validity of the proposed method with simulations, and we illustrate its application to data from an observational study for the comparison of bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in the treatment of paediatric leukaemia. The use of the multivariate permutation testing approach is recommended in the highly stratified context of survival matched data, especially when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.

  5. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks. (United States)

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl


    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. On differences in radiosensitivity estimation: TCP experiments versus survival curves. A theoretical study. (United States)

    Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Nahum, Alan


    We have compared two methods of estimating the cellular radiosensitivity of a heterogeneous tumour, namely, via cell-survival and via tumour control probability (TCP) pseudo-experiments. It is assumed that there exists intra-tumour variability in radiosensitivity and that the tumour consists predominantly of radiosensitive cells and a small number of radio-resistant cells.Using a multi-component, linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill, a pseudo-experimental cell-survival versus dose curve is derived. This curve is then fitted with a mono-component LQ model describing the response of a homogeneous cell population. For the assumed variation in radiosensitivity it is shown that the composite pseudo-experimental survival curve is well approximated by the survival curve of cells with uniform radiosensitivity.For the same initial cell radiosensitivity distribution several pseudo-experimental TCP curves are simulated corresponding to different fractionation regimes. The TCP model used accounts for clonogen proliferation during a fractionated treatment. The set of simulated TCP curves is then fitted with a mono-component TCP model. As in the cell survival experiment the fit with a mono-component model assuming uniform radiosensitivity is shown to be highly acceptable.However, the best-fit values of cellular radiosensitivity produced via the two methods are very different. The cell-survival pseudo-experiment yields a high radiosensitivity value, while the TCP pseudo-experiment shows that the dose-response is dominated by the most resistant sub-population in the tumour, even when this is just a small fraction of the total.

  7. Graphing survival curve estimates for time-dependent covariates. (United States)

    Schultz, Lonni R; Peterson, Edward L; Breslau, Naomi


    Graphical representation of statistical results is often used to assist readers in the interpretation of the findings. This is especially true for survival analysis where there is an interest in explaining the patterns of survival over time for specific covariates. For fixed categorical covariates, such as a group membership indicator, Kaplan-Meier estimates (1958) can be used to display the curves. For time-dependent covariates this method may not be adequate. Simon and Makuch (1984) proposed a technique that evaluates the covariate status of the individuals remaining at risk at each event time. The method takes into account the change in an individual's covariate status over time. The survival computations are the same as the Kaplan-Meier method, in that the conditional survival estimates are the function of the ratio of the number of events to the number at risk at each event time. The difference between the two methods is that the individuals at risk within each level defined by the covariate is not fixed at time 0 in the Simon and Makuch method as it is with the Kaplan-Meier method. Examples of how the two methods can differ for time dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis are presented.

  8. Dispersion curves for a viscoelastic Timoshenko beam with fractional derivatives (United States)

    Usuki, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Takahiro


    The Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, often used as a viscoelastic constitutive law for polymeric materials, is based on purely mathematical properties of linearity, convergence of improper integrals, and causality; thus, it may also be valid as a viscoelastic constitutive law for general structural materials. Accordingly, the motion equation of a Timoshenko beam composed of conventional elastic structural materials is extended to one composed of viscoelastic materials. From the derived governing equation, a dispersive equation is derived for a viscoelastic Timoshenko beam. By plotting phase velocity curves and group velocity curves for a beam of solid circular cross-section composed of a viscoelastic material (polyvinyl chloride foam), the influence of the fractional order of viscoelasticity is examined. As a result, it is found that, in the high frequency range, only the first mode of a Timoshenko beam converged to the propagation velocity of the Rayleigh wave, which takes account of the fractional order of viscoelasticity. In addition, the phase velocity and the group velocity were found to increase as the fractional order approaches 0, and to decrease as the fractional order approaches 1. Furthermore, the rate of velocity change becomes greater as the fractional order approaches 0, and becomes smaller as the fractional order approaches 1.

  9. A study of atypical APTT derivative curves on the ACL TOP coagulation analyser. (United States)

    Solano, C; Zerafa, P; Bird, R


    The graphical representation of clotting data can provide useful information. A novel feature of the ACL TOP software allows display of clot reaction curves with superimposed first and second derivative curves. We noted atypical derivative plots associated with normal 'S'-shaped clot reaction curves in some abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). We tested 179 citrate plasmas with four different APTT reagents on the ACL TOP. We documented the prevalence and utility of these APTT atypical derivative curves in these patients. Ellagic acid APTT reagents commonly produce atypical derivative curves despite normal 'S'-shaped clot reaction curves. Occasionally, these atypical second derivative curves may cause incorrect APTT results. With silica activator APTT reagents, atypical derivative curves were associated with genuine coagulation abnormalities such as single factor deficiencies and lupus anticoagulants (LAs). To our knowledge, this novel finding has not been reported. Atypical derivative curves seen in ellagic acid APTTs are of limited diagnostic use because of the frequency with which they occur. This may be related to the need to optimize the data reduction utilized on the ACL TOP for these reagents. With silica activator APTTs, the presence of atypical derivative curves proved to be a very simple tool when troubleshooting unexpected abnormal APTT results, commonly predicting a factor deficiency or LA that would warrant further investigation. The cause of these aberrant derivative curves is probably related to abnormal thrombin generation in the APTT test and warrants further study. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Power-Time Curve Comparison between Weightlifting Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Suchomel, Christopher J. Sole


    Full Text Available This study examined the power production differences between weightlifting derivatives through a comparison of power-time (P-t curves. Thirteen resistance-trained males performed hang power clean (HPC, jump shrug (JS, and hang high pull (HHP repetitions at relative loads of 30%, 45%, 65%, and 80% of their one repetition maximum (1RM HPC. Relative peak power (PPRel, work (WRel, and P-t curves were compared. The JS produced greater PPRel than the HPC (p < 0.001, d = 2.53 and the HHP (p < 0.001, d = 2.14. In addition, the HHP PPRel was statistically greater than the HPC (p = 0.008, d = 0.80. Similarly, the JS produced greater WRel compared to the HPC (p < 0.001, d = 1.89 and HHP (p < 0.001, d = 1.42. Furthermore, HHP WRel was statistically greater than the HPC (p = 0.003, d = 0.73. The P-t profiles of each exercise were similar during the first 80-85% of the movement; however, during the final 15-20% of the movement the P-t profile of the JS was found to be greater than the HPC and HHP. The JS produced greater PPRel and WRel compared to the HPC and HHP with large effect size differences. The HHP produced greater PPRel and WRel than the HPC with moderate effect size differences. The JS and HHP produced markedly different P-t profiles in the final 15-20% of the movement compared to the HPC. Thus, these exercises may be superior methods of training to enhance PPRel. The greatest differences in PPRel between the JS and HHP and the HPC occurred at lighter loads, suggesting that loads of 30-45% 1RM HPC may provide the best training stimulus when using the JS and HHP. In contrast, loads ranging 65-80% 1RM HPC may provide an optimal stimulus for power production during the HPC.

  11. Derivation of standard lactation curves for South African dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African cows displayed more variation in yields compared to those of Holstein cows in the Netherlands and Ireland. Season of calving had a pronounced effect on the shape of the Standard Lactation Curve, while the combination of calving age and lactation affected both the shape and level of the curves. Expected ...

  12. Longevity and survival curves of Rhinella icterica (Anura, Bufonidae) under laboratory conditions. (United States)

    Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S


    Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = -0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=-761.96Ln(x)+5298.5).

  13. Experimental determination of pure rotary stability derivatives using curved and rolling flow wind tunnel (United States)

    Lutze, F. H.


    The technique of using a curved and rolling flow wind tunnel to extract pure rotary stability derivatives is presented. Descriptions of the curved flow and the rolling flow test sections of the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel are given including methods for obtaining the proper velocity profiles and correcting the data acquired. Results of testing current fighter configurations in this facility are presented with particular attention given to comparing pure rotary derivatives with combined rotary and unsteady derivatives obtained by standard oscillation tests. Also the effect of curved and rolling flow on lateral static stability derivatives is examined.

  14. Toward computer simulation of high-LET in vitro survival curves (United States)

    Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.


    We developed a Monte Carlo based computer program called MCSC (Monte Carlo Survival Curve) able to predict the survival fraction of cells irradiated in vitro with a broad beam of high linear energy transfer particles. Three types of cell responses are studied: the usual high dose response, the bystander effect and the low-dose hypersensitivity (HRS). The program models the broad beam irradiation and double strand break distribution following Poisson statistics. The progression of cells through the cell cycle is taken into account while the repair takes place. Input parameters are experimentally determined for A549 lung carcinoma cells irradiated with 10 and 20 keV µm-1 protons, 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles and for EAhy926 endothelial cells exposed to 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles. Results of simulations are presented and compared with experimental survival curves obtained for A549 and EAhy296 cells. Results are in good agreement with experimental data for both cell lines and all irradiation protocols. The benefits of MCSC are several: the gain of time that would have been spent performing time-consuming clonogenic assays, the capacity to estimate survival fraction of cell lines not forming colonies and possibly the evaluation of radiosensitivity parameters of given individuals.

  15. Well test analysis results interpretation: Combined type curve and pressure derivative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, P.; Matteotti, G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Idraulica)

    In reviewing theoretical concepts forming the basis for the interpretation of well test analyses, this paper focusses on the 'theoretical model' for the determination of the parameters and variables. It then applies this theory to the combined type curve and pressure derivative interpretation approaches. Finally, the paper illustrates an approach combining the combined type curve and pressure derivative methods for homogeneous and isotropic conditions in a thermal aquifer and in the presence of the skin effect and wellbore storage.

  16. The Initial Area Under the Curve Derived from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Improves Prognosis Prediction in Glioblastoma with Unmethylated MGMT Promoter. (United States)

    Choi, Y S; Ahn, S S; Lee, H-J; Chang, J H; Kang, S-G; Kim, E H; Kim, S H; Lee, S-K


    Although perfusion and permeability MR parameters have known to have prognostic value, they have reproducibility issues. Our aim was to evaluate whether the initial area under the time-to-signal intensity curve (IAUC) derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can improve prognosis prediction in patients with glioblastoma with known MGMT status. We retrospectively examined 88 patients with glioblastoma who underwent preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. The means of IAUC values at 30 and 60 seconds (IAUC30mean and IAUC60mean) were extracted from enhancing tumors. The prognostic values of IAUC parameters for overall survival and progression-free survival were assessed with log-rank tests, according to the MGMT status. Multivariate overall survival and progression-free survival models before and after adding the IAUC parameters as covariates were explored by net reclassification improvement after receiver operating characteristic analysis for 1.5-year overall survival and 1-year progression-free survival and by random survival forest. High IAUC parameters were associated with worse overall survival and progression-free survival in the unmethylated MGMT group, but not in the methylated group. In the unmethylated MGMT group, 1.5-year overall survival and 1-year progression-free survival prediction improved significantly after adding IAUC parameters (overall survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.86; progression-free survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.74-0.76) to the model with other prognostic factors (overall survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.81; progression-free survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.69; P < .05 for all) except in the case of IAUC60mean for 1-year progression-free survival prediction (P = .059). Random survival forest models indicated that the IAUC parameters were the second or most important predictors in the

  17. ANTEROCOD: actuarial survival curves applied to medical coding support for chronic diseases. (United States)

    Lecornu, L; Le Guillou, C; Le Saux, F; Hubert, M; Puentes, J; Cauvin, J M


    For the practitioner, choosing diagnosis codes is a non-intuitive operation. Mistakes are frequent, causing severe consequences on healthcare performance evaluation and funding. French physicians have to assign a code to all their activities and are frequently prone to these errors. Given that most of the time and particularly for chronic diseases indexed information is already available, we propose a tool named AnterOcod, in order to support the medical coding task. It suggests the list of most relevant plausible codes, predicted from the patient's earlier hospital stays, according to a set of previously utilized diagnosis codes. Our method applies the estimation of code reappearance rates, based on an equivalent approach to actuarial survival curves. Around 33% of the expected correct diagnosis codes were retrieved in this manner, after evaluating 998 discharge abstracts, significantly improving the coding task.

  18. Comparison of three devices for measuring the second derivative of a langmuir probe curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, S.C.M.; Eck, J. van


    We have compared three devices, employing different principles, which plot the second derivative (SD) of the current voltage curve of a Langmuir probe. The probe measurements were performed in the positive column of a helium discharge. Two devices, using low modulation frequencies, produced within

  19. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kalderstam

    Full Text Available We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart, which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  20. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms. (United States)

    Kalderstam, Jonas; Edén, Patrik; Ohlsson, Mattias


    We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox) is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart), which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  1. Deriving Sight Distance on a Compound Sag and Circular Curve in a Three Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE


    Full Text Available Insufficient roadway sight distance (SD may become a contribution factor to traffic collisions or other unsafe traffic maneuvers. The sight distance (SD for a two-dimensional (2-d sag or circular curve has been addressed in detail in various traffic engineering literatures. Although three-dimensional (3-d compound sag and circular curves are often found along ramps, connectors, and mountain roads, the sight distances for these compound curves are yet to be analyzed on an exact analytic setting. By considering human-vehicle-roadway interaction, the formulas for computing the SD on a 3-d curve are derived the first time on a unified analytic framework. The 2-d sag curve SD can also be deduced from these derived formulas as special limiting cases. Practitioners can easily program these formulas or equations on a user-friendly Microsoft Excel spread sheet to calculate 3-d SD on most roadways with roadside clearance. This framework can be extended to estimate SD on roadways with obstacles partially blocking vehicle headlight beams. 6.

  2. [A New Method of Analyzing the Closing Volume (CV) Curve: "N2 First Derivative Wave Method"]. (United States)

    Wada, Shinichi; Imai, Tadashi; Min, Kyongyob; Ogo, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Takuya; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Fujioka, Shigekazu


    Evaluation of the lung function involves the measurement of many factors. The closing volume (CV) curve is clinically important as an index of uneven alveolar ventilation and airway closure. Although conventional methods for CV measurement are usually based on the pattern of the exhaled nitrogen (N2) concentration curve with respect to the lung volume, it is often difficult to measure the steep pattern of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this paper, we proposed a new method called the "N2 first derivative (fdN) wave method" for measuring CV. The N2 concentration of the CV curve was transformed to a derivative with respect to the lung volume, which revealed the existence of cardiogenic oscillations. Discrimination between phases III and IV was straightforward based on the difference in the slope or in the amplitude of oscillations of the fdN wave. Our new method was able to distinguish phase IV from phase III using the difference in amplitude of the oscillation of the fdN wave even in the presence of COPD with steep patterns of the CV curve. Close relationships were seen among normal subjects including COPD patients in both the slope of the alveolar plateau (ΔN2) and the CV values measured with the conventional and new methods. In conclusion, the new method we propose in this paper was able to provide measurements of CV for all subjects including those with COPD. [Original

  3. Why the Kantian ideal survives medical learning curves, and why it matters. (United States)

    Brecher, B


    The "Kantian ideal" is often misunderstood as invoking individual autonomy rather than rational self legislation. Le Morvan and Stock's otherwise insightful discussion of "Medical learning curves and the Kantian ideal"--for example--draws the mistaken inference that that ideal is inconsistent with the realities of medical practice. But it is not. Rationally to be a patient entails accepting its necessary conditions.

  4. Summary curves for patients transplanted for chronic myeloid leukaemia salvaged by a donor lymphocyte infusion: the current leukaemia-free survival curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, John P.; Keiding, Niels; Shu, Youyi


    CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods......CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods...

  5. Can MRI-derived factors predict the survival in glioblastoma patients treated with postoperative chemoradiation therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideo Nakamura, Hideo [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto, (Japan); Murakami, Ryuji [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)], e-mail:; Hirai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)


    Background: Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic developments may yield novel prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Purpose: To validate the predictive values of pretreatment quantitative diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI performed within 72 h after surgery in patients with GBM. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and September 2009, 138 patients with GBM underwent postoperative chemoradiation therapy (chemo-RT) and longitudinal MRI before surgery, in the early postoperative period, and at 1-month intervals thereafter. The role of the patient age, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on pretreatment DW-MRI, and gross residual tumor on early postoperative MRI were assessed by factor analysis of overall survival (OS). Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; the multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model was used to adjust for the influence of prognostic factors. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG-RPA) criteria were used to validate the predictive value of the MRI-derived factors. Results: Substantial independent prognostic factors were the KPS score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.812), minimum ADC (HR, 2.365), and gross residual tumor (HR, 1.777). Based on MRI-derived factors, we assigned the patients to different prognostic groups in the RTOG-RPA classification and grouped them according to the level of risk, i.e. a high-risk group with low minimum ADCs (<0.93 X 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) with gross residual tumor and a low-risk group with high minimum ADCs ({>=}0.93 X 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) without gross residual tumor; the other patients were assigned to the intermediate-risk group. Median OS for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 28.2, 14.7, and 10.8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The minimum ADC on pretreatment DW-MRI and gross residual tumor on early

  6. Adsorption of cationic hydroxyethylcellulose derivatives onto planar and curved gold surfaces. (United States)

    Pamies, Ramón; Volden, Sondre; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena; Zhu, Kaizheng; Glomm, Wilhelm R; Nyström, Bo


    The adsorption of two positively charged hydroxyethylcellulose derivatives with 7 and 60 mol % positively charged groups and a cationic, hydrophobically modified hydroxyethylcellulose containing 1 mol % hydrophobic groups and 7 mol % charged groups onto flat and spherical citrate-coated gold surfaces of different sizes has been investigated. The planar surfaces were studied by means of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, whereas nanoparticle suspensions were examined using dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy. Two different driving forces for adsorption have been evaluated: the electrostatic interaction between the positive charges on the polymers and the negatively charged gold surfaces and the affinity of the polymers for gold due to hydrophobic interactions. The comparison between the data obtained from curved and planar surfaces suggests a strong correlation between surface curvature and adlayer conformation in the formation of the hybrid polymer-gold nanoparticles. The influence of particle size on the amount of adsorbed polymer has been evaluated for the different polymers. The impact of the ionic strength on polymer adsorption has been explored, and the adsorbed polymer layer has been found to protect the gold nanoparticles from aggregation when salt is added to the solution. The addition of salt to a mixture of gold particles and a charged polymer can induce a thicker adsorbed layer at low salinity, and desorption was found at high levels of salt addition.

  7. Dispersion curves of viscoelastic plane waves and Rayleigh surface wave in high frequency range with fractional derivatives (United States)

    Usuki, Tsuneo


    The moduli of conventional elastic structural materials are extended to one of the viscoelastic materials through a modification whereby the dynamic moduli converge to the static moduli of elasticity as the fractional order approaches zero. By plotting phase velocity curves and group velocity curves of plane waves and Rayleigh surface wave for a viscoelastic material (polyvinyl chloride foam), the influence of the fractional order of viscoelasticity is examined. The phase and group velocity curves in the high frequency range were derived for longitudinal, transverse, and Rayleigh waves inherent to the viscoelastic material. In addition, the equation for the phase velocity was mathematically derived on the complex plane, too, and graphically illustrated. A phenomenon was found that, at the moment when the fractional order of the time derivative reaches an integer value 1, the curve on the complex plane becomes completely different, exhibiting snap-through behavior. We examined the mechanism of the snap-through mathematically. Numerical calculation examples were solved, and good agreement was confirmed between the numerical calculation and the analytical expression mentioned above. From the results of the numerical example, regularities were derived for the absolute value of the complex phase and group velocities on the complex plane.

  8. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests. (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu


    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  9. [Analysis of survival and mortality curves with the model of vital receptors. The maximal life span. Effect of temperature on the life span. The mortality probability density function (mortality curve) and its parameters]. (United States)

    Poltorakov, A P


    We have continued an analysis of survival curves by the model of the vital receptors (MVR). The main types survival function (E-, TW- and GM-distributions) have been considered. It was found that the maximal life span depends on the threshold concentration of vital receptors. Equations are obtained for the dependence of the maximal life span on the kinetic parameters in the reactions of inactivation, destruction and inactivation. Dependence of maximal time life on initial size of the population have been considered. The influence of temperature on the survival curves is analysed by E-distribution. Equations are founded for the description of thermosurvival and thermoinactivation curves. Equation are obtained for the dependence of density function and it characteristics (modal and antimodal age, coefficient of asymmetry) on the MVR parameters. It was shown that E-, TW- and GM-distribution has different types of asymmetry. The coefficient of asymmetry of GM-distribution is associated on the MVR parameters. It is assumed that symmetry of the curves of mortality and birth-rate is coordinated by the mechanisms of MVR.

  10. The Survival of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy and the Flatness of the Rotation Curve of the Galaxy (United States)

    Zhao, HongSheng


    How has the ``fluffy'' Sgr dwarf galaxy survived its 10-20 pericentric passages in the halo of the Milky Way for a Hubble time? The scenario that Sgr was deflected to its current orbit by the Magellanic Clouds after a rendezvous on the north Galactic pole 2-3 Gyr ago is examined. It is shown that the conditions of the collision fix both the sense of circulation of Sgr and the Large Magellanic Cloud around the Galaxy and the slope of the Galactic rotation curve. The model argues that the two orthogonal polar circles traced by a dozen or so Galactic halo dwarf galaxies and globular clusters (LMC-SMC-Magellanic Stream-Draco-Ursa Minor along l~270deg and M54-Ter 7-Ter 8-Arp 2-NGC 2419-Pal 15 along l~0deg) are streams of tidal relics from two ancient galaxies that were captured on two intersecting polar rosette orbits by the Galaxy. Our results favor the interpretation of microlensing toward the LMC being due to source or lens stars in tidal features of the Magellanic Clouds. We discuss direct and indirect observations to test the collision scenario.

  11. Deriving Snow-Cover Depletion Curves for Different Spatial Scales from Remote Sensing and Snow Telemetry Data (United States)

    Fassnacht, Steven R.; Sexstone, Graham A.; Kashipazha, Amir H.; Lopez-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Jasinski, Michael F.; Kampf, Stephanie K.; Von Thaden, Benjamin C.


    During the melting of a snowpack, snow water equivalent (SWE) can be correlated to snow-covered area (SCA) once snow-free areas appear, which is when SCA begins to decrease below 100%. This amount of SWE is called the threshold SWE. Daily SWE data from snow telemetry stations were related to SCA derived from moderate-resolution imaging spectro radiometer images to produce snow-cover depletion curves. The snow depletion curves were created for an 80,000 sq km domain across southern Wyoming and northern Colorado encompassing 54 snow telemetry stations. Eight yearly snow depletion curves were compared, and it is shown that the slope of each is a function of the amount of snow received. Snow-cover depletion curves were also derived for all the individual stations, for which the threshold SWE could be estimated from peak SWE and the topography around each station. A stations peak SWE was much more important than the main topographic variables that included location, elevation, slope, and modelled clear sky solar radiation. The threshold SWE mostly illustrated inter-annual consistency.

  12. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models (United States)

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios


    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440

  13. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities. (United States)

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal


    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging-based oxygen

  14. Development of prognostic model for predicting survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stent in advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and its evaluation by decision curve analysis. (United States)

    Kawano, Shingo; Komai, Yoshinobu; Ishioka, Junichiro; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fuse, Nozomu; Ito, Masaaki; Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Norio


    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stents and develop a prognostic model for advanced gastrointestinal tract (GIT: esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum) cancer patients. We examined the clinical records of 122 patients who underwent retrograde placement of a ureteral stent against malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction. A prediction model for survival after stenting was developed. We compared its clinical usefulness with our previous model based on the results from nephrostomy cases by decision curve analysis. Median follow-up period was 201 days (8-1490) and 97 deaths occurred. The 1-year survival rate in this cohort was 29%. Based on multivariate analysis, primary site of colon origin, absence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and serum albumin >3g/dL were significantly associated with a prolonged survival time. To develop a prognostic model, we divided the patients into 3 risk groups of favorable: 0-1 factors (N.=53), intermediate: 2 risk factors (N.=54), and poor: 3 risk factors (N.=15). There were significant differences in the survival profiles of these 3 risk groups (P<0.0001). Decision curve analyses revealed that the current model has a superior net benefit than our previous model for most of the examined probabilities. We have developed a novel prognostic model for GIT cancer patients who were treated with retrograde placement of a ureteral stent. The current model should help urologists and medical oncologists to predict survival in cases of malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction.

  15. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Martins-Duarte

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite's DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13-25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment. Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition--with the appearance of 'tethered' parasites--malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results

  16. NTCP modelling of lung toxicity after SBRT comparing the universal survival curve and the linear quadratic model for fractionation correction. (United States)

    Wennberg, Berit M; Baumann, Pia; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Nyman, Jan; Drugge, Ninni; Hoyer, Morten; Traberg, Anders; Nilsson, Kristina; Morhed, Elisabeth; Ekberg, Lars; Wittgren, Lena; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Levin, Nina; Sederholm, Christer; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lax, Ingmar


    In SBRT of lung tumours no established relationship between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of lung toxicity is found. The aim of this study is to compare the LQ model and the universal survival curve (USC) to calculate biologically equivalent doses in SBRT to see if this will improve knowledge on this relationship. Toxicity data on radiation pneumonitis grade 2 or more (RP2+) from 57 patients were used, 10.5% were diagnosed with RP2+. The lung DVHs were corrected for fractionation (LQ and USC) and analysed with the Lyman- Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. In the LQ-correction α/β = 3 Gy was used and the USC parameters used were: α/β = 3 Gy, D(0) = 1.0 Gy, [Formula: see text] = 10, α = 0.206 Gy(-1) and d(T) = 5.8 Gy. In order to understand the relative contribution of different dose levels to the calculated NTCP the concept of fractional NTCP was used. This might give an insight to the questions of whether "high doses to small volumes" or "low doses to large volumes" are most important for lung toxicity. NTCP analysis with the LKB-model using parameters m = 0.4, D(50) = 30 Gy resulted for the volume dependence parameter (n) with LQ correction n = 0.87 and with USC correction n = 0.71. Using parameters m = 0.3, D(50) = 20 Gy n = 0.93 with LQ correction and n = 0.83 with USC correction. In SBRT of lung tumours, NTCP modelling of lung toxicity comparing models (LQ,USC) for fractionation correction, shows that low dose contribute less and high dose more to the NTCP when using the USC-model. Comparing NTCP modelling of SBRT data and data from breast cancer, lung cancer and whole lung irradiation implies that the response of the lung is treatment specific. More data are however needed in order to have a more reliable modelling.

  17. Spatial Habitat Features Derived from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Are Associated with Molecular Subtype and 12-Month Survival Status in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonsang Lee

    Full Text Available One of the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumors is Glioblastoma multiforme. Despite the multimodality treatment such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide: TMZ, the median survival rate of glioblastoma patient is less than 15 months. In this study, we investigated the association between measures of spatial diversity derived from spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data with molecular status as well as 12-month survival in glioblastoma. We obtained 27 measures of spatial proximity (diversity via spatial point pattern analysis of multiparametric T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI data. These measures were used to predict 12-month survival status (≤12 or >12 months in 74 glioblastoma patients. Kaplan-Meier with receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to assess the relationship between derived spatial features and 12-month survival status as well as molecular subtype status in patients with glioblastoma. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that 14 spatial features were capable of stratifying overall survival in a statistically significant manner. For prediction of 12-month survival status based on these diversity indices, sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 and 0.64, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the accuracy were 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. For prediction of molecular subtype status, proneural subtype shows highest accuracy of 0.93 among all molecular subtypes based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. We find that measures of spatial diversity from point pattern analysis of intensity habitats from T1 post-contrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images are associated with both tumor subtype status and 12-month survival status and may therefore be useful indicators of patient prognosis, in addition to providing potential guidance for molecularly

  18. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Emborg


    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

  19. Effects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on the Survival of Rabbit Ear Composite Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Min Kim


    Full Text Available Background Composite grafts are frequently used for facial reconstruction. However, the unpredictability of the results and difficulties with large defects are disadvantages. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs express several cytokines, and increase the survival of random flaps and fat grafts owing to their angiogenic potential. Methods This study investigated composite graft survival after ADSC injection. Circular chondrocutaneous composite tissues, 2 cm in diameter, from 15 New Zealand white rabbits were used. Thirty ears were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the experimental groups (1 and 2, ADSCs were subcutaneously injected 7 days and immediately before the operation, respectively. Similarly, phosphate-buffered saline was injected in the control group just before surgery in the same manner as in group 2. In all groups, chondrocutaneous composite tissue was elevated, rotated 90 degrees, and repaired in its original position. Skin flow was assessed using laser Doppler 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after surgery. At 1 and 12 days after surgery, the viable area was assessed using digital photography; the rabbits were euthanized, and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 was performed to assess neovascularization. Results The survival of composite grafts increased significantly with the injection of ADSCs (P<0.05. ADSC injection significantly improved neovascularization based on anti-CD31 immunohistochemical analysis and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.05 in both group 1 and group 2 compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences in graft survival, anti-CD31 neovascularization, or microcirculation were found between groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Treatment with ADSCs improved the composite graft survival, as confirmed by the survival area and histological evaluation. The differences according to the injection timing were not significant.

  20. Survival (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  1. Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression facilitates differentiation and promotes survival of embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Law, Frédéric; Meduri, Geri; Le Menuet, Damien; Lombès, Marc


    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), highly expressed in the hippocampus, binds corticosteroid hormones and coordinately participates, with the glucocorticoid receptor, to the control of stress responses, memorization, and behavior. To investigate the impact of MR in neuronal survival, we generated murine embryonic stem (ES) cells that overexpress human MR (hMR) (P1-hMR) and are induced to differentiate into mature neurons. We showed that recombinant MR expression increased throughout differentiation and is 2-fold higher in P1-hMR ES-derived neurons compared with wild-type controls, whereas glucocorticoid receptor expression was unaffected. Although proliferation and early neuronal differentiation were comparable in P1-hMR and wild-type ES cells, MR overexpression was associated with higher late neuronal marker expression (microtubule-associated protein 2 and β-tubulin III). This was accompanied by a shift towards neuron survival with an increased ratio of anti- vs. proapoptotic molecules and 50% decreased caspase 3 activity. Knocking down MR overexpression by small interfering RNA drastically reversed neuroprotective effects with reduced Bcl(2)/Bax ratio and decreased microtubule-associated protein 2 expression. P1-hMR neurons were protected against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through reduced caspase 3 activation and drastically increased Bcl(2)/Bax ratio and β-tubulin III expression. We demonstrated the involvement of MR in neuronal differentiation and survival and identify MR as an important neuroprotective mediator opening potential pharmacological strategies.

  2. Hair Follicle Dermal Sheath Derived Cells Improve Islet Allograft Survival without Systemic Immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang


    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs successfully prevent rejection of islet allografts in the treatment of type I diabetes. However, the drugs also suppress systemic immunity increasing the risk of opportunistic infection and cancer development in allograft recipients. In this study, we investigated a new treatment for autoimmune diabetes using naturally immune privileged, hair follicle derived, autologous cells to provide localized immune protection of islet allotransplants. Islets from Balb/c mouse donors were cotransplanted with syngeneic hair follicle dermal sheath cup cells (DSCC, group 1 or fibroblasts (FB, group 2 under the kidney capsule of immune-competent, streptozotocin induced, diabetic C57BL/6 recipients. Group 1 allografts survived significantly longer than group 2 (32.2 ± 12.2 versus 14.1 ± 3.3 days, P<0.001 without administration of any systemic immunosuppressive agents. DSCC reduced T cell activation in the renal lymph node, prevented graft infiltrates, modulated inflammatory chemokine and cytokine profiles, and preserved better beta cell function in the islet allografts, but no systemic immunosuppression was observed. In summary, DSCC prolong islet allograft survival without systemic immunosuppression by local modulation of alloimmune responses, enhancing of beta cell survival, and promoting of graft revascularization. This novel finding demonstrates the capacity of easily accessible hair follicle cells to be used as local immunosuppression agents in islet transplantation.

  3. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell administration does not improve corneal graft survival outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherezade Fuentes-Julián

    Full Text Available The effect of local and systemic injections of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (AD-MSC into rabbit models of corneal allograft rejection with either normal-risk or high-risk vascularized corneal beds was investigated. The models we present in this study are more similar to human corneal transplants than previously reported murine models. Our aim was to prevent transplant rejection and increase the length of graft survival. In the normal-risk transplant model, in contrast to our expectations, the injection of AD-MSC into the graft junction during surgery resulted in the induction of increased signs of inflammation such as corneal edema with increased thickness, and a higher level of infiltration of leukocytes. This process led to a lower survival of the graft compared with the sham-treated corneal transplants. In the high-risk transplant model, in which immune ocular privilege was undermined by the induction of neovascularization prior to graft surgery, we found the use of systemic rabbit AD-MSCs prior to surgery, during surgery, and at various time points after surgery resulted in a shorter survival of the graft compared with the non-treated corneal grafts. Based on our results, local or systemic treatment with AD-MSCs to prevent corneal rejection in rabbit corneal models at normal or high risk of rejection does not increase survival but rather can increase inflammation and neovascularization and break the innate ocular immune privilege. This result can be partially explained by the immunomarkers, lack of immunosuppressive ability and immunophenotypical secretion molecules characterization of AD-MSC used in this study. Parameters including the risk of rejection, the inflammatory/vascularization environment, the cell source, the time of injection, the immunosuppression, the number of cells, and the mode of delivery must be established before translating the possible benefits of the use of MSCs in corneal transplants to clinical

  4. Classification of breast mass lesions using model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve derived from fuzzy c-means clustering. (United States)

    Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Yan-Hao; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chang, Pei-Kang; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the representative characteristic kinetic curve of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extracted by fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering for the discrimination of benign and malignant breast tumors using a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. About the research data set, DCE-MRIs of 132 solid breast masses with definite histopathologic diagnosis (63 benign and 69 malignant) were used in this study. At first, the tumor region was automatically segmented using the region growing method based on the integrated color map formed by the combination of kinetic and area under curve color map. Then, the FCM clustering was used to identify the time-signal curve with the larger initial enhancement inside the segmented region as the representative kinetic curve, and then the parameters of the Tofts pharmacokinetic model for the representative kinetic curve were compared with conventional curve analysis (maximal enhancement, time to peak, uptake rate and washout rate) for each mass. The results were analyzed with a receiver operating characteristic curve and Student's t test to evaluate the classification performance. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combined model-based parameters of the extracted kinetic curve from FCM clustering were 86.36% (114/132), 85.51% (59/69), 87.30% (55/63), 88.06% (59/67) and 84.62% (55/65), better than those from a conventional curve analysis. The A(Z) value was 0.9154 for Tofts model-based parametric features, better than that for conventional curve analysis (0.8673), for discriminating malignant and benign lesions. In conclusion, model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve of breast mass derived from FCM clustering provides effective lesion classification. This approach has potential in the development of a CAD system for DCE breast MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of snow depletion curves derived from SNODAS for the conterminous United States, 2004-2013 (United States)

    Driscoll, Jessica; Hay, Lauren E.; Bock, Andrew R.


    Assessment of water resources at a national scale is critical for understanding their vulnerability to future change in policy and climate. Representation of the spatiotemporal variability in snowmelt processes in continental-scale hydrologic models is critical for assessment of water resource response to continued climate change. Continental-extent hydrologic models such as the U.S. Geological Survey National Hydrologic Model (NHM) represent snowmelt processes through the application of snow depletion curves (SDCs). SDCs relate normalized snow water equivalent (SWE) to normalized snow covered area (SCA) over a snowmelt season for a given modeling unit. SDCs were derived using output from the operational Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) snow model as daily 1-km gridded SWE over the conterminous United States. Daily SNODAS output were aggregated to a predefined watershed-scale geospatial fabric and used to also calculate SCA from October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2013. The spatiotemporal variability in SNODAS output at the watershed scale was evaluated through the spatial distribution of the median and standard deviation for the time period. Representative SDCs for each watershed-scale modeling unit over the conterminous United States (n = 54,104) were selected using a consistent methodology and used to create categories of snowmelt based on SDC shape. The relation of SDC categories to the topographic and climatic variables allow for national-scale categorization of snowmelt processes.

  6. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor-dependent fusimotor neuron survival during development. (United States)

    Whitehead, Jennifer; Keller-Peck, Cynthia; Kucera, Jan; Tourtellotte, Warren G


    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for motor neurons. Previous studies have shown that some motor neurons depend upon GDNF during development but this GDNF-dependent motor neuron subpopulation has not been characterized. We examined GDNF expression patterns in muscle and the impact of altered GDNF expression on the development of subtypes of motor neurons. In GDNF hemizygous mice, motor neuron innervation to muscle spindle stretch receptors (fusimotor neuron innervation) was decreased, whereas in transgenic mice that overexpress GDNF in muscle, fusimotor innervation to muscle spindles was increased. Facial motor neurons, which do not contain fusimotor neurons, were not changed in number when GDNF was over expressed by facial muscles during their development. Taken together, these data indicate that fusimotor neurons depend upon GDNF for survival during development. Since the fraction of cervical and lumbar motor neurons lost in GDNF-deficient mice at birth closely approximates the size of the fusimotor neuron pool, these data suggest that motor neuron loss in GDNF-deficient mice may be primarily of fusimotor neuron origin.

  7. The Prevalence of Area-under-a-Curve and Anti-Derivative Conceptions over Riemann Sum-Based Conceptions in Students' Explanations of Definite Integrals (United States)

    Jones, Steven R.


    This study aims to broadly examine how commonly various conceptualizations of the definite integral are drawn on by students as they attempt to explain the meaning of integral expressions. Previous studies have shown that certain conceptualizations, such as the area under a curve or the values of an anti-derivative, may be less productive in…

  8. Evaluation of tumor-derived MRI-texture features for discrimination of molecular subtypes and prediction of 12-month survival status in glioblastoma (United States)

    Yang, Dalu; Rao, Ganesh; Martinez, Juan; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Rao, Arvind


    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer. Four molecular subtypes of GBM have been described but can only be determined by an invasive brain biopsy. The goal of this study is to evaluate the utility of texture features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans as a potential noninvasive method to characterize molecular subtypes of GBM and to predict 12-month overall survival status for GBM patients. Methods: The authors manually segmented the tumor regions from postcontrast T1 weighted and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI scans of 82 patients with de novo GBM. For each patient, the authors extracted five sets of computer-extracted texture features, namely, 48 segmentation-based fractal texture analysis (SFTA) features, 576 histogram of oriented gradients (HOGs) features, 44 run-length matrix (RLM) features, 256 local binary patterns features, and 52 Haralick features, from the tumor slice corresponding to the maximum tumor area in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The authors used an ensemble classifier called random forest on each feature family to predict GBM molecular subtypes and 12-month survival status (a dichotomized version of overall survival at the 12-month time point indicating if the patient was alive or not at 12 months). The performance of the prediction was quantified and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: With the appropriate combination of texture feature set, image plane (axial, coronal, or sagittal), and MRI sequence, the area under ROC curve values for predicting different molecular subtypes and 12-month survival status are 0.72 for classical (with Haralick features on T1 postcontrast axial scan), 0.70 for mesenchymal (with HOG features on T2 FLAIR axial scan), 0.75 for neural (with RLM features on T2 FLAIR axial scan), 0.82 for proneural (with SFTA features on T1 postcontrast coronal scan), and 0.69 for 12

  9. Pro-survival effect of Dock180 overexpression on rat-derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Yan, An; Li, Gang; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Bingbao; Linghu, Hua


    Integrin â1 subunit and its downstream molecule, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), have been demonstrated to be indispensible to the promotion of cell proliferation and survival and anti-apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via activation of their downstream pro-survival signaling molecule, AKT. As a component of the integrin pathway, Dock180 (dedicator of cytokinesis 1) protein is also thought to be involved in the promotion of cell proliferation and survival and anti-apoptosis in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Rat-derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes were transfected with pCXN2-flag-hDock180, a human Dock180 overexpression eukaryotic recombinant plasmid. The rat and human Dock180 mRNA and protein expression, apoptosis and cell proliferation and survival were analyzed in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes treated with either hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) or not, respectively. Human Dock180 mRNA overexpression could significantly increase the Dock180 protein expression in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes, no matter whether treated with H/R or not. Dock180 overexpression could promote the cell proliferation and survival and anti-apoptosis, and relieve the cell proliferative and survival inhibition and apoptosis induced by H/R in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes via activation of its downstream pro-survival signaling molecule AKT. Dock180 could act as a pro-survival molecule in H9C2 cardiomyocytes via activation of its downstream pro-survival signaling molecule, AKT.

  10. An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin (United States)

    Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.


    uncertainty and risk daily, and 3) require complex computer programming. The proposed research addresses these critiques by pursuing a novel approach - the development of an analytical method to demonstrate how reservoir management could adapt to anticipated changes in water supply and demand, which incorporates some of the complexity of the hydrologic system, includes stochasticity, and can be readily implemented. Employing a normative economic framework of social welfare maximization, the research will 1) estimate the social benefits associated with reservoir uses, 2) analytically derive conditions for maximizing the benefits of reservoir operation, and 3) estimate the resulting optimal operating rules under future trajectories of climate, land cover, and population. The findings of this analysis will be used to address the following research questions: 1) How do the derived optimal operating rules compare to the existing rule curves? 2) How does the shape of the derived rule curves change under different scenarios of global change? 3) What is the change in net social benefits resulting from the use of these derived rule curves as compared to existing rule curves? 4) To the extent possible, what are the distributional and social justice implications of the derived changes in the rule curves?

  11. Derivation of a new lamb survival trait for the New Zealand sheep industry 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Vanderick; B Auvray; S-A Newman; K G Dodds; N Gengler; J M Everett-Hincks


      Previous research identified that a review of the current industry New Zealand lamb survival trait was necessary as its recording accuracy was reliant on farmers notifying their Sheep Improvement...

  12. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo


    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  13. Survival of free and microencapsulated human-derived oral probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 in orange and aloe vera juices


    Rawee Teanpaisan; Aksorntong Chooruk; Thanyanan Kampoo


    Microencapsulation was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a human-derived strain with probiotic potential, in orange and aloe vera juices. The microencapsulation parameters included alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and hardening-time, and the efficacy of microencapsulation to preserve the survival of microencapsulated bacteria compared to free cells during exposure in fruit juices were determined. The results revealed that the via...

  14. Four points function fitted and first derivative procedure for determining the end points in potentiometric titration curves: statistical analysis and method comparison. (United States)

    Kholeif, S A


    A new method that belongs to the differential category for determining the end points from potentiometric titration curves is presented. It uses a preprocess to find first derivative values by fitting four data points in and around the region of inflection to a non-linear function, and then locate the end point, usually as a maximum or minimum, using an inverse parabolic interpolation procedure that has an analytical solution. The behavior and accuracy of the sigmoid and cumulative non-linear functions used are investigated against three factors. A statistical evaluation of the new method using linear least-squares method validation and multifactor data analysis are covered. The new method is generally applied to symmetrical and unsymmetrical potentiometric titration curves, and the end point is calculated using numerical procedures only. It outperforms the "parent" regular differential method in almost all factors levels and gives accurate results comparable to the true or estimated true end points. Calculated end points from selected experimental titration curves compatible with the equivalence point category of methods, such as Gran or Fortuin, are also compared with the new method.

  15. Polarized Secretion of PEDF from Human Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived RPE Promotes Retinal Progenitor Cell Survival (United States)

    Zhu, Danhong; Deng, Xuemei; Spee, Christine; Sonoda, Shozo; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Barron, Ernesto; Pera, Martin


    Purpose. Human embryonic stem cell–derived RPE (hES-RPE) transplantation is a promising therapy for atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, future therapeutic approaches may consider co-transplantation of hES-RPE with retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) as a replacement source for lost photoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polarization of hES-RPE monolayers on their ability to promote survival of RPCs. Methods. The hES-3 cell line was used for derivation of RPE. Polarization of hES-RPE was achieved by prolonged growth on permeable inserts. RPCs were isolated from 16- to 18-week-gestation human fetal eyes. ELISA was performed to measure pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF) levels from conditioned media. Results. Pigmented RPE-like cells appeared as early as 4 weeks in culture and were subcultured at 8 weeks. Differentiated hES-RPE had a normal chromosomal karyotype. Phenotypically polarized hES-RPE cells showed expression of RPE-specific genes. Polarized hES-RPE showed prominent expression of PEDF in apical cytoplasm and a marked increase in secretion of PEDF into the medium compared with nonpolarized culture. RPCs grown in the presence of supernatants from polarized hES-RPE showed enhanced survival, which was ablated by the presence of anti-PEDF antibody. Conclusions. hES-3 cells can be differentiated into functionally polarized hES-RPE cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of native RPE. On polarization, hES-RPE cells secrete high levels of PEDF that can support RPC survival. These experiments suggest that polarization of hES-RPE would be an important feature for promotion of RPC survival in future cell therapy for atrophic AMD. PMID:21087957

  16. Niche-derived laminin-511 promotes midbrain dopaminergic neuron survival and differentiation through YAP. (United States)

    Zhang, Dawei; Yang, Shanzheng; Toledo, Enrique M; Gyllborg, Daniel; Saltó, Carmen; Carlos Villaescusa, J; Arenas, Ernest


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain (mDA neurons) causes progressive loss of motor control and function. Using embryonic and mDA neurons, midbrain tissue from mice, and differentiated human neural stem cells, we investigated the mechanisms controlling the survival of mDA neurons. We found that the extracellular matrix protein laminin-511 (LM511) promoted the survival and differentiation of mDA neurons. LM511 bound to integrin α3β1 and activated the transcriptional cofactor YAP. LM511-YAP signaling enhanced cell survival by inducing the expression of the microRNA miR-130a, which suppressed the synthesis of the cell death-associated protein PTEN. In addition, LM511-YAP signaling increased the expression of transcription factors critical for mDA identity, such as LMX1A and PITX3, and prevented the loss of mDA neurons in response to oxidative stress, a finding that warrants further investigation to assess therapeutic potential for PD patients. We propose that by enhancing LM511-YAP signaling, it may be possible to prevent mDA neuron degeneration in PD or enhance the survival of mDA neurons in cell replacement therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Induces Cell Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, and Cell Survival of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Maravillas Mellado-López


    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs are a promising therapeutic alternative for tissue repair in various clinical applications. However, restrictive cell survival, differential tissue integration, and undirected cell differentiation after transplantation in a hostile microenvironment are complications that require refinement. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF from platelet-rich plasma favors human and canine ASC survival, proliferation, and delaying human ASC senescence and autophagocytosis in comparison with serum-containing cultures. In addition, canine and human-derived ASCs efficiently differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, or chondrocytes in the presence of PRGF. PRGF treatment induces phosphorylation of AKT preventing ASC death induced by lethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, AKT inhibition abolished the PRGF apoptosis prevention in ASC exposed to 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide. Here, we show that canine ASCs respond to PRGF stimulus similarly to the human cells regarding cell survival and differentiation postulating the use of dogs as a suitable translational model. Overall, PRGF would be employed as a serum substitute for mesenchymal stem cell amplification to improve cell differentiation and as a preconditioning agent to prevent oxidative cell death.

  18. The effect of some boron derivatives on kanamycin resistance and survival of E. coli and P. aeruginosa in lake water. (United States)

    Darcan, Cihan; Kahyaoğlu, Mustafa


    To study MIC value of 7 boron derivatives namely [Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)), Anhydrous Borax (Na(2)B(4)O(7)), Sodium Borate (NaBO(2)), Diammonium Tetraborate (NH(4))(2)B(4)O(7), Sodium Perborate (NaBO(3)), Boron Trioxide (B(2)O(3)), Potassium Tetraborate (K(2)B(4)O(7))] on E. coli and P. aeruginosa and their effects on survival of bacteria in lake water and resistance against kanamycin antibiotic. MIC values of Boron derivatives and antibiotic were studied by broth microdilution method. The effect of boron derivatives on survival of bacteria in lake water were also determined with plate count. Sodium perborate was determined as the most effective substance among the studied substances. Effectiveness increased as temperature increased. E. coli was more affected from P. aeruginosa in 8 mg/mL sodium perborate concentration in lake water. Moreover, it was determined that MIC value of kanamycin antibiotic decreased 200 times by especially treating P. aeruginosa with sodium perborate in lake water. However, it can be stated that this change in resistance did not arise from microorganisms. Sodium perborate solution can be used supportedly in kanamycin antibiotic applications for P. aeruginosa. Future studies are necessary to explore the relation between sodium perborate and kanamycin which is effective on P. aeruginosa in lake water. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by the left ventricular density curve derived from intravenous digital subtraction angiography in children

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    Horigome, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hideo; Isobe, Takeshi; Takita, Hitoshi (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine)


    To evaluate the left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, fifty-four children with various heart diseases underwent intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). Global left ventricular density curve was obtained through densitometry of the DSA images. The curve was smoothed by a third-degree Fourier transformation and systolic and diastolic indexes were obtained. In the control group, consisting of Kawasaki disease without coronary lesion and mild pulmonary stenosis, the peak ejection rate (PER) and the peak filling rate in early diastole (PFR-E) correlated positively with the heart rate (HR) in a quadratic curve manner (PER: r= 0.93 p<0.01, PFR-E: r= 0.94 p<0.01). Time from end-diastolic to PER (T-PER) and time from end-systolic to PFR (T-PFR) were correlated negatively with HR (T-PER: r=-0.86 p<0.01, T-PFR: r=-0.91 p<0.01). However, T-PER/RR and T-PFR/RR values were rather constant (20.9+-3.2%, 17.0+-2.6%, respectively). We also found significant correlations of PER and PFR-E with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot and with cardiomyopaties showed not only abnormal systolic indexes but some depressed diastolic indexes. LV density curve also disclosed isolated diastolic dysfunction in a group of aortic stenosis and in two patients with coronary lesions. A correlation of LVEF derived from the density curve and conventional area-length method was high (r= 0.91 p<0.001). To evaluate the reproducibility, we were able to obtain the digital data twice with over one month interval on 24 patients. The intraobserver correlation was satisfactory. We applied the remasking method, resulting in improving the quality of digital images under spontaneous breathing. Our results indicated that IV-DSA was a less-invasive and clinically reliable method for assessment of LV function in children. (author).

  20. Schwann cell-derived factors support serotoninergic neuron survival and promote neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pellitteri


    Full Text Available During embryogenesis and the postnatal period, neurons and glia interact in the development and differentiation of specific populations of nerve cells. Both in the peripheral (PNS and in the central nervous system (CNS, glial cells have been shown in various experimental conditions to constitute a favorable substrate for neural adhesion, neural polarity, shape and axonal extension, while numerous soluble molecules secreted by neurons influence the survival and differentiation of the glial cells themselves. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of postnatal Schwann cells (SC on embryonic serotoninergic (5-HT neurons of the raphe, in order to study the possible influence of the peripheral glia on the CNS neurons. Cultures of SC from sciatic nerve of postnatal rats and neurons from rat embryonic rhombencephalon were successfully established and cells were immunocytochemically characterized. The number of 5-HT neurons, and the number and length of their branches were quantified in the cultures of 5-HT neurons, in cultures added with Nerve Growth Factor (NGF and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I, in co-cultures with SC and in cultures added with conditioned medium obtained from SC cultures. The results indicated that SC have the capacity to promote the survival and growth of 5-HT neurons in culture, and that this activity is mediated by soluble factors. Although the precise nature and mechanism of action of the growth factor or factors produced by SC in the presence of 5-HT neurons was not identified, our results add more data on the possible activity of the peripheral glia in promoting and enhancing the survival and outgrowth of the CNS neurons.

  1. Exosomes Derived from Squamous Head and Neck Cancer Promote Cell Survival after Ionizing Radiation (United States)

    Mutschelknaus, Lisa; Peters, Carsten; Winkler, Klaudia; Yentrapalli, Ramesh; Heider, Theresa; Atkinson, Michael John; Moertl, Simone


    Exosomes are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles that are believed to function as intercellular communicators. Here, we report that exosomes are able to modify the radiation response of the head and neck cancer cell lines BHY and FaDu. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned medium of irradiated as well as non-irradiated head and neck cancer cells by serial centrifugation. Quantification using NanoSight technology indicated an increased exosome release from irradiated compared to non-irradiated cells 24 hours after treatment. To test whether the released exosomes influence the radiation response of other cells the exosomes were transferred to non-irradiated and irradiated recipient cells. We found an enhanced uptake of exosomes isolated from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells by irradiated recipient cells compared to non-irradiated recipient cells. Functional analyses by exosome transfer indicated that all exosomes (from non-irradiated and irradiated donor cells) increase the proliferation of non-irradiated recipient cells and the survival of irradiated recipient cells. The survival-promoting effects are more pronounced when exosomes isolated from irradiated compared to non-irradiated donor cells are transferred. A possible mechanism for the increased survival after irradiation could be the increase in DNA double-strand break repair monitored at 6, 8 and 10 h after the transfer of exosomes isolated from irradiated cells. This is abrogated by the destabilization of the exosomes. Our results demonstrate that radiation influences both the abundance and action of exosomes on recipient cells. Exosomes transmit prosurvival effects by promoting the proliferation and radioresistance of head and neck cancer cells. Taken together, this study indicates a functional role of exosomes in the response of tumor cells to radiation exposure within a therapeutic dose range and encourages that exosomes are useful objects of study for a better understanding of tumor

  2. Derivation of a new lamb survival trait for the New Zealand sheep industry. (United States)

    Vanderick, S; Auvray, B; Newman, S-A; Dodds, K G; Gengler, N; Everett-Hincks, J M


    Previous research identified that a review of the current industry New Zealand lamb survival trait was necessary as its recording accuracy was reliant on farmers notifying their Sheep Improvement Limited bureau of lamb deaths. This paper reports the decision rules and genetic parameters for a new lamb survival trait for the New Zealand sheep industry. These rules define the new lamb survival trait (NEWSUR) using lamb birth fate (BFATE) codes and the presence/absence of lamb weight measurements. Six univariate animal models were tested and used to estimate variance or covariance components and the resulting direct and maternal heritabilities for NEWSUR. The models differed in the way they adjust for the effect of day of birth, the exclusion or inclusion of a litter (dam/year of birth) random effect, and the application or not of a logit transformation of the phenotypes. For both the linear and logistic methods, models including the random effect of litter provided the best fit for NEWSUR according to log-likelihood values. Log-likelihoods for the linear and logistic models cannot be compared; therefore, a cross-validation method was used to assess whether the logit transformation was appropriate by analyzing the predictive ability of the models. The mean square errors were slightly lower for the linear compared with the logistic model, and therefore, the linear model was recommended for industry use. The heritability attributed to direct effects ranged from 2 to 5.5%. A direct heritability of 5.5% resulted from a linear model without litter effect and omitting the effect of day of birth on survival, whereas a direct heritability of 2% resulted from the logistic model fitting a random litter effect. The heritability attributed to maternal genetic effects ranged from 1.9 to 7.7%. A maternal genetic heritability of 7.7% resulted from the logistic model omitting the litter effect, whereas a maternal genetic heritability of 1.9% resulted from the linear model fitting a

  3. Primary central nervous system lymphoma and atypical glioblastoma: differentiation using the initial area under the curve derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR and the apparent diffusion coefficient

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    Choi, Yoon Seong; Lee, Ho-Joon; Ahn, Sung Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Hee; Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Eui Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the ability of the initial area under the curve (IAUC) derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating between primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and atypical glioblastoma (GBM). We retrospectively identified 19 patients with atypical GBM (less than 13 % necrosis of the enhancing tumour), and 23 patients with PCNSL. The histogram parameters of IAUC at 30, 60, 90 s (IAUC30, IAUC60, and IAUC90), and ADC were compared between PCNSL and GBM. The diagnostic performances and added values of the IAUC and ADC for differentiating between PCNSL and GBM were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The IAUC and ADC parameters were higher in GBM than in PCNSL. The 90th percentile (p90) of IAUC30 and 10th percentile (p10) of ADC showed the best diagnostic performance. Adding p90 of IAUC30 to p10 of ADC improved the differentiation between PCNSL and GBM (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.886), compared to IAUC30 or ADC alone (AUC = 0.789 and 0.744; P < 0.05 for all). The ICC was 0.96 for p90 of IAUC30. The IAUC may be a useful parameter together with ADC for differentiating between PCNSL and atypical GBM. (orig.)

  4. Dendritic cell derived IL-2 inhibits survival of terminally mature cells via an autocrine signaling pathway. (United States)

    Balachander, Akhila; Nabti, Sabrina; Sobota, Radoslaw M; Foo, Shihui; Zolezzi, Francesca; Lee, Bernett T K; Poidinger, Michael; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola


    DCs are crucial for sensing pathogens and triggering immune response. Upon activation by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) ligands, GM-CSF myeloid DCs (GM-DCs) secrete several cytokines, including IL-2. DC IL-2 has been shown to be important for innate and adaptive immune responses; however, IL-2 importance in DC physiology has never been demonstrated. Here, we show that autocrine IL-2 signaling is functional in murine GM-DCs in an early time window after PAMPs stimulation. IL-2 signaling selectively activates the JAK/STAT5 pathway by assembling holo-receptor complexes at the cell surface. Using the sensitivity of targeted mass spectrometry, we show conclusively that GM-DCs express CD122, the IL-2 receptor β-chain, at steady state. In myeloid DCs, this cytokine pathway inhibits survival of PAMP-matured GM-DCs which is crucial for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. Our findings suggest that immune regulation by this novel autocrine signaling pathway can potentially be used in DC immunotherapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Quantum curves


    Schwarz, Albert


    One says that a pair (P,Q) of ordinary differential operators specify a quantum curve if [P,Q]=const. If a pair of difference operators (K,L) obey the relation KL=const LK we say that they specify a discrete quantum curve. This terminology is prompted by well known results about commuting differential and difference operators, relating pairs of such operators with pairs of meromorphic functions on algebraic curves obeying some conditions. ...

  6. Survival of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus in Tissues Derived from Experimentally Infected Chickens. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Mase, Masaji


    Eurasian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been a severe threat to the poultry industry since its emergence in 1996. The carcass or tissues derived from infected birds may present the risk of the virus spreading to humans, animals, and the surrounding environment. In this study, we investigated the survival of the virus in feather, muscle, and liver tissues collected from six chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with HPAI H5N1 virus. The tissues were stored at +4°C or +20°C, and viral isolation was performed at different times for 360 days. The maximum periods for viral survival were observed in samples stored at +4°C in all tissue types and were 240 days in feather tissues, 160 days in muscle, and 20 days in liver. The viral infectivity at +20°C was maintained for a maximum of 30 days in the feather tissues, 20 days in muscle, and 3 days in liver. The viral inactivation rates partly overlapped in the feather and muscle tissues at the two temperatures. The virus was inactivated rapidly in the liver. Our experimental results indicate that the tissue type and temperature can greatly influence the survival of HPAI H5N1 virus in the tissues of infected chickens.IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype can cause massive losses of poultry, and people need to handle a large number of chicken carcasses contaminated with the virus at outbreak sites. This study evaluated how long the virus can keep its infectivity in the three types of tissues derived from chickens infected with the virus. Our experimental results indicate that the virus can survive in tissues for a specific period of time depending on the tissue type and temperature. Our results are valuable for better understanding of viral ecology in the environment and for reducing the risk of the virus spreading via bird tissues contaminated with the virus. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Promoting long-term survival of insulin-producing cell grafts that differentiate from adipose tissue-derived stem cells to cure type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation.

  8. Forced collapse of the blastocoel enhances survival of cryotop vitrified bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Min, Sung-Hun; Lee, Enok; Son, Hyeong-Hoon; Yeon, Ji-Yeong; Koo, Deog-Bon


    Freezing of bovine blastocysts has been widely used to improve the feasibility of cattle production by the embryo transfer technique. However, the low survival of vitrified-warmed embryos and their further development are crucial problems. Particularly, the production of offspring in vitrified-warmed bovine hatching/hatched blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is very low. Thus, we examined the effects of forced blastocoel collapse (FBC) before vitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched embryos on the survival rate and apoptosis index after warming. Under optimal conditions, the overall survival rates in vitrified-warmed bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts were higher in FBC groups than in non-FBC groups (pvitrification of bovine IVF- and SCNT-derived hatching/hatched blastocysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Derived Transfer Factor Stimulates the Innate Immune System to Improve Survival Traits in High Risk Pathogen Scenarios. (United States)

    Willeford, Bridget V; Shapiro-Dunlap, Trudy; Willeford, Kenneth O


    Preclinical Research Transfer Factors (TFs) are low molecular weight (<5,000 daltons) biological response mediators. In the present study, a serum derived TF improved the ability of the recipient animal to survive high-risk infectious challenges (salmonellosis and canine parvoviral enteritis (CPV)) by altering the host's cytokine response profile. Mice mortally challenged with 5,000 colony-forming units of Salmonella experienced a group mortality of 73% while mice treated with a single 5 mg dose of the TF demonstrated a significant decrease in morbidity (7%, p ≤ 0.01). The splenic bacterial load in untreated mice was over 10,000 times higher than that in the TF treated mice. Twenty-four hours post-administration, the treated murine population expressed a rapid temporal increase in serum IL-6 (26-fold) and INF-γ (77-fold) concentrations. IL-6 can act as a critical signal regulating action against bacterial pathogens. A comparative double-blind study performed using dogs confirmed to be undergoing a canine parvovirus challenge showed that when conventional supportive therapy was supplemented with a single 5 mg TF dose there was a reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in group mortality (68% of the TF treated group survived versus 32% of the placebo group), an observation consistent with the observed increase in INF-γ, a cytokine associated with promoting antiviral activity. Drug Dev Res 78 : 189-195, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bond yield curve construction

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    Kožul Nataša


    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  11. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

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    Wang, Suna, E-mail:; Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.


    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative {sup RT}PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  12. The Role of Platelet-Derived ADP and ATP in Promoting Pancreatic Cancer Cell Survival and Gemcitabine Resistance

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    Omar Elaskalani


    Full Text Available Platelets have been demonstrated to be vital in cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, an important step in metastasis. Markers of EMT are associated with chemotherapy resistance. However, the association between the development of chemoresistance, EMT, and the contribution of platelets to the process, is still unclear. Here we report that platelets regulate the expression of (1 human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1 and (2 cytidine deaminase (CDD, markers of gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer. Human ENT1 (hENT1 is known to enable cellular uptake of gemcitabine while CDD deactivates gemcitabine. Knockdown experiments demonstrate that Slug, a mesenchymal transcriptional factor known to be upregulated during EMT, regulates the expression of hENT1 and CDD. Furthermore, we demonstrate that platelet-derived ADP and ATP regulate Slug and CDD expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Finally, we demonstrate that pancreatic cancer cells express the purinergic receptor P2Y12, an ADP receptor found mainly on platelets. Thus ticagrelor, a P2Y12 inhibitor, was used to examine the potential therapeutic effect of an ADP receptor antagonist on cancer cells. Our data indicate that ticagrelor negated the survival signals initiated in cancer cells by platelet-derived ADP and ATP. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a novel role of platelets in modulating chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, we propose ADP/ATP receptors as additional potential drug targets for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Inhibition of CDK4/6 by Palbociclib Significantly Extends Survival in Medulloblastoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Models. (United States)

    Cook Sangar, Michelle L; Genovesi, Laura A; Nakamoto, Madison W; Davis, Melissa J; Knobluagh, Sue E; Ji, Pengxiang; Millar, Amanda; Wainwright, Brandon J; Olson, James M


    Purpose: Bioinformatics analysis followed by in vivo studies in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were used to identify and validate CDK 4/6 inhibition as an effective therapeutic strategy for medulloblastoma, particularly group 3 MYC-amplified tumors that have the worst clinical prognosis.Experimental Design: A protein interaction network derived from a Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis model of medulloblastoma was used to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. The top hit from this analysis was validated in vivo using PDX models of medulloblastoma implanted subcutaneously in the flank and orthotopically in the cerebellum of mice.Results: Informatics analysis identified the CDK4/6/CYCLIN D/RB pathway as a novel "druggable" pathway for multiple subgroups of medulloblastoma. Palbociclib, a highly specific inhibitor of CDK4/6, was found to inhibit RB phosphorylation and cause G1 arrest in PDX models of medulloblastoma. The drug caused rapid regression of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and MYC-amplified group 3 medulloblastoma subcutaneous tumors and provided a highly significant survival advantage to mice bearing MYC-amplified intracranial tumors.Conclusions: Inhibition of CDK4/6 is potentially a highly effective strategy for the treatment of SHH and MYC-amplified group 3 medulloblastoma. Clin Cancer Res; 23(19); 5802-13. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases* (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J.; Nie, Guangjun


    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26895960

  15. Diprotonation process of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin derivatives designed for Photodynamic Therapy of cancers: From Multivariate Curve Resolution to predictive QSPR modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Benoit, E-mail: [Univ. Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, Faculte de Pharmacie, F-92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Institut Curie, UMR 176 CNRS, Centre Universitaire, Univ Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Kasselouri, Athena; Chaminade, Pierre; Quiameso, Rita [Univ. Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, Faculte de Pharmacie, F-92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Nicolis, Ioannis [Laboratoire de Biomathematiques et Informatique, Departement de Sante publique et biostatistiques et EA 4466, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Paris Descartes, 4, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75270 Paris cedex 06 (France); Maillard, Philippe [Institut Curie, UMR 176 CNRS, Centre Universitaire, Univ Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Prognon, Patrice [Univ. Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, Faculte de Pharmacie, F-92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)


    Highlights: {yields} Diprotonation of 17 meso-tetraphenylporphyrin derivatives. {yields} MCR-ALS resolution of multi-component mixtures. {yields} Determination of stepwise protonation constants. {yields} Prediction of protonation constants from ET-State indices. - Abstract: Tetrapyrrole rings possess four nitrogen atoms, two of which act as Broendsted bases in acidic media. The two protonation steps occur on a close pH range, particularly in the case of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) derivatives. If the cause of this phenomenon is well known - a protonation-induced distortion of the porphyrin ring - data on stepwise protonation constants and on electronic absorption spectra of monoprotonated TPPs are sparse. A multivariate approach has been systematically applied to a series of glycoconjugated and hydroxylated TPPs, potential anticancer drugs usable in Photodynamic Therapy. The dual purpose was determination of protonation constants and linking substitution with basicity. Hard-modeling version of MCR-ALS (Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares) has given access to spectra and distribution profile of pure components. Spectra of monoprotonated species (H{sub 3}TPP{sup +}) in solution resemble those of diprotonated species (H{sub 4}TPP{sup 2+}), mainly differing by a slight blue-shift of bands. Overlap of H{sub 3}TPP{sup +} and H{sub 4}TPP{sup 2+} spectra reinforces the difficulty to evidence an intermediate form only present in low relative abundance. Depending on macrocycle substitution, pK values ranged from 3.5 {+-} 0.1 to 5.1 {+-} 0.1 for the first protonation and from 3.2 {+-} 0.2 to 4.9 {+-} 0.1 for the second one. Inner nitrogens' basicity is affected by position, number and nature of peripheral substituents depending on their electrodonating character. pK values have been used to establish a predictive Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model, relying on atom-type electrotopological indices. This model accurately describes our results and

  16. Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis (United States)

    White, Laura M.; Lau, Katherine S. L.; Perkins, Anthony; Monahan, Patrick; Grisso, Thomas


    Objectives. We examined the provision of behavioral health services to youths detained in Indiana between 2008 and 2012 and the impact of services on recidivism. Method. We obtained information about behavioral health needs, behavioral health treatment received, and recidivism within 12 months after release for 8363 adolescents (aged 12–18 years; 79.4% male). We conducted survival analyses to determine whether behavioral health services significantly affected time to recidivating. Results. Approximately 19.1% of youths had positive mental health screens, and 25.3% of all youths recidivated within 12 months after release. Of youths with positive screens, 29.2% saw a mental health clinician, 16.1% received behavioral health services during detention, and 30.0% received referrals for postdetention services. Survival analyses showed that being male, Black, and younger, and having higher scores on the substance use or irritability subscales of the screen predicted shorter time to recidivism. Receiving a behavior precaution, behavioral health services in detention, or an assessment in the community also predicted shorter time to recidivating. Conclusions. Findings support previous research showing that behavioral health problems are related to recidivism and that Black males are disproportionately rearrested after detention. PMID:25973804

  17. Meta-analysis of survival curve data using distributed health data networks: application to hip arthroplasty studies of the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries. (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art; Paxton, Liz; Furnes, Ove; Graves, Stephen; Marinac-Dabic, Danica


    The motivating example for this paper comes from a distributed health data network, the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries (ICOR), which aims to examine risk factors for orthopedic device failure for registries around the world. Unfortunately, regulatory, privacy, and propriety concerns made sharing of raw data impossible, even if de-identified. Therefore, this article describes an approach to extraction and analysis of aggregate time-to-event data from ICOR. Data extraction is based on obtaining a survival probability and variance estimate for each unique combination of the explanatory variables at each distinct event time for each registry. The extraction procedure allows for a great deal of flexibility; models can be specified after the data have been collected, for example, modeling of interaction effects and selection of subgroups of patients based on their values on the explanatory variables. Our analysis models are adapted from models presented elsewhere--but allowing for censoring in the calculation of the correlation between serial survival probabilities and using the square root of the covariance matrix to transform the data to avoid computational problems in model estimation. Simulations and a real-data example are provided with strengths and limitations of the approach discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)


    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  19. Identification of Neurexophilin 3 as a Novel Supportive Factor for Survival of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors (United States)

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Murayama, Shigeo


    Successful cell transplantation for Parkinson’s disease (PD) depends on both an optimal host brain environment and ideal donor cells. We report that a secreted peptide, neurexophilin 3 (NXPH3), supports the survival of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. We compared the gene expression profiles in the mouse striatum from two different environments: a supportive environment, which we defined as 1 week after acute administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and a nonsupportive environment, defined as 8 weeks after chronic administration of MPTP. NXPH3 expression was higher in the former condition and lower in the latter compared with untreated controls. When we injected mouse iPSC-derived neural cells along with NXPH3 into the mouse striatum, the ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive DA neurons per graft volume was higher at 8 weeks compared with cell injections that excluded NXPH3. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the postmortem putamen revealed that the expression level of NXPH3 was lower in PD patients compared with normal controls. These findings will contribute to optimizing the host brain environment and patient recruitment in cell therapy for PD. Significance This study identified neurexophilin 3 (NXPH3), a secreted peptide, through comparison of gene expression profiles in the mouse striatum from various environments generated by different doses of dopaminergic (DA) neuron toxin. When mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells along with NXPH3 were injected into the mouse striatum, the ratio of DA neurons per graft volume was higher at 8 weeks compared with cell injections without NXPH3. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the postmortem putamen revealed that the expression level of NXPH3 was lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with controls without PD. These

  20. AR-13, a Celecoxib Derivative, Directly Kills Francisella In Vitro and Aids Clearance and Mouse Survival In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ky V. Hoang


    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a Tier 1 select agent. No licensed vaccine is currently available in the United States and treatment of tularemia is confined to few antibiotics. In this study, we demonstrate that AR-13, a derivative of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, exhibits direct in vitro bactericidal killing activity against Francisella including a type A strain of F. tularensis (SchuS4 and the live vaccine strain (LVS, as well as toward the intracellular proliferation of LVS in macrophages, without causing significant host cell toxicity. Identification of an AR-13-resistant isolate indicates that this compound has an intracellular target(s and that efflux pumps can mediate AR-13 resistance. In the mouse model of tularemia, AR-13 treatment protected 50% of the mice from lethal LVS infection and prolonged survival time from a lethal dose of F. tularensis SchuS4. Combination of AR-13 with a sub-optimal dose of gentamicin protected 60% of F. tularensis SchuS4-infected mice from death. Taken together, these data support the translational potential of AR-13 as a lead compound for the further development of new anti-Francisella agents.

  1. Distinct effectors of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α signaling are required for cell survival during embryogenesis (United States)

    Van Stry, Melanie; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Symes, Karen


    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling is essential for normal embryonic development in many organisms, including frog, mouse, zebrafish, and sea urchin. The mode of action of PDGFR signaling during early development is poorly understood, however, mostly because inhibition of signaling through either the PDGFRα or PDGFRβ is embryonic lethal. In Xenopus embryos, disruption of PDGFRα signaling causes migrating anterior mesoderm cells to lose direction and undergo apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. To understand the mechanism of PDGFRα function in this process, we have analyzed all known effector-binding sites in vivo. By using a chemical inducer of dimerization to activate chimera PDGFRαs, we have identified a role for phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) in protecting cells from death. PDGFRα-mediated cell survival requires PLCγ and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, and that PDGFRα with binding sites for these two signaling factors is sufficient for this activity. Other effectors of PDGFRα signaling, Shf, SHP-2, and Crk, are not required for this process. Thus, our findings show that PDGFRα signaling through PLCγ and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase has a protective role in preventing apoptosis in early development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that small molecule inducers of dimerization provide a powerful system to manipulate receptor function in developing embryos. PMID:15919820

  2. Distinct effectors of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha signaling are required for cell survival during embryogenesis. (United States)

    Van Stry, Melanie; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Schreiber, Stuart L; Symes, Karen


    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling is essential for normal embryonic development in many organisms, including frog, mouse, zebrafish, and sea urchin. The mode of action of PDGFR signaling during early development is poorly understood, however, mostly because inhibition of signaling through either the PDGFRalpha or PDGFRbeta is embryonic lethal. In Xenopus embryos, disruption of PDGFRalpha signaling causes migrating anterior mesoderm cells to lose direction and undergo apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. To understand the mechanism of PDGFRalpha function in this process, we have analyzed all known effector-binding sites in vivo. By using a chemical inducer of dimerization to activate chimera PDGFRalphas, we have identified a role for phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) in protecting cells from death. PDGFRalpha-mediated cell survival requires PLCgamma and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, and that PDGFRalpha with binding sites for these two signaling factors is sufficient for this activity. Other effectors of PDGFRalpha signaling, Shf, SHP-2, and Crk, are not required for this process. Thus, our findings show that PDGFRalpha signaling through PLCgamma and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase has a protective role in preventing apoptosis in early development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that small molecule inducers of dimerization provide a powerful system to manipulate receptor function in developing embryos.

  3. Survival of free and microencapsulated human-derived oral probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 in orange and aloe vera juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan


    Full Text Available Microencapsulation was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a human-derived strain with probiotic potential, in orange and aloe vera juices. The microencapsulation parameters included alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and hardening-time, and the efficacy of microencapsulation to preserve the survival of microencapsulated bacteria compared to free cells during exposure in fruit juices were determined. The results revealed that the viable count of free-cell form markedly decreased compared to microencapsulated form. The microencapsulation of 2% alginate (w/v and 0.05 M CaCl2 gave the best result to preserve the probiotic. It was found that viability of microencapsulated probiotic bacteria was significantly higher than free-cell in fruit juices during 8 weeks of storage time in the refrigerator. The potential probiotic trait related to inhibitory effect was not affected after microencapsulation process. In summary, the microencapsulation method may be an alternative way of preserving the viability of probiotic L. paracasei SD1.

  4. The Influence of the Annual Number of Storms on the Derivation of the Flood Frequency Curve through Event-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sordo-Ward


    Full Text Available This study addresses the question of how to select the minimum set of storms that should be simulated each year in order to estimate an accurate flood frequency curve for return periods ranging between 1 and 1000 years. The Manzanares basin (Spain was used as a study case. A continuous 100,000-year hourly rainfall series was generated using the stochastic spatial–temporal model RanSimV3. Individual storms were extracted from the series by applying the exponential method. For each year, the extracted storms were transformed into hydrographs by applying an hourly time-step semi-distributed event-based rainfall–runoff model, and the maximum peak flow per year was determined to generate the reference flood frequency curve. Then, different flood frequency curves were obtained considering the N storms with maximum rainfall depth per year, with 1 ≤ N ≤ total number of storms. Main results show that: (a the degree of alignment between the calculated flood frequency curves and the reference flood frequency curve depends on the return period considered, increasing the accuracy for higher return periods; (b for the analyzed case studies, the flood frequency curve for medium and high return period (50 ≤ return period ≤ 1000 years can be estimated with a difference lower than 3% (compared to the reference flood frequency curve by considering the three storms with the maximum total rainfall depth each year; (c when considering only the greatest storm of the year, for return periods higher than 10 years, the difference for the estimation of the flood frequency curve is lower than 10%; and (d when considering the three greatest storms each year, for return periods higher than 100 years, the probability of achieving simultaneously a hydrograph with the annual maximum peak flow and the maximum volume is 94%.

  5. Phenology from Landsat when data is scarce: Using MODIS and Dynamic Time-Warping to combine multi-year Landsat imagery to derive annual phenology curves (United States)

    Baumann, Matthias; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Richardson, Andrew D.; Radeloff, Volker C.


    Green-leaf phenology describes the development of vegetation throughout a growing season and greatly affects the interaction between climate and the biosphere. Remote sensing is a valuable tool to characterize phenology over large areas but doing at fine- to medium resolution (e.g., with Landsat data) is difficult because of low numbers of cloud-free images in a single year. One way to overcome data availability limitations is to merge multi-year imagery into one time series, but this requires accounting for phenological differences among years. Here we present a new approach that employed a time series of a MODIS vegetation index data to quantify interannual differences in phenology, and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) to re-align multi-year Landsat images to a common phenology that eliminates year-to-year phenological differences. This allowed us to estimate annual phenology curves from Landsat between 2002 and 2012 from which we extracted key phenological dates in a Monte-Carlo simulation design, including green-up (GU), start-of-season (SoS), maturity (Mat), senescence (Sen), end-of-season (EoS) and dormancy (Dorm). We tested our approach in eight locations across the United States that represented forests of different types and without signs of recent forest disturbance. We compared Landsat-based phenological transition dates to those derived from MODIS and ground-based camera data from the PhenoCam-network. The Landsat and MODIS comparison showed strong agreement. Dates of green-up, start-of-season and maturity were highly correlated (r 0.86-0.95), as were senescence and end-of-season dates (r > 0.85) and dormancy (r > 0.75). Agreement between the Landsat and PhenoCam was generally lower, but correlation coefficients still exceeded 0.8 for all dates. In addition, because of the high data density in the new Landsat time series, the confidence intervals of the estimated keydates were substantially lower than in case of MODIS and PhenoCam. Our study thus suggests

  6. Ischemic flap survival improvement by composition-selective fat grafting with novel adipose tissue derived product - stromal vascular fraction gel. (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Feng, Jingwei; Liao, Yunjun; Cai, Junrong; Zhou, Tao; Sun, Mingliang; Gao, Jianhua; Gao, Kai


    Flap necrosis due to insufficient blood supply is a common postoperative complication in random pattern flaps. Stem cell therapies have emerged as promising biologics for tissue ischemia. A novel fat derived product, stromal vascular fraction gel (SVF-gel), can be prepared with lipoaspirate through simple mechanical processing, removing only the lipid content. SVF-gel enriches adipose-derived stem cells and potentially beneficial for flap necrosis. Nude mice ischemic flaps were treated with human SVF-gel, stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell suspension or saline (n = 10). They were injected to the flap recipient beds, and necrosis and vascularization was assessed on postoperative day 14. We harvested the necrosis-free distal to evaluated skin healthiness and neovasculogenesis by Masson's trichrome stain and immunofluorescence, etc. Pro-angiogenic factors were assessed with tissue qRT-PCR. Finally, we traced the grafted human tissue with immunofluorescence. SVF-gel-treated flaps have the smallest necrotic zones (22.05% ± 0.0438) compared with the saline controls (53.78% ± 0.1412) or SVF-treated ones (35.54% ± 0.0850, p = 0.039). Numerous functional musculocutaneous perforators were developed around SVF-gel grafts. The SVF-gel-treated skin had the best fat restoration (231.3 ± 48.1 μm) among three groups (F = 10.83, p = 0.0102) while saline-treated flap distal appeared fibrotic. SVF-gel-treated flaps also had ∼43% more CD31 + capillaries (p = 0.0152) with ∼3 folds more gene expression of angiogenic cytokines of VEGF and bFGF (p = 0.0310 and 0.0303, respectively) than saline-treated controls. Furthermore, we found hSVF-gel cells (hGolgi+) had directly engrafted as vessel component (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA+) to the flap. Adipose cellular matrix enhanced flap neovascularization partly by direct incorporation, improved flap survival and fat restoration. The composition-selective fat grafting with SVF-gel demonstrated efficacy

  7. Transcript and protein analysis reveals better survival skills of monocyte-derived dendritic cells compared to monocytes during oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Brussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs, professional antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability to initiate primary T-cell responses, are present in atherosclerotic lesions where they are exposed to oxidative stress that generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. A large body of evidence indicates that cell death is a major modulating factor of atherogenesis. We examined antioxidant defence systems of human monocyte-derived (moDCs and monocytes in response to oxidative stress. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced by addition of tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BHP, 30 min. Cellular responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal live cell imaging (both using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, CM-H(2DCFDA. Viability was assessed by the neutral red assay. Total RNA was extracted for a PCR profiler array. Five genes were selected for confirmation by Taqman gene expression assays, and by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry for protein levels. RESULTS: Tert-BHP increased CM-H(2DCFDA fluorescence and caused cell death. Interestingly, all processes occurred more slowly in moDCs than in monocytes. The mRNA profiler array showed more than 2-fold differential expression of 32 oxidative stress-related genes in unstimulated moDCs, including peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2, an enzyme reducing hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. PRDX2 upregulation was confirmed by Taqman assays, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Silencing PRDX2 in moDCs by means of siRNA significantly increased CM-DCF fluorescence and cell death upon tert-BHP-stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that moDCs exhibit higher intracellular antioxidant capacities, making them better equipped to resist oxidative stress than monocytes. Upregulation of PRDX2 is involved in the neutralization of ROS in moDCs. Taken together, this points to better survival skills of DCs in oxidative stress environments, such as atherosclerotic plaques.

  8. Gene signatures derived from a c-MET-driven liver cancer mouse model predict survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ivanovska

    Full Text Available Biomarkers derived from gene expression profiling data may have a high false-positive rate and must be rigorously validated using independent clinical data sets, which are not always available. Although animal model systems could provide alternative data sets to formulate hypotheses and limit the number of signatures to be tested in clinical samples, the predictive power of such an approach is not yet proven. The present study aims to analyze the molecular signatures of liver cancer in a c-MET-transgenic mouse model and investigate its prognostic relevance to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Tissue samples were obtained from tumor (TU, adjacent non-tumor (AN and distant normal (DN liver in Tet-operator regulated (TRE human c-MET transgenic mice (n = 21 as well as from a Chinese cohort of 272 HBV- and 9 HCV-associated HCC patients. Whole genome microarray expression profiling was conducted in Affymetrix gene expression chips, and prognostic significances of gene expression signatures were evaluated across the two species. Our data revealed parallels between mouse and human liver tumors, including down-regulation of metabolic pathways and up-regulation of cell cycle processes. The mouse tumors were most similar to a subset of patient samples characterized by activation of the Wnt pathway, but distinctive in the p53 pathway signals. Of potential clinical utility, we identified a set of genes that were down regulated in both mouse tumors and human HCC having significant predictive power on overall and disease-free survival, which were highly enriched for metabolic functions. In conclusions, this study provides evidence that a disease model can serve as a possible platform for generating hypotheses to be tested in human tissues and highlights an efficient method for generating biomarker signatures before extensive clinical trials have been initiated.

  9. Dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells survive and integrate into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. (United States)

    Cai, Jingli; Yang, Ming; Poremsky, Elizabeth; Kidd, Sarah; Schneider, Jay S; Iacovitti, Lorraine


    Cell replacement therapy could be an important treatment strategy for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain (mDA). The success of this approach greatly relies on the discovery of an abundant source of cells capable of mDAergic function in the brain. With the paucity of available human fetal tissue, efforts have increasingly focused on renewable stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer great promise in this regard. If hiPS cells can be differentiated into authentic mDA neuron, hiPS could provide a potential autologous source of transplant tissue when generated from PD patients, a clear advantage over human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Here, we report that mDA neurons can be derived from a commercially available hiPS cell line, IMR90 clone 4, using a modified hES differentiation protocol established in our lab. These cells express all the markers (Lmx1a, Aldh1a1, TH, TrkB), follow the same mDA lineage pathway as H9 hES cells, and have similar expression levels of DA and DOPAC. Moreover, when hiPS mDA progenitor cells are transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats, they survive long term and many develop into bona fide mDA neurons. Despite their differentiation and integration into the brain, many Nestin+ tumor-like cells remain at the site of the graft. Our data suggest that as with hES cells, selecting the appropriate population of mDA lineage cells and eliminating actively dividing hiPS cells before transplantation will be critical for the future success of hiPS cell replacement therapy in PD patients.

  10. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis


    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  11. C3G overexpression promotes the survival of rat-derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes by p-ERK1/2. (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Gang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Dongyan; Zhang, Zhisheng; Yan, An; Linghu, Hua


    Integrin β1 subunit and its downstream molecules, such as integrin-linked kinase and focal adhesion kinase, are imperative for promotion of cell proliferation, survival and anti-apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by activation of their downstream pro-survival signalling molecules, such as the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2). As a component of the integrin pathway, C3G (Crk-SH3 domain guanine nucleotide exchange factor) protein may be involved in the promotion of cell proliferation and survival and anti-apoptosis in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Rat-derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes were transfected with pCXN2-flag-hC3G, a human C3G overexpression eukaryotic recombinant plasmid. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival were analysed in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes either treated with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Human C3G mRNA overexpression significantly elevated C3G protein expression in H9C2 cardiomyocytes whether treated with H/R or not. C3G overexpression promoted proliferation and survival and anti-apoptosis, and attenuated the proliferative and survival inhibition, and apoptosis induced by H/R by activation of its downstream pro-survival signalling molecule, p-ERK1/2. The results suggest that C3G acts as a pro-survival molecule in H9C2 cardiomyocytes by activation of p-ERK1/2. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakura Sato


    Conclusions: Measurements of sIgE against egg, milk, and wheat as determined by 3gAllergy may be used as a tool to facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in subjects with suspected food allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays.

  13. Peptides derived from the solvent-exposed loops 3 and 4 of BDNF bind TrkB and p75(NTR) receptors and stimulate neurite outgrowth and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; Owczarek, Sylwia; Budtz, Christian


    to produce more specific compounds without side effects, small peptides mimicking protein function have been developed. The present study characterized two mimetic peptides, Betrofin 3 and Betrofin 4, derived from the BDNF sequence. Both Betrofins bound the cognate BDNF receptors, TrkB and p75(NTR......), and induced neurite outgrowth and enhanced neuronal survival, probably by inducing signaling through tha Akt and MAPK pathways. Distinct, charged residues within the Betrofin sequences were identified as important for generating the neuritogenic response, which was also inhibited when BDNF was added together...... with either Betrofin, indicating partial agonistic effects of the peptides. Thus, two peptides derived from BDNF induced neurite outgrowth and enhanced neuronal survival, probably through binding to BDNF receptors....

  14. Multipulse phase resetting curves


    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady


    In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbatio...

  15. [Quality of life and overall survival in high risk patients after radical cystectomy with a simple urinary derivation]. (United States)

    Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Macchione, Luciano; Galì, Alessandro; di Benedetto, Antonina; Subba, Enrica; Pappalardo, Rosa; Mucciardi, Massimo; Butticè, Salvatore; Inferrera, Antonino; Magno, Carlo


    To evaluate quality of life (QoL) and overall survival after radical cystectomy with cutaneous ureterostomies for locally advanced bladder cancer in elderly patients with high surgical risk. Fifty eight patients older than 74 years (mean age 80,6±4,3) with locally advanced bladder cancer (group A), underwent radical cystectomy and ureterocutaneous diversion. Patients completed the EORTC QLQC30 before and six months after surgery to assess functional, clinical and QoL outcomes. The same evaluation was carried out in a control group (group B) of 29 patients (mean age 82,3±3,8 years), who had refused cystectomy. Questionnaires were also administered to patients of both groups who survived at least 20 months and 5 years. All patients presented with an ASA score ≥3. Mean hospital stay was 15.1 days (±4.8) in group A and 23.5 days (±4.1) in Group B. No intraoperative complications occurred in group A. Postoperative overall survival evaluated within 6 months in group A was 97% versus 79% in group B (pcancer and high operative risk. Comparison between two groups showed a statistically significant difference for almost all the Qol related parameters and for short and medium term overall survival. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival of classical swine fever virus at various temperatures in faeces and urine derived from experimentally infected pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesendorp, E.; Stegeman, A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.


    Indirect transmission of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can occur through contact with mechanical vectors, like clothing and footwear or transport vehicles, contaminated with the secretions or excretions of infected pigs. A prerequisite for indirect transmission is survival of the virus on the

  17. Adiabatic states derived from a spin-coupled diabatic transformation: semiclassical trajectory study of photodissociation of HBr and the construction of potential curves for LiBr+. (United States)

    Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G; Jasper, Ahren W


    The development of spin-coupled diabatic representations for theoretical semiclassical treatments of photodissociation dynamics is an important practical goal, and some of the assumptions required to carry this out may be validated by applications to simple systems. With this objective, we report here a study of the photodissociation dynamics of the prototypical HBr system using semiclassical trajectory methods. The valence (spin-free) potential energy curves and the permanent and transition dipole moments were computed using high-level ab initio methods and were transformed to a spin-coupled diabatic representation. The spin-orbit coupling used in the transformation was taken as that of atomic bromine at all internuclear distances. Adiabatic potential energy curves, nonadiabatic couplings and transition dipole moments were then obtained from the diabatic ones and were used in all the dynamics calculations. Nonadiabatic photodissociation probabilities were computed using three semiclassical trajectory methods, namely, coherent switching with decay of mixing (CSDM), fewest switches with time uncertainty (FSTU), and its recently developed variant with stochastic decoherence (FTSU/SD), each combined with semiclassical sampling of the initial vibrational state. The calculated branching fraction to the higher fine-structure level of the bromine atom is in good agreement with experiment and with more complete theoretical treatments. The present study, by comparing our new calculations to wave packet calculations with distance-dependent ab initio spin-orbit coupling, validates the semiclassical trajectory methods, the semiclassical initial state sample scheme, and the use of a distance-independent spin-orbit coupling for future applications to polyatomic photodissociation. Finally, using LiBr(+) as a model system, it is shown that accurate spin-coupled potential curves can also be constructed for odd-electron systems using the same strategy as for HBr.

  18. Human platelet lysate improves human cord blood derived ECFC survival and vasculogenesis in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Prasain, Nutan; Vemula, Sasidhar; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Yoder, Mervin C


    Human cord blood (CB) is enriched in circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) that display high proliferative potential and in vivo vessel forming ability. Since diminished ECFC survival is known to dampen the vasculogenic response in vivo, we tested how long implanted ECFC survive and generate vessels in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen matrices in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that human platelet lysate (HPL) would promote cell survival and enhance vasculogenesis in the 3D collagen matrices. We report that the percentage of ECFC co-cultured with HPL that were alive was significantly enhanced on days 1 and 3 post-matrix formation, compared to ECFC alone containing matrices. Also, co-culture of ECFC with HPL displayed significantly more vasculogenic activity compared to ECFC alone and expressed significantly more pro-survival molecules (pAkt, p-Bad and Bcl-xL) in the 3D collagen matrices in vitro. Treatment with Akt1 inhibitor (A-674563), Akt2 inhibitor (CCT128930) and Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-263/Navitoclax) significantly decreased the cell survival and vasculogenesis of ECFC co-cultured with or without HPL and implicated activation of the Akt1 pathway as the critical mediator of the HPL effect on ECFC in vitro. A significantly greater average vessel number and total vascular area of human CD31(+) vessels were present in implants containing ECFC and HPL, compared to the ECFC alone implants in vivo. We conclude that implantation of ECFC with HPL in vivo promotes vasculogenesis and augments blood vessel formation via diminishing apoptosis of the implanted ECFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Promotion of Survival and Engraftment of Transplanted Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal and Vascular Cells by Overexpression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Baldari


    Full Text Available Short-term persistence of transplanted cells during early post-implant period limits clinical efficacy of cell therapy. Poor cell survival is mainly due to the harsh hypoxic microenvironment transplanted cells face at the site of implantation and to anoikis, driven by cell adhesion loss. We evaluated the hypothesis that viral-mediated expression of a gene conferring hypoxia resistance to cells before transplant could enhance survival of grafted cells in early stages after implant. We used adipose tissue as cell source because it consistently provides high yields of adipose-tissue-derived stromal and vascular cells (ASCs, suitable for regenerative purposes. Luciferase positive cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing either green fluorescent protein as control or human manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2. Cells were then exposed in vitro to hypoxic conditions, mimicking cell transplantation into an ischemic site. Cells overexpressing SOD2 displayed survival rates significantly greater compared to mock transduced cells. Similar results were also obtained in vivo after implantation into syngeneic mice and assessment of cell engraftment by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Taken together, these findings suggest that ex vivo gene transfer of SOD2 into ASCs before implantation confers a cytoprotective effect leading to improved survival and engraftment rates, therefore enhancing cell therapy regenerative potential.

  20. Enhanced survival of transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by the combination of cell sheets with the pedicled omental flap technique in a porcine heart. (United States)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Atsuhiro; Miki, Kenji; Ito, Emiko; Sougawa, Nagako; Kawamura, Takuji; Daimon, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo; Toda, Koichi; Sawa, Yoshiki


    Transplantation of cardiomyocytes that are derived from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) shows promise in generating new functional myocardium in situ, whereas the survival and functionality of the transplanted cells are critical in considering this therapeutic impact. Cell-sheet method has been used to transplant many functional cells; however, potential ischemia might limit cell survival. The omentum, which is known to have rich vasculature, is expected to be a source of blood supply. We hypothesized that transplantation of hiPS-CM cell sheets combined with an omentum flap may deliver a large number of functional hiPS-CMs with enhanced blood supply. Retrovirally established human iPS cells were treated with Wnt signaling molecules to induce cardiomyogenic differentiation, followed by superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling. Cell sheets were created from the magnetically labeled hiPS-CMs using temperature-responsive dishes and transplanted to porcine hearts with or without the omentum flap (n=8 each). Two months after transplantation, the survival of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled hiPS-CMs, assessed by MRI, was significantly greater in mini-pigs with the omentum than in those without it; histologically, vascular density in the transplanted area was significantly greater in mini-pigs with the omentum than in those without it. The transplanted tissues contained abundant cardiac troponin T-positive cells surrounded by vascular-rich structures. The omentum flap enhanced the survival of hiPS-CMs after transplantation via increased angiogenesis, suggesting that this strategy is useful in clinical settings. The combination of hiPS-CMs and the omentum flap may be a promising technique for the development of tissue-engineered vascular-rich new myocardium in vivo.

  1. Raster-based derivation of a flood runoff susceptibility map using the revised runoff curve number (CN) for the Kuantan watershed, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Abolghasem; Samah, Azizan Abu; Daryabor, Farshid


    . Approximately 5% of the study area was identified as a very high-risk zone and 13% as high-risk zone. However, the spatial extent of a high-risk zone in the downstream end and lowland areas of the KW could be considered to be the main cause of flood damage in recent years. From practical point of view......This study aims to develop a methodology for generating a flood runoff susceptibility (FRS) map using a revised curve number (CN) method. The study area is in the Kuantan watershed (KW), Malaysia, which was seriously affected by floods in December 2013 and December 2014. A revised runoff CN map......, the finding of this research provides a road map for government agencies to effectively implement flood mitigation projects in the study area....

  2. An NCAM-derived FGF-receptor agonist, the FGL-peptide, induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in primary rat neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neiiendam, Johanne Louise; Køhler, Lene Boding; Christensen, Claus


    factor receptor (FGFR). NCAM-mediated adhesion leads to activation of various intracellular signal transduction pathways, including the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways. A synthetic peptide derived from the second fibronectin type III...... of the FGL peptide are shown to depend on activation of FGFR and the MAPK and PI3K intracellular signalling pathways, all three kinases being necessary for the effects of FGL on neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival....

  3. The curve of Spee revisited. (United States)

    Braun, S; Hnat, W P; Johnson, B E


    Through the use of a sophisticated measuring device and support computer technology, accurate arch circumferences were determined for 27 casts that exhibited moderate to severe curves of Spee. Arch circumference differences were subsequently obtained by comparing the measured arch length to a planar projection formed by the center of the incisal tips anteriorly and the distobuccal cusp tips of the second molars distally. A general relationship has been derived for the arch circumference differential, resulting from the elimination of the curve of Spee, versus the severity of the curve. The arch circumference reduction is considerably less than that found by earlier investigators, implying that the incisor protrusion often associated with leveling the curve of Spee is not primarily due to the aforementioned differential, but rather more directly due to the mechanics used in leveling the curve of Spee.

  4. Active motion on curved surfaces


    Castro-Villarreal, Pavel; Sevilla, Francisco J.


    A theoretical analysis of active motion on curved surfaces is presented in terms of a generalization of the Telegrapher's equation. Such generalized equation is explicitly derived as the polar approximation of the hierarchy of equations obtained from the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation of active particles diffusing on curved surfaces. The general solution to the generalized telegrapher's equation is given for a pulse with vanishing current as initial data. Expressions for the probability...

  5. Effects of continuous phonation on /sup 133/xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Brown, W.S. Jr.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.


    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (/sup 133/Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation.

  6. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.; Bozzi, R.; Boettcher, P.; Filippini, F.; Bijma, P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in

  7. No evidence that genetic variation in the myeloid-derived suppressor cell pathway influences ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Cannioto, Rikki; Clay, Alyssa I


    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which the immune system is adversely affected in cancer patients remains poorly understood, but the accumulation of immune suppressive/pro-tumorigenic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is thought to be one prominent mechanism contributing to immunologic...

  8. Myocyte-derived Tnfsf14 is a survival factor necessary for myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration. (United States)

    Waldemer-Streyer, R J; Chen, J


    Adult skeletal muscle tissue has a uniquely robust capacity for regeneration, which gradually declines with aging or is compromised in muscle diseases. The cellular mechanisms regulating adult myogenesis remain incompletely understood. Here we identify the cytokine tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14 (Tnfsf14) as a positive regulator of myoblast differentiation in culture and muscle regeneration in vivo. We find that Tnfsf14, as well as its cognate receptors herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), are expressed in both differentiating myocytes and regenerating myofibers. Depletion of Tnfsf14 or either receptor inhibits myoblast differentiation and promotes apoptosis. Our results also suggest that Tnfsf14 regulates myogenesis by supporting cell survival and maintaining a sufficient pool of cells for fusion. In addition, we show that Akt mediates the survival and myogenic function of Tnfsf14. Importantly, local knockdown of Tnfsf14 is found to impair injury-induced muscle regeneration in a mouse model, affirming an important physiological role for Tnfsf14 in myogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that localized overexpression of Tnfsf14 potently enhances muscle regeneration, and that this regenerative capacity of Tnfsf14 is dependent on Akt signaling. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel regulator of skeletal myogenesis and implicate Tnfsf14 in future therapeutic development.

  9. The survival of fetal and bone marrow monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages is promoted by CD44 and its interaction with hyaluronan. (United States)

    Dong, Y; Poon, G F T; Arif, A A; Lee-Sayer, S S M; Dosanjh, M; Johnson, P


    Alveolar macrophages maintain lung homeostasis by performing important roles in immunosurveillance and lung surfactant catabolism. They express high levels of CD44 and are one of the few macrophage populations that constitutively bind hyaluronan, a ligand for CD44 and component of pericellular and extracellular matrices. Using adoptive transfer experiments and a mouse model of inflammation, we found that alveolar macrophages are initially depleted after an inflammatory insult then rapidly self-renew and return to original numbers after the resolution phase. Monocytes recruited to an inflamed lung differentiate and contribute to the alveolar macrophage pool, but this occurs over a much slower time frame than alveolar macrophage self-renewal. CD44 expression on both fetal and bone marrow-derived alveolar macrophages promoted their survival and provided a competitive advantage over CD44-deficient alveolar macrophages at homeostasis and after inflammation. CD44-mediated hyaluronan binding was induced by the alveolar environment, and this interaction promoted alveolar macrophage survival both ex vivo and in vivo. Without CD44, alveolar macrophages lacked a hyaluronan coat, were more susceptible to death, and were present at lower numbers in the alveolar space. This demonstrates a new role for CD44 and hyaluronan in promoting alveolar macrophage survival.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 25 October 2017. doi:10.1038/mi.2017.83.

  10. Two-step grafting significantly enhances the survival of foetal dopaminergic transplants and induces graft-derived vascularisation in a 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Büchele, Fabian; Döbrössy, Máté; Hackl, Christina; Jiang, Wei; Papazoglou, Anna; Nikkhah, Guido


    GFP+ vessels - completely absent in control grafts - in regions where the two grafts overlap, indicating second-graft derived angiogenesis. In summary, the study shows that two-step grafting with a 2days time interval significantly increases DAergic cell survival compared to the standard protocol. Furthermore, our results demonstrate, for the first time, a donor-derived neoangiogenesis, leading to a new understanding of graft survival and development in the field of cell-replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells are capable of adhesion-independent survival and expansion. (United States)

    Baksh, Dolores; Davies, John E; Zandstra, Peter W


    We show the existence of adult human mesenchymal progenitor cells (hMPCs) that can proliferate, in a cytokine-dependent manner, as individual cells in stirred suspension cultures (SSC) while maintaining their ability to form functional differentiated mesenchymal cell types. Ficolled human bone marrow (BM)-derived cells were grown in SSC (and adherent controls) in the presence and absence of exogenously added cytokines. Phenotypic, gene expression, and functional assays for hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell populations were used to kinetically track cell production. Limiting-dilution analysis was used to relate culture-produced cells to input cell populations. Cytokine cocktail influenced total and progenitor cell expansion, as well as the types of cells generated upon plating. Flow cytometric analysis of CD117, CD123, and CD45 expression showed that cytokine supplementation influenced SSC output. The concomitant growth of CD45(+) and CD45(-) cells in the cultures that exhibited the greatest hMPC expansions suggests that the growth of these cells may benefit from interactions with hematopoietic cells. Functional assays demonstrated that the SSC-derived cells (input CFU-O number: 1990+/-377) grown in the presence of SCF+IL-3 resulted, after 21 days, in the generation of a significantly greater number (p<0.05) of bone progenitors (33,700+/-8763 CFU-O) than similarly initiated adherent cultures (214+/-75 CFU-O). RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the SSC-derived cells grown in osteogenic conditions express bone-specific genes (Cbfa1/Runx2, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin). Our approach not only provides an alternative strategy to expand adult BM-derived nonhematopoietic progenitor cell numbers in a scalable and controllable bioprocess, but also questions established biological paradigms concerning the properties of connective-tissue stem and progenitor cells.

  12. Distinct effectors of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α signaling are required for cell survival during embryogenesis


    Van Stry, Melanie; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Symes, Karen


    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling is essential for normal embryonic development in many organisms, including frog, mouse, zebrafish, and sea urchin. The mode of action of PDGFR signaling during early development is poorly understood, however, mostly because inhibition of signaling through either the PDGFRα or PDGFRβ is embryonic lethal. In Xenopus embryos, disruption of PDGFRα signaling causes migrating anterior mesoderm cells to lose direction and undergo apoptosis th...

  13. Fermentation Results in Quantitative Changes in Milk-Derived Exosomes and Different Effects on Cell Growth and Survival. (United States)

    Yu, Siran; Zhao, Zhehao; Sun, Liming; Li, Ping


    The discovery of microRNAs encapsulated in milk-derived exosomes has revealed stability under extreme conditions reflecting the protection of membranes. We attempted to determine the variations in nanoparticles derived from milk after fermentation, and provide evidence to determine the effects of these exosomes on cells with potential bioactivity. Using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we compared the morphology and particle size distribution of exosomes from yogurt fermented with three different combinations of strains with those from raw milk. The protein content of the exosome was significantly reduced in fermented milk. The cycle threshold showed that the expression of miR-29b and miR-21 was relatively high in raw milk, indicating a loss of microRNA after fermentation. Milk-derived exosomes could promote cell growth and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These findings demonstrated biological functions in milk exosomes and provided new insight into the nutrient composition of dairy products.

  14. Dinitrophenol modulates gene expression levels of angiogenic, cell survival and cardiomyogenic factors in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Ali, Anwar; Akhter, Muhammad Aleem; Haneef, Kanwal; Khan, Irfan; Naeem, Nadia; Habib, Rakhshinda; Kabir, Nurul; Salim, Asmat


    Various preconditioning strategies influence regeneration properties of stem cells. Preconditioned stem cells generally show better cell survival, increased differentiation, enhanced paracrine effects, and improved homing to the injury site by regulating the expression of tissue-protective cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we analyzed gene expression pattern of growth factors through RT-PCR after treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) and subsequent re-oxygenation for periods of 2, 6, 12 and 24h. These growth factors play important roles in cardiomyogenesis, angiogenesis and cell survival. Mixed pattern of gene expression was observed depending on the period of re-oxygenation. Of the 13 genes analyzed, ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) and GATA6 were downregulated after DNP treatment and subsequent re-oxygenations. Ankrd1 expression was, however, increased after 24h of re-oxygenation. Placental growth factor (Pgf), endoglin (Eng), neuropilin (Nrp1) and jagged 1 (Jag1) were up-regulated after DNP treatment. Gradual increase was observed as re-oxygenation advances and by the end of the re-oxygenation period the expression started to decrease and ultimately regained normal values. Epiregulin (Ereg) was not expressed in normal MSCs but its expression increased gradually from 2 to 24h after re-oxygenation. No change was observed in the expression level of connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) at any time period after re-oxygenation. Kindlin3, kinase insert domain receptor (Kdr), myogenin (Myog), Tbx20 and endothelial tyrosine kinase (Tek) were not expressed either in normal cells or cells treated with DNP. It can be concluded from the present study that MSCs adjust their gene expression levels under the influence of DNP induced metabolic stress. Their levels of expression vary with varying re-oxygenation periods. Preconditioning of MSCs with DNP can be used for enhancing the potential of these cells for

  15. HIV-1 and recombinant gp120 affect the survival and differentiation of human vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquinelli Gianandrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection elicits the onset of a progressive immunodeficiency and also damages several other organs and tissues such as the CNS, kidney, heart, blood vessels, adipose tissue and bone. In particular, HIV infection has been related to an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and derangement in the structure of blood vessels in the absence of classical risk factors. The recent characterization of multipotent mesenchymal cells in the vascular wall, involved in regulating cellular homeostasis, suggests that these cells may be considered a target of HIV pathogenesis. This paper investigated the interaction between HIV-1 and vascular wall resident human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Results MSCs were challenged with classical R5 and X4 HIV-1 laboratory strains demonstrating that these strains are able to enter and integrate their retro-transcribed proviral DNA in the host cell genome. Subsequent experiments indicated that HIV-1 strains and recombinant gp120 elicited a reliable increase in apoptosis in sub-confluent MSCs. Since vascular wall MSCs are multipotent cells that may be differentiated towards several cell lineages, we challenged HIV-1 strains and gp120 on MSCs differentiated to adipogenesis and endotheliogenesis. Our experiments showed that the adipogenesis is increased especially by upregulated PPARγ activity whereas the endothelial differentiation induced by VEGF treatment was impaired with a downregulation of endothelial markers such as vWF, Flt-1 and KDR expression. These viral effects in MSC survival and adipogenic or endothelial differentiation were tackled by CD4 blockade suggesting an important role of CD4/gp120 interaction in this context. Conclusions The HIV-related derangement of MSC survival and differentiation may suggest a direct role of HIV infection and gp120 in impaired vessel homeostasis and in genesis of vessel damage observed in HIV-infected patients.

  16. Development and validation of zero and first-order derivative area under curve spectrophotometric methods for the determination of entacapone in bulk material and in tablets. (United States)

    Chalikwar, S S; Shirkhedkar, A A; Bagul, M A; Jain, P S; Surana, S J


    The aim of this work is to establish two simple, economical, and rapid spectrophotometric methods for the quantification of entacapone in bulk material and in tablets. Further, this study is designed to validate the developed methods as per ICH guidelines. In Methods I and II, a stock standard solution was prepared by dissolving 10 mg of entacapone in 100 mL of 10% v/v acetonitrile to obtain a concentration of 100 μg/mL. After suitable dilution, 10 μg/mL of entacapone was prepared and scanned in the UV-visible range 500-200 nm; entacapone showed a maximum absorbance at 384.40 nm. In Method I, area under curve (AUC) of the zero-order spectrum was recorded between 348.00 and 410.20 nm. While, in Method II, zero-order spectra were derivatized into first-order, and the AUC was recorded between 386.40 and 460.20 nm. For a linearity study, series of dilutions were prepared from stock solutions. In Method I, and II, entacapone followed linearity in the concentration range of 2-12 μg/mL and 5-30 μg/mL with (r(2)>0.999). The amounts of entacapone estimated by both these methods were found to be 99.24 ± 0.054 and 98.68 ± 1.04, respectively. The developed methods are simple, precise, rugged, robust, and economical. Both these methods can be used for routine analysis of entacapone from its tablet formulation.

  17. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement (United States)



    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 μg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly

  18. SU-F-T-02: Estimation of Radiobiological Doses (BED and EQD2) of Single Fraction Electronic Brachytherapy That Equivalent to I-125 Eye Plaque: By Using Linear-Quadratic and Universal Survival Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y; Waldron, T; Pennington, E [University Of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for a single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p < 0.0527), 126 ± 43% (p < 0.0354), and 112 ± 32% (p < 0.0265) higher than those of I125-BT, respectively. The BED and EQD2 doses of the opposite retina were 52 ± 9% lower than I125-BT. The tumor SFED values were 25.2 ± 3.3 Gy and 29.1 ± 2.5 Gy when using USC and LQ models which can be delivered within 1 hour. All BED and EQD2 values using L-Q model were significantly larger when compared to the USC model (p < 0.0274) due to its large single fraction size (> 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.

  19. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows. (United States)

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M


    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  20. Detection of host-derived sphingosine by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important for survival in the murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette E LaBauve


    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common environmental bacterium that is also a significant opportunistic pathogen, particularly of the human lung. We must understand how P. aeruginosa responds to the lung environment in order to identify the regulatory changes that bacteria use to establish and maintain infections. The P. aeruginosa response to pulmonary surfactant was used as a model to identify transcripts likely induced during lung infection. The most highly induced transcript in pulmonary surfactant, PA5325 (sphA, is regulated by an AraC-family transcription factor, PA5324 (SphR. We found that sphA was specifically induced by sphingosine in an SphR-dependent manner, and also via metabolism of sphingomyelin, ceramide, or sphingoshine-1-phosphate to sphingosine. These sphingolipids not only play a structural role in lipid membranes, but some are also intracellular and intercellular signaling molecules important in normal eukaryotic cell functions as well as orchestrating immune responses. The members of the SphR transcriptome were identified by microarray analyses, and DNA binding assays showed specific interaction of these promoters with SphR, which enabled us to determine the consensus SphR binding site. SphR binding to DNA was modified by sphingosine and we used labeled sphingosine to demonstrate direct binding of sphingosine by SphR. Deletion of sphR resulted in reduced bacterial survival during mouse lung infection. In vitro experiments show that deletion of sphR increases sensitivity to the antimicrobial effects of sphingosine which could, in part, explain the in vivo phenotype. This is the first identification of a sphingosine-responsive transcription factor in bacteria. We predict that SphR transcriptional regulation may be important in response to many sites of infection in eukaryotes and the presence of homologous transcription factors in other pathogens suggests that sphingosine detection is not limited to P. aeruginosa.

  1. Quantitative estimation of diacerein in bulk and in capsule formulation using hydrotropic solubilizing agents by UV-spectrophotometry and the first order derivative using the area under curve method. (United States)

    Pandey, Ramchandra; Patil, Pravin O; Patil, Manohar U; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Bari, Sanjay B


    This study was designed to develop and validate two simple, rapid, and economical UV-spectrophotometric and the first-order derivative methods using the area under curve method for estimation of diacerein in bulk and in capsule formulation. In this study, hydrotrophic solution of 8 M urea and 0.5 M potassium citrate were employed as the solubilizing agent to solubilize a poorly water-soluble drug, diacerein. In the UV-spectrophotometry method, two wavelengths 252.0 nm and 266.2 nm and in the first-order derivative spectrophotometric methods two wavelengths 259.4 nm and 274.2 nm in 8 M urea and two wavelengths 247.8 nm and 267.4 nm in the UV-spectrophotometry method and in the first-order derivative spectrophotometric methods two wavelengths 259.2 nm and 274.2 nm in 0.5 M potassium citrate were selected for determination of areas. Hydrotrophic agents used did not interfere in spectrophotometric analysis of diacerein. Diacerein followed linearity in the concentration range of 2-12 μg/mL with a coefficient correlation of 0.999 for both methods. The amount of drugs estimated by both proposed methods are in good accord with label claim. The % RSD value in recovery, precision, and ruggedness studies are found to be less than 2 indicate that the method is accurate, precise, and rugged.

  2. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pandya, Darpan [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Won; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Eom, Ki Dong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin, E-mail: [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.

  3. In situ normoxia enhances survival and proliferation rate of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells without increasing the risk of tumourigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ru Choi

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs natively reside in a relatively low-oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxic microenvironment in human body. Low oxygen tension (i.e., in situ normoxia, has been known to enhance the growth and survival rate of ASCs, which, however, may lead to the risk of tumourigenesis. Here, we investigated the tumourigenic potential of ASCs under their physiological condition to ensure their safe use in regenerative therapy. Human ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were cultured in atmospheric O2 concentration (21% O2 or in situ normoxia (2% O2. We found that ASCs retained their surface markers, tri-lineage differentiation potential, and self-renewal properties under in situ normoxia without altering their morphology. In situ normoxia displayed a higher proliferation and viability of ASCs with less DNA damage as compared to atmospheric O2 concentration. Moreover, low oxygen tension significantly up-regulated VEGF and bFGF mRNA expression and protein secretion while reducing the expression level of tumour suppressor genes p16, p21, p53, and pRb. However, there were no significant differences in ASCs telomere length and their relative telomerase activity when cultured at different oxygen concentrations. Collectively, even with high proliferation and survival rate, ASCs have a low tendency of developing tumour under in situ normoxia. These results suggest 2% O2 as an ideal culture condition for expanding ASCs efficiently while maintaining their characteristics.

  4. A High-Fat Diet Containing Lard Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression and Reduces Survival Rate in Mice: Possible Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jin Cho


    Full Text Available To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate.

  5. Improvement of the Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Adipose-Derived Stem-Cells-Assisted Lipotransfer Combined with bFGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimei Jiang


    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs transplanted along with autologous adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival; however, the efficacy of ASCs has been diluted by low vascularization. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF may improve the effects of ASCs because it owns the property to boost angiogenesis. In the present study, human fat tissues were mixed with ASCs, ASCs plus 100 U bFGF, or medium as the control and then injected subcutaneously into immunologically compromised nude mice for 12 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that mixture with the ASCs significantly increased the weight and volume of the fat grafts compared to control grafts, and histological analysis revealed that both ASCs and ASCs plus bFGF grafts consisted predominantly of adipose tissue and had significantly less fibrosis but greater microvascular density compared with control and also grafts mixed with ASCs had a high expression of angiogenic factors. More importantly, the bFGF treated fat grafts shown elevate in survival, vascularization, and angiogenic factors expression when compared with the grafts that received ASCs alone. These results indicated that bFGF together with ASCs can enhance the efficacy of autologous fat transplantation and increase blood vessel generation involved in the benefits from bFGF.

  6. Enhanced survival of the LINCL mouse following CLN2 gene transfer using the rh.10 rhesus macaque-derived adeno-associated virus vector. (United States)

    Sondhi, Dolan; Hackett, Neil R; Peterson, Daniel A; Stratton, Jamie; Baad, Michael; Travis, Kelly M; Wilson, James M; Crystal, Ronald G


    Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CLN2 gene and a deficiency of tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP-I). Prior studies with adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2 or 5 mediated transfer of the CLN2 complementary DNA to the central nervous system (CNS) of CLN2(-/-) mice cleared CNS storage granules, but provided no improvement in the phenotype or survival of this model of LINCL. In this study, AAV serotypes (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8, and AAVrh.10) were compared for the delivery of the same CLN2 expression cassette. AAVrh.10, derived from rhesus macaque, provided the highest TPP-I level and maximum spread beyond the site of injection. The AAVrh.10-based vector functioned equally well in naive rats and in rats previously immunized against human serotypes of AAV. When administered to the CNS of CLN2(-/-) mice, the AAVrh.10CLN2 vector provided widespread TPP-I activity comparable to that in the wild-type mice. Importantly, the AAVrh.10CLN2-treated CLN2(-/-) mice had significant reduction in CNS storage granules and demonstrated improvement in gait, nest-making abilities, seizures, balance beam function, and grip strength, as well as having a survival advantage.

  7. Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells exert trophic effects on β-cell survival in diabetic rats and isolated islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunting Zhou


    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells (uMSCs, owing to their cellular and procurement advantages compared with mesenchymal stem cells derived from other tissue sources, are in clinical trials to treat type 1 (T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, the therapeutic basis remains to be fully understood. The immunomodulatory property of uMSCs could explain the use in treating T1D; however, the mere immune modulation might not be sufficient to support the use in T2D. We thus tested whether uMSCs could exert direct trophic effects on β-cells. Infusion of uMSCs into chemically induced diabetic rats prevented hyperglycemic progression with a parallel preservation of islet size and cellularity, demonstrating the protective effect of uMSCs on β-cells. Mechanistic analyses revealed that uMSCs engrafted long-term in the injured pancreas and the engraftment markedly activated the pancreatic PI3K pathway and its downstream anti-apoptotic machinery. The pro-survival pathway activation was associated with the expression and secretion of β-cell growth factors by uMSCs, among which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 was highly abundant. To establish the causal relationship between the uMSC-secreted factors and β-cell survival, isolated rat islets were co-cultured with uMSCs in the transwell system. Co-culturing improved the islet viability and insulin secretion. Furthermore, reduction of uMSC-secreted IGF1 via siRNA knockdown diminished the protective effects on islets in the co-culture. Thus, our data support a model whereby uMSCs exert trophic effects on islets by secreting β-cell growth factors such as IGF1. The study reveals a novel therapeutic role of uMSCs and suggests that multiple mechanisms are employed by uMSCs to treat diabetes.

  8. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.


    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  9. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja


    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  10. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  11. Forces in the complex octonion curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua


    The paper aims to extend major equations in the electromagnetic and gravitational theories from the flat space into the complex octonion curved space. Maxwell applied simultaneously the quaternion analysis and vector terminology to describe the electromagnetic theory. It inspires subsequent scholars to study the electromagnetic and gravitational theories with the complex quaternions/octonions. Furthermore Einstein was the first to depict the gravitational theory by means of tensor analysis and curved four-space-time. Nowadays some scholars investigate the electromagnetic and gravitational properties making use of the complex quaternion/octonion curved space. From the orthogonality of two complex quaternions, it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex quaternion curved space, describing the gravitational properties in the complex quaternion curved space. Further it is possible to define the covariant derivative of the complex octonion curved space by means of the orthogonality of two comp...

  12. Systemic administration of valproic acid and zonisamide promotes the survival and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell–derived dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eYoshikawa


    Full Text Available Cell replacement therapy using embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is a promising strategy for the treatment of neurologic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, a limiting factor for effective cell transplantation is the low survival rate of grafted cells, especially neurons. In this study, we modified the host environment and investigated whether the simultaneous administration of soluble factors can improve the survival and differentiation of murine iPSC-derived dopaminergic (DA neurons in host brains. With the goal of applying this technology in clinical settings in the near future, we selected drugs that were already approved for clinical use. The drugs included two commonly used anticonvulsants, valproic acid (VPA and zonisamide (ZNS, and estradiol (E2, also known as biologically active estrogen. Following neural induction of murine iPSCs, we collected neural progenitor cells by sorting PSA-NCAM+ cells, then treated the PSA-NCAM+ cells with drugs for four days. An immunofluorescence study revealed that 0.01 mM and 0.1 mM of VPA and 10 nM of E2 increased the percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase+ (TH: a DA neuron marker cells in vitro. Furthermore, 0.1 mM of VPA increased the percentage of TH+ cells that simultaneously express the midbrain markers FOXA2 and NURR1. Next, in order to determine the effects of the drugs in vivo, the iPSC-derived NPCs were transplanted into the striata of intact SD rats. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of one of the drugs for four weeks, then were subjected to an immunofluorescence study. VPA administration (150 mg/kg/daily increased the number of NeuN+ postmitotic neurons and TH+ DA neurons in the grafts. Furthermore, VPA (150 mg/kg/daily and ZNS (30 mg/kg/daily increased the number of TH+FOXA2+ midbrain DA neurons. These results suggest that the systemic administration of VPA and ZNS may improve the efficiency of cell replacement therapy using i

  13. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves. (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M


    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  14. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik


    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  15. A Bayesian hierarchical mixture model for platelet derived growth factor receptor phosphorylation to improve estimation of progression-free survival in prostate cancer (United States)

    Morita, Satoshi; Thall, Peter F.; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Mathew, Paul


    SUMMARY Advances in understanding the biological underpinnings of many cancers have led increasingly to the use of molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapies. Because the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) has been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer bone metastases, it is of great interest to examine possible relationships between PDGFR inhibition and therapeutic outcomes. Here, we analyze the association between change in activated PDGFR (p-PDGFR) and progression free survival (PFS) time based on large within-patient samples of cell-specific p-PDGFR values taken before and after treatment from each of 88 prostate cancer patients. To utilize these paired samples as covariate data in a regression model for PFS time, and because the p-PDGFR distributions are bimodal, we first employ a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to obtain a deconvolution of the pre-treatment and post-treatment within-patient p-PDGFR distributions. We evaluate fits of the mixture model and a non-mixture model that ignores the bimodality by using a supnorm metric to compare the empirical distribution of each p-PDGFR data set with the corresponding fitted distribution under each model. Our results show that first using the mixture model to account for the bimodality of the within-patient p-PDGFR distributions, and then using the posterior within-patient component mean changes in p-PDGFR so obtained as covariates in the regression model for PFS time provides an improved estimation. PMID:20390057

  16. A VGF-derived peptide attenuates development of type 2 diabetes via enhancement of islet β-cell survival and function. (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel B; Schisler, Jonathan C; Hohmeier, Hans E; An, Jie; Sun, Albert Y; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Newgard, Christopher B


    Deterioration of functional islet β-cell mass is the final step in progression to Type 2 diabetes. We previously reported that overexpression of Nkx6.1 in rat islets has the dual effects of enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and increasing β-cell replication. Here we show that Nkx6.1 strongly upregulates the prohormone VGF in rat islets and that VGF is both necessary and sufficient for Nkx6.1-mediated enhancement of GSIS. Moreover, the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 potentiates GSIS in rat and human islets and improves glucose tolerance in vivo. Chronic injection of TLQP-21 in prediabetic ZDF rats preserves islet mass and slows diabetes onset. TLQP-21 prevents islet cell apoptosis by a pathway similar to that used by GLP-1, but independent of the GLP-1, GIP, or VIP receptors. Unlike GLP-1, TLQP-21 does not inhibit gastric emptying or increase heart rate. We conclude that TLQP-21 is a targeted agent for enhancing islet β-cell survival and function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and LINGO-1 fusion protein on long-term survival of retinal ganglion cells in chronic glaucoma. (United States)

    Fu, Q-L; Li, X; Yip, H K; Shao, Z; Wu, W; Mi, S; So, K-F


    Glaucoma is a progressive neuropathy characterized by loss of vision as a result of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. There are no effective neuroprotectants to treat this disorder. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is well known to transiently delay RGC death in ocular hypertensive eyes. The CNS-specific leucine-rich repeat protein LINGO-1 contributes to the negative regulation to some trophic pathways. We thereby examined whether BDNF combined with LINGO-1 antagonists can promote long-term RGC survival after ocular hypertension. In this study, intraocular pressure was elevated in adult rats using an argon laser to photocoagulate the episcleral and limbal veins. BDNF alone shows slight neuroprotection to RGCs after a long-term progress of 4 weeks following the induction of ocular hypertension. However, combination of BDNF and LINGO-1-Fc prevents RGC death in the same condition. We further identified that (1) LINGO-1 was co-expressed with BDNF receptor, TrkB in the RGCs, and (2) BDNF combined with LINGO-1-Fc activated more TrkB in the injured retina compared to BDNF alone. These results indicate that the combination of BDNF with LINGO-1 antagonist can provide long-term protection for RGCs in a chronic ocular hypertension model. TrkB may be the predominant mediator of this neuroprotection.

  18. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  19. Dexamethasone-Induced Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Prolong Allo Cardiac Graft Survival through iNOS- and Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao


    Full Text Available How to induce immune tolerance without long-term need for immunosuppressive drugs has always been a central problem in solid organ transplantation. Modulating immunoregulatory cells represents a potential target to resolve this problem. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are novel key immunoregulatory cells in the context of tumor development or transplantation, and can be generated in vitro. However, none of current systems for in vitro differentiation of MDSCs have successfully achieved long-term immune tolerance. Herein, we combined dexamethasone (Dex, which is a classic immune regulatory drug in the clinic, with common MDSCs inducing cytokine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF to generate MDSCs in vitro. Addition of Dex into GM-CSF system specifically increased the number of CD11b+ Gr-1int/low MDSCs with an enhanced immunosuppressive function in vitro. Adoptive transfer of these MDSCs significantly prolonged heart allograft survival and also favored the expansion of regulatory T cells in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that inducible nitric oxide sythase (iNOS signaling was required for MDSCs in the control of T-cell response and glucocorticoid receptor (GR signaling played a critical role in the recruitment of transferred MDSCs into allograft through upregulating CXCR2 expression on MDSCs. Blockade of GR signaling with its specific inhibitor or genetic deletion of iNOS reversed the protective effect of Dex-induced MDSCs on allograft rejection. Together, our results indicated that co-application of Dex and GM-CSF may be a new and important strategy for the induction of potent MDSCs to achieve immune tolerance in organ transplantation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier


    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  1. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  2. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  3. Tornado-Shaped Curves (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio


    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  4. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.


    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  5. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas


    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  6. Curva de sobrevida e fatores prognósticos no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico infanto-juvenil Survival curve and prognosis factors in the childhood systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Appenzeller


    the univariate analysis, male sex, infection and the use of cyclophosphamide were associated with death. In the multivariate regression, only male sex was related to death (odds ratio = 5.8. CONCLUSIONS: During a follow-up period of 27 years, death was observed in 21.8%. Although infection was directly responsible for half of the deaths, survival was not influenced by the presence of infection or renal insufficiency. Male sex was the only variable that influenced survival in this cohort. A greater attention should be given to boys with SLE in order to improve survival.

  7. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno


    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  8. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...... administrative micro data we find that the elasticity of the wage-setting curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with an university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase...

  9. The crime kuznets curve


    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando


    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  10. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F


    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  11. Modelling the Stem Curve of a Palm in a Strong Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Claus; Markvorsen, Steen; Kliem, Wolfhard


    Nonlinear differential equations governing the stem curve of a wind-loaded palm are derived and solved numerically.......Nonlinear differential equations governing the stem curve of a wind-loaded palm are derived and solved numerically....

  12. SRHA calibration curve (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  13. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  14. Moduli of Trigonal Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stankova-Frenkel, Z E


    We study the moduli of trigonal curves. We establish the exact upper bound of ${36(g+1)}/(5g+1)$ for the slope of trigonal fibrations. Here, the slope of any fibration $X\\to B$ of stable curves with smooth general member is the ratio Hodge class $\\lambda$ on the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ to the base $B$. We associate to a trigonal family $X$ a canonical rank two vector bundle $V$, and show that for Bogomolov-semistable $V$ the slope satisfies the stronger inequality ${\\delta_B}/{\\lambda_B}\\leq 7+{6}/{g}$. We further describe the rational Picard group of the {trigonal} locus $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$ in the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ of genus $g$ curves. In the even genus case, we interpret the above Bogomolov semistability condition in terms of the so-called Maroni divisor in $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$.

  15. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  16. The sales learning curve. (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A


    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  17. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar


    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  18. Using the Hilbert curve (United States)

    Skilling, John


    The aim is to compute random samples from the posterior probability distribution for some object, modelled as a mixture distribution with a variable number of component "atoms", usually having relatively few attributes. We use a space-filling curve (specifically the Hilbert curve) to parameterise an atom's attributes by a single number, This simplifies the geometry, and we describe seven "engines" (LifeStory1&2, GuidedWalk, Leapfrog1&2, Chameleon1&2) for driving a MCMC exploration program. A binary variant of slice sampling underlies the engines.

  19. Migration, integration, survival, and differentiation of stem cell-derived neural progenitors in the retina in a pharmacological model of retinal degeneration. (United States)

    Castro, Gustavo; Navajas, Eduardo; Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Mauricio; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele


    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the retinal integration and differentiation of neurospheres formed by stem cells and mouse neural progenitor cells injected intravitreally in mice eyes with retinal injury. Methods. Eight male C57BL mice, 8 weeks old, were submitted to intraperitoneal injection of sodium iodate (2% NaIO3, 50 mg/kg). After 72 hours, 2  μ L of solution with mNPC were injected intravitreally (100.000 cells/ μ L). After 7 days, their eyes were dissected and cryoprotected in 30% sucrose in PB for at least 24 hours at 4°C. The material was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the following primary antibodies evaluation. Results. The results showed that the grafted cells integrated and survived in the adult mice within the sinner retinal tissue for at least 7 days. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed mature neuronal pattern in some regions. The mNPC population in the transplants was tightly surrounded by neuroretinal cells, suggesting their active role in neuron survival. Notably, the appearance of GFP-positive mNPC was not the result of fusion between donor cells and endogenous neuroretinal cells. Conclusions. Migration, survival, and differentiation of mNPCs were observed after 7 days following a single application with neurosphere method. The results may be clinically relevant for future stem cell therapy to restore retinal degeneration.

  20. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  2. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  4. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    painting and reading. Unlike most others he dislikes computers. Figure 1. Ritabrata Munshi. Introd uction. In the first part of the article (Resonance, Vol. 4, No.9 ) we proved the Jordan sepa.ration theorem which says that a simple closed curve in E2 separates it into at least two components. In this concluding part after some ...

  5. Graphing Polar Curves (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.


    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  6. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  7. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  8. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  9. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  10. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  11. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  12. Laminin α5 substrates promote survival, network formation and functional development of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro. (United States)

    Hyysalo, Anu; Ristola, Mervi; Mäkinen, Meeri E-L; Häyrynen, Sergei; Nykter, Matti; Narkilahti, Susanna


    Laminins are one of the major protein groups in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and specific laminin isoforms are crucial for neuronal functions in the central nervous system in vivo. In the present study, we compared recombinant human laminin isoforms (LN211, LN332, LN411, LN511, and LN521) and laminin isoform fragment (LN511-E8) in in vitro cultures of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons. We showed that laminin substrates containing the α5-chain are important for neuronal attachment, viability and network formation, as detected by phase contrast imaging, viability staining, and immunocytochemistry. Gene expression analysis showed that the molecular mechanisms involved in the preference of hPSC-derived neurons for specific laminin isoforms could be related to ECM remodeling and cell adhesion. Importantly, the microelectrode array analysis revealed the widest distribution of electrophysiologically active neurons on laminin α5 substrates, indicating most efficient development of neuronal network functionality. This study shows that specific laminin α5 substrates provide a controlled in vitro culture environment for hPSC-derived neurons. These substrates can be utilized not only to enhance the production of functional hPSC-derived neurons for in vitro applications like disease modeling, toxicological studies, and drug discovery, but also for the production of clinical grade hPSC-derived cells for regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Glutamate Increases In Vitro Survival and Proliferation and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Adult Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Non-NMDA Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors. (United States)

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H


    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a cascade of secondary chemical insults, including oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, which damage host neurons and glia. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has shown promise in enhancing regeneration after SCI, although survival of transplanted cells remains poor. Understanding the response of NSPCs to the chemical mediators of secondary injury is essential in finding therapies to enhance survival. We examined the in vitro effects of glutamate and glutamate receptor agonists on adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs. NSPCs isolated from the periventricular region of the adult rat spinal cord were exposed to various concentrations of glutamate for 96 h. We found that glutamate treatment (500 μM) for 96 h significantly increased live cell numbers, reduced cell death, and increased proliferation, but did not significantly alter cell phenotype. Concurrent glutamate treatment (500 μM) in the setting of H2O2 exposure (500 μM) for 10 h increased NSPC survival compared to H2O2 exposure alone. The effects of glutamate on NSPCs were blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist GYKI-52466, but not by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 or DL-AP5, or the mGluR3 antagonist LY-341495. Furthermore, treatment of NSPCs with AMPA, kainic acid, or the kainate receptor-specific agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid mimicked the responses seen with glutamate both alone and in the setting of oxidative stress. These findings offer important insights into potential mechanisms to enhance NSPC survival and implicate a potential role for glutamate in promoting NSPC survival and proliferation after traumatic SCI.

  14. Evidence for a role of NF-κB in the survival of hematopoietic cells mediated by interleukin 3 and the oncogenic TEL/platelet-derived growth factor receptor β fusion protein (United States)

    Besançon, Françoise; Atfi, Azeddine; Gespach, Christian; Cayre, Yvon E.; Bourgeade, Marie-Françoise


    Interleukin 3 (IL-3) and other hematopoietic cytokines transduce signals that stimulate DNA synthesis and cell survival. In certain chronic myelomonocytic leukemias, a TEL/platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) fusion protein is produced as a consequence of the t(5;12) translocation. It contains the amino terminus of the transcription factor TEL fused to the transmembranous and cytoplasmic domains of the PDGFRβ. It is oncogenic as it substitutes for IL-3, thus promoting cell growth and preventing apoptotic cell death. The mechanism by which TEL/PDGFRβ generates survival signals remains undefined. Here, we report that both IL-3 and TEL/PDGFRβ initiate a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB. In fact, either cytokine deprivation of IL-3-dependent Ba/F3 cells or exposure of TEL/PDGFRβ-expressing cells to the specific inhibitor of the PDGFR tyrosine kinase, CGP53716, caused a strong decrease in NF-κB activity followed by extensive cell death. Further, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor Z-IE(O-t-Bu)A-leucinal suppressed IL-3 and TEL/PDGFRβ-dependent survival. The same result was seen upon overexpression of an unphosphorylable form of IκBα. Because both conditions inactivate NF-κB by preventing its translocation into the nucleus, that process seems to be essential for cell survival in response to IL-3 and TEL/PDGFRβ. Moreover, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of the protooncogene c-Myc, a downstream target of NF-κB, had a similar effect. We conclude that NF-κB plays an important role in maintaining cell survival in response to IL-3 and TEL/PDGFRβ and that c-Myc may be a downstream effector mediating this effect. PMID:9653143

  15. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells predict survival of patients with advanced melanoma: comparison with regulatory T cells and NY-ESO-1- or melan-A-specific T cells. (United States)

    Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Zelba, Henning; Stutz, Christina; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Maio, Michele; Sucker, Antje; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Büttner, Petra; Garbe, Claus; Pawelec, Graham


    To analyze the prognostic relevance and relative impact of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T cells (Treg) compared with functional tumor antigen-specific T cells in patients with melanoma with distant metastasis. The percentage of CD14(+)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs, CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs, and the presence of NY-ESO-1- or Melan-A-specific T cells was analyzed in 94 patients and validated in an additional cohort of 39 patients by flow cytometry. Univariate survival differences were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox regression models. NY-ESO-1-specific T cells, the M-category, and the frequency of MDSCs were associated with survival. The absence of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells and the M-category M1c independently increased the risk of death. In a second Cox model not considering results on antigen-specific T cells, a frequency of >11% MDSCs showed independent impact. Its association with survival was confirmed in the additional patient cohort. Median survival of patients with a lower frequency of MDSCs was 13 months versus 8 months for others (P < 0.001, combined cohorts). We observed a strong correlation between high levels of MDSCs and the absence of melanoma antigen-specific T cells implying a causal and clinically relevant interaction. No prognostic impact was observed for Tregs. Circulating CD14(+)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs have a negative impact on survival and inversely correlate with the presence of functional antigen-specific T cells in patients with advanced melanoma. Our findings provide a rationale to investigate MDSC-depleting strategies in the therapeutic setting especially in combination with vaccination or T-cell transfer approaches. ©2013 AACR.

  16. Sulla trasformazione delle curve di sondaggio di resistività differenziale trasversa in curve di Schlumberger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A method is described to transform a transverse differential sounding curve to the form of a Schlumberger sounding curve. Starting from the general expression which relates the transverse differential apparent resistivity to the Schlumberger apparent resistivity, it is possible, with some approximations, to derive an easy numerical procedure in order to carry out the transformation. Some considerations are given about the applicability of the method.

  17. Biotoxicity of Mars soils: 2. Survival of Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis in aqueous extracts derived from six Mars analog soils (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Doug W.; Golden, D. C.


    The search for an extant microbiota on Mars depends on exploring sites that contain transient or permanent liquid water near the surface. Examples of possible sites for liquid water may be active recurring slope lineae (RSL) and fluid inclusions in ice or salt deposits. The presence of saline fluids on Mars will act to depress the freezing points of liquid water to as low as ‒60 °C, potentially permitting the metabolism and growth of halophilic microorganisms to temperatures significantly below the freezing point of pure water at 0 °C. In order to predict the potential risks of forward contamination by Earth microorganisms to subsurface sites on Mars with liquid brines, experiments were designed to characterize the short-term survival of two bacteria in aqueous soil solutions from six analog soils. The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated matrix with no implications for the presence or absence of organics or biology. The analog soils were previously described (Schuerger et al., 2012, Planetary Space Sci., 72, 91-101), and represented crushed Basalt (benign control), Salt, Acid, Alkaline, Aeolian, and Phoenix analogs on Mars. The survival rates of spores of Bacillus subtilis and vegetative cells of Enterococcus faecalis were tested in soil solutions from each analog at 24, 0, or ‒70 °C for time periods up to 28 d. Survival of dormant spores of B. subtilis were mostly unaffected by incubation in the aqueous extracts of all six Mars analogs. In contrast, survival rates of E. faecalis cells were suppressed by all soil solutions when incubated at 24 °C but improved at 0 and ‒70 °C, except for assays in the Salt and Acid soil solutions in which most cells were killed. Results suggest that Earth microorganisms that form spores may persist in liquid brines on Mars better than non-spore forming species, and thus, spore-forming species may pose a potential forward contamination risk to sites with liquid brines.

  18. Contrasting treatment-specific survival using double-robust estimators. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Schaubel, Douglas E


    In settings where a randomized trial is infeasible, observational data are frequently used to compare treatment-specific survival. The average causal effect (ACE) can be used to make inference regarding treatment policies on patient populations, and a valid ACE estimator must account for imbalances with respect to treatment-specific covariate distributions. One method through which the ACE on survival can be estimated involves appropriately averaging over Cox-regression-based fitted survival functions. A second available method balances the treatment-specific covariate distributions through inverse probability of treatment weighting and then contrasts weighted nonparametric survival function estimators. Because both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, we propose methods that essentially combine both estimators. The proposed methods are double robust, in the sense that they are consistent if at least one of the two working regression models (i.e., logistic model for treatment and Cox model for death hazard) is correct. The proposed methods involve estimating the ACE with respect to restricted mean survival time, defined as the area under the survival curve up to some prespecified time point. We derive and evaluate asymptotic results through simulation. We apply the proposed methods to estimate the ACE of donation-after-cardiac-death kidney transplantation with the use of data obtained from multiple centers in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari


    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  20. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)


    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  1. Carbon Lorenz curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Loek [Utrecht University School of Economics (USE), Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)


    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram. (author)

  2. Fetal lung growth represented by longitudinal changes in MRI-derived fetal lung volume parameters predicts survival in isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. (United States)

    Coleman, Alan; Phithakwatchara, Nisarat; Shaaban, Aimen; Keswani, Sundeep; Kline-Fath, Beth; Kingma, Paul; Haberman, Beth; Lim, Foong-Yen


    The aim of this study was to evaluate fetal lung growth rate for isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric measures. Early and late gestational (22-30 and >30 weeks' gestation) lung volumetry was obtained by fetal MRI in 47 cases of isolated left-sided CDH. At both of these time points, lung volume indices, including total lung volume (TLV), observed to expected TLV (o/e TLV), and percentage of predicted lung volume (PPLV) as well as their change rates (Δ) and relative Δ during gestation were calculated and analyzed in regard to their capacity to predict neonatal survival. TLV, o/e TLV, and PPLV had various changes during gestation. Late TLV, early and late o/e TLV, and late PPLV were predictive of neonatal survival. Non-survivors had lower ΔTLV and more negative relative ΔPPLV than survivors (1.18 vs 1.85 mL/week, P = 0.004 and -4.15%/week vs -1.95%/week, P = 0.002, respectively). The severity of pulmonary hypoplasia is dynamic and can worsen in the third trimester. MRI lung volumetry repeated in late gestation can provide additional information on individual lung growth that may facilitate prenatal counseling and focus perinatal management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre


    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  4. Curved geometry and Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Caravelli, Francesco


    Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose--Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.

  5. Closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, K S


    This lecture reviews recent research on closed timelike curves (CTCS), including these questions: Do the laws of physics prevent CTCs from ever forming in classical spacetime? If so, by what physical mechanism are C'I‘Cs prevented? Can the laws of physics be adapted in any reasonable way to a. spacetime that contains C'I‘Cs, or do they necessarily give nonsense? What insights into quantum gravity can one gain by asking questions such as these?

  6. LCC: Light Curves Classifier (United States)

    Vo, Martin


    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  7. Wolff: straight not curved. (United States)

    Hammer, A


    It was 140 years ago that George von Meyer presented his anatomical diagrams of human bones to a meeting in Zurich. There he was told by Prof. Karl Culmann that the trabecular lines shown within the diagram of the upper femur closely resembled those lines of force which Culmann had determined with Graphic Statics to be passing through a curved, loaded Fairbairn crane. This drew the attention of Julius Wolff, who used this as the basis for his 'Trajectorial theory' which was widely accepted and, to date, has been the underlying basis for all biomechanical investigations of this region. Following Wolff and Culmann, the upper femur is considered to be a curved structure and is investigated as such. Unfortunately, this concept is wrong. The upper femur is not curved but is angular. It is formed by the junction of two straight bones, the femoral neck and the femoral shaft, as may be simply seen as the neck/shaft angle constructed on the antero-posterior radiograph of any normal femur. The internal trabecular bone forms only part of the load bearing structure of the femoral neck. The configuration of this trabecular substance in this region suggests that it is related specifically to the force present during flexion and extension movements of the hip joint. This being so, combined with the delayed timing of the appearance of the trabecular columns, it must be questioned as to whether the remodelling of the upper femur is in response to one or to two distinct forces.

  8. Fitting the curve in Excel®: Systematic curve fitting of laboratory and remotely sensed planetary spectra (United States)

    McCraig, Michael A.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Reddy, Vishnu; Fieber-Beyer, Sherry K.; Pompilio, Loredana; van der Meer, Freek; Berger, Jeffrey A.; Bramble, Michael S.; Applin, Daniel M.


    Spectroscopy in planetary science often provides the only information regarding the compositional and mineralogical make up of planetary surfaces. The methods employed when curve fitting and modelling spectra can be confusing and difficult to visualize and comprehend. Researchers who are new to working with spectra may find inadequate help or documentation in the scientific literature or in the software packages available for curve fitting. This problem also extends to the parameterization of spectra and the dissemination of derived metrics. Often, when derived metrics are reported, such as band centres, the discussion of exactly how the metrics were derived, or if there was any systematic curve fitting performed, is not included. Herein we provide both recommendations and methods for curve fitting and explanations of the terms and methods used. Techniques to curve fit spectral data of various types are demonstrated using simple-to-understand mathematics and equations written to be used in Microsoft Excel® software, free of macros, in a cut-and-paste fashion that allows one to curve fit spectra in a reasonably user-friendly manner. The procedures use empirical curve fitting, include visualizations, and ameliorates many of the unknowns one may encounter when using black-box commercial software. The provided framework is a comprehensive record of the curve fitting parameters used, the derived metrics, and is intended to be an example of a format for dissemination when curve fitting data.

  9. An N-(alkylcarbonyl)anthranilic acid derivative prolongs cardiac allograft survival synergistically with cyclosporine A in a high-responder rat model. (United States)

    Chen, Jibing; Xia, Junjie; Axelsson, Bengt; Fritzson, Ingela; Ekberg, Henrik; Törngren, Marie; Qi, Zhongquan


    We investigated the immunosuppressive effects of the dihydroortate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor compounds ABR-222417 and ABR-224050 from Active Biotech (Sweden). We verified the inhibitory effects of these compounds on the proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in vivo by using superantigen staphylococcus enterotoxin A (SEA)-mediated proliferation test. To evaluate their efficacy, the compounds were screened in a low-responder heart allograft transplantation model in rats [heart from Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG) transplanted to Dark Agouti (DA)]. The immunosuppressive effects of the compounds were then investigated in a high-responder model (DA to PVG). Treatment with ABR-222417 (30 mg/kg) was more efficient than that with ABR-224050 (10 mg/kg), and the former provided a longer graft median survival time (MST, 29.5 days) than the latter (MST, 18.5 days). Furthermore, there was a marked increase in graft survival time (53 days) when low doses of ABR-222417 and cyclosporine A (CsA) were used in combination. No sign of tolerability problems was detected using this combination or when ABR-222417 was used singly at a higher dose. Furthermore, T-cell proliferation studies in vitro support that the anti proliferative effect of ABR-222417 is caused by inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, which is the consequence of DHODH inhibition. These results show that ABR-222417 had marked immunosuppressive effects on the heart allograft transplantation and that it exerts an even more powerful inhibitory effect on graft rejection when used in combination with CsA, with good tolerability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting Individualized Postoperative Survival for Stage II/III Colon Cancer Using a Mobile Application Derived from the National Cancer Data Base. (United States)

    Gabriel, Emmanuel; Attwood, Kristopher; Thirunavukarasu, Pragatheeshwar; Al-Sukhni, Eisar; Boland, Patrick; Nurkin, Steven


    Prediction calculators estimate postoperative survival and assist the decision-making process for adjuvant treatment. The objective of this study was to create a postoperative overall survival (OS) calculator for patients with stage II/III colon cancer. Factors that influence OS, including comorbidity and postoperative variables, were included. The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with stage II/III colon cancer, diagnosed between 2004 and 2006, who had surgical resection. Patients were randomly divided to a testing (nt) cohort comprising 80% of the dataset and a validation (nv) cohort comprising 20%. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression of nt was performed to identify factors associated with 5-year OS. These were used to build a prediction model. The performance was assessed using the nv cohort and translated into mobile software. A total of 129,040 patients had surgery. After exclusion of patients with carcinoma in situ, nonadenocarcinoma histology, more than 1 malignancy, stage I or IV disease, or missing data, 34,176 patients were used in the development of the calculator. Independent predictors of OS included patient-specific characteristics, pathologic factors, and treatment options, including type of surgery and adjuvant therapy. Length of postoperative stay and unplanned readmission rates were also incorporated as surrogates for postoperative complications (1-day increase in postoperative stay, hazard ratio [HR] 1.019, 95% CI 1.018 to 1.021, p data, culminating in a highly comprehensive, clinically useful tool. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A VGF-derived peptide attenuates development of type 2 diabetes via enhancement of islet β-cell survival and function


    Stephens, Samuel B.; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Hohmeier, Hans E.; An, Jie; Sun, Albert Y.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.; Newgard, Christopher B.


    Deterioration of functional islet β-cell mass is the final step in progression to Type 2 diabetes. We previously reported that overexpression of Nkx6.1 in rat islets has the dual effects of enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and increasing β-cell replication. Here we show that Nkx6.1 strongly upregulates the prohormone VGF in rat islets and that VGF is both necessary and sufficient for Nkx6.1-mediated enhancement of GSIS. Moreover, the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 potentiate...

  12. Stokes-Darcy coupling for periodically curved interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobberschütz, Sören


    We investigate the boundary condition between a free fluid and a porous medium, where the interface between the two is given as a periodically curved structure. Using a coordinate transformation, we can employ methods of periodic homogenisation to derive effective boundary conditions for the tran...... be interpreted as a generalised law of Beavers and Joseph for curved interfaces....

  13. On the Photometric Error Calibration for the Differential Light Curves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    set of 262 differential light curves (DLCs) derived from 262 pairs of non-varying stars monitored under ... used as non-varying standards relative to which the light curve of the target AGN can be drawn. Such Differential ...... to design, data analysis, and model building, Wiley, New York, 655 pp. (pages 320–323). Carini, M. T. ...

  14. Liquefaction Probability Curves for Surficial Geologic Units (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.


    Liquefaction probability curves that predict the probability of surface manifestations of earthquake-induced liquefaction are developed for 14 different surficial geologic deposits. The geologic units include alluvial fan, beach ridge, river delta, eolian dune, point bar, floodbasin, natural river levee, abandoned river channel, deep-water lake, lagoonal, sandy artificial fill, and valley train deposits. Probability is conditioned on earthquake magnitude and peak ground acceleration. Curves are developed for water table depths of 1.5 and 5.0 m. Probabilities were derived from complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) that were computed from 935 cone penetration tests. Most of the curves can be fit with a 3-parameter logistic function, which facilitates computations of probability. For natural deposits with a water table at 1.5 m depth and subjected to an M7.5 earthquake with a PGA = 0.25 g, probabilities range from 0.5 for fluvial point bar, barrier island beach ridge, and deltaic deposits. Retrospective predictions of liquefaction during historical earthquakes based on the curves compare favorably to post-earthquake observations. We also have used the curves to assign ranges of liquefaction probabilities to the susceptibility categories proposed by Youd and Perkins (1978) for different geologic deposits. For the earthquake loading and conditions described above, probabilities range from 0-0.08 for low, 0.09-0.30 for moderate, 0.31-0.62 for high, to 0.63-1.00 for very high susceptibility. Liquefaction probability curves have two primary practical applications. First, the curves can be combined with seismic source characterizations to transform surficial geologic maps into probabilistic liquefaction hazard maps. Geographic specific curves are clearly desirable, but in the absence of such information, generic liquefaction probability curves provide a first approximation of liquefaction hazard. Such maps are useful both

  15. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J


    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  16. Recursive Formulas for the Characteristic Numbers of Rational Plane Curves


    Ernström, Lars; Kennedy, Gary


    We derive recursive equations for the characteristic numbers of rational nodal plane curves with at most one cusp, subject to point conditions, tangent conditions and flag conditions, developing techniques akin to quantum cohomology on a moduli space of stable lifts.

  17. Evaluating Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell’s Survival, Migration, and Expression of Wound Repair Markers under Conditions of Ischemia-Like Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Himal


    Full Text Available The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy is currently limited by low retention and poor survival of transplanted cells as demonstrated by clinical studies. This is mainly due to the harsh microenvironment created by oxygen and nutrient deprivation and inflammation at the injured sites. The choice of MSC source could be critical in determining fate and cellular function of MSCs under stress. Our objective here was to investigate the influence of ischemia-like stress on Wharton’s jelly MSCs (WJ-MSCs from human umbilical cord to assess their therapeutic relevance in ischemic diseases. We simulated conditions of ischemia in vitro by culturing WJ-MSCs in 2% oxygen in serum deprived and low glucose medium. Under these conditions, WJ-MSCs retained viable population of greater than 80%. They expressed the characteristic MSC surface antigens at levels comparable to the control WJ-MSCs and were negative for the expression of costimulatory molecules. An upregulation of many ECM and adhesion molecules and growth and angiogenic factors contributing to wound healing and regeneration was noted in the ischemic WJ-MSC population by a PCR array. Their migration ability, however, got impaired. Our findings provide evidence that WJ-MSCs might be therapeutically beneficial and potent in healing wounds under ischemic conditions.

  18. An anthraquinone derivative, emodin sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis through the induction of death receptors and downregulation of cell survival proteins. (United States)

    Subramaniam, Aruljothi; Loo, Ser Yue; Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Manu, Kanjoormana A; Perumal, Ekambaram; Li, Feng; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Park, Joo-In; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Hui, Kam M; Kumar, Alan P; Sethi, Gautam


    Recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is currently under clinical trials for cancer, however many tumor cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Hence, novel agents that can alleviate TRAIL-induced resistance are urgently needed. In the present report, we investigated the potential of emodin to enhance apoptosis induced by TRAIL in HCC cells. As observed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and the externalization of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine, we found that emodin can significantly potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. When investigated for the mechanism(s), we observed that emodin can downregulate the expression of various cell survival proteins, and induce the cell surface expression of both TRAIL receptors, death receptors (DR) 4 as well as 5. In addition, emodin increased the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA decreased the induction of emodin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis. Emodin-induced induction of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as N-acetylcysteine blocked the induction of DR5 and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the knockdown of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein by siRNA significantly reduced the sensitization effect of emodin on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Overall, our experimental results clearly indicate that emodin can indeed potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, increased expression of apoptotic proteins, and ROS mediated upregulation of DR in HCC cells.

  19. Field Theory on Curved Noncommutative Spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schenkel


    Full Text Available We study classical scalar field theories on noncommutative curved spacetimes. Following the approach of Wess et al. [Classical Quantum Gravity 22 (2005, 3511 and Classical Quantum Gravity 23 (2006, 1883], we describe noncommutative spacetimes by using (Abelian Drinfel'd twists and the associated *-products and *-differential geometry. In particular, we allow for position dependent noncommutativity and do not restrict ourselves to the Moyal-Weyl deformation. We construct action functionals for real scalar fields on noncommutative curved spacetimes, and derive the corresponding deformed wave equations. We provide explicit examples of deformed Klein-Gordon operators for noncommutative Minkowski, de Sitter, Schwarzschild and Randall-Sundrum spacetimes, which solve the noncommutative Einstein equations. We study the construction of deformed Green's functions and provide a diagrammatic approach for their perturbative calculation. The leading noncommutative corrections to the Green's functions for our examples are derived.

  20. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H


    Treats the arithmetic theory of elliptic curves in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. This book discusses the necessary algebro-geometric results, and offers an exposition of the geometry of elliptic curves, and the formal group of an elliptic curve.

  1. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction. (United States)

    Chamberlain, John


    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  2. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt


    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  3. Multi-pulse phase resetting curve


    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady


    In this paper, we introduce and systematically study, in terms of phase response curves (PRC), the effect of a dual pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from a linear summation of phase advances from two small perturbations. We derive analytically a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is greater than one. We demonstrate this effect in case of the Stuart-Landau model, and also in v...

  4. Green tea EGCG enhances cardiac function restoration through expression of survival signaling in DM rats with autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cell. (United States)

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Pan, Lung-Fa; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Liou, Jeffery; Padma, V Vijaya; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang


    The present study tests a hypothesis that cardioprotective effects mediated by autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in rats afflicted with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), may be synergistically enhanced by oral treatment with green tea epigallocatechin gallat (ECCG). Wistar rats were divided into sham, DM, DM+ADSC (autologous transplanted 1x106 cells/rat) and DM+ADSC+E (E, green tea oral administration EGCG). Heart tissues were isolated for all rats and investigations were performed after 2-months treatment. In the groups of sham, DM and DM+ADSC, we can find that DM induces cardiac-dysfunction (sham and DM) and autologous transplantation of ADSC can partially recover cardiac functions (DM and DM+ADSC) in DM rats. Compared to DM+ADSC, significant improvement in cardiac-functions can be observed in DM+ADSC+E in echocardiographic data, histological observations and even in cellular protein expression. Oral administration of green tea EGCG and autologous transplantation of ADSC show synergistically beneficial effects on diabetic cardiacmyopathy in DM rats. Copyright © 2016, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  5. Increased survival of human free fat grafts with varying densities of human adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma. (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Feng; Li, Jie; Wang, Hang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Long, Jie; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong


    The high absorption rate of transplanted fat has limited the application of autogenous fat grafts in the clinical setting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on fat regeneration by investigating the impact of PRP and conditioned medium on the biological characteristics of ASCs. Fat grafts were prepared with ASCs at densities of 107 /ml, 106 /ml, 105 /ml, 104 /ml and 0/ml with and without PRP and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Liquid overflow method, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the fat grafts. The residual fat volume of the 105 /ml ASC + PRP group was significantly higher than that of other treatment conditions after 90 days. Furthermore, histological examination revealed that in 105 /ml ASCs-treated grafts normal adipocyte area and capillary formation were increased dramatically compared with other treatment conditions. It is concluded that fat grafts consisting of PRP and 105 /ml ASCs constitute an ideal transplant strategy, which may result in decreased absorption and accelerated fat regeneration. This simple and reliable method could provide a valuable and needed tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Quaternion wave equations in curved space-time (United States)

    Edmonds, J. D., Jr.


    The quaternion formulation of relativistic quantum theory is extended to include curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time in order to provide a framework for a unified quantum/gravity theory. Six basic quaternion fields are identified in curved space-time, the four-vector basis quaternions are identified, and the necessary covariant derivatives are obtained. Invariant field equations are derived, and a general invertable coordinate transformation is developed. The results yield a way of writing quaternion wave equations in curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time as well as a natural framework for solving the problem of second quantization for gravity.

  7. In vitro binding and survival assays of Leishmania parasites to peripherical blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafuri Washington L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a few works considering the characterization of canine monocyte-derived macrophages as well as a standardized procedure for isolation, culture, and infection of these cells with Leishmania. We have performed several modifications in order to improve the canine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures. In addition, we have done a comparative study between monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Results In the presence of exogenous serum, opsonized Leishmania promastigotes binds better to monocytes/macrophages than without serum. Otherwise, this binding occurs due to the strict correlation between the opsonized biologic particles with the third receptor of the complement (CR3-CD11b/CD18. In fact, our assays with CD11b confirmed the importance of this receptor for canine cells and the L. chagasi experimental system. Moreover, monocytes obtained from naturally infected dogs have shown a higher number of monocytes bounded to promastigotes. The experimental results regarding survival have shown that promastigote forms of opsonized L. chagasi were more infective, because we found higher numbers of promastigotes bound to the different cells. As a consequence, after forty-eight hours of binding, higher numbers of amastigotes appeared inside monocyte-macrophages. Conclusion These studies have given support to continue comparative studies involving canine monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and peritoneal macrophages. Since we have standardized the canine cell culture, we are looking forward to determining the phenotypic properties of these cells before and after L. chagasi infection using flow cytometry.

  8. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auricelio A Macedo

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi. In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment.

  9. Glow-curve deconvolution of thermoluminescence curves in the simplified OTOR equation using the Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovedy Singh, L., E-mail:; Gartia, R.K.


    Highlights: • Use of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm in TL analysis. • Deconvolution in simplified OTOR equation. • Glow curve analysis. -- Abstract: A novel method of analyzing thermoluminescence TL glow curves is presented here. This method is based on the recently derived simplified OTOR equation. It employs the Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for the extraction of the TL parameters. This method has been tested against theoretical glow-curve data that were generated using the full iteration method without any prior approximation in the OTOR model, and it has also been tested using the complex glow curve of NaCl.

  10. Superconformal quantum field theory in curved spacetime (United States)

    de Medeiros, Paul; Hollands, Stefan


    By conformally coupling vector and hyper multiplets in Minkowski space, we obtain a class of field theories with extended rigid conformal supersymmetry on any Lorentzian 4-manifold admitting twistor spinors. We construct the conformal symmetry superalgebras which describe classical symmetries of these theories and derive an appropriate BRST operator in curved spacetime. In the process, we elucidate the general framework of cohomological algebra which underpins the construction. We then consider the corresponding perturbative quantum field theories. In particular, we examine the conditions necessary for conformal supersymmetries to be preserved at the quantum level, i.e. when the BRST operator commutes with the perturbatively defined S-matrix, which ensures superconformal invariance of amplitudes. To this end, we prescribe a renormalization scheme for time-ordered products that enter the perturbative S-matrix and show that such products obey certain Ward identities in curved spacetime. These identities allow us to recast the problem in terms of the cohomology of the BRST operator. Through a careful analysis of this cohomology, and of the renormalization group in curved spacetime, we establish precise criteria which ensure that all conformal supersymmetries are preserved at the quantum level. As a by-product, we provide a rigorous proof that the beta-function for such theories is one-loop exact. We also briefly discuss the construction of chiral rings and the role of non-perturbative effects in curved spacetime.

  11. Reflection of curved shock waves (United States)

    Mölder, S.


    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  12. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G


    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  13. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight


    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  14. Broadband Approximations for Doubly Curved Reflector Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Schejbal


    Full Text Available The broadband approximations for shaped-beam doubly curved reflector antennas with primary feed (rectangular horn producing uniform amplitude and phase aperture distribution are derived and analyzed. They are very valuable for electromagnetic compatibility analyses both from electromagnetic interference and susceptibility point of view, because specialized more accurate methods such as physical optics are only used by antenna designers. To allow quick EMC analyses, typical values, beamwidth changes, sidelobe levels and aperture efficiencies are given for frequency changes approximately up to four times operating frequency. A comparison of approximated and measured patterns of doubly curved reflector antennas shows that the given approximation could be reliably used for analyses of pattern changes due to very broad frequency changes.

  15. Logarithmic Spiral - A Splendid Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. In this article some properties of logarithmic spiral have been described along with the ap- pearance as well as applications of the curve in art and nature. After the discovery of anq,lytical geometry by Rene Des- cartes (1596-1650) in 1637, the custom of represent- ing various curves with the help of equations came into.

  16. Space curves, anholonomy and nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vector at each point on the chain can be regarded as defining the local tangent to some space curve [6,7]. Clearly, it is possible to have moving space curves as well. This happens when a vortex filament, a polymer or an elastic rod is in motion. Again, as one changes some parameters in a dynamical system, a given phase.

  17. Pulse Characteristic Curves of Vidicons, (United States)

    microamps, and in vidicons with heterotransition screens, up to 10 microamps. The use of static modulation characteristic curves of vidicons for the...determination of the pulse beam current can lead to an error > 100%. With the help of pulse-modulation characteristic curves, it is possible to obtain the

  18. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij


    the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...

  19. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    This thesis is concerned with computational and theoretical aspects of Riemannian metrics on spaces of regular curves, and their applications. It was recently proved that second order constant coefficient Sobolev metrics on curves are geodesically complete. We extend this result to the case...... of Sobolev metrics with coefficient functions depending on the length of the curve. We show how to apply this result to analyse a wide range of metrics on the submanifold of unit and constant speed curves. We present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves...... on parametrization of immersions by B-splines, which ties in naturally with Isogeometric Analysis to solve the PDE. We give numerical examples of solutions, and compare the Riemannian optimization algorithms with different choices of metrics to a naive unregularized discretize-first approach....

  20. Fusion of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1-derived glycine-alanine repeat to trans-dominant HIV-1 Gag increases inhibitory activities and survival of transduced cells in vivo. (United States)

    Hammer, Diana; Wild, Jens; Ludwig, Christine; Asbach, Benedikt; Notka, Frank; Wagner, Ralf


    Trans-dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag derivatives have been shown to efficiently inhibit late steps of HIV-1 replication in vitro by interfering with Gag precursor assembly, thus ranking among the interesting candidates for gene therapy approaches. However, efficient antiviral activities of corresponding transgenes are likely to be counteracted in particular by cell-mediated host immune responses toward the transgene-expressing cells. To decrease this potential immunogenicity, a 24-amino acid Gly-Ala (GA) stretch derived from Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) and known to overcome proteasomal degradation was fused to a trans-dominant Gag variant (sgD1). To determine the capacity of this fusion polypeptide to repress viral replication, PM-1 cells were transduced with sgD1 and GAsgD1 transgenes, using retroviral gene transfer. Challenge of stably transfected permissive cell lines with various viral strains indicated that N-terminal GA fusion even enhanced the inhibitory properties of sgD1. Further studies revealed that the GA stretch increased protein stability by blocking proteasomal degradation of Gag proteins. Immunization of BALB/c mice with a DNA vaccine vector expressing sgD1 induced substantial Gag-specific immune responses that were, however, clearly diminished in the presence of GA. Furthermore, recognition of cells expressing the GA-fused transgene by CD8(+) T cells was drastically reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in prolonged survival of the transduced cells in recipient mice.

  1. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  2. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.


    Motivated by the examples of a curved waveguide embedded in a photonic crystal and cold atoms moving in a waveguide created by a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we examine the effects of geometry in a 'quantum channel' of parabolic form. Starting with the linear case we derive exact...... as well as approximate expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the linear problem. We then proceed to the nonlinear setting and its stationary states in a number of limiting cases that allow for analytical treatment. The results of our analysis are used as initial conditions in direct...

  3. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus (United States)

    Rowe, Geoffrey


    An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAICU Lucian


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the cyclic curves that can be considered as some of the most important regarding their applications in science, technique, design, architecture and art. These curves include the following: cycloid, epicycloid, hypocycloid, spherical cycloid and special cases thereof. In the first part of the paper the main curves of cycloids family are presented with their methods of generating and setting parametric equations. In the last part some of cycloid applications are highlighted in different areas of science, technology and art.

  5. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush


    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  6. Maximum safe speed estimation using planar quintic Bezier curve with C2 continuity (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Fakharuddin; Misro, Md Yushalify; Ramli, Ahmad; Ali, Jamaludin Md


    This paper describes an alternative way in estimating design speed or the maximum speed allowed for a vehicle to drive safely on a road using curvature information from Bezier curve fitting on a map. We had tested on some route in Tun Sardon Road, Balik Pulau, Penang, Malaysia. We had proposed to use piecewise planar quintic Bezier curve while satisfying the curvature continuity between joined curves in the process of mapping the road. By finding the derivatives of quintic Bezier curve, the value of curvature was calculated and design speed was derived. In this paper, a higher order of Bezier Curve had been used. A higher degree of curve will give more freedom for users to control the shape of the curve compared to curve in lower degree.

  7. S-shaped learning curves. (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M J


    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish words and one with Italian words. In both, S-shaped learning curves were observed, which were most obvious if the subjects were not very familiar with the materials and if they were slow learners. With prolonged learning, the S shapes disappeared. Three different mathematical functions are proposed to explain these S-shaped curves. A further analysis clarifies why S-shaped learning curves may go unnoticed in many experiments.

  8. Type-2 Fuzzy Curve Model (United States)

    Adesah, R. S.; Zakaria, R.; Wahab, A. F.; Talibe, A.


    The paper discusses about the formulation of type-2 fuzzy curve model. The generalization is carried out due to the existence of complex uncertainty which cannot be represented with classical type-1 fuzzy set. Hence, type-2 fuzzy set is proposed to define this type of complex uncertainty. Based on the complex uncertainty of data, fuzzy set theory type-2 with fuzzy number type-2 concept is used to represent the data with complex uncertainty. This process re-defines the data as type-2 fuzzy data which is also the result obtained by generalizing type-1 fuzzy data. Therefore, B-spline function is chosen to show the development of type-2 B-spline curve model via generalization. It is then followed by a number of processes, i.e. fuzzification, reduction and defuzzification are defined to model type-2 fuzzy B-spline curve to obtain a crisp type-2 fuzzy curve.

  9. New algorithm for analyzing phosphorescence curves: Its application to the K2YF5:Pr compound. (United States)

    Ortega, F; Marcazzó, J; Spano, F; Santiago, M; Molina, P; Caselli, E


    Analysis of phosphorescence curves is an alternative procedure to glow curve analysis in order to find the parameters characterizing trap and recombination centers of thermoluminescence materials. In this article a new algorithm to analyze phosphorescence curves is reported, which is derived from the set of coupled differential equation describing the carrier traffic without resorting to approximations. The new algorithm has been employed to analyze the phosphorescence curves of the K 2 YF 5 :Pr compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  11. Intracoronary artery transplantation of cardiomyoblast-like cells from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improve left ventricular dysfunction and survival in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, Hanayuki [The Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Department of Somatic Stem Cell Therapy and Health Policy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Saga, Ayami; Soeda, Mayumi [Department of Somatic Stem Cell Therapy and Health Policy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki [Department of Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Daimon, Takashi [Division of Biostatistics, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Ichinose, Akihiro [Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuyama, Akifumi, E-mail: [The Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); RIKEN Program for Drug Discovery and Medical Technology Platforms, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We administered human CLCs in a swine model of MI via intracoronary artery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histological studies demonstrated engraftment of hCLCs into the scarred myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Echocardiography showed rescue of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted swine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of hCLCs is an effective therapeutics for cardiac regeneration. -- Abstract: Transplantation of human cardiomyoblast-like cells (hCLCs) from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improved left ventricular function and survival of rats with myocardial infarction. Here we examined the effect of intracoronary artery transplantation of human CLCs in a swine model of chronic heart failure. Twenty-four pigs underwent balloon-occlusion of the first diagonal branch followed by reperfusion, with a second balloon-occlusion of the left ascending coronary artery 1 week later followed by reperfusion. Four weeks after the second occlusion/reperfusion, 17 of the 18 surviving animals with severe chronic MI (ejection fraction <35% by echocardiography) were immunosuppressed then randomly assigned to receive either intracoronary artery transplantation of hCLCs hADMPCs or placebo lactic Ringer's solution with heparin. Intracoronary artery transplantation was followed by the distribution of DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardial milieu. Echocardiography at post-transplant days 4 and 8 weeks showed rescue and maintenance of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted group, but not in the control animals, indicating myocardial functional recovery by hCLCs intracoronary transplantation. At 8 week post-transplantation, 7 of 8 hCLCs transplanted animals were still alive compared with only 1 of the 5 control (p = 0.0147). Histological studies at week 12 post-transplantation demonstrated engraftment of the pre DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardium and their expression of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    tortuosidad. Un análisis de las distribuciones de frecuencia obtenidas para esta propiedad, empleando la prueba de KruskalWallis, revela que el esquema DFDS posee los menores valores de tortuosidad en un rango más estrecho.





    En este artículo se desarrolla un nuevo esquema de cuatro puntos para la subdivisión interpolante de curvas basado en la primera derivada discreta (DFDS), el cual, reduce la formación de oscilaciones indeseables que pueden surgir en la curva límite cuando los puntos de control no obedecen a una parametrización uniforme. Se empleó un conjunto de 3000 curvas cuyos puntos de control fueron generados aleatoriamente. Curvas suaves fueron obtenidas tras siete pasos de subdivisión empleando los esq...

  14. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from postmortem human subject tests under axial impacts. (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Szabo, Aniko


    Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. The study reexamined lower leg postmortem human subjects (PMHS) data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and noninjury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the covariable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal, and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike information criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. The mean age, stature, and weight were 58.2±15.1 years, 1.74±0.08 m, and 74.9±13.8 kg, respectively. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other 2 distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-olds at 5, 25, and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45, and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 k

  15. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri


    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  16. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H


    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  17. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.


    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  18. Elliptic curves a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Susanne; Pethö, Attila


    The basics of the theory of elliptic curves should be known to everybody, be he (or she) a mathematician or a computer scientist. Especially everybody concerned with cryptography should know the elements of this theory. The purpose of the present textbook is to give an elementary introduction to elliptic curves. Since this branch of number theory is particularly accessible to computer-assisted calculations, the authors make use of it by approaching the theory under a computational point of view. Specifically, the computer-algebra package SIMATH can be applied on several occasions. However, the book can be read also by those not interested in any computations. Of course, the theory of elliptic curves is very comprehensive and becomes correspondingly sophisticated. That is why the authors made a choice of the topics treated. Topics covered include the determination of torsion groups, computations regarding the Mordell-Weil group, height calculations, S-integral points. The contents is kept as elementary as poss...

  19. Space filling curves in steganalysis (United States)

    Westfeld, Andreas


    We introduce a new method to increase the reliability of current steganalytic techniques by optimising the sample order. Space filling curves (e.g., Hilbert curve) take advantage of the correlation of adjacent pixels and thus make the detection of steganographic messages with low change densities more reliable. The findings are applicable, but not limited to LSB steganalysis. An experimental comparison of five different sampling paths reveals that recursive principles achieve by far the best performance. All measures, such as mean distance, median autocorrelation, and the ability to detect even tiny modifications show substantial improvements compared to conventional methods. We elaborate the relationship between those parameters and quantify the effectiveness with a large test database of small images, which are usually hard to detect. Apart from quantitative advances, visualisation of steganalytic measures can also gain from the application of reverse space filling curves.

  20. Shock detachment from curved wedges (United States)

    Mölder, S.


    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  1. Holomorphic curves in loop groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, M.A.; Pressley, A.N.


    It was observed by Atiyah that there is a correspondence between based gauge equivalence classes of SU/sub n/-instantons over S/sup 4/ of charge d on the one hand, and based holomorphic curves of genus zero in ..cap omega..SU/sub n/ of degree d on the other hand. In this paper we study the parameter space of such holomorphic curves which have the additional property that they lie entirely in the subgroup ..cap omega../sub alg/SU/sub n/ of algebraic loops. We describe a cell decomposition of this parameter space, and compute its complex dimension to be (2n-1)d.

  2. Mass Formulae for Broken Supersymmetry in Curved Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio


    We derive the mass formulae for ${\\cal N}=1$, $D=4$ matter-coupled Supergravity for broken (and unbroken) Supersymmetry in curved space-time. These formulae are applicable to de Sitter configurations as is the case for inflation. For unbroken Supersymmetry in anti-de Sitter (AdS) one gets the mass relations modified by the AdS curvature. We compute the mass relations both for the potential and its derivative non-vanishing.

  3. Photometric Observations and Light Curve Analysis of BL Eridani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonyong Han


    Full Text Available We present light curves of a short period binary system BL Eridani. The light curves were observed with {it VRI} filters by a 50cm wide field robotic telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO, equipped with a 2K CCD camera, which was developed by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI, and Yonsei University Observatory (YUO. The photometric observations were made on 6 nights by automatic operation mode and remote observation mode at SSO and KASI in Korea, respectively. We obtained new {it VRI} CCD light curves and new 5 times of minima, and analyzed the light curves with the Wilson & Deviney (1971 binary 2005 version and derived the new photometric solutions. The mass ratio q = 0.48 in this study shows different value with earlier investigators. According to the model analysis, it is considered that the BL Eri system is currently undergoing contact stage of the two binary components, rather than near-contact stage.

  4. Kummer surfaces associated with Seiberg-Witten curves (United States)

    Malmendier, Andreas


    By carrying out a rational transformation on the base curve C of the Seiberg-Witten curve for N=2 supersymmetric pure SU(2)-gauge theory, we obtain a family of Jacobian elliptic K3 surfaces of Picard rank 17. The isogeny relating the Seiberg-Witten curve for pure SU(2)-gauge theory to the one for SU(2)-gauge theory with Nf=2 massless hypermultiplets extends to define a Nikulin involution on each K3 surface in the family. We show that the desingularization of the quotient of the K3 surface by the involution is isomorphic to a Kummer surface of the Jacobian variety of a curve of genus two. We then derive a relation between the Yukawa coupling associated with the elliptic K3 surface and the Yukawa coupling of pure SU(2)-gauge theory.

  5. Measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: Theory and numerical validation. (United States)

    Chekroun, Mathieu; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Prada, Claire; Laugier, Pascal; Grimal, Quentin


    A method is proposed to evaluate in a non-contact way the phase velocity dispersion curves of circumferential waves around a shell of arbitrary shape immersed in a fluid. No assumptions are made about the thickness or the material of the shell. A geometrical model is derived to describe the shape of the radiated wavefronts in the surrounding fluid, and predict the positions of its centers of curvature. Then the time-reversal principle is applied to recover these positions and to calculate the phase velocity of the circumferential waves. Numerical finite-difference simulations are performed to evaluate the method on a circular and on an elliptic thin shell. Different dispersion curves can be recovered with an error of less than 10%.

  6. Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ity for the primary and secondary components of PV Pup, HD 141929, EE Cet and. V921 Her, respectively. The solid closed curves are the result of the nonlinear regres- sion of equation (14), which their good coincidence with the measured data yields to derive the optimized parameters K, e and ω. Figures show that also ...

  7. New digital signature protocol based on elliptic curves


    Abid, Ounasser; Ettanfouhi, Jaouad; Khadir, Omar


    In this work, a new digital signature based on elliptic curves is presented. We established its efficiency and security. The method, derived from a variant of ElGamal signature scheme, can be seen as a secure alternative protocol if known systems are completely broken.

  8. Catmull-Rom Curve Fitting and Interpolation Equations (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence


    Computer graphics and animation experts have been using the Catmull-Rom smooth curve interpolation equations since 1974, but the vector and matrix equations can be derived and simplified using basic algebra, resulting in a simple set of linear equations with constant coefficients. A variety of uses of Catmull-Rom interpolation are demonstrated,…

  9. Introducing errors in progress ratios determined from experience curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526


    Progress ratios (PRs) derived from historical data in experience curves are used for forecasting development of many technologies as a means to model endogenous technical change in for instance climate–economy models. These forecasts are highly sensitive to uncertainties in the progress ratio. As a

  10. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren


    from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  11. S-shaped learning curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.


    In this article, learning curves for foreign vocabulary words are investigated, distinguishing between a subject-specific learning rate and a material-specific parameter that is related to the complexity of the items, such as the number of syllables. Two experiments are described, one with Turkish

  12. Managing bias in ROC curves (United States)

    Clark, Robert D.; Webster-Clark, Daniel J.


    Two modifications to the standard use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for evaluating virtual screening methods are proposed. The first is to replace the linear plots usually used with semi-logarithmic ones (pROC plots), including when doing "area under the curve" (AUC) calculations. Doing so is a simple way to bias the statistic to favor identification of "hits" early in the recovery curve rather than late. A second suggested modification entails weighting each active based on the size of the lead series to which it belongs. Two weighting schemes are described: arithmetic, in which the weight for each active is inversely proportional to the size of the cluster from which it comes; and harmonic, in which weights are inversely proportional to the rank of each active within its class. Either scheme is able to distinguish biased from unbiased screening statistics, but the harmonically weighted AUC in particular emphasizes the ability to place representatives of each class of active early in the recovery curve.

  13. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.


    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  14. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance. (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M


    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  15. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Benjamin (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)), email:; Emblem, Kyrre E. (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dept. of Radiology, MGH-HST AA Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)); Mouridsen, Kim (Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)); Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Bjoernerud, Atle (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Haaberg, Asta K. (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Dept. of Medical Imaging, St Olav' s Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)); Kvinnsland, Yngve (NordicImagingLab, Bergen (Norway))


    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  16. Estimation of Survival Probabilities for Use in Cost-effectiveness Analyses: A Comparison of a Multi-state Modeling Survival Analysis Approach with Partitioned Survival and Markov Decision-Analytic Modeling. (United States)

    Williams, Claire; Lewsey, James D; Mackay, Daniel F; Briggs, Andrew H


    Modeling of clinical-effectiveness in a cost-effectiveness analysis typically involves some form of partitioned survival or Markov decision-analytic modeling. The health states progression-free, progression and death and the transitions between them are frequently of interest. With partitioned survival, progression is not modeled directly as a state; instead, time in that state is derived from the difference in area between the overall survival and the progression-free survival curves. With Markov decision-analytic modeling, a priori assumptions are often made with regard to the transitions rather than using the individual patient data directly to model them. This article compares a multi-state modeling survival regression approach to these two common methods. As a case study, we use a trial comparing rituximab in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide v. fludarabine and cyclophosphamide alone for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We calculated mean Life Years and QALYs that involved extrapolation of survival outcomes in the trial. We adapted an existing multi-state modeling approach to incorporate parametric distributions for transition hazards, to allow extrapolation. The comparison showed that, due to the different assumptions used in the different approaches, a discrepancy in results was evident. The partitioned survival and Markov decision-analytic modeling deemed the treatment cost-effective with ICERs of just over £16,000 and £13,000, respectively. However, the results with the multi-state modeling were less conclusive, with an ICER of just over £29,000. This work has illustrated that it is imperative to check whether assumptions are realistic, as different model choices can influence clinical and cost-effectiveness results.

  17. Supersymmetric branes on curved spaces and fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Triendl, Hagen


    We discuss general supersymmetric brane configurations in flux backgrounds of string and M-theory and derive a necessary condition for the worldvolume theory to be supersymmetric on a given curved manifold. This condition resembles very much the conditions found from coupling a supersymmetric field theory to off-shell supergravity but can be derived in any dimension and for up to sixteen supercharges. Apart from the topological twist, all couplings appearing in the supersymmetry condition are linked to fluxes in the bulk. We explicitly derive the condition for D3-, M2- and M5-branes, in which case the results are also useful for constructing holographic duals to the corresponding field theories. In $N=1$ setups we compare the supersymmetry conditions to those that arise by coupling the field theory to off-shell supergravity. We find that the couplings of both old and new minimal supergravity are simultaneously realized, indicating that off-shell supergravity should be coupled via the S-multiplet of 16/16 supe...

  18. Using the generalized Radon transform for detection of curves in noisy images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter Aundal


    In this paper the discrete generalized Radon transform will be investigated as a tool for detection of curves in noisy digital images. The discrete generalized Radon transform maps an image into a parameter domain, where curves following a specific parameterized curve form will correspond to a peak...... in the parameter domain. A major advantage of the generalized Radon transform is that the curves are allowed to intersect. This enables a thresholding algorithm in the parameter domain for simultaneous detection of curve parameters. A threshold level based on the noise level in the image is derived. A numerical...

  19. Improvement of cam performance curve using B-Spline curve (United States)

    Shahriman, A. B.; Syafiq, A. K. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Z. M.; Wan, K.; Daud, R.; Cheng, E. M.; Zaaba, S. K.; Azizan, Azizi


    The mathematical modeling approach has been applied in order to increase the cam profile curve of Modenas CT115s performance by using MATLAB software as a programmed to calculate the mechanism of the cam profile. Cam is used inside the engine to push the rocker and consequently open and close the engine valve that allows the fuel-air mixture to be entered during the combustion process. The B-Spline curve was implemented in order to enhance the current performance of the cam profile. The calculation had been done by using manual and MATLAB software. The results obtained has been analyzed and interpreted in plotting the graphs. From the analysis, the profile that had the highest displacement factor, sk produced higher cam curve performance of the engine. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of the displacement factor, sk can increase the engine performance as the valve displace further in which allow higher fuel-air mixture entrance during the combustion process.

  20. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans


    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  1. Beveridge Curve Shifts – Europe 2020 Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferent-Pipas Marina


    Full Text Available The present paper aligns to the economic policy body of research granting intensive efforts to the sphere of analysing the unemployment rate’s evolution as well as its primary drivers and effects in the context of the Europe 2020 strategy. Considering one of the agenda’s main targets – increasing employability among the European Union’s states, this paper analyses the areas funded by the European Social Fund as well as the country policy specifics in deriving the behaviour of the Beveridge curve associated with the EU-13 countries given the shift of European Union’s funds from old member states to newer ones. As such, the study employs the tools of Simultaneous Equations Systems and examines the impact of four categories of components on the Beveridge curve’s behaviour - structure of the unemployed, labour market and business environment factors as well as business cycles.

  2. Infinite swapping in curved spaces. (United States)

    Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo


    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  3. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de


    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Triangular Numbers and Elliptic Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahal, Jasbir S.; Top, Jaap


    Some arithmetic of elliptic curves and theory of elliptic surfaces is used to find all rational solutions (r, s, t) in the function field Q(m, n) of the pair of equations r(r + 1)/2 = ms(s + 1)/2 r(r + 1)/2 = nt(t + 1)/2. It turns out that infinitely many solutions exist. Several examples will be

  5. Archaeomagnetic SV curve for Belgium (United States)

    Ech-chakrouni, Souad; Hus, Jozef


    Archaeomagnetic secular variation curves have been established for different countries in Europe, especially when different archeological sites are more or less uniformly distributed in time are available. The disadvantage in that case is that data had to be relocated to a single reference site. The proximity of the reference locality Paris to Belgium makes that we used the French archaeomagnetic SV curve for the last three millennia up to the present for archaeomagnetic dating undated baked structures. In total, 85 baked structures have been examined, unearthed in 24 archaeological sites of the territory of Belgium. The ChRM of each sample was obtained by principal component analysis for at least three demagnetisation steps (Kirschvink 1980). Except for some outliers, the ChRM directions are very coherent with a high confidence factor (α95Belgium with Uccle as reference locality, where the first measurement of the geomagnetic field was done in 1895. This curve would include all the available reference data in a radius of about 500 km around Uccle. Keywords: secular variation, archaeomagnetic dating, Belgium.

  6. Growth curves for Laron syndrome. (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B


    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I.

  7. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui


    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  8. Harper Operator, Fermi Curves and Picard-Fuchs Equation (United States)

    Li, Dan


    This paper is a continuation of the work on the spectral problem of the Harper operator using algebraic geometry. We continue to discuss the local monodromy of algebraic Fermi curves based on Picard-Lefschetz formula. The density of states over approximating components of Fermi curves satisfies a Picard-Fuchs equation. By the property of Landen transformation, the density of states has a Lambert series as the quarter period. A q-expansion of the energy is derived from a mirror map as in the B-model.

  9. Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame for Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve (United States)

    Şenyurt, Süleyman; Altun, Yasin; Cevahir, Ceyda


    In this paper, we investigated special Smarandache curves belonging to Sabban frame drawn on the surface of the sphere by Darboux vector of Mannheim partner curve. We created Sabban frame belonging to this curve. It was explained Smarandache curves position vector is consisted by Sabban vectors belonging to this curve. Then, we calculated geodesic curvatures of this Smarandache curves. Found results were expressed depending on the Mannheim curve.

  10. Exact Hamiltonians with Rashba and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings on a curved surface (United States)

    Chang, Jian-Yuan; Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Chang, Ching-Ray


    The exact Hamiltonians for Rashba and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings on a curved surface with an arbitrary shape are rigorously derived. Two orthogonal principal curvatures dominate the electronic spin transport, and the asymptotic behavior of the normal confined potential on a curved surface is insignificant. For a curved surface with a large curvature, the higher order momentum terms play an important role in controlling spin transport. The Rashba spin-orbit coupling on a curved surface only induces the extra pseudopotential term, and the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling on a curved surface can induce the extra pseudokinetic and pseudomomentum terms. Because of the extra curvature-induced terms and the associated pseudomagnetic fields, spin transport on a curved surface is very different from that on a flat surface. The Hamiltonians on both cylindrical and spherical surfaces are explicitly derived here, and the associated physical properties of electrons are studied in detail.

  11. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves. (United States)

    Ribet, K A; Takahashi, S


    Fix an isogeny class of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements A of have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes--i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X(0)D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A [symbol; see text] A in for which one has a nonconstant map piD : X(0)D(N/D) --> A whose pullback A --> Pic0(X(0)D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of piD is an integer deltaD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class A). We investigate the behavior of deltaD as D varies.

  12. Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard


    Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

  13. Reconfigurable Double-Curved Mould

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Christian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    , double curved surfaces like facades or walls, where the curvature of each element is relatively small in comparison to the overall shape. In the proposed dynamic mould system, where only a set of points is defined, a stiff membrane interpolates the surface between points. To function as a surface...... suitable for casting concrete or other substances against without the need for further manual treatment, the membrane should be durable and maintain a perfectly smooth and non-porous surface as well. A membrane with these properties has been developed for this project, and it is the core of the dynamic...

  14. General investigations of curved surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gauss, Karl Friedrich; Morehead, James


    Gauss's theory of surfaces is among the purely mathematical achievements inspired by ideas that arose in connection with surveys of the surface of the earth. Long regarded as a masterpiece in content and form, this work features one of the author's most original contributions to mathematics--the discovery that Gauss termed the ""Theorema Egregium."" It consists of his penetrating definition of the concept of surface curvature and the theorem that the ""Gauss curvature"" is invariant under arbitrary isometric deformation of a curved surface. The profound effects of these concepts were soon gene

  15. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu


    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  16. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Wolfgang


    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. The second part studies the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra. This new edition provides many advancements, including more figures and exercises, and-as a new feature-a good number of so

  17. About the group law for the Jacobi variety of a hyperelliptic curve


    Leitenberger, Frank


    We generalize the group law of curves of degree three by chords and tangents to the Jacobi variety of a hyperelliptic curve. In the case of genus 2 we accomplish the construction by a cubic parabola. We derive explicit rational formulas for the addition on a dense set in the Jacobian.

  18. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu


    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  19. Description of stress-strain curves by three parameters (United States)

    Ramberg, Walter; Osgood, William R


    A simple formula is suggested for describing the stress-strain curve in terms of three parameters; namely, Young's modulus and two secant yield strengths. Dimensionless charts are derived from this formula for determining the stress-strain curve, the tangent modulus, and the reduced modulus of a material for which these three parameters are given. Comparison with the tensile and compressive data on aluminum-alloy, stainless-steel, and carbon-steel sheet in NACA Technical Note No. 840 indicates that the formula is adequate for most of these materials. The formula does not describe the behavior of alclad sheet, which shows a marked change in slope at low stress. It seems probable that more than three parameters will be necessary to represent such stress-strain curves adequately.

  20. Simulation of titration curves indicated with two indicator electrodes (biamperometry). (United States)

    Surmann, P; Peter, B; Stark, C


    A rigorous method to simulate titration curves with indication using two indicator electrodes (biamperometry) is presented. Computer simulations can be carried out for reversible as well as for irreversible systems. The different parameters like the area of the individual electrodes, applied potential difference, heterogeneous rate constant, and the kinetic parameter alpha were varied and investigated as to their influence upon the shape of the titration curves. The theoretically derived effects match with the effects obtained by experiment. Considering the effects described here, it is possible to tailor the shape of the titration curve by the experimental conditions for specific applications in order to get an optimum shape at the end point of the titration.

  1. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.


    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  2. The dChip survival analysis module for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minvielle Stéphane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide expression signatures are emerging as potential marker for overall survival and disease recurrence risk as evidenced by recent commercialization of gene expression based biomarkers in breast cancer. Similar predictions have recently been carried out using genome-wide copy number alterations and microRNAs. Existing software packages for microarray data analysis provide functions to define expression-based survival gene signatures. However, there is no software that can perform survival analysis using SNP array data or draw survival curves interactively for expression-based sample clusters. Results We have developed the survival analysis module in the dChip software that performs survival analysis across the genome for gene expression and copy number microarray data. Built on the current dChip software's microarray analysis functions such as chromosome display and clustering, the new survival functions include interactive exploring of Kaplan-Meier (K-M plots using expression or copy number data, computing survival p-values from the log-rank test and Cox models, and using permutation to identify significant chromosome regions associated with survival. Conclusions The dChip survival module provides user-friendly way to perform survival analysis and visualize the results in the context of genes and cytobands. It requires no coding expertise and only minimal learning curve for thousands of existing dChip users. The implementation in Visual C++ also enables fast computation. The software and demonstration data are freely available at

  3. Smarandache Curves In Terms of Sabban Frame of Fixed Pole Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Şenyurt


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve interms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

  4. Bounding the number of points on a curve using a generalization of Weierstrass semigroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Ruano, Diego


    In [5] an upper bound for the number of points on an al- gebraic curve dened over a nite eld was derived. In this article we generalize their result by considering Weierstrass groups of several points simultaneously.......In [5] an upper bound for the number of points on an al- gebraic curve dened over a nite eld was derived. In this article we generalize their result by considering Weierstrass groups of several points simultaneously....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas E. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Campbell, Ryan K., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst St., Arcata, CA 95521 (United States)


    We have extracted the WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) single-exposure data for a sample of 72 polars, which are highly magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs). We combine these data with both published and unpublished optical and infrared data to explore the origins of the large amplitude variations seen in these systems. In nearly every case, we find evidence for cyclotron emission in the WISE bandpasses. We find that the derived magnetic field strengths for some polars are either too high, or cyclotron emission from lower field components, located spatially coincident to the main accreting poles, must be occurring. We have also estimated field strengths for a number of polars where no such values exist. In addition, contrary to expectations, we find that emission from the fundamental cyclotron harmonic (n = 1) appears to be nearly always present when the magnetic field is of the appropriate strength that it falls within a WISE bandpass. We find that the light curves for RBS 490, an ultrashort-period (46 minutes) CV, suggest that it is a polar. Modeling its spectrum indicates that its donor star is much hotter than expected. Nearly all of the detected polars show 11.5 μm (“W3 band”) excesses. The general lack of variability seen in the W3 bandpass light curves for higher-field polars demonstrates that these excesses are probably not due to cyclotron emission. There is circumstantial evidence that these excesses can be attributed to bremsstrahlung emission from their accretion streams. Reduction of the Spitzer 24 μm image of V1500 Cyg shows that it appears to be located at the center of a small nebula.

  6. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server


    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  7. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej


    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  8. Transiting planets - light-curve analysis for eccentric orbits (United States)

    Kipping, David M.


    Transiting planet light curves have historically been used predominantly for measuring the depth and hence ratio of the planet-star radii, p. Equations have previously been presented by Seager & Mallén-Ornelas for the analysis of the total and trough transit light-curve time to derive the ratio of semimajor axis to stellar radius, a/R*, in the case of circular orbits. Here, a new analytic model is proposed which operates for the more general case of an eccentric orbit. We aim to investigate three major effects our model predicts: (i) the degeneracy in transit light-curve solutions for eccentricity, e > 0; (ii) the asymmetry of the light curve and the resulting shift in the mid-transit time, TMID; (iii) the effect of eccentricity on the ingress and egress slopes. It is also shown that a system with changing eccentricity and inclination may produce a long-term transit time variation (LTTV). Furthermore, we use our model in a re-analysis of HD209458b archived data by Richardson et al., where we include the confirmed non-zero eccentricity and derive a 24-μm planetary radius of RP = 1.275RJ +/- 0.082RJ (where RJ = 1 Jovian radius), which is ~1 per cent larger than if we assume a circular orbit.

  9. Estimation of Typhoon Wind Hazard Curves for Nuclear Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young-Sun; Kim, Min-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The intensity of such typhoons, which can influence the Korean Peninsula, is on an increasing trend owing to a rapid change of climate of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Therefore, nuclear facilities should be prepared against future super-typhoons. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that a new NPP should be designed to endure the design-basis hurricane wind speeds corresponding to an annual exceedance frequency of 10{sup -7} (return period of 10 million years). A typical technique used to estimate typhoon wind speeds is based on a sampling of the key parameters of typhoon wind models from the distribution functions fitting statistical distributions to the observation data. Thus, the estimated wind speeds for long return periods include an unavoidable uncertainty owing to a limited observation. This study estimates the typhoon wind speeds for nuclear sites using a Monte Carlo simulation, and derives wind hazard curves using a logic-tree framework to reduce the epistemic uncertainty. Typhoon wind speeds were estimated for different return periods through a Monte-Carlo simulation using the typhoon observation data, and the wind hazard curves were derived using a logic-tree framework for three nuclear sites. The hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds were obtained. The mean hazard curves for the simulated and probable maximum winds can be used for the design and risk assessment of an NPP.

  10. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng


    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated “trial-and-error” protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  11. tgcd: An R package for analyzing thermoluminescence glow curves (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Dong, ZhiBao; Han, FengQing

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are widely used in dosimetric studies. Many commercial and free-distributed programs are used to deconvolute TL glow curves. This study introduces an open-source R package tgcd to conduct TL glow curve analysis, such as kinetic parameter estimation, glow peak simulation, and peak shape analysis. TL glow curves can be deconvoluted according to the general-order empirical expression or the semi-analytical expression derived from the one trap-one recombination center (OTOR) model based on the Lambert W function by using a modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm from which any of the parameters can be constrained or fixed. The package provides an interactive environment to initialize parameters and offers an automated "trial-and-error" protocol to obtain optimal fit results. First-order, second-order, and general-order glow peaks (curves) are simulated according to a number of simple kinetic models. The package was developed using a combination of Fortran and R programming languages to improve efficiency and flexibility.

  12. Parametrizations of elliptic curves by Shimura curves and by classical modular curves (United States)

    Ribet, Kenneth A.; Takahashi, Shuzo


    Fix an isogeny class 𝒜 of semistable elliptic curves over Q. The elements of 𝒜 have a common conductor N, which is a square-free positive integer. Let D be a divisor of N which is the product of an even number of primes—i.e., the discriminant of an indefinite quaternion algebra over Q. To D we associate a certain Shimura curve X0D(N/D), whose Jacobian is isogenous to an abelian subvariety of J0(N). There is a unique A ∈ 𝒜 for which one has a nonconstant map πD : X0D(N/D) → A whose pullback A → Pic0(X0D(N/D)) is injective. The degree of πD is an integer δD which depends only on D (and the fixed isogeny class 𝒜). We investigate the behavior of δD as D varies. PMID:11607751

  13. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid


    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  14. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard


    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  15. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Gayawan


    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  16. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  17. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  18. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas


    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  19. Legendre Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, Roland; Top, Jakob


    We show that every elliptic curve over a finite field of odd characteristic whose number of rational points is divisible by 4 is isogenous to an elliptic curve in Legendre form, with the sole exception of a minimal respectively maximal elliptic curve. We also collect some results concerning the

  20. Optimal investment in learning-curve technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Seta, M.; Gryglewicz, S.; Kort, P.M.


    We study optimal investment in technologies characterized by the learning curve. There are two investment patterns depending on the shape of the learning curve. If the learning process is slow, firms invest relatively late and on a larger scale. If the curve is steep, firms invest earlier and on a

  1. A peptide derived from the CD loop-D helix region of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces neuronal differentiation and survival by binding to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and common cytokine receptor chain gp130

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathje, Mette; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Janne


    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces neuronal differentiation and promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types by binding to a receptor complex formed by CNTF receptor a (CNTFRa), gp130, and the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor (LIFR). The CD loop-D helix region of CNTF has...... that these receptors are involved in the effects of cintrofin. The C-terminal part of the peptide, corresponding to the D helix region of CNTF, was shown to be essential for the neuritogenic action of the peptide. CNTF and LIF induced neurite outgrowth in CGNs plated on laminin-coated slides. On uncoated slides, CNTF...... similar to those induced by CNTF and may be a valuable survival agent with possible therapeutic potential....

  2. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting


    Hays, Spencer; Shen, Haipeng; Huang, Jianhua Z.


    Accurate forecasting of zero coupon bond yields for a continuum of maturities is paramount to bond portfolio management and derivative security pricing. Yet a universal model for yield curve forecasting has been elusive, and prior attempts often resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM wit...

  3. Mass formulae for broken supersymmetry in curved space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, U.C.L.A, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Proeyen, Antoine van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium)


    We derive the mass formulae for N = 1, D = 4 matter-coupled Supergravity for broken (and unbroken) Supersymmetry in curved space-time. These formulae are applicable to De Sitter configurations as is the case for inflation. For unbroken Supersymmetry in anti-de Sitter (AdS) one gets the mass relations modified by the AdS curvature. We compute the mass relations both for the potential and its derivative non-vanishing. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. A peptide derived from the CD loop-D helix region of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces neuronal differentiation and survival by binding to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and common cytokine receptor chain gp130. (United States)

    Rathje, Mette; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Janne; Gotfryd, Kamil; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir


    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces neuronal differentiation and promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types by binding to a receptor complex formed by CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), gp130, and the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor (LIFR). The CD loop-D helix region of CNTF has been suggested to be important for the cytokine interaction with LIFR. We designed a peptide, termed cintrofin, that encompasses this region. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that cintrofin bound to LIFR and gp130, but not to CNTFRα, with apparent KD values of 35 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively. Cintrofin promoted the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), in which cell death was induced either by potassium withdrawal or H2O2 treatment. Cintrofin induced neurite outgrowth from CGNs, and this effect was inhibited by specific antibodies against both gp130 and LIFR, indicating that these receptors are involved in the effects of cintrofin. The C-terminal part of the peptide, corresponding to the D helix region of CNTF, was shown to be essential for the neuritogenic action of the peptide. CNTF and LIF induced neurite outgrowth in CGNs plated on laminin-coated slides. On uncoated slides, CNTF and LIF had no neuritogenic effect but were able to inhibit cintrofin-induced neuronal differentiation, indicating that cintrofin and cytokines compete for the same receptors. In addition, cintrofin induced the phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK, indicating that it exerts cell signaling properties similar to those induced by CNTF and may be a valuable survival agent with possible therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Page curves for tripartite systems (United States)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Yeom, Dong-han; Zoe, Heeseung


    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A, B, and C) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem.

  6. Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.


    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by Deutsch.

  7. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    CERN Document Server

    Terra, Pedro; Farina, C


    The answer to this question is no. In fact, in addition to the solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658, given by the cycloid, we show that there is an infinite number of tautochrone curves. With this goal, we start by briefly reviewing an the problem of finding out the possible potential energies that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many solutions, called sheared potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a P\\"oschl-Teller and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same periods of oscillations for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of an uniform gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the period of oscillations, there is an infinity of tracks w...

  8. Cartographic science: a compendium of map projections, with derivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenna, Donald


    "From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations comprehensively explores the depiction of a curved world on a flat surface...

  9. Will the olympics survive?. (United States)

    Khosla, T.


    The United States of America dominated 58 events in athletics, field and swimming, which between them accounted for 35 per cent of all events in the Munich Olympiad. 1972; these events favour taller individuals. But, in 25 per cent of other events (1) cycling, (2) fencing, (3) gymnastics, (4) judo, (5) weightlifting and (6) Graeco Roman wrestling the U.S.A. did not win a single medal. The failure of the U.S.A. to maintain her lead in Munich was largely due to weaknesses in these other events in many of which the potential medallists can be derived from the lower half of the height distribution (events 3 to 6). These weaknesses are Russia's strength and they continued to remain unstrengthened at Montreal. Also, the domination held by the U.S.A. in swimming was seriously challenged by East Germany. The present trends indicate that the U.S.A.'s ranking is likely to slip further to the third position in Moscow 1980. Factors inhibiting the survival of the Olympics are pointed. PMID:861436

  10. Obtaining DDF Curves of Extreme Rainfall Data Using Bivariate Copula and Frequency Analysis (United States)

    Sadri, S.; Madsen, H.; Mikkelsen, P. S.; Burn, D. H.


    The traditional rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve is a reliable approach for representing the variation of rainfall intensity with duration for a given return period. In reality rainfall variables intensity, depth and duration are dependent and therefore a bivariate analysis using copulas can give a more accurate IDF curve. We study IDF curves using a copula in a bivariate frequency analysis of extreme rainfall. To be able to choose the most suitable copula among candidate copulas (i.e., Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank) we demonstrated IDF curves based on variation of depth with duration for a given return period and name them DDF (depth-duration-frequency) curves. The copula approach does not assume the rainfall variables are independent or jointly normally distributed. Rainfall series are extracted in three ways: (1) by maximum mean intensity; (2) by depth and duration of individual rainfall events; and (3) by storage volume and duration. In each case we used partial duration series (PDS) to extract extreme rainfall variables. The DDF curves derived from each method are presented and compared. This study examines extreme rainfall data from catchment Vedbæ k Renseanlæ g, situated near Copenhagen in Denmark. For rainfall extracted using method 2, the marginal distribution of depth was found to fit the Generalized Pareto distribution while duration was found to fit the Gamma distribution, using the method of L-moments. The volume was fit with a generalized Pareto distribution and the duration was fit with a Pearson type III distribution for rainfall extracted using method 3. The Clayton copula was found to be appropriate for bivariate analysis of rainfall depth and duration for both methods 2 and 3. DDF curves derived using the Clayton copula for depth and duration of individual rainfall events (method 2) are in agreement with empirically derived DDF curves obtained from maximum mean intensity (method 1) for a 10-year return period. For a 100-year

  11. Probabilistic Lane Estimation using Basis Curves


    Huang, Albert S.; Teller, Seth


    Lane estimation for autonomous driving can be formulated as a curve estimation problem, where local sensor data provides partial and noisy observations of spatial curves. The number of curves to estimate may be initially unknown and many of the observations may be outliers or false detections (due e.g. to to tree shadows or lens flare). The challenges lie in detecting lanes when and where they exist, and updating lane estimates as new observations are made. This paper ...

  12. Efficient detection of symmetries polynomially parametrized curves


    Alcázar Arribas, Juan Gerardo


    We present efficient algorithms for detecting central and mirror symmetry for the case of algebraic curves defined by means of polynomial parametrizations. The algorithms are based on an algebraic relationship between proper parametrizations of a same curve, which leads to a triangular polynomial system that can be solved in a very fast way; in particular, curves parametrized by polynomials of serious degrees/coefficients can be analyzed in a few seconds. In our analysis we provide a good num...

  13. Survival analysis of orthodontic mini-implants. (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Jae; Ahn, Sug-Joon; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Tae-Woo


    Survival analysis is useful in clinical research because it focuses on comparing the survival distributions and the identification of risk factors. Our aim in this study was to investigate the survival characteristics and risk factors of orthodontic mini-implants with survival analyses. One hundred forty-one orthodontic patients (treated from October 1, 2000, to November 29, 2007) were included in this survival study. A total of 260 orthodontic mini-implants that had sandblasted (large grit) and acid-etched screw parts were placed between the maxillary second premolar and the first molar. Failures of the implants were recorded as event data, whereas implants that were removed because treatment ended and those that were not removed during the study period were recorded as censored data. A nonparametric life table method was used to visualize the hazard function, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated to identify the variables associated with implant failure. Prognostic variables associated with implant failure were identified with the Cox proportional hazard model. Of the 260 implants, 22 failed. The hazard function for implant failure showed that the risk is highest immediately after placement. The survival function showed that the median survival time of orthodontic mini-implants is sufficient for relatively long orthodontic treatments. The Cox proportional hazard model identified that increasing age is a decisive factor for implant survival. The decreasing pattern of the hazard function suggested gradual osseointegration of orthodontic mini-implants. When implants are placed in a young patient, special caution is needed to lessen the increased probability of failure, especially immediately after placement.

  14. Receiver operating characteristic curve generalization for non-monotone relationships. (United States)

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Corral, Norberto; Rey, Corsino; Pascual, Julio; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva


    The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method frequently used in order to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous markers. It represents in a plot true-positive rates against the false-positive ones. Both the practical and theoretical aspects of the receiver operating characteristic curve have been extensively studied. Conventionally, it is assumed that the considered marker has a monotone relationship with the studied characteristic; i.e., the upper (lower) values of the (bio)marker are associated with a higher probability of a positive result. However, there exist real situations where both the lower and the upper values of the marker are associated with higher probability of a positive result. We propose a receiver operating characteristic curve generalization, [Formula: see text], useful in this context. All pairs of possible cut-off points, one for the lower and another one for the upper marker values, are taken into account and the best of them are selected. The natural empirical estimator for the [Formula: see text] curve is considered and its uniform consistency and asymptotic distribution are derived. Finally, two real-world applications are studied.

  15. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Spencer


    Accurate forecasting of zero coupon bond yields for a continuum of maturities is paramount to bond portfolio management and derivative security pricing. Yet a universal model for yield curve forecasting has been elusive, and prior attempts often resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM with functional factor loading curves. This results in a model capable of forecasting functional time series. Further, in the yield curve context we show that the model retains economic interpretation. Model estimation is achieved through an expectation- maximization algorithm, where the time series parameters and factor loading curves are simultaneously estimated in a single step. Efficient computing is implemented and a data-driven smoothing parameter is nicely incorporated. We show that our model performs very well on forecasting actual yield data compared with existing approaches, especially in regard to profit-based assessment for an innovative trading exercise. We further illustrate the viability of our model to applications outside of yield forecasting.

  16. Sieving for rational points on hyperelliptic curves


    Siksek, Samir


    We give a new and efficient method of sieving for rational points\\ud on hyperelliptic curves. This method is often successful in proving that a\\ud given hyperelliptic curve, suspected to have no rational points, does in fact\\ud have no rational points; we have often found this to be the case even when our\\ud curve has points over all localizations Qp. We illustrate the practicality of the\\ud method with some examples of hyperelliptic curves of genus 1.

  17. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  18. Algebraic curves and one-dimensional fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Fedor


    Algebraic curves have many special properties that make their study particularly rewarding. As a result, curves provide a natural introduction to algebraic geometry. In this book, the authors also bring out aspects of curves that are unique to them and emphasize connections with algebra. This text covers the essential topics in the geometry of algebraic curves, such as line and vector bundles, the Riemann-Roch Theorem, divisors, coherent sheaves, and zeroth and first cohomology groups. The authors make a point of using concrete examples and explicit methods to ensure that the style is clear an

  19. A Probabilistic Framework for Curve Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen


    In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between the distributi......In this work, we propose a nonparametric probabilistic framework for image segmentation using deformable models. We estimate an underlying probability distributions of image features from regions defined by a deformable curve. We then evolve the curve such that the distance between...

  20. On enumeration of Hilbert-like curves (United States)

    Smrek, Jan; Y Grosberg, Alexander


    We present an analytical method to explicitly enumerate all self-similar space-filling curves similar to Hilbert curve, and find their number grows with length L as {{Z}L}∼ {{1.35699}L}. This presents a first step in the exact characterization of the crumpled globule ensemble relevant for dense topologically constrained polymer matter and DNA folding. Moreover, this result gives a stringent lower bound on the number of Hamiltonian walks on a simple cubic lattice. Additionally, we compute the exact number of crumpled curves with arbitrary endpoints, and the closed crumpled curves on a 4× 4× 4 cube.

  1. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species (United States)

    Raup, D. M.


    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii-Derived Synthetic Peptides Containing B- and T-Cell Epitopes from GRA2 Protein Are Able to Enhance Mice Survival in a Model of Experimental Toxoplasmosis. (United States)

    Bastos, Luciana M; Macêdo, Arlindo G; Silva, Murilo V; Santiago, Fernanda M; Ramos, Eliezer L P; Santos, Fabiana A A; Pirovani, Carlos P; Goulart, Luiz R; Mineo, Tiago W P; Mineo, José R


    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis distributed all over the world, which the etiologic agent is an intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This disease may cause abortions and severe diseases in many warm-blood hosts, including humans, particularly the immunocompromised patients. The parasite specialized secretory organelles, as micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules, are critical for the successful parasitism. The dense granule protein 2 (GRA2) is a parasite immunogenic protein secreted during infections and previous studies have been shown that this parasite component is crucial for the formation of intravacuolar membranous nanotubular network (MNN), as well as for secretion into the vacuole and spatial organization of the parasites within the vacuole. In the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody to GRA2 (C3C5 mAb, isotype IgG2b), mapped the immunodominant epitope of the protein by phage display and built GRA2 synthetic epitopes to evaluate their ability to protect mice in a model of experimental infection. Our results showed that synthetic peptides for B- and T-cell epitopes are able to improve survival of immunized animals. In contrast with non-immunized animals, the immunized mice with both B- and T-cell epitopes had a better balance of cytokines and demonstrated higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and IL-17 production, though similar levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were observed. The immunization with both B- and T-cell epitopes resulted in survival rate higher than 85% of the challenged mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that immunization with synthetic epitopes for both B- and T-cells from GRA2 protein can be more effective to protect against infection by T. gondii.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii-derived synthetic peptides containing B- and T-cell epitopes from GRA2 protein are able to enhance mice survival in a model of experimental toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Machado Bastos


    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis distributed all over the world, which the etiologic agent is an intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This disease may cause abortions and severe diseases in many warm-blood hosts, including humans, particularly the immunocompromised patients. The parasite specialized secretory organelles, as micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules, are critical for the successful parasitism. The dense granule protein 2 (GRA2 is a parasite immunogenic protein secreted during infections and previous studies have been shown that this parasite component is crucial for the formation of intravacuolar membranous nanotubular network (MNN, as well as for secretion into the vacuole and spatial organization of the parasites within the vacuole. In the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody to GRA2 (C3C5 mAb, isotype IgG2b, mapped the immunodominant epitope of the protein by phage display and built GRA2 synthetic epitopes to evaluate their ability to protect mice in a model of experimental infection. Our results showed that synthetic peptides for B- and T-cell epitopes are able to improve survival of immunized animals. In contrast with non-immunized animals, the immunized mice with both B- and T-cell epitopes had a better balance of cytokines and demonstrated higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and IL-17 production, though similar levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were observed. The immunization with both B- and T-cell epitopes resulted in survival rate higher than 85% of the challenged mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that immunization with synthetic epitopes for both B- and T-cells from GRA2 protein can be more effective to protect against infection by T. gondii.

  4. Curved flow wind tunnnel test of F-18 aircraft (United States)

    Lutze, F. H.


    The curved flow capability of a stability wind tunnel was used to investigate the lateral directional characteristics of an F-18 aircraft. The model is described and the procedures used to obtain and correct the data and a graphical presentation of the results are presented. The results include graphs of lateral directional derivatives versus sideslip or static plots, the lateral directional static stability derivatives versus angle of attack, and finally the lateral directional derivatives versus nondimensional yaw rate for different angles of attack and sideslip. Results are presented for several configurations including complete, complete without vertical tails, complete without horizontal tails, fuselage wing and fuselage alone. Each of these were tested with and without wing leading edge extensions.

  5. Quantitation of collagen fragments and gelatin by deconvolution of polarimetry denaturation curves. (United States)

    Condell, R A; Sakai, N; Mercado, R T; Larenas, E


    A method for quantitating nicked or shortened molecules (fragments) in pepsinized bovine type I collagen preparations using polarimetry thermal denaturation curves is described. The shortened molecules denature about 4 degrees C lower than intact collagen molecules. The analog output of a polarimeter was digitized and stored on a microcomputer disk. A BASIC program was written which retrieves the specific rotation data from the disk, smooths the data with a boxcar average, and plots the derivative of the denaturation curve. The derivative curve was deconvoluted by fitting three Gaussian curves to the derivative curve using published algorithms. The area of the Gaussian centered at 37 degrees C was proportional to the amount of collagen fragments. A good correlation between the amount of fragments determined by polarimetry and by a trypsin sensitivity assay was observed. The overall precision of the method was about 10% RSD, and the method was repeatable by multiple analysts. Application of the method to reconstituted fibrillar collagen samples showed that more fragments are generated when pepsin digestion time is lengthened. By fitting a fourth Gaussian component to the derivative curve, the method can also be used to determine relative amounts of denatured collagen (helix partially unwound but alpha chains not nicked). The detection limit for denatured collagen is about 20%.

  6. Monopoles and Modifications of Bundles over Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey M. Levin


    Full Text Available Modifications of bundles over complex curves is an operation that allows one to construct a new bundle from a given one. Modifications can change a topological type of bundle. We describe the topological type in terms of the characteristic classes of the bundle. Being applied to the Higgs bundles modifications establish an equivalence between different classical integrable systems. Following Kapustin and Witten we define the modifications in terms of monopole solutions of the Bogomolny equation. We find the Dirac monopole solution in the case R × (elliptic curve. This solution is a three-dimensional generalization of the Kronecker series. We give two representations for this solution and derive a functional equation for it generalizing the Kronecker results. We use it to define Abelian modifications for bundles of arbitrary rank. We also describe non-Abelian modifications in terms of theta-functions with characteristic.

  7. Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity (United States)

    Xiaoying Rong; Dewei Qi; Guowei He; Jun Yong Zhu; Tim Scott


    Dynamics of single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity are simulated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The results of migration and rotation of the curved fiber at different Reynolds numbers are reported. The results show that the rotation and migration processes are sensitive to the curvature of the fiber.

  8. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve functions of Iranian primiparous Holsteins. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The suitability of seven mathematical models (with three, four and five parameters) for describing the 305-day milk yield lactation curve of Holstein cows, were examined in this ...

  9. Spectral Curves of Operators with Elliptic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chris Eilbeck


    Full Text Available A computer-algebra aided method is carried out, for determining geometric objects associated to differential operators that satisfy the elliptic ansatz. This results in examples of Lamé curves with double reduction and in the explicit reduction of the theta function of a Halphen curve.

  10. Sibling curves of polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in papers [2, 3] as a novel way to visualize the zeros of complex valued functions. In this paper, we continue the work done in those papers by focusing solely on polynomials. We proceed to prove that the number of sibling curves of a polynomial is the degree of the polynomial. Keywords: ...

  11. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.


    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  12. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves (United States)

    Streeter, Matthew


    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  13. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard


    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...

  14. Modular curves, Arakelov theory, algorithmic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Pieter Jan


    This thesis is about arithmetic, analytic and algorithmic aspects of modular curves and modular forms. The arithmetic and analytic aspects are linked by the viewpoint that modular curves are examples of arithmetic surfaces. Therefore, Arakelov theory (intersection theory on arithmetic surfaces)

  15. Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cardoulis


    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ  n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.

  16. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp


    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  17. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  18. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this section, various types of families of algebraic curves are considered. Equations of these curves are written either in Cartesian coordinates (x, y) or in terms of plane polar coordinates (r, θ). In some cases, para- metric equations are also considered. 3.1 Astroid. In Cartesian coordinates, the equation of an astroid (Fig-.

  19. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse


    The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  20. Meta-analysis of survival prediction with Palliative Performance Scale. (United States)

    Downing, Michael; Lau, Francis; Lesperance, Mary; Karlson, Nicholas; Shaw, Jack; Kuziemsky, Craig; Bernard, Steve; Hanson, Laura; Olajide, Lola; Head, Barbara; Ritchie, Christine; Harrold, Joan; Casarett, David


    This paper aims to reconcile the use of Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) for survival prediction in palliative care through an international collaborative study by five research groups. The study involves an individual patient data meta-analysis on 1,808 patients from four original datasets to reanalyze their survival patterns by age, gender, cancer status, and initial PPS score. Our findings reveal a strong association between PPS and survival across the four datasets. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves show each PPS level as distinct, with a strong ordering effect in which higher PPS levels are associated with increased length of survival. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model to adjust for study differences, we found females lived significantly longer than males, with a further decrease in hazard for females not diagnosed with cancer. Further work is needed to refine the reporting of survival times/probabilities and to improve prediction accuracy with the inclusion of other variables in the models.

  1. A digital algorithm for characteristic film curves (United States)

    Buckner, J.; Cash, T.; Craven, P.; Edwards, T.


    The task of establishing a film calibration scheme for magnitude studies of Skylab photographic images of Comet Kohoutek is examined. Since the data are recorded in terms of film density and have to be used in terms of exposure, the conversion from density to exposure is critical. In this film calibration scheme, the hardware deals with the data sources, recording medium, and data conversion to a computer compatible program, whereas the software deals with signal to noise enhancement, stepwedge calibration curve and leads to modeling of the film characteristic curves. A mathematical model of the characteristic curve is obtained using a modified version of Efroymson's (1960) stepwise multiple linear regression algorithm, which gives log exposure as a function of density. The difference in the calibration curves from pre- and postflight exposures is well accounted for in the model as a result of sensitive statistical tests. The characteristic curve modeling program requires about 4K of core and is executed in about 3 min.

  2. N-Covers of hyperelliptic curves (United States)

    Bruin, N.; Flynn, E. V.


    For a hyperelliptic curve {ax C} of genus g with a divisor class of order n = g + 1, we shall consider an associated covering collection of curves {ax D}_delta, each of genus g(2) . We describe, up to isogeny, the Jacobian of each {ax D}_delta via a map from {ax D}_delta to {ax C}, and two independent maps from {ax D}_delta to a curve of genus g(g-1)/2. For some curves, this allows covering techniques that depend on arithmetic data of number fields of smaller degree than standard 2-coverings; we illustrate this by using 3-coverings to find all {Bbb Q}-rational points on a curve of genus 2 for which 2-covering techniques would be impractical.

  3. "Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots (United States)

    Marani, M.; Biswal, B.


    The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

  4. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger


    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  5. Estimating thermal performance curves from repeated field observations (United States)

    Childress, Evan; Letcher, Benjamin H.


    Estimating thermal performance of organisms is critical for understanding population distributions and dynamics and predicting responses to climate change. Typically, performance curves are estimated using laboratory studies to isolate temperature effects, but other abiotic and biotic factors influence temperature-performance relationships in nature reducing these models' predictive ability. We present a model for estimating thermal performance curves from repeated field observations that includes environmental and individual variation. We fit the model in a Bayesian framework using MCMC sampling, which allowed for estimation of unobserved latent growth while propagating uncertainty. Fitting the model to simulated data varying in sampling design and parameter values demonstrated that the parameter estimates were accurate, precise, and unbiased. Fitting the model to individual growth data from wild trout revealed high out-of-sample predictive ability relative to laboratory-derived models, which produced more biased predictions for field performance. The field-based estimates of thermal maxima were lower than those based on laboratory studies. Under warming temperature scenarios, field-derived performance models predicted stronger declines in body size than laboratory-derived models, suggesting that laboratory-based models may underestimate climate change effects. The presented model estimates true, realized field performance, avoiding assumptions required for applying laboratory-based models to field performance, which should improve estimates of performance under climate change and advance thermal ecology.

  6. Fields and fluids on curved non-relativistic spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M. [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics,Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics,University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)


    We consider non-relativistic curved geometries and argue that the background structure should be generalized from that considered in previous works. In this approach the derivative operator is defined by a Galilean spin connection valued in the Lie algebra of the Galilean group. This includes the usual spin connection plus an additional “boost connection” which parameterizes the freedom in the derivative operator not fixed by torsion or metric compatibility. As an example we write down the most general theory of dissipative fluids consistent with the second law in curved non-relativistic geometries and find significant differences in the allowed transport coefficients from those found previously. Kubo formulas for all response coefficients are presented. Our approach also immediately generalizes to systems with independent mass and charge currents as would arise in multicomponent fluids. Along the way we also discuss how to write general locally Galilean invariant non-relativistic actions for multiple particle species at any order in derivatives. A detailed review of the geometry and its relation to non-relativistic limits may be found in a companion paper.

  7. Admissible curvature continuous areas for fair curves using G2 Hermite PH quintic polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Habib


    Full Text Available In this paper we derive admissible curvature continuous areas for monotonically increasing curvature continuous smooth curve by using a single Pythagorean hodograph (PH quintic polynomial of G2 contact matching Hermite end conditions. Curves with monotonically increasing or decreasing curvatures are considered highly smooth (fair and are very useful in geometric design. Making the design by using smooth curves is a fascinating problem of computing with significant physical and esthetic applications especially in high speed transportation and robotics. First we derive sufficient conditions for curvature continuity on a single PH quintic polynomial with given Hermite end conditions then we find the admissible area for the smooth curve with respect to the curvatures at its endpoints.

  8. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  9. Obtaining DDF Curves of Extreme Rainfall Data Using Bivariate Copula and Frequency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadri, Sara; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen


    of individual rainfall events; and (3) by storage volume and duration. In each case we used partial duration series (PDS) to extract extreme rainfall variables. The DDF curves derived from each method are presented and compared. This study examines extreme rainfall data from catchment Vedbæ k Renseanlæ g......The traditional rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve is a reliable approach for representing the variation of rainfall intensity with duration for a given return period. In reality rainfall variables intensity, depth and duration are dependent and therefore a bivariate analysis using...... copulas can give a more accurate IDF curve. We study IDF curves using a copula in a bivariate frequency analysis of extreme rainfall. To be able to choose the most suitable copula among candidate copulas (i.e., Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank) we demonstrated IDF curves based on variation of depth...

  10. Analysis of driver's characteristics on a curved road in a lattice model (United States)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Sharma, Sapna


    The present paper investigates the effect of driver's behavior on the curved road via lattice hydrodynamic approach. The basic model for straight road is extended for the curved road and the characteristics of driver's behavior is incorporated in the lattice model. The extended model is investigated theoretically by the means of linear stability analysis and the effect of curved road and intensity of influence of driver's behavior on the traffic flow stability is examined. Through nonlinear stability analysis, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, the numerical simulation is carried out to validate the theoretical results which indicates that the curved road has a negative influence on the stability of the traffic flow. It is also seen that the traffic jam on a curved road can be suppressed efficiently via taking into account aggressive drivers.

  11. Modelling stochastic chances in curve shape, with an application to cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, A; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel


    Often, the statistical analysis of the shape of a random planar curve is based on a model for a polygonal approximation to the curve. In the present paper, we instead describe the curve as a continuous stochastic deformation of a template curve. The advantage of this continuous approach...... is that the parameters in the model do not relate to a particular polygonal approximation. A somewhat similar approach has been used by Kent et al. (1996), who describe the limiting behaviour of a model with a first-order Markov property as the landmarks on the curve become closely spaced; see also Grenander(1993......). The model studied in the present paper is an extension of this model. Our model possesses a second-order Markov property. Its geometrical characteristics are studied in some detail and an explicit expression for the covariance function is derived. The model is applied to the boundaries of profiles of cell...

  12. Lognormal Lorenz and normal receiver operating characteristic curves as mirror images (United States)

    Irwin, R. John; Hautus, Michael J.


    The Lorenz curve for assessing economic inequality depicts the relation between two cumulative distribution functions (CDFs), one for the distribution of incomes or wealth and the other for their first-moment distribution. By contrast, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for evaluating diagnostic systems depicts the relation between the complements of two CDFs, one for the distribution noise and the other for the distribution of signal plus noise. We demonstrate that the lognormal model of the Lorenz curve, which is often adopted to model the distribution of income and wealth, is a mirror image of the equal-variance normal model of the ROC curve, which is a fundamental model for evaluating diagnostic systems. The relationship between these two models extends the potential application of each. For example, the lognormal Lorenz curve can be used to evaluate diagnostic systems derived from equal-variance normal distributions. PMID:26064596

  13. Imaging patterns predict patient survival and molecular subtype in glioblastoma via machine learning techniques. (United States)

    Macyszyn, Luke; Akbari, Hamed; Pisapia, Jared M; Da, Xiao; Attiah, Mark; Pigrish, Vadim; Bi, Yingtao; Pal, Sharmistha; Davuluri, Ramana V; Roccograndi, Laura; Dahmane, Nadia; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Biros, George; Wolf, Ronald L; Bilello, Michel; O'Rourke, Donald M; Davatzikos, Christos


    MRI characteristics of brain gliomas have been used to predict clinical outcome and molecular tumor characteristics. However, previously reported imaging biomarkers have not been sufficiently accurate or reproducible to enter routine clinical practice and often rely on relatively simple MRI measures. The current study leverages advanced image analysis and machine learning algorithms to identify complex and reproducible imaging patterns predictive of overall survival and molecular subtype in glioblastoma (GB). One hundred five patients with GB were first used to extract approximately 60 diverse features from preoperative multiparametric MRIs. These imaging features were used by a machine learning algorithm to derive imaging predictors of patient survival and molecular subtype. Cross-validation ensured generalizability of these predictors to new patients. Subsequently, the predictors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 29 new patients. Survival curves yielded a hazard ratio of 10.64 for predicted long versus short survivors. The overall, 3-way (long/medium/short survival) accuracy in the prospective cohort approached 80%. Classification of patients into the 4 molecular subtypes of GB achieved 76% accuracy. By employing machine learning techniques, we were able to demonstrate that imaging patterns are highly predictive of patient survival. Additionally, we found that GB subtypes have distinctive imaging phenotypes. These results reveal that when imaging markers related to infiltration, cell density, microvascularity, and blood-brain barrier compromise are integrated via advanced pattern analysis methods, they form very accurate predictive biomarkers. These predictive markers used solely preoperative images, hence they can significantly augment diagnosis and treatment of GB patients. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve Analysis for Medical Diagnostic Test Evaluation. (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah


    This review provides the basic principle and rational for ROC analysis of rating and continuous diagnostic test results versus a gold standard. Derived indexes of accuracy, in particular area under the curve (AUC) has a meaningful interpretation for disease classification from healthy subjects. The methods of estimate of AUC and its testing in single diagnostic test and also comparative studies, the advantage of ROC curve to determine the optimal cut off values and the issues of bias and confounding have been discussed.

  15. Income inequality and price elasticity of market demand: the case of crossing Lorenz curves


    Ibragimov, M.; Ibragimov, R; Kattuman, Paul Antony; Ma, J.


    This paper extends Ibragimov and Ibragimov (Econ Theory 32:579–587, 2007) in which the effect of changes income inequality on the price elasticity of market demand is characterized for the class of income distribution changes occurring through non-intersecting Lorenz curve shifts. We derive sufficient conditions for increase/decrease in price elasticity of market demand, under general changes in income distribution, allowing Lorenz curves to intersect as they shift. We conclude by drawing out...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip


    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  17. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.


    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  18. Hyperorthogonal well-folded Hilbert curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Bos


    Full Text Available R-trees can be used to store and query sets of point data in two or more dimensions. An easy way to construct and maintain R-trees for two-dimensional points, due to Kamel and Faloutsos, is to keep the points in the order in which they appear along the Hilbert curve. The R-tree will then store bounding boxes of points along contiguous sections of the curve, and the efficiency of the R-tree depends on the size of the bounding boxes---smaller is better. Since there are many different ways to generalize the Hilbert curve to higher dimensions, this raises the question which generalization results in the smallest bounding boxes. Familiar methods, such as the one by Butz, can result in curve sections whose bounding boxes are a factor $\\Omega(2^{d/2}$ larger than the volume traversed by that section of the curve. Most of the volume bounded by such bounding boxes would not contain any data points. In this paper we present a new way of generalizing Hilbert's curve to higher dimensions, which results in much tighter bounding boxes: they have at most 4 times the volume of the part of the curve covered, independent of the number of dimensions. Moreover, we prove that a factor 4 is asymptotically optimal.

  19. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves (United States)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J. A.


    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules.

  20. Quantum relativistic fluid at global thermodynamic equilibrium in curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Becattini, F


    We present a new approach to the problem of the thermodynamical equilibrium of a quantum relativistic fluid in a curved spacetime in the limit of small curvature. We calculate the mean value of local operators by expanding the four-temperature Killing vector field in Riemann normal coordinates about the same spacetime point and we derive corrections with respect to the flat spacetime expressions. Thereby, we clarify the origin of the terms proportional to Riemann and Ricci tensors introduced in general hydrodynamic expansion of the stress-energy tensor.

  1. Vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field in curved background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilic, Neven, E-mail: [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Domazet, Silvije, E-mail: [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Guberina, Branko, E-mail: [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)


    We study a supersymmetric model in curved background spacetime. We calculate the effective action and the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor using a covariant regularization procedure. A soft supersymmetry breaking induces a nonzero contribution to the vacuum energy density and pressure. Assuming the presence of a cosmic fluid in addition to the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field an effective equation of state is derived in a self-consistent approach at one loop order. The net effect of the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric fields in the leading adiabatic order is a renormalization of the Newton and cosmological constants.

  2. Lung CT registration combining intensity, curves and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Durrieman, Stanley; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau


    In this paper we propose a registration method that combinesintensity information with geometrical information inthe form of curves and surfaces derived from lung CT images.Vessel tree centerlines and lung surfaces were extractedfrom segmented structures. First, a current-based registrationwas...... applied to align the pulmonary vessel tree and the lungsurfaces. Subsequently, the resulting deformation field wasused to constrain an intensity-based registration method. Weapplied the combined registration on a set of image pairs, extractedat the end exhale and the end inhale phases of 4DCTscans...

  3. Bezier Curves Based Numerical Solutions of Delay Systems with Inverse Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghomanjani


    Full Text Available This paper applied, for the first time, the Bernstein’s approximation on delay differential equations and delay systems with inverse delay that models these problems. The direct algorithm is given for solving this problem. The delay function and inverse time function are expanded by the Bézier curves. The Bézier curves are chosen as piecewise polynomials of degree n, and the Bézier curves are determined on any subinterval by n+1 control points. The approximated solution of delay systems containing inverse time is derived. To validate accuracy of the present algorithm, some examples are solved.

  4. Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy and its Standard Error using Constant Shape Weibull Mixture ROC Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Pundir


    Full Text Available Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curve is a widely used classification technique in Medical Diagnosis which classifies the healthy and diseased individuals on the basis of optimal cut off value of the biomarker. In this article, we have proposed Constant Shape Weibull Mixture ROC (CSWMROC model. The properties of CSWMROC Curve are discussed and expressions for AUC, its variance and confidence interval are derived. The estimates of AUC of CSWMROC curve are obtained using Method of Moments (MOM. Numerical example is considered to support the proposed theory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano


    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se a suplementação de levedura íntegra Saccharomyces cerevisiae e derivados do seu processamento (levedura autolisada, mananoligossacarídeo e β-glucano, desidratadas pelo método de spray dry, em rações para juvenis de camarão amazônico. Indivíduos com peso inicial (1,27 ± 0,07 g e comprimento inicial (5,49 ± 0,09 cm foram alojados em aquários de 200 L (10 camarões/aquário dotados de recirculação de água com temperatura controlada, durante o período de sessenta dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Formularam-se as rações para serem isoproteícas (35 % PB e isoenergéticas (3.500kcal/kg EB, suplementadas com 2,0 %, de levedura íntegra, 2,0 % de levedura autolisada, 0,2 % de mananoligosacarídeo e 0,2 % de β-glucano. A ração-controle se caracterizou pela não-suplementação dos diferentes aditivos alimentares. Os juvenis de camarão alimentados com mananoligossacarídeo apresentaram ganho de peso superior (P<0,05 aos alimentados com outras rações. Os resultados indicam que a suplementação de 0,2 % de mananoligossacarídeo proporciona melhores resultados de desempenho aos juvenis de M. amazonicum.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aqüicultura, camarão amazônico, glucano, manano.

    Supplements of whole yeast spray dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae and yeast derivatives (autolyzed yeast, mannanoligosaccharide and β-glucan in to diets fed to juvenile Amazon River prawn were evaluated. Prawns with initial weight (1.27 ± 0.07 g and initial length (5.49 ± 0.09 cm were stocked in to 200 L aquaria (10 prawns/aquarium, in flow-through water system with controlled temperature, during 60 days. The experimental design was completely randomized with

  6. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia. (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša


    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  7. Magnetization curve modelling of soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, I, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bertalan L. street 7., Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)


    In this paper we present an application of the so called hyperbolic model of magnetization. The model was modified and it was applied for nine different soft magnetic alloys. The tested samples were electro-technical steels (FeSi alloys) and a permalloy (FeNi alloy) with strongly different magnetic properties. Among them there are top, medium and definitely poor quality soft magnetic materials as well. Their minor hysteresis loops and normal magnetization curves were measured by alternating current measurement. The hyperbolic model of magnetization was applied for the experimental normal magnetization curves. It was proved that the applied model is excellent for describing mathematically the experimental magnetization curves.

  8. The breakthrough curve combination for xenon sampling dynamics in a carbon molecular sieve column. (United States)

    Shu-jiang, Liu; Zhan-ying, Chen; Yin-zhong, Chang; Shi-lian, Wang; Qi, Li; Yuan-qing, Fan; Huai-mao, Jia; Xin-jun, Zhang; Yun-gang, Zhao


    In the research of xenon sampling and xenon measurements, the xenon breakthrough curve plays a significant role in the xenon concentrating dynamics. In order to improve the theoretical comprehension of the xenon concentrating procedure from the atmosphere, the method of the breakthrough curve combination for sampling techniques should be developed and investigated under pulse injection conditions. In this paper, we describe a xenon breakthrough curve in a carbon molecular sieve column, the combination curve method for five conditions is shown and debated in detail; the fitting curves and the prediction equations are derived in theory and verified by the designed experiments. As a consequence, the curves of the derived equations are in good agreement with the fitting curves by tested. The retention times of the xenon in the column are 61.2, 42.2 and 23.5 at the flow rate of 1200, 1600 and 2000 mL min(-1), respectively, but the breakthrough times are 51.4, 38.6 and 35.1 min.

  9. Determination of Sight Distance on a Combined Crest and Circular Curve in a Three Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Liu, PhD, PE, PTOE


    Full Text Available The sight distance (SD on a two-dimensional (2-d curve, namely, a vertical curve or a horizontal curve, has been well understood and documented for roadway geometric design in literature. In reality, three-dimensional (3-d curves can be found along ramps, connectors, and often mountain roads. The sight distance on these 3-d curves, which may vary with driver's location, has not been tackled in literature on an exact analytic setting. By integrating human-vehicle-roadway interaction, the formulas for computing the SD on a 3-d curve are derived the first time on an analytic framework. The crest curve SD that has been used in various literatures, can be deduced from these derived formulas as special limiting cases. Practitioners can easily apply theses user-friendly formulas or equations on a Microsoft Excel spread sheet to calculate 3-d SD on a roadway with sufficient roadside clearance. In addition, this framework can be extended easily to cope with various scenarios in which obstacles partially blocking driver's sight are present in a roadway environment.

  10. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis (United States)

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.


    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  11. Linking Parameters Estimated with the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model: A Comparison of the Accuracy of Characteristic Curve Methods (United States)

    Anderson Koenig, Judith; Roberts, James S.


    Methods for linking item response theory (IRT) parameters are developed for attitude questionnaire responses calibrated with the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM). One class of IRT linking methods derives the linking coefficients by comparing characteristic curves, and three of these methods---test characteristic curve (TCC), item…

  12. Hemoglobin derivatives (United States)

    ... this page: // Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  13. Nestling Weight and Survival in Individual Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Boerlijst, M.C.


    (1) The aim of this paper is to estimate the shape of the curve relating first year survival to nestling weight in individual great tits (Parus major) and to study the causality of this relationship. (2) Data were collected in a mainland and an island population. Nestlings were weighed and sexed in

  14. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.


    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  15. Aluminized fiberglass insulation conforms to curved surfaces (United States)


    Layers of fiber glass with outer reflective films of vacuum-deposited aluminum or other reflective metal, provide thermal insulation which conforms to curved surfaces. This insulation has good potential for cryogenic systems.

  16. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  17. Modeling Type IIn Supernova Light Curves (United States)

    De La Rosa, Janie; Roming, Peter; Fryer, Chris


    We present near-by Type IIn supernovae observed with Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Based on the diversity of optical light curve properties, this Type II subclass is commonly referred to as heterogeneous. At the time of discovery, our IIn sample is ~ 2 magnitudes brighter at ultraviolet wavelengths than at optical wavelengths, and ultraviolet brightness decays faster than the optical brightness. We use a semi-analytical supernova (SN) model to better understand our IIn observations, and focus on matching specific observed light curves features, i.e peak luminosity and decay rate. The SN models are used to study the effects of initial SN conditions on early light curves, and to show the extent of the "uniqueness" problem in SN light curves. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from members of the Swift UVOT team, the NASA astrophysics archival data analysis program, and the NASA Swift guest investigator program.

  18. Projective curves, hyperplane sections and associated webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Ballico


    Full Text Available An integral and non-degenerate curve $C\\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ is said to be ordinary (Gruson, Hantout and Lehmann if if the general hyperplane section $H\\cap C$ of $H$ is of maximal rank in $H$. Let $g'(r,d$ be the maximal integer such that for every $g\\in \\{0,\\dots ,g'(r,d\\}$ there is a smooth ordinary curve $C\\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ with degree $d$ and genus $g$. Here we discuss the relevance of old papers to get a lower bound for $g'(r,d$. We prove that arithmetically Gorenstein curves $C \\subset \\mathbb {P}^r$ are ordinary only if either $r=2$ or $d =r+1$ and $\\omega _C \\cong \\mathcal {O}_C$. We prove that general low genus curves are ordinary.

  19. Quaternion orders, quadratic forms, and Shimura curves

    CERN Document Server

    Alsina, Montserrat


    Shimura curves are a far-reaching generalization of the classical modular curves. They lie at the crossroads of many areas, including complex analysis, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic geometry, algebra, and arithmetic. The text provides an introduction to the subject from a theoretic and algorithmic perspective. The main topics covered in it are Shimura curves defined over the rational number field, the construction of their fundamental domains, and the determination of their complex multiplication points. The study of complex multiplication points in Shimura curves leads to the study of families of binary quadratic forms with algebraic coefficients and to their classification by arithmetic Fuchsian groups. In this regard, the authors develop a theory full of new possibilities which parallels Gauss' theory on the classification of binary quadratic forms with integral coefficients by the action of the modular group. Each topic covered in the book begins with a theoretical discussion followed by carefully worked...

  20. KAIT Fermi AGN Light-Curve Reservoir (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page shows the light curves of a total of 163 AGNs that are monitored by KAIT with average cadence of 3 days. These are unfiltered observations; in...

  1. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.


    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  2. Uncovering the skewness news impact curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Petukhov, A.


    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2016), s. 746-771 ISSN 1479-8409 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : conditional skewness * news impact curve * stock returns Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.800, year: 2016

  3. Evolution of the extinction curves in galaxies


    Asano, Ryosuke S.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nozawa, Takaya


    We investigate the evolution of extinction curves in galaxies based on our evolution model of grain size distribution. In this model, we considered various processes: dust formation by SNe II and AGB stars, dust destruction by SN shocks in the ISM, metal accretion onto the surface of grains (referred to as grain growth), shattering and coagulation. We find that the extinction curve is flat in the earliest stage of galaxy evolution. As the galaxy is enriched with dust, shattering becomes effec...

  4. Harmonic algebraic curves and noncrossing partitions


    Martin, Jeremy; Savitt, David; Singer, Ted


    Motivated by Gauss's first proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, we study the topology of harmonic algebraic curves. By the maximum principle, a harmonic curve has no bounded components; its topology is determined by the combinatorial data of a noncrossing matching. Similarly, every complex polynomial gives rise to a related combinatorial object that we call a basketball, consisting of a pair of noncrossing matchings satisfying one additional constraint. We prove that every noncrossing...

  5. Gain Estimation of Doubly Curved Reflector Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Schejbal


    Full Text Available A simple formula of approximate gain estimation is verified for the doubly curved reflector antenna. Numerical simulations using physical optics and experimental results of the shaped-beam doubly curved reflector antenna are compared with the simple approximation of gain. That approximation could be very valuable for system engineers to accurately estimate antenna gain and coverage pattern and perform EMC calculations (estimations of interferences and susceptibilities even for the operation and out of operation frequency bands of shapedbeam antenna.

  6. Elucidation of non-parallel EIA curves


    François-Gérard, C.; Gérard, Paul; Rentier, Bernard


    Quantitative determinations by EIA can be only obtained by reverse regression when linear portions of sample and standard curves are parallel. However, analysis of complex biological fluids often yields sigmoid curves displaying lower slopes, thus invalidating any quantitative interpretation. We hypothesized that this phenomenon was due to a competition effect between the target (for example an antigen) and related molecules for the binding sites (for example a capture antibody) immobilized o...

  7. Mental Effort and Safety in Curved Approaches


    Entzinger, Jorg Onno; Uemura, Tsuneharu; Suzuki, Shinji


    Curved approach procedures are implemented around the world. Although typically flown by the autopilot, human pilots need the situational awareness and skills to take over control in rare-event cases to ensure flight safety. We try to understand the pilot’s cognitive models and differences in required (mental) effort between conventional straight-in approaches and curved approaches. We developed various methods to visualize pilots’ control efforts during manual flight, show their capabilities...

  8. Capability curve analysis of photovoltaic generation systems


    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol


    The present article assesses the study of the PV generator capability curves for use in large scale photovoltaic power plants (LS-PVPPs). For this purpose, the article focuses on three main aspects: (i) the modelling of the main components of the PV generator, (ii) the operational limits analysis of the PV array together with the inverter, and (iii) the capability curve analysis considering variable solar irradiance and temperature. To validate this study a PVPP of 1 MW is designed, modelled ...

  9. A new stellarator coil design tool using space curves (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart; Breslau, Joshua; Lazerson, Samuel; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi


    Finding easy-to-build coils has always been critical for stellarator design. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ``winding'' surface. Either a surface current potential is constructed using a Green's function; or a discrete set of filamentary coils lying on the winding surface is non-linearly optimized. The winding surface concept ensures that the coils are separated from the plasma surface; however, requiring the coils lie on a given winding surface may overly constrain the coil optimization process. In this work, we investigate whether a winding surface is required. Our starting point is to represent each discrete coil as an arbitrary closed curve embedded in 3D space. From the Fundamental Theorem for Curves, such curves are uniquely described by the curvature and torsion functions. Our representation does not need a winding surface and can allow coils to evolve arbitrarily. We have constructed different penalty functions, F, that incorporate both the `physics' and `engineering' constraints. The first and second derivatives of F with respect to the parameters describing the coils are constructed analytically and are exploited to enable fast optimization algorithms for finding minima. Illustrations of coils for W7X and other stellarators will be presented. China Scholarship Council.

  10. Pre-nebular Light Curves of SNe I (United States)

    Arnett, W. David; Fryer, Christopher; Matheson, Thomas


    We compare analytic predictions of supernova light curves with recent high-quality data from SN2011fe (Ia), KSN2011b (Ia), and the Palomar Transient Factory and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey (LSQ) (Ia). Because of the steady, fast cadence of observations, KSN2011b provides unique new information on SNe Ia: the smoothness of the light curve, which is consistent with significant large-scale mixing during the explosion, possibly due to 3D effects (e.g., Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities), and provides support for a slowly varying leakage (mean opacity). For a more complex light curve (SN2008D, SN Ib), we separate the luminosity due to multiple causes and indicate the possibility of a radioactive plume. The early rise in luminosity is shown to be affected by the opacity (leakage rate) for thermal and non-thermal radiation. A general derivation of Arnett’s rule again shows that it depends upon all processes heating the plasma, not just radioactive ones, so that SNe Ia will differ from SNe Ibc if the latter have multiple heating processes.

  11. Periodic Relativity: Deflection of Light, Acceleration, Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaveri V. H.


    Full Text Available Vectorial analysis relating to derivation of deflection of light is presented. Curvilinear acceleration is distinguished from the Newtonian polar conic acceleration. The dif- ference between the two is due to the curvature term. Lorentz invariant expression for acceleration is derived. A physical theory of rotation curves of galaxies based on second solution to Einstein’s field equation is presented. Theory is applied to Milky Way, M31, NGC3198 and Solar system. Modified Kepler’s third law yields correct orbital periods of stars in a galaxy. Deviation factor in the line element of t he theory happens to be the ratio of the Newtonian gravitational acceleration to th e measured acceleration of the star in the galaxy. Therefore this deviation factor can replace the MOND function.

  12. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves. (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G


    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5.

  13. Geometric invariant theory for polarized curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Gilberto; Melo, Margarida; Viviani, Filippo


    We investigate GIT quotients of polarized curves. More specifically, we study the GIT problem for the Hilbert and Chow schemes of curves of degree d and genus g in a projective space of dimension d-g, as d decreases with respect to g. We prove that the first three values of d at which the GIT quotients change are given by d=a(2g-2) where a=2, 3.5, 4. We show that, for a>4, L. Caporaso's results hold true for both Hilbert and Chow semistability. If 3.5curves. If 2curves. We also analyze in detail the critical values a=3.5 and a=4, where the Hilbert semistable locus is strictly smaller than the Chow semistable locus. As an application, we obtain three compactications of the universal Jacobian over the moduli space of stable curves, weakly-pseudo-stable curves and pseu...

  14. Using the Hypergeometric Model to analyze the buckling of drillstrings in curved boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, J.H.B. Jr. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Eustes, A.W. III [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Petroleum Engineering Dept.


    Current methodologies for analytically determining the onset of buckling of drillstrings within curved boreholes are limited. In this paper, the Hypergeometric Model is shown to be an effective model to determine drillstring buckling within curved boreholes. With the Hypergeometric Model, the analysis of drillstring buckling results in curves expressing the local buckling force versus the angle of inclination. The local buckling force alone, however, does not contain all the information required for a practical analysis. From the local buckling force curve, the positional buckling force is derived. The positional buckling force considers the distributed weight of the drillstring and the friction between the drillstring and the borehole wall. From this curve, the point of minimum resistance to buckling of the drillstring is determined. Using the local and positional buckling force curves, experimental results and simulations are presented. When multiple configurations exist (for example tapered drillstrings, tapered boreholes, multi-curved boreholes, or any combination of these), the analysis procedure uses superposition of two or more single configuration curves and a graphical algorithm. The Hypergeometric Model permits the optimization of the position of the crossing points (cross-over positioning, casing-shoe positioning, and change of curvature) to achieve extended reach with less risk and cost. The procedure for this model and examples are presented in this paper.

  15. A Levy HJM multiple-curve model with application to CVA computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crepey, Stephane; Grbac, Zorana; Ngor, Nathalie


    We consider the problem of valuation of interest rate derivatives in the post-crisis set-up. We develop a multiple-curve model, set in the HJM framework and driven by a Lévy process. We proceed with joint calibration to OTM swaptions and co-terminal ATM swaptions of different tenors, the calibrat......We consider the problem of valuation of interest rate derivatives in the post-crisis set-up. We develop a multiple-curve model, set in the HJM framework and driven by a Lévy process. We proceed with joint calibration to OTM swaptions and co-terminal ATM swaptions of different tenors...

  16. Stenting for curved lesions using a novel curved balloon: Preliminary experimental study. (United States)

    Tomita, Hideshi; Higaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Fujii, Takanari; Fujimoto, Kazuto


    Stenting may be a compelling approach to dilating curved lesions in congenital heart diseases. However, balloon-expandable stents, which are commonly used for congenital heart diseases, are usually deployed in a straight orientation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of stenting with a novel curved balloon considered to provide better conformability to the curved-angled lesion. In vitro experiments: A Palmaz Genesis(®) stent (Johnson & Johnson, Cordis Co, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) mounted on the Goku(®) curve (Tokai Medical Co. Nagoya, Japan) was dilated in vitro to observe directly the behavior of the stent and balloon assembly during expansion. Animal experiment: A short Express(®) Vascular SD (Boston Scientific Co, Marlborough, MA, USA) stent and a long Express(®) Vascular LD stent (Boston Scientific) mounted on the curved balloon were deployed in the curved vessel of a pig to observe the effect of stenting in vivo. In vitro experiments: Although the stent was dilated in a curved fashion, stent and balloon assembly also rotated conjointly during expansion of its curved portion. In the primary stenting of the short stent, the stent was dilated with rotation of the curved portion. The excised stent conformed to the curved vessel. As the long stent could not be negotiated across the mid-portion with the balloon in expansion when it started curving, the mid-portion of the stent failed to expand fully. Furthermore, the balloon, which became entangled with the stent strut, could not be retrieved even after complete deflation. This novel curved balloon catheter might be used for implantation of the short stent in a curved lesion; however, it should not be used for primary stenting of the long stent. Post-dilation to conform the stent to the angled vessel would be safer than primary stenting irrespective of stent length. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Alternative to Wave Mechanics on Curved Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R


    Geodesic motion in infinite spaces of constant negative curvature provides for the first time an example where a basically quantum mechanical quantity, a ground-state energy, is derived from Newtonian mechanics in a rigorous, non-semiclassical way. The ground state energy emerges as the Hausdorff dimension of a quasi-self-similar curve at infinity of three-dimensional hyperbolic space H in which our manifolds are embedded and where their universal covers are realized. This curve is just the locus of the limit set L(G) of the Kleinian group G of covering transformations, which determines the bounded trajectories in the manifold; all of them lie in the quotient C(L)/G, C(L) being the hyperbolic convex hull of L(G). The three-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds we construct can be visualized as thickened surfaces, topological products I x S, I a finite open interval, the fibers S compact Riemann surfaces. We give a short derivation of the Patterson formula connecting the ground-state energy with the Hausdorff dimen...

  18. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John


    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  19. Special Bertrand Curves in 4D Galilean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Öztekin


    Full Text Available The generalization of Bertrand curves in Galilean 4-space is introduced and the characterization of the generalized Bertrand curves is obtained. Furthermore, it is proved that no special curve is a classical Bertrand curve in Galilean 4-space such that the notion of classical Bertrand curve is definite only in three-dimensional spaces.

  20. A stochastic evolutionary model for survival dynamics (United States)

    Fenner, Trevor; Levene, Mark; Loizou, George


    The recent interest in human dynamics has led researchers to investigate the stochastic processes that explain human behaviour in different contexts. Here we propose a generative model to capture the essential dynamics of survival analysis, traditionally employed in clinical trials and reliability analysis in engineering. In our model, the only implicit assumption made is that the longer an actor has been in the system, the more likely it is to have failed. We derive a power-law distribution for the process and provide preliminary empirical evidence for the validity of the model from two well-known survival analysis data sets.

  1. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence. (United States)

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G


    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  2. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010 (United States)


    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  3. Critical Factors for Inducing Curved Somatosensory Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Nakano


    Full Text Available We are able to make a saccade toward a tactile stimuli to one hand, but trajectories of many saccades curved markedly when the arms were crossed (Groh & Sparks, 2006. However, it remains unknown why some curved and others did not. We therefore examined critical factors for inducing the curved somatosensory saccades. Participants made a saccade as soon as possible from a central fixation point toward a tactile stimulus delivered to one of the two hands, and switched between arms-crossed and arms-uncrossed postures every 6 trials. Trajectories were generally straight when the arms were uncrossed, but all participants made curved saccades when the arms were crossed (12–64%. We found that the probability of curved saccades depended critically on the onset latency: the probability was less than 5% when the latency was larger than 250 ms, but the probability increased up to 70–80% when the onset latency was 160 ms. This relationship was shared across participants. The results suggest that a touch in the arms-crossed posture was always mapped to the wrong hand in the initial phase up to 160 ms, and then remapped to the correct hand during the next 100 ms by some fundamental neural mechanisms shared across participants.

  4. Tuning curves, neuronal variability, and sensory coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Butts


    Full Text Available Tuning curves are widely used to characterize the responses of sensory neurons to external stimuli, but there is an ongoing debate as to their role in sensory processing. Commonly, it is assumed that a neuron's role is to encode the stimulus at the tuning curve peak, because high firing rates are the neuron's most distinct responses. In contrast, many theoretical and empirical studies have noted that nearby stimuli are most easily discriminated in high-slope regions of the tuning curve. Here, we demonstrate that both intuitions are correct, but that their relative importance depends on the experimental context and the level of variability in the neuronal response. Using three different information-based measures of encoding applied to experimentally measured sensory neurons, we show how the best-encoded stimulus can transition from high-slope to high-firing-rate regions of the tuning curve with increasing noise level. We further show that our results are consistent with recent experimental findings that correlate neuronal sensitivities with perception and behavior. This study illustrates the importance of the noise level in determining the encoding properties of sensory neurons and provides a unified framework for interpreting how the tuning curve and neuronal variability relate to the overall role of the neuron in sensory encoding.

  5. Comparison of power curve monitoring methods (United States)

    Cambron, Philippe; Masson, Christian; Tahan, Antoine; Torres, David; Pelletier, Francis


    Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM) of wind turbines (WT). In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.

  6. Comparison of power curve monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambron Philippe


    Full Text Available Performance monitoring is an important aspect of operating wind farms. This can be done through the power curve monitoring (PCM of wind turbines (WT. In the past years, important work has been conducted on PCM. Various methodologies have been proposed, each one with interesting results. However, it is difficult to compare these methods because they have been developed using their respective data sets. The objective of this actual work is to compare some of the proposed PCM methods using common data sets. The metric used to compare the PCM methods is the time needed to detect a change in the power curve. Two power curve models will be covered to establish the effect the model type has on the monitoring outcomes. Each model was tested with two control charts. Other methodologies and metrics proposed in the literature for power curve monitoring such as areas under the power curve and the use of statistical copulas have also been covered. Results demonstrate that model-based PCM methods are more reliable at the detecting a performance change than other methodologies and that the effectiveness of the control chart depends on the types of shift observed.

  7. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam


    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  8. Multiphasic growth curve analysis in mice. (United States)

    Koops, W J; Grossman, M; Michalska, E


    Growth curves of mean body weights were compared to those of individual weights when fitted to data of male and female mice using monophasic (logistic) and triphasic growth functions. Goodness-of-fit was determined by residual variances and Durbin-Watson statistics. These criteria suggest that the triphasic function, with smaller and less correlated residuals, describes the data better than the monophasic function. For the triphasic function, residual variances were higher when fitting individual weights than mean weights. Males had higher residual variances than females. Auto-correlation was negligible when fitting individual weights for males and for females. Parameters of the triphasic function were higher when fitting curves of individual weights than curves of mean weights; differences between curves within sex were small. Parameters were similar for males and females, especially in the first phase of growth. Half asymptotic weights for the second and third phases were higher for males than for females. From these results, it should be clear that using a multiphasic function to describe growth curves in mice provides greater insight for understanding the biology of growth.

  9. Galaxy rotation curves with lognormal density distribution (United States)

    Marr, John H.


    The lognormal distribution represents the probability of finding randomly distributed particles in a micro canonical ensemble with high entropy. To a first approximation, a modified form of this distribution with a truncated termination may represent an isolated galactic disc, and this disc density distribution model was therefore run to give the best fit to the observational rotation curves for 37 representative galaxies. The resultant curves closely matched the observational data for a wide range of velocity profiles and galaxy types with rising, flat or descending curves in agreement with Verheijen's classification of `R', `F' and `D' type curves, and the corresponding theoretical total disc masses could be fitted to a baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Nine of the galaxies were matched to galaxies with previously published masses, suggesting a mean excess dynamic disc mass of dex 0.61 ± 0.26 over the baryonic masses. Although questionable with regard to other measurements of the shape of disc galaxy gravitational potentials, this model can accommodate a scenario in which the gravitational mass distribution, as measured via the rotation curve, is confined to a thin plane without requiring a dark matter halo or the use of modified Newtonian dynamics.

  10. [Survival in renal transplant recipients in Colombia, 2008-2012]. (United States)

    Osorio-Arango, Karime; Beltrán-Durán, Mauricio; Arias-Murillo, Yazmín; Prieto, Franklyn; Robayo, Adriana


    The Red Nacional de Donación y Trasplantes of the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud reported that in 2014, 1,059 organ transplants were performed, of which 761 were kidney transplants, and 643 (84.5%) of these were from cadaveric organ donors. To describe the socio-demographic characteristics of patients who received renal transplants, as well as their outcomes in terms of survival. National kidney transplants were analyzed through an observational retrospective cohort study. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The survival curves by sex, age, type of donor, type of insurance, and time on the waiting list were compared utilizing the log rank hypothesis and a Cox regression. A total of 3,980 patients were included, of whom 338 died according to the Registry of Affiliates. The median follow-up time was 49 months, overall survival was 6.35 years (95% CI: 6.30 to 6.40), the one-year survival following transplantation was 97.2%, the three-year survival, 93.2%, and the five-year survival, 90.8%. The survival rate was higher in patients under 50 years of age, receptors of living donor transplants, and with less than six months on the waiting list. The results obtained serve as the basis for future studies with strict monitoring of survival among kidney transplant recipients in Colombia.

  11. Prognostic model for survival in patients with early stage cervical cancer. (United States)

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Schilthuis, Marten S; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P M; Buist, Marrije R


    In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer patients and to reconsider grounds for adjuvant treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to identify the prognostic weight of clinical and histological factors for disease-specific survival (DSS) in 710 consecutive patients who had surgery for early stage cervical cancer (FIGO [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics] stage IA2-IIA). Prognostic scores were derived by converting the regression coefficients for each prognostic marker and used in a score chart. The discriminative capacity was expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The 5-year DSS was 92%. Tumor diameter, histological type, lymph node metastasis, depth of stromal invasion, lymph vascular space invasion, and parametrial extension were independently associated with DSS and were included in a Cox regression model. This prognostic model, corrected for the 9% overfit shown by internal validation, showed a fair discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.73). The derived score chart predicting 5-year DSS showed a good discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.85). In patients with early stage cervical cancer, DSS can be predicted with a statistical model. Models, such as that presented here, should be used in clinical trials on the effects of adjuvant treatments in high-risk early cervical cancer patients, both to stratify and to include patients. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  12. Optimization In Searching Daily Rule Curve At Mosul Regulating Reservoir, North Iraq Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee


    Full Text Available To obtain optimal operating rules for storage reservoirs, large numbers of simulation and optimization models have been developed over the past several decades, which vary significantly in their mechanisms and applications. Rule curves are guidelines for long term reservoir operation. An efficient technique is required to find the optimal rule curves that can mitigate water shortage in long term operation. The investigation of developed Genetic Algorithm (GA technique, which is an optimization approach base on the mechanics of natural selection, derived from the theory of natural evolution, was carried out to through the application to predict the daily rule curve of  Mosul regulating reservoir in Iraq.  Record daily inflows, outflow, water level in the reservoir for 19 year (1986-1990 and (1994-2007 were used in the developed model for assessing the optimal reservoir operation. The objective function is set to minimize the annual sum of squared deviation from the desired downstream release and desired storage volume in the reservoir. The decision variables are releases, storage volume, water level and outlet (demand from the reservoir. The results of the GA model gave a good agreement during the comparison with the actual rule curve and the designed rating curve of the reservoir. The simulated result shows that GA-derived policies are promising and competitive and can be effectively used for daily reservoir operation in addition to the rational monthly operation and predicting also rating curve of reservoirs.

  13. Jackknife variance of the partial area under the empirical receiver operating characteristic curve. (United States)

    Bandos, Andriy I; Guo, Ben; Gur, David


    Receiver operating characteristic analysis provides an important methodology for assessing traditional (e.g., imaging technologies and clinical practices) and new (e.g., genomic studies, biomarker development) diagnostic problems. The area under the clinically/practically relevant part of the receiver operating characteristic curve (partial area or partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) is an important performance index summarizing diagnostic accuracy at multiple operating points (decision thresholds) that are relevant to actual clinical practice. A robust estimate of the partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve is provided by the area under the corresponding part of the empirical receiver operating characteristic curve. We derive a closed-form expression for the jackknife variance of the partial area under the empirical receiver operating characteristic curve. Using the derived analytical expression, we investigate the differences between the jackknife variance and a conventional variance estimator. The relative properties in finite samples are demonstrated in a simulation study. The developed formula enables an easy way to estimate the variance of the empirical partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, thereby substantially reducing the computation burden, and provides important insight into the structure of the variability. We demonstrate that when compared with the conventional approach, the jackknife variance has substantially smaller bias, and leads to a more appropriate type I error rate of the Wald-type test. The use of the jackknife variance is illustrated in the analysis of a data set from a diagnostic imaging study.

  14. Is there evidence for a surgeon learning curve for endothelial keratoplasty in Australia? (United States)

    Keane, Miriam C; Mills, Richard Ad; Coster, Douglas J; Williams, Keryn A


    Expected outcomes from endokeratoplasty may vary with surgeon experience. It was explored whether a surgeon learning curve exists for Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasties (manual or automated) performed in Australia. This is a prospective cohort study, with various clinical settings. There were 2139 recipients of 2615 endothelial grafts, registered by 85 surgeons between January 2006 and December 2013. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to examine longitudinal graft survival. Manual and automated Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasties were analysed together. Pearson chi-squared analyses were performed to examine differences amongst groups. Continuity correction was used for 2 × 2 tests, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 (two-sided). The main parameter measured was endothelial graft survival. Survival of the first 56 registered grafts was significantly poorer than survival of subsequent grafts (χ2  = 8.83, df = 1, P = 0.003), when data were combined for all surgeons. Surgeon workload influenced graft survival significantly (P < 0.001). This variable was retained in multivariate analysis designed to investigate independent factors influencing graft survival. Primary non-functioning grafts were significantly less likely to be reported for endokeratoplasties performed by surgeons with more than 56 registered grafts, compared with those registering 56 or fewer grafts (4.3% vs. 8.5%; χ2  = 18.38, df = 1, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that for less experienced or low-volume surgeons, longitudinal graft survival improved once 56 or more endokeratoplasties had been performed, indicative of a learning curve. The learning curve was less apparent for surgeons with 57 or more Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasties and/or Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasties registered during the 8-year study period. Different learning curves may be anticipated for these

  15. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels


    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal families of a given surface.The classification of minimal families of curves can be reduced to the classification of minimal families which cover weak Del Pezzo surfaces. We classify the minimal families of weak Del Pezzo surfaces and present a table with the number of minimal families of each weak Del Pezzo surface up to Weyl equivalence.As an application of this classification we generalize some results of Schicho. We classify algebraic surfaces that carry a family of conics. We determine the minimal lexicographic degree for the parametrization of a surface that carries at least 2 minimal families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.


    A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Mapping curved spacetimes into Dirac spinors. (United States)

    Sabín, Carlos


    We show how to transform a Dirac equation in a curved static spacetime into a Dirac equation in flat spacetime. In particular, we show that any solution of the free massless Dirac equation in a 1 + 1 dimensional flat spacetime can be transformed via a local phase transformation into a solution of the corresponding Dirac equation in a curved static background, where the spacetime metric is encoded into the phase. In this way, the existing quantum simulators of the Dirac equation can naturally incorporate curved static spacetimes. As a first example we use our technique to obtain solutions of the Dirac equation in a particular family of interesting spacetimes in 1 + 1 dimensions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravka Aljinović


    Full Text Available Yield curve represents a relationship between the rate of return and maturity of certain securities. A range of activities on the market is determined by the abovementioned relationship; therefore its significance is unquestionable. Besides that, its shape reflects the shape of the economy, i.e. it can predict recession. These are the reasons why it is very important to properly and accurately estimate the yield curve. There are various models evolved for its estimation; however the most used are parametric models: Nelson-Siegel model and Svensson model. In this paper the yield curves are estimated on Croatian financial market, based on weekly data in years 2011 and 2012 both with Nelson-Siegel and Svensson model, and the obtained results are compared.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki


    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  20. From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim


    The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus

  1. Charged particles constrained to a curved surface

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas


    We study the motion of charged particles constrained to arbitrary two-dimensional curved surfaces but interacting in three-dimensional space via the Coulomb potential. To speed-up the interaction calculations, we use the parallel compute capability of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of todays graphics boards. The particles and the curved surfaces are shown using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL). The paper is intended to give graduate students, who have basic experiences with electrostatics and differential geometry, a deeper understanding in charged particle interactions and a short introduction how to handle a many particle system using parallel computing on a single home computer

  2. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith


    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  3. Conformal metamaterial absorber for curved surface. (United States)

    Jang, Youngsoo; Yoo, Minyeong; Lim, Sungjoon


    In this paper, three different unit cells are designed on the basis split-ring-cross resonators, and each unit cell has an absorption rate greater than 90% at incident angles of 0°, 30°, and 45°, respectively. They are non-periodically placed in three different zones on the curved surface. Therefore, the proposed conformal metamaterial absorber can achieve a high absorption rate. The performance of the proposed absorber is compared with that of a metallic curved surface and a conformal metamaterial absorber with the same unit cells.

  4. Space-filling curves for image compression (United States)

    Moghaddam, Baback; Hintz, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Clayton V.


    This paper outlines the use of space-filling curves in transform image compression. Specifically, a space-filling Hilbert curve is used for mapping the two-dimensional image into a suitable one-dimensional representation. Compared to simple raster-scans, this topological mapping is spatially non-disruptive and tends to preserve local pixel correlations in the original two-dimensional image. Standard transform coefficient reduction and coding techniques can then be applied to the one-dimensional representation for the purposes of data compression. The advantages of the one-dimensional coding, in terms of computational cost and subjective image quality, are also discussed.

  5. More Unusual Light Curves from Kepler (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Twenty-three new objects have been added to the growing collection of stars observed to have unusual dips in their light curves. A recent study examines these stars and the potential causes of their strange behavior.An Influx of DataThe primary Kepler mission provided light curves for over 100,000 stars, and its continuation K2 is observing another 20,000 stars every three months. As we enter an era where these enormous photometric data sets become commonplace Gaia will obtain photometry for millions of stars, and LSST billions its crucial that we understand the different categories of variability observed in these stars.The authors find three different types of light curves among their 23 unusual stars. Scallop-shell curves (top) show many undulations; persistent flux-dip class curves (middle) have discrete triangularly shaped flux dips; transient, narrow dip class curves (bottom) have only one dip that is variable in depth. The authors speculate a common cause for the scallop-shell and persistent flux-dip stars, and a different cause for the transient flux-dip stars. [Stauffer et al. 2017]After filtering out the stars with planets, those in binary systems, those with circumstellar disks, and those with starspots, a number of oddities remain: a menagerie of stars with periodic variability that cant be accounted for in these categories. Some of these stars are now famous (for instance, Boyajians star); some are lesser known. But by continuing to build up this sample of stars with unusual light curves, we have a better chance of understanding the sources of variability.Building the MenagerieTo this end, a team of scientists led by John Stauffer (Spitzer Science Center at Caltech) has recently hunted for more additions to this sample in the K2 data set. In particular, they searched through the light curves from stars in the Oph and Upper Scorpius star-forming region a data set that makes up the largest collection of high-quality light curves for low-mass, pre

  6. Generalized Timelike Mannheim Curves in Minkowski Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akyig~it


    Full Text Available We give the definition of generalized timelike Mannheim curve in Minkowski space-time . The necessary and sufficient conditions for the generalized timelike Mannheim curve are obtained. We show some characterizations of generalized Mannheim curve.

  7. octene derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrasonication; trimethylsilyloxy-derivatives; bicyclo[2.2.2]octene; Diels–Alder reaction; crystal structure; C–H. . . O and π...π interactions. 1. ... of silyl- derivatives were studied.8 The structural studies indicated a self-assembly ..... Technology (DST), New Delhi, India for the financial assistance. References. 1. Zhao F, Zhang ...

  8. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan


    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...

  9. Estimating reaction rate constants: comparison between traditional curve fitting and curve resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.


    A traditional curve fitting (TCF) algorithm is compared with a classical curve resolution (CCR) approach for estimating reaction rate constants from spectral data obtained in time of a chemical reaction. In the TCF algorithm, reaction rate constants an estimated from the absorbance versus time data

  10. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Curved Surfaces: Buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygula, Andrzej [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)


    The discovery of a new allotropic form of elemental carbon – the fullerenes – and subsequently other novel forms of elemental carbon with pyramidalized surfaces, most notably single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, introduced a novel structural motif to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with nonplanar surfaces. Our research program supported by BES DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15514 has dealt with the synthesis, structural studies, and chemistry of the novel curved-surface PAHs with carbon frameworks structurally related to fullerenes. They are referred to as “buckybowls”. We prepared several new buckybowls and, even more importantly, developed the efficient, gram-scale synthetic methodologies for the preparation of small buckybowls, most notably corannulene (C20H10) and its derivatives. In addition, the employment of the corannulene-based synthons previously developed in our laboratory led to a number of highly nonplanar molecular architectures with two or more corannulene subunits with a potential for the applications as novel materials in separation sciences, nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and catalysis. In collaboration with Professor Angelici (Iowa State) we prepared and characterized several transition metal complexes of corannulene, providing the first structural characterization of η6 metal complexes of buckybowls by a single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to the definitive structural characterization of the complexes we demonstrated that the (η6-C6Me6)Ru2+ unit in some relatively stable complexes activate the corannulene ligand to react with proper nucleophiles suggesting that such complexex may be used in catalysis. (Section C). We have explored the efficiency of the dispersion-based interactions of curved-surface conjugated carbon networks by high-level computational models. We showed that the curvature of such networks does not reduce the van der Waals attractions as compared to the planar systems of similar size. We than

  11. Water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos


    .... The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation...

  12. On the Unique Solution of Planet and Star Parameters from an Extrasolar Planet Transit Light Curve (United States)

    Seager, S.; Mallén-Ornelas, G.

    A unique analytical solution of planet and star parameters can be derived from an extrasolar planet transit light curve under a number of assumptions. This analytical solution can be used to choose the best planet transit candidates for radial velocity follow-up measurements. In practice, high photometric precision (Ornelas (2003) for full details.

  13. Accuracy of progress ratios determined from experience curves: the case of photovoltaic technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Junginger, H.M.; de Moor, H.H.C.; Schaeffer, G.J.


    Learning curves are extensively used in policy and scenario studies. Progress ratios (PRs) are derived from historical data and are used for forecasting cost development of many technologies, including photovoltaics (PV). Forecasts are highly sensitive to uncertainties in the PR. A PR usually is

  14. Potential errors when fitting experience curves by means of spreadsheet software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258


    Progress ratios (PRs) are widely used in forecasting development of many technologies; they are derived from historical data represented in experience curves. Fitting the double logarithmic graphs is easily done with spreadsheet software like Microsoft Excel, by adding a trend line to the graph.

  15. Interactive navigation of segmented MR angiograms using simultaneous curved planar and volume visualizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Suinesiaputra, A.; Reiber, J.H.C.

    Purpose Interactive visualization is required to inspect and monitor the automatic segmentation of vessels derived from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA). A dual-view visualization scheme consisting of curved planar reformation (CPR) and direct volume rendering (DVR) was

  16. Chilling curves for Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) embryos stored at -8°C. (United States)

    Lopes, Taís da S; Streit, Danilo Pedro; Fornari, Darci Carlos; de Oliveira, Diego; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; Romagosa, Elizabeth


    The present study investigates the effect of different slow chilling curves on the storage of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) embryos submitted to chilling at -8°C. Embryos at the blastopore closure stage were divided into two groups: G1 - embryos exposed to cryoprotectant solution containing methanol (10%) and sucrose (0.5 M), treated as follows: (T1) taken directly from room temperature to the refrigerator without being submitted to the curve; (T2) chilling curve of 0.5°C/min; and (T3) chilling curve of 1°C/min; and G2 - the cryoprotectant solution alone was submitted to these same temperatures, receiving the embryos only after temperature had decreased, corresponding to treatments T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Treatments were kept at -8°C for a period of 6 h. Embryo development was evaluated for each treatment, with six replicates in an entirely randomized design. Survival among embryos not submitted to refrigeration was 94.3 ± 8.05%. Percentage of total larvae (TL) and addled eggs (AE) did not differ statistically between the groups, although percentage of swimming larvae (SL) exhibited higher values in G1 for the 1°C/min curve. Furthermore, when comparing the three chilling curves, a decrease of 1°C/min resulted in the highest TL percentage (90.85%), followed by the 0.5°C/min curve (78.52%). Thus, the use of 1°C/min chilling curves is recommended for P. mesopotamicus embryos stored for 6 h at -8°C.

  17. Discrete groups, Mumford curves and Theta functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der


    A discrete group Γ given over some complete non archimedean valued field defines a curve X. The theta functions for Γ provide an analytic construction for the Jacobian variety of X. A theory of theta functions is developed with the help of currents on trees and graphs and the cohomology for Γ. In

  18. Growth curves for girls with Turner syndrome. (United States)

    Bertapelli, Fabio; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Antonio, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro; Barbeta, Camila Justino de Oliveira; de Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente; Guerra-Junior, Gil


    The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273) girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915). Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

  19. Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bertapelli


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273 girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915. Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

  20. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves. B Barua J Das. General Article Volume 20 ... Author Affiliations. B Barua1 J Das1. Indian Society of Nonlinear Analysts (INSA), 248 B, B B Chatterjee Road, Kolkata 700 042, W B, India ...

  1. Developing laminar flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.


    As an intermediate step between earlier investigations on fully developed laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectancular wet cross-section and the mathematical modeling of turbulent flow in river bends, a mathematical model of developing laminar flow in such channels is investigated. The

  2. Focus on Physics: The Delightful Catenary Curve (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.


    When teaching how "tension" and "compression" relate to geometrical structures such as bridges, arches, and domes, The author shows a picture of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, completed in the 14th century, and presents a lesson on using the curve called a catenary to explain how he teaches about tension and compression…

  3. Simulation of experimental breakthrough curves using multiprocess ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we have studied the behaviour of reactive solute trans- port through stratified porous medium under the influence of multi-process non- equilibrium transport model. Various experiments were carried out in the laboratory and the experimental breakthrough curves were observed at spatially placed sam ...

  4. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Describing lactation in mammals using a lactation curve aims to provide a concise summary of the pattern of milk yield and valuable information about the biological and economic efficiency of the animal or herd under consideration. A total of 106 581 monthly test-day milk records collected from 12 677 Tehran.

  5. The environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to analyze evidence of an environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution in the developing and developed countries. The study was conducted based on a panel data set of 54 countries – that were categorized into six groups of “developed countries”, “developing countries”, “developed ...

  6. Phonon dispersion curves of CsCN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the ...

  7. Tropical count of curves on abelian varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, Lars Halvard; Rose, Simon Charles Florian


    We investigate the problem of counting tropical genus g curves ing-dimensional tropical abelian varieties. We do this by studyingmaps from principally polarized tropical abelian varieties into afixed abelian variety. For g = 2, 3, we prove that the tropical countmatches the count provided in [Göt98...

  8. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assirati, J.L.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  9. Remote sensing used for power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe


    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviat...

  10. Principal G-bundles on nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    If Y is reducible these notions depend on parameters a = (a1,...,aI ). The study of G-bundles on Y is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles [U1] to generalized parabolic principal G-bundles (called GPGs in short) on the curve C and using the correspondence between them and principal ...

  11. Measuring Systematic Error with Curve Fits (United States)

    Rupright, Mark E.


    Systematic errors are often unavoidable in the introductory physics laboratory. As has been demonstrated in many papers in this journal, such errors can present a fundamental problem for data analysis, particularly when comparing the data to a given model. In this paper I give three examples in which my students use popular curve-fitting software…

  12. Affine LIBOR Models with Multiple Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grbac, Zorana; Papapantoleon, Antonis; Schoenmakers, John


    We introduce a multiple curve framework that combines tractable dynamics and semianalytic pricing formulas with positive interest rates and basis spreads. Negative rates and positive spreads can also be accommodated in this framework. The dynamics of overnight indexed swap and LIBOR rates...

  13. ATLAS detector records its first curved muon

    CERN Multimedia


    The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet. This was an important test of the chambers in their final configurations, and marked the first triggering and measurement of curved cosmic ray muons in ATLAS.

  14. Characteristic Classes for Curves of Genus One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taelman, L.


    We compute the cohomology of the stackM1 over C with coefficients in Z[12 ], and in low degrees with coefficients in Z. Cohomology classes onM1 give rise to characteristic classes, cohomological invariants of families of curves of genus one. We prove a number of vanishing results for those

  15. The characteristic numbers of quartic plane curves


    Vakil, Ravi


    The characteristic numbers of smooth plane quartics are computed using intersection theory on a component of the moduli space of stable maps. This completes the verification of Zeuthen's prediction of characteristic numbers of smooth plane curves. A short sketch of a computation of the characteristic numbers of plane cubics is also given as an illustration.

  16. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter


    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  17. Designing the Alluvial Riverbeds in Curved Paths (United States)

    Macura, Viliam; Škrinár, Andrej; Štefunková, Zuzana; Muchová, Zlatica; Majorošová, Martina


    The paper presents the method of determining the shape of the riverbed in curves of the watercourse, which is based on the method of Ikeda (1975) developed for a slightly curved path in sandy riverbed. Regulated rivers have essentially slightly and smoothly curved paths; therefore, this methodology provides the appropriate basis for river restoration. Based on the research in the experimental reach of the Holeška Brook and several alluvial mountain streams the methodology was adjusted. The method also takes into account other important characteristics of bottom material - the shape and orientation of the particles, settling velocity and drag coefficients. Thus, the method is mainly meant for the natural sand-gravel material, which is heterogeneous and the particle shape of the bottom material is very different from spherical. The calculation of the river channel in the curved path provides the basis for the design of optimal habitat, but also for the design of foundations of armouring of the bankside of the channel. The input data is adapted to the conditions of design practice.

  18. Meromorphic connections on vector bundles over curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Descartes,. 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France. *Correspond author. E-mail:; MS received 17 July 2013; revised 20 October 2013. Abstract. We give a criterion for filtered vector bundles over curves to admit a ...

  19. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR


    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  20. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  1. Is the Water Heating Curve as Described? (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Oliva, A. I.


    We analysed the heating curve of water which is described in textbooks. An experiment combined with some simple heat transfer calculations is discussed. The theoretical behaviour can be altered by changing the conditions under which the experiment is modelled. By identifying and controlling the different parameters involved during the heating…

  2. Radiation survival of food pathogens in complex media. (United States)

    Dyer, J K; Anderson, A W; Dutiyabodhi, P


    When 15 bacterial species representing genera associated with food-borne diseases were irradiated individually, all except Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis showed typical linear dose-survival curves in Hartsell's broth. The minimal lethal dose (MLD) for the organisms tested ranged from 3.0 x 10(5) to 6.0 x 10(5) rad. Salmonella paratyphi B, S. wichita, S. typhi, E. coli, and S. faecalis were found to be the least sensitive to radiation. In commercially canned crabmeat the survival curves of S. typhi, S. paratyphi B, and S. wichita exhibited to varying degrees an initial linear death decline with increasing radiation doses, followed by a distinct tailing effect caused by survival of low numbers at the higher doses. The above species of Salmonella were further individually subjected to gamma-radiation in various dilutions of crabmeat. The "tailing effect" gradually disappeared, with the dose-survival curve tending to become linear as the concentration of the crabmeat decreased.

  3. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho


    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Freeman Jackson1, Frances Smith1, Frank J Overdyk21Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USAPurpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival.Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival.Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216. Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77 were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01 or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05.Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events.Keywords: code blue, survival, opioids, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, patient safety

  4. Visualizing Nonlinear Narratives with Story Curves. (United States)

    Kim, Nam Wook; Bach, Benjamin; Im, Hyejin; Schriber, Sasha; Gross, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter


    In this paper, we present story curves, a visualization technique for exploring and communicating nonlinear narratives in movies. A nonlinear narrative is a storytelling device that portrays events of a story out of chronological order, e.g., in reverse order or going back and forth between past and future events. Many acclaimed movies employ unique narrative patterns which in turn have inspired other movies and contributed to the broader analysis of narrative patterns in movies. However, understanding and communicating nonlinear narratives is a difficult task due to complex temporal disruptions in the order of events as well as no explicit records specifying the actual temporal order of the underlying story. Story curves visualize the nonlinear narrative of a movie by showing the order in which events are told in the movie and comparing them to their actual chronological order, resulting in possibly meandering visual patterns in the curve. We also present Story Explorer, an interactive tool that visualizes a story curve together with complementary information such as characters and settings. Story Explorer further provides a script curation interface that allows users to specify the chronological order of events in movies. We used Story Explorer to analyze 10 popular nonlinear movies and describe the spectrum of narrative patterns that we discovered, including some novel patterns not previously described in the literature. Feedback from experts highlights potential use cases in screenplay writing and analysis, education and film production. A controlled user study shows that users with no expertise are able to understand visual patterns of nonlinear narratives using story curves.

  5. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi


    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kaneva


    Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.

  7. Proof-Carrying Survivability (United States)


    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  8. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk......." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...

  9. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  10. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren


    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  11. Education for Survival (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard


    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  12. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben


    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  13. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.


    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  14. Survival After Retirement. (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.


    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  15. A New Path Generation Algorithm Based on Accurate NURBS Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawssen Jalel


    Full Text Available The process of finding an optimum, smooth and feasible global path for mobile robot navigation usually involves determining the shortest polyline path, which will be subsequently smoothed to satisfy the requirements. Within this context, this paper deals with a novel roadmap algorithm for generating an optimal path in terms of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS curves. The generated path is well constrained within the curvature limit by exploiting the influence of the weight parameter of NURBS and/or the control points' locations. The novelty of this paper lies in the fact that NURBS curves are not used only as a means of smoothing, but they are also involved in meeting the system's constraints via a suitable parameterization of the weights and locations of control points. The accurate parameterization of weights allows for a greater benefit to be derived from the influence and geometrical effect of this factor, which has not been well investigated in previous works. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through extensive MATLAB computer simulations.

  16. Flare Characteristics from X-ray Light Curves (United States)

    Gryciuk, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Podgorski, P.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, B.; Mrozek, T.


    A new methodology is given to determine basic parameters of flares from their X-ray light curves. Algorithms are developed from the analysis of small X-ray flares occurring during the deep solar minimum of 2009, between Solar Cycles 23 and 24, observed by the Polish Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) on the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon (CORONAS- Photon) spacecraft. One is a semi-automatic flare detection procedure that gives start, peak, and end times for single ("elementary") flare events under the assumption that the light curve is a simple convolution of a Gaussian and exponential decay functions. More complex flares with multiple peaks can generally be described by a sum of such elementary flares. Flare time profiles in the two energy ranges of SphinX (1.16 - 1.51 keV, 1.51 - 15 keV) are used to derive temperature and emission measure as a function of time during each flare. The result is a comprehensive catalogue - the SphinX Flare Catalogue - which contains 1600 flares or flare-like events and is made available for general use. The methods described here can be applied to observations made by Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and other broad-band spectrometers.

  17. [New population curves in spanish extremely preterm neonates]. (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; García-Alix Pérez, A; Figueras Aloy, J; Saavedra Santana, P


    Most anthropometric reference data for extremely preterm infants used in Spain are outdated and based on non-Spanish populations, or are derived from small hospital-based samples that failed to include neonates of borderline viability. To develop gender-specific, population-based curves for birth weight, length, and head circumference in extremely preterm Caucasian infants, using a large contemporary sample size of Spanish singletons. Anthropometric data from neonates ≤ 28 weeks of gestational age were collected between January 2002 and December 2010 using the Spanish database SEN1500. Gestational age was estimated according to obstetric data (early pregnancy ultrasound). The data were analyzed with the SPSS.20 package, and centile tables were created for males and females using the Cole and Green LMS method. This study presents the first population-based growth curves for extremely preterm infants, including those of borderline viability, in Spain. A sexual dimorphism is evident for all of the studied parameters, starting at early gestation. These new gender-specific and population-based data could be useful for the improvement of growth assessments of extremely preterm infants in our country, for the development of epidemiological studies, for the evaluation of temporal trends, and for clinical or public health interventions seeking to optimize fetal growth. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical modeling of PEM fuel cell i-V curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji, Shaker [College of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)


    The performance of a fuel cell is characterized by its i-V curve. In this study, the performance of a bench scale fuel cell stack, run on hydrogen/air, is measured experimentally for different air flow rates and temperatures. The experimental data, obtained from the 40-W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), are used in estimating the parameters of a completely analytical model that describes the i-V curve. The analytical model consists of the three fundamental losses experienced by a fuel cell, namely: activation, ohmic, and concentration losses. The current loss is also considered in the model. While the Tafel constants, ohmic resistance, and the concentration loss constant are estimated through regression, the limiting current density and the current loss are obtained through measurements. The effect of temperature on the fuel cell performance, exchange current density, and current loss is also investigated. Both the exchange current density and the current loss are plotted against temperature on an Arrhenius-like plot and the related parameters are estimated. The theoretical equations derived in the literature, which model fuel cell performance, are found to reasonably fit the obtained experimental data. (author)

  19. Part 5: Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and Area under the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari


    Full Text Available Multiple diagnostic tools are used by emergency physicians,every day. In addition, new tools are evaluated to obtainmore accurate methods and reduce time or cost of conventionalones. In the previous parts of this educationalseries, we described diagnostic performance characteristicsof diagnostic tests including sensitivity, specificity, positiveand negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Thereceiver operating characteristics (ROC curve is a graphicalpresentation of screening characteristics. ROC curve is usedto determine the best cutoff point and compare two or moretests or observers by measuring the area under the curve(AUC. In this part of our educational series, we explain ROCcurve and two methods to determine the best cutoff value.

  20. A computational approach to the twin paradox in curved spacetime (United States)

    Fung, Kenneth K. H.; Clark, Hamish A.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Wu, Xiaofeng


    Despite being a major component in the teaching of special relativity, the twin ‘paradox’ is generally not examined in courses on general relativity. Due to the complexity of analytical solutions to the problem, the paradox is often neglected entirely, and students are left with an incomplete understanding of the relativistic behaviour of time. This article outlines a project, undertaken by undergraduate physics students at the University of Sydney, in which a novel computational method was derived in order to predict the time experienced by a twin following a number of paths between two given spacetime coordinates. By utilising this method, it is possible to make clear to students that following a geodesic in curved spacetime does not always result in the greatest experienced proper time.

  1. A computational approach to the twin paradox in curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Kenneth K H; Lewis, Geraint F; Wu, Xiaofeng


    Despite being a major component in the teaching of special relativity, the twin `paradox' is generally not examined in courses on general relativity. Due to the complexity of analytical solutions to the problem, the paradox is often neglected entirely, and students are left with an incomplete understanding of the relativistic behaviour of time. This article outlines a project, undertaken by undergraduate physics students at the University of Sydney, in which a novel computational method was derived in order to predict the time experienced by a twin following a number of paths between two given spacetime coordinates. By utilising this method, it is possible to make clear to students that following a geodesic in curved spacetime does not always result in the greatest experienced proper time.

  2. Momentum-subtraction renormalization techniques in curved space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.


    Momentum-subtraction techniques, specifically BPHZ and Zimmermann's Normal Product algorithm, are introduced as useful tools in the study of quantum field theories in the presence of background fields. In a model of a self-interacting massive scalar field, conformally coupled to a general asymptotically-flat curved space-time with a trivial topology, momentum-subtractions are shown to respect invariance under general coordinate transformations. As an illustration, general expressions for the trace anomalies are derived, and checked by explicit evaluation of the purely gravitational contributions in the free field theory limit. Furthermore, the trace of the renormalized energy-momentum tensor is shown to vanish at the Gell-Mann Low eigenvalue as it should.

  3. Evaluation of the water retention curve of Abidjan Quaternary aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Results: The water retention curve is difficult to measure in situ on large sites like this aquifer. Kovac's modified model to predict the water retention curve is tested. Predicted curves are compared with in situ measurements points. The results show that, overall, the model predicts well the water retention curves.

  4. Does the Budyko curve reflect a maximum-power state of hydrological systems? A backward analysis (United States)

    Westhoff, M.; Zehe, E.; Archambeau, P.; Dewals, B.


    Almost all catchments plot within a small envelope around the Budyko curve. This apparent behaviour suggests that organizing principles may play a role in the evolution of catchments. In this paper we applied the thermodynamic principle of maximum power as the organizing principle. In a top-down approach we derived mathematical formulations of the relation between relative wetness and gradients driving run-off and evaporation for a simple one-box model. We did this in an inverse manner such that, when the conductances are optimized with the maximum-power principle, the steady-state behaviour of the model leads exactly to a point on the asymptotes of the Budyko curve. Subsequently, we added dynamics in forcing and actual evaporation, causing the Budyko curve to deviate from the asymptotes. Despite the simplicity of the model, catchment observations compare reasonably well with the Budyko curves subject to observed dynamics in rainfall and actual evaporation. Thus by constraining the model that has been optimized with the maximum-power principle with the asymptotes of the Budyko curve, we were able to derive more realistic values of the aridity and evaporation index without any parameter calibration. Future work should focus on better representing the boundary conditions of real catchments and eventually adding more complexity to the model.

  5. Soil water retention curves for the major soil types of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Buitenwerf


    Full Text Available Soil water potential is crucial to plant transpiration and thus to carbon cycling and biosphere–atmosphere interactions, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Volumetric and gravimetric water contents are easy and cheap to measure in the field, but can be a poor proxy of plant-available water. Soil water content can be transformed to water potential using soil moisture retention curves. We provide empirically derived soil moisture retention curves for seven soil types in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Site-specific curves produced excellent estimates of soil water potential from soil water content values. Curves from soils derived from the same geological substrate were similar, potentially allowing for the use of one curve for basalt soils and another for granite soils. It is anticipated that this dataset will help hydrologists and ecophysiologists understand water dynamics, carbon cycling and biosphere–atmosphere interactions under current and changing climatic conditions in the region.

  6. Learning curve in fenestrated and branched grafting. (United States)

    Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Mastracci, Tara M


    In surgical practice new technologies and techniques require a period of adjustment before the main operator becomes familiar with the new procedure, improving the results and the performances. This period, called learning curve, could be applied into the endovascular aortic treatment. The CUSUM technique had been used to define the learning curve in new procedures and through the literature some studies applied it to demonstrate the improving outcomes in complex endovascular aneurysm repair during increasing experience time. However, in the complex endovascular field this period included also other factors besides the proficiency in the deployment, as the improvement in patient selection and device design, making difficult to determine the level of experience needed to become an expert.

  7. A Functional Equation Originating from Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeong Bae


    Full Text Available We obtain the general solution and the stability of the functional equation f(x+y+z,u+v+w+f(x+y−z,u+v+w+2f(x,u−w+2f(y,v−w=f(x+y,u+w+f(x+y,v+w+f(x+z,u+w+f(x−z,u+v−w+f(y+z,v+w+f(y−z,u+v−w. The function f(x,y=x3+ax+b−y2 having level curves as elliptic curves is a solution of the above functional equation.

  8. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, D.M.; Peskin, C.S.


    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood with two curved leaflets is described. Each of the leaflets is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance. 26 figures.

  9. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, David M. (185 Hillside Ave., Chatham, NJ 07928); Peskin, Charles S. (186 Harrard Dr., Hartsdale, NY 10530)


    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood therethrough with two curved leaflets each of which is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance.

  10. Geometry of curves and surfaces with Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Rovenski, Vladimir


    This concise text on geometry with computer modeling presents some elementary methods for analytical modeling and visualization of curves and surfaces. The author systematically examines such powerful tools as 2-D and 3-D animation of geometric images, transformations, shadows, and colors, and then further studies more complex problems in differential geometry. Well-illustrated with more than 350 figures---reproducible using Maple programs in the book---the work is devoted to three main areas: curves, surfaces, and polyhedra. Pedagogical benefits can be found in the large number of Maple programs, some of which are analogous to C++ programs, including those for splines and fractals. To avoid tedious typing, readers will be able to download many of the programs from the Birkhauser web site. Aimed at a broad audience of students, instructors of mathematics, computer scientists, and engineers who have knowledge of analytical geometry, i.e., method of coordinates, this text will be an excellent classroom resource...

  11. Point- and curve-based geometric conflation

    KAUST Repository

    López-Vázquez, C.


    Geometric conflation is the process undertaken to modify the coordinates of features in dataset A in order to match corresponding ones in dataset B. The overwhelming majority of the literature considers the use of points as features to define the transformation. In this article we present a procedure to consider one-dimensional curves also, which are commonly available as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tracks, routes, coastlines, and so on, in order to define the estimate of the displacements to be applied to each object in A. The procedure involves three steps, including the partial matching of corresponding curves, the computation of some analytical expression, and the addition of a correction term in order to satisfy basic cartographic rules. A numerical example is presented. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Inferring cardiac phase response curve in vivo (United States)

    Pikovsky, Arkady; Kralemann, Bjoern; Fruehwirth, Matthias; Rosenblum, Michael; Kenner, Thomas; Schaefer, Jochen; Moser, Maximilian


    Characterizing properties of biological oscillators with phase response cirves (PRC) is one of main theoretical tools in neuroscience, cardio-respiratory physiology, and chronobiology. We present a technique that allows the extraction of the PRC from a non-invasive observation of a system consisting of two interacting oscillators, in this case heartbeat and respiration, in its natural environment and under free-running conditions. We use this method to obtain the phase coupling functions describing cardio-respiratory interactions and the phase response curve of 17 healthy humans. We show at which phase the cardiac beat is susceptible to respiratory drive and extract the respiratory-related component of heart rate variability. This non-invasive method of bivariate data analysis for the determination of phase response curves of coupled oscillators may find application in other biological and physical systems.

  13. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda


    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  14. Delamination Analysis Of Composite Curved Bars (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.


    Classical anisotropic elasticity theory used to construct "multilayer" composite semicircular curved bar subjected to end forces and end moments. Radial location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress calculated and compared with results obtained from anisotropic continuum theory and from finite element method. Multilayer theory gave more accurate predictions of location and intensity of open-mode delamination stress. Currently being applied to predict open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horse-shoe-shaped composite test coupons.

  15. Measuring Systematic Error with Curve Fits (United States)

    Rupright, Mark E.


    Systematic errors are often unavoidable in the introductory physics laboratory. As has been demonstrated in many papers in this journal, such errors can present a fundamental problem for data analysis, particularly when comparing the data to a given model.1-3 In this paper I give three examples in which my students use popular curve-fitting software and adjust the theoretical model to account for, and even exploit, the presence of systematic errors in measured data.

  16. Bezier Curve Modeling for Neutrosophic Data Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Tas


    Full Text Available Neutrosophic set concept is defined with membership, non-membership and indeterminacy degrees. This concept is the solution and representation of the problems with various fields. In this paper, a geometric model is introduced for Neutrosophic data problem for the first time. This model is based on neutrosophic sets and neutrosophic relations. Neutrosophic control points are defined according to these points, resulting in neutrosophic Bezier curves.

  17. Random Matrix Theory and Elliptic Curves (United States)


    lecture on random matrix models for elliptic curves at the combined meeting of the Australian and New Zealand mathematical societies Melbourne, Australia...organizer). Associated with the Chichely meeting will be a special volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (the world’s oldest...Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5 USE OF SUPPORT 8 • JPK was awarded a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit

  18. Growth curve models and statistical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Jian-Xin


    Growth-curve models are generalized multivariate analysis-of-variance models. These models are especially useful for investigating growth problems on short times in economics, biology, medical research, and epidemiology. This book systematically introduces the theory of the GCM with particular emphasis on their multivariate statistical diagnostics, which are based mainly on recent developments made by the authors and their collaborators. The authors provide complete proofs of theorems as well as practical data sets and MATLAB code.

  19. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    DEFINITION 2.5. Let C → S be an n-pointed nodal curve over a k-scheme S and let ξ be a principal G- bundle on Cgen. A chart (U, η, ) for ξ is called balanced, if for each ... branches is via multiplication with primitive roots of unity which are inverse to each other. ...... Condition (16) implies that A0 is a block matrix of the form.

  20. High accuracy & long timescale light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.


    Full Text Available We present a theoretical analysis of the optical light curves (LCs for short-period high-mass transiting extrasolar planet systems. Our method considers the primary transit, the secondary eclipse, and the overall phase shape of the LC between the occultations. Phase variations arise from (i reflected and thermally emitted light by the planet, (ii the ellipsoidal shape of the star due to the gravitational pull of the planet, and (iii the Doppler shift of the stellar light as the star orbits the center of mass of the system. Our full model of the out-of-eclipse variations contains information about the planetary mass, orbital eccentricity, the orientation of periastron and the planet's albedo. For a range of hypothetical systems we demonstrate that the ellipsoidal variations (ii. can be large enough to be distinguished from the remaining components and that this effect can be used to constrain the planet's mass. As an example we presend KOI-13b (candidate exoplanet system included in the September 2011 Kepler data release. The Kepler light curve shows both primary and secondary eclipses, as well as significant out-of-eclipse light curve variations. We model the relative contributions from (i thermal emission from the companion, (ii planetary reflected light, (iii doppler beaming, and (iv ellipsoidal variations in the host-star arising from the tidal distortion of the host star by its companion. Our analysis, based on the light curve alone, enables us to constrain the mass of the KOI-13.01 companion to be MC = 8.3 ± 1.25 MJ and thus demonstrates that the transiting companion is a planet. The teqnique is useful for current and future space missions such as Kepler and PLATO.