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Sample records for survival curve based

  1. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1990-01-01

    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  2. Methods for Performing Survival Curve Quality-of-Life Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Walton; Ding, Eric; Fischer, Irene D; Hagen, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    Many medical decisions involve an implied choice between alternative survival curves, typically with differing quality of life. Common preference assessment methods neglect this structure, creating some risk of distortions. Survival curve quality-of-life assessments (SQLA) were developed from Gompertz survival curves fitting the general population's survival. An algorithm was developed to generate relative discount rate-utility (DRU) functions from a standard survival curve and health state and an equally attractive alternative curve and state. A least means squared distance algorithm was developed to describe how nearly 3 or more DRU functions intersect. These techniques were implemented in a program called X-Trade and tested. SQLA scenarios can portray realistic treatment choices. A side effect scenario portrays one prototypical choice, to extend life while experiencing some loss, such as an amputation. A risky treatment scenario portrays procedures with an initial mortality risk. A time trade scenario mimics conventional time tradeoffs. Each SQLA scenario yields DRU functions with distinctive shapes, such as sigmoid curves or vertical lines. One SQLA can imply a discount rate or utility if the other value is known and both values are temporally stable. Two SQLA exercises imply a unique discount rate and utility if the inferred DRU functions intersect. Three or more SQLA results can quantify uncertainty or inconsistency in discount rate and utility estimates. Pilot studies suggested that many subjects could learn to interpret survival curves and do SQLA. SQLA confuse some people. Compared with SQLA, standard gambles quantify very low utilities more easily, and time tradeoffs are simpler for high utilities. When discount rates approach zero, time tradeoffs are as informative and easier to do than SQLA. SQLA may complement conventional utility assessment methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Multivariate permutation test to compare survival curves for matched data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    ... for the comparison of survival curves cannot be applied in this setting. We demonstrate the validity of the proposed method with simulations, and we illustrate its application to data from an observational study for the comparison of bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in the treatment of paediatric leukaemia. The use of the multivariate permutation testing approach is recommended in the highly stratified context of survival matched data, especially when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.

  4. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2017-12-01

    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-01-01

    .... In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient...

  6. Graphing survival curve estimates for time-dependent covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lonni R; Peterson, Edward L; Breslau, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Graphical representation of statistical results is often used to assist readers in the interpretation of the findings. This is especially true for survival analysis where there is an interest in explaining the patterns of survival over time for specific covariates. For fixed categorical covariates, such as a group membership indicator, Kaplan-Meier estimates (1958) can be used to display the curves. For time-dependent covariates this method may not be adequate. Simon and Makuch (1984) proposed a technique that evaluates the covariate status of the individuals remaining at risk at each event time. The method takes into account the change in an individual's covariate status over time. The survival computations are the same as the Kaplan-Meier method, in that the conditional survival estimates are the function of the ratio of the number of events to the number at risk at each event time. The difference between the two methods is that the individuals at risk within each level defined by the covariate is not fixed at time 0 in the Simon and Makuch method as it is with the Kaplan-Meier method. Examples of how the two methods can differ for time dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis are presented.

  7. Longevity and survival curves of Rhinella icterica (Anura, Bufonidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S

    2014-05-01

    Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = -0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=-761.96Ln(x)+5298.5).

  8. Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura M.; Lau, Katherine S. L.; Perkins, Anthony; Monahan, Patrick; Grisso, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the provision of behavioral health services to youths detained in Indiana between 2008 and 2012 and the impact of services on recidivism. Method. We obtained information about behavioral health needs, behavioral health treatment received, and recidivism within 12 months after release for 8363 adolescents (aged 12–18 years; 79.4% male). We conducted survival analyses to determine whether behavioral health services significantly affected time to recidivating. Results. Approximately 19.1% of youths had positive mental health screens, and 25.3% of all youths recidivated within 12 months after release. Of youths with positive screens, 29.2% saw a mental health clinician, 16.1% received behavioral health services during detention, and 30.0% received referrals for postdetention services. Survival analyses showed that being male, Black, and younger, and having higher scores on the substance use or irritability subscales of the screen predicted shorter time to recidivism. Receiving a behavior precaution, behavioral health services in detention, or an assessment in the community also predicted shorter time to recidivating. Conclusions. Findings support previous research showing that behavioral health problems are related to recidivism and that Black males are disproportionately rearrested after detention. PMID:25973804

  9. Toward computer simulation of high-LET in vitro survival curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a Monte Carlo based computer program called MCSC (Monte Carlo Survival Curve) able to predict the survival fraction of cells irradiated in vitro with a broad beam of high linear energy transfer particles. Three types of cell responses are studied: the usual high dose response, the bystander effect and the low-dose hypersensitivity (HRS). The program models the broad beam irradiation and double strand break distribution following Poisson statistics. The progression of cells through the cell cycle is taken into account while the repair takes place. Input parameters are experimentally determined for A549 lung carcinoma cells irradiated with 10 and 20 keV µm-1 protons, 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles and for EAhy926 endothelial cells exposed to 115 keV µm-1 alpha particles. Results of simulations are presented and compared with experimental survival curves obtained for A549 and EAhy296 cells. Results are in good agreement with experimental data for both cell lines and all irradiation protocols. The benefits of MCSC are several: the gain of time that would have been spent performing time-consuming clonogenic assays, the capacity to estimate survival fraction of cell lines not forming colonies and possibly the evaluation of radiosensitivity parameters of given individuals.

  10. On differences in radiosensitivity estimation: TCP experiments versus survival curves. A theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Nahum, Alan

    2015-08-07

    We have compared two methods of estimating the cellular radiosensitivity of a heterogeneous tumour, namely, via cell-survival and via tumour control probability (TCP) pseudo-experiments. It is assumed that there exists intra-tumour variability in radiosensitivity and that the tumour consists predominantly of radiosensitive cells and a small number of radio-resistant cells.Using a multi-component, linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill, a pseudo-experimental cell-survival versus dose curve is derived. This curve is then fitted with a mono-component LQ model describing the response of a homogeneous cell population. For the assumed variation in radiosensitivity it is shown that the composite pseudo-experimental survival curve is well approximated by the survival curve of cells with uniform radiosensitivity.For the same initial cell radiosensitivity distribution several pseudo-experimental TCP curves are simulated corresponding to different fractionation regimes. The TCP model used accounts for clonogen proliferation during a fractionated treatment. The set of simulated TCP curves is then fitted with a mono-component TCP model. As in the cell survival experiment the fit with a mono-component model assuming uniform radiosensitivity is shown to be highly acceptable.However, the best-fit values of cellular radiosensitivity produced via the two methods are very different. The cell-survival pseudo-experiment yields a high radiosensitivity value, while the TCP pseudo-experiment shows that the dose-response is dominated by the most resistant sub-population in the tumour, even when this is just a small fraction of the total.

  11. ANTEROCOD: actuarial survival curves applied to medical coding support for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecornu, L; Le Guillou, C; Le Saux, F; Hubert, M; Puentes, J; Cauvin, J M

    2010-01-01

    For the practitioner, choosing diagnosis codes is a non-intuitive operation. Mistakes are frequent, causing severe consequences on healthcare performance evaluation and funding. French physicians have to assign a code to all their activities and are frequently prone to these errors. Given that most of the time and particularly for chronic diseases indexed information is already available, we propose a tool named AnterOcod, in order to support the medical coding task. It suggests the list of most relevant plausible codes, predicted from the patient's earlier hospital stays, according to a set of previously utilized diagnosis codes. Our method applies the estimation of code reappearance rates, based on an equivalent approach to actuarial survival curves. Around 33% of the expected correct diagnosis codes were retrieved in this manner, after evaluating 998 discharge abstracts, significantly improving the coding task.

  12. Structural Acoustic Physics Based Modeling of Curved Composite Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    NUWC-NPT Technical Report 12,236 19 September 2017 Structural Acoustic Physics -Based Modeling of Curved Composite Shells Rachel E. Hesse...SUBTITLE Structural Acoustic Physics -Based Modeling of Curved Composite Shells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...study was to use physics -based modeling (PBM) to investigate wave propagations through curved shells that are subjected to acoustic excitation. An

  13. Point- and curve-based geometric conflation

    KAUST Repository

    López-Vázquez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Geometric conflation is the process undertaken to modify the coordinates of features in dataset A in order to match corresponding ones in dataset B. The overwhelming majority of the literature considers the use of points as features to define the transformation. In this article we present a procedure to consider one-dimensional curves also, which are commonly available as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tracks, routes, coastlines, and so on, in order to define the estimate of the displacements to be applied to each object in A. The procedure involves three steps, including the partial matching of corresponding curves, the computation of some analytical expression, and the addition of a correction term in order to satisfy basic cartographic rules. A numerical example is presented. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  15. Infrared camera based on a curved retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Delphine; Fendler, Manuel; Berger, Frédéric; Cloix, Baptiste; Pornin, Cyrille; Baier, Nicolas; Druart, Guillaume; Primot, Jérôme; le Coarer, Etienne

    2012-02-15

    Design of miniature and light cameras requires an optical design breakthrough to achieve good optical performance. Solutions inspired by animals' eyes are the most promising. The curvature of the retina offers several advantages, such as uniform intensity and no field curvature, but this feature is not used. The work presented here is a solution to spherically bend monolithic IR detectors. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, a higher fill factor is obtained and the device fabrication process is not modified. We made an IR eye camera with a single lens and a curved IR bolometer. Images captured are well resolved and have good contrast, and the modulation transfer function shows better quality when comparing with planar systems.

  16. Development of prognostic model for predicting survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stent in advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and its evaluation by decision curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Shingo; Komai, Yoshinobu; Ishioka, Junichiro; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fuse, Nozomu; Ito, Masaaki; Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Norio

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stents and develop a prognostic model for advanced gastrointestinal tract (GIT: esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum) cancer patients. We examined the clinical records of 122 patients who underwent retrograde placement of a ureteral stent against malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction. A prediction model for survival after stenting was developed. We compared its clinical usefulness with our previous model based on the results from nephrostomy cases by decision curve analysis. Median follow-up period was 201 days (8-1490) and 97 deaths occurred. The 1-year survival rate in this cohort was 29%. Based on multivariate analysis, primary site of colon origin, absence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and serum albumin >3g/dL were significantly associated with a prolonged survival time. To develop a prognostic model, we divided the patients into 3 risk groups of favorable: 0-1 factors (N.=53), intermediate: 2 risk factors (N.=54), and poor: 3 risk factors (N.=15). There were significant differences in the survival profiles of these 3 risk groups (P<0.0001). Decision curve analyses revealed that the current model has a superior net benefit than our previous model for most of the examined probabilities. We have developed a novel prognostic model for GIT cancer patients who were treated with retrograde placement of a ureteral stent. The current model should help urologists and medical oncologists to predict survival in cases of malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction.

  17. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kalderstam

    Full Text Available We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart, which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  18. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderstam, Jonas; Edén, Patrik; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox) is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart), which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  19. Electromagnetic characteristics of Hilbert curve-based metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruirui; Li, Sucheng; Gu, Chendong; Anwar, Shahzad; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun

    2014-08-01

    As the typical building blocks of metamaterials, the cut wire and the split ring resonator have been extensively studied in recent years. Besides them, the space-filling curve-based metamaterials are receiving great attentions because of their intrinsic subwavelength and multi-bands characteristics. In this work, we have investigated experimentally and numerically the electromagnetic characteristics of such Hilbert curve metamaterial in the microwave frequency regime and found a deeply subwavelength magnetic resonance supported by the fractal pattern and featuring the wavelength-to-size ratio more than 20. The subwavelength electromagnetic properties of the Hilbert curve will be beneficial to realize high-performance metamaterials.

  20. Creep curve modelling of a conventionally cast nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupinc, V.; Maldini, M. [CNR - IENI, Milan (Italy); Poggio, E.; Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Constant load creep tests on Rene 80, a nickel base superalloy for gas turbine blade application, were run in the temperature interval 800-950 C with applied stresses producing rupture times up to 1000 h. Creep curves are generally dominated by a long accelerating/tertiary creep that follows a relatively small decelerating/primary creep. No steady state stage has been observed. Analysis of the creep curves has shown that a single damage parameter can describe the long accelerating/tertiary state in the explored temperature range. The damage appears to be dependent on the accumulated creep strain and, as a first approximation, independent on the applied stress and temperature. The whole creep curve, primary and tertiary stages, has been modelled by a simple set of coupled differential equations obtained using the formalism of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The proposed set of equations has an analytical solution, strain vs. time, for creep curves at constant temperature and stress. (orig.)

  1. Determination of the human spine curve based on laser triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredoš, Primož; Čelan, Dušan; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2015-02-05

    The main objective of the present method was to automatically obtain a spatial curve of the thoracic and lumbar spine based on a 3D shape measurement of a human torso with developed scoliosis. Manual determination of the spine curve, which was based on palpation of the thoracic and lumbar spinous processes, was found to be an appropriate way to validate the method. Therefore a new, noninvasive, optical 3D method for human torso evaluation in medical practice is introduced. Twenty-four patients with confirmed clinical diagnosis of scoliosis were scanned using a specially developed 3D laser profilometer. The measuring principle of the system is based on laser triangulation with one-laser-plane illumination. The measurement took approximately 10 seconds at 700 mm of the longitudinal translation along the back. The single point measurement accuracy was 0.1 mm. Computer analysis of the measured surface returned two 3D curves. The first curve was determined by manual marking (manual curve), and the second was determined by detecting surface curvature extremes (automatic curve). The manual and automatic curve comparison was given as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) for each patient. The intra-operator study involved assessing 20 successive measurements of the same person, and the inter-operator study involved assessing measurements from 8 operators. The results obtained for the 24 patients showed that the typical RMSD between the manual and automatic curve was 5.0 mm in the frontal plane and 1.0 mm in the sagittal plane, which is a good result compared with palpatory accuracy (9.8 mm). The intra-operator repeatability of the presented method in the frontal and sagittal planes was 0.45 mm and 0.06 mm, respectively. The inter-operator repeatability assessment shows that that the presented method is invariant to the operator of the computer program with the presented method. The main novelty of the presented paper is the development of a new, non-contact method

  2. Qualitative Comparison of Contraction-Based Curve Skeletonization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobiecki, André; Yasan, Haluk C.; Jalba, Andrei C.; Telea, Alexandru C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many new methods have been proposed for extracting curve skeletons of 3D shapes, using a mesh-contraction principle. However, it is still unclear how these methods perform with respect to each other, and with respect to earlier voxel-based skeletonization methods, from the viewpoint

  3. Forest-Based Biomass Supply Curves for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth Skog; Jamie Barbour; Marilyn Buford; Dennis Drykstra; Patti Lebow; Pat Miles; Bob Perlack; Bryce Stokes

    2013-01-01

    Nationwide, county-level supply curves have been estimated for forest-based biomass to evaluate their potential contributions to producing biofuels. This study builds on the estimates of potential supply in the Billion Ton Supply study prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Energy. Forest biomass sources include logging...

  4. New digital signature protocol based on elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Ounasser; Ettanfouhi, Jaouad; Khadir, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new digital signature based on elliptic curves is presented. We established its efficiency and security. The method, derived from a variant of ElGamal signature scheme, can be seen as a secure alternative protocol if known systems are completely broken.

  5. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First...

  6. Breakdown curves of carbon-based molecules for astrochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Chabot, Marin; Béroff, K.; Gratier, P.; Jallat, A.; Wakelam, V.; Sanchez, J.P.; Aguirre, N.; Diaz-Tendero, S.; Alcami, M.; Martin, F.; Hervieux, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Breakdown curves (BDC), which are energy dependent fragmentation branching ratios, constitute a kind of "identity card" of an excited molecule or cluster. We developed a method for constructing semi-empirical BDC, based on fragmentation measurements and structural known quantities of the considered species. Calculations of BDC have been performed within the statistical M3C theory. We will present a comparison of the two methods for some species and discuss application of these results to astr...

  7. Why the Kantian ideal survives medical learning curves, and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, B

    2006-09-01

    The "Kantian ideal" is often misunderstood as invoking individual autonomy rather than rational self legislation. Le Morvan and Stock's otherwise insightful discussion of "Medical learning curves and the Kantian ideal"--for example--draws the mistaken inference that that ideal is inconsistent with the realities of medical practice. But it is not. Rationally to be a patient entails accepting its necessary conditions.

  8. Summary curves for patients transplanted for chronic myeloid leukaemia salvaged by a donor lymphocyte infusion: the current leukaemia-free survival curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, John P.; Keiding, Niels; Shu, Youyi

    2000-01-01

    CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods......CML, donor lymphocyte infusion, leukaemia-free survival, current leukaemia-free survival, statistical methods...

  9. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First O...... Order Reliability Methods in combination with life-cycle cost-optimal inspection and maintenance planning. The methodology is based on preposterior analyses from Bayesian decision theory. An illustrative example is shown....

  10. Estimation of Curve Tracing Time in Supercapacitor based PV Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Pal, Sudipta; Das Bhattacharya, Konika; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Paul, Debkalyan

    2017-08-01

    Smooth and noise-free characterisation of photovoltaic (PV) generators have been revisited with renewed interest in view of large size PV arrays making inroads into the urban sector of major developing countries. Such practice has recently been observed to be confronted by the use of a suitable data acquisition system and also the lack of a supporting theoretical analysis to justify the accuracy of curve tracing. However, the use of a selected bank of supercapacitors can mitigate the said problems to a large extent. Assuming a piecewise linear analysis of the V-I characteristics of a PV generator, an accurate analysis of curve plotting time has been possible. The analysis has been extended to consider the effect of equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor leading to increased accuracy (90-95%) of curve plotting times.

  11. [Analysis of survival and mortality curves with the model of vital receptors. The maximal life span. Effect of temperature on the life span. The mortality probability density function (mortality curve) and its parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltorakov, A P

    2001-01-01

    We have continued an analysis of survival curves by the model of the vital receptors (MVR). The main types survival function (E-, TW- and GM-distributions) have been considered. It was found that the maximal life span depends on the threshold concentration of vital receptors. Equations are obtained for the dependence of the maximal life span on the kinetic parameters in the reactions of inactivation, destruction and inactivation. Dependence of maximal time life on initial size of the population have been considered. The influence of temperature on the survival curves is analysed by E-distribution. Equations are founded for the description of thermosurvival and thermoinactivation curves. Equation are obtained for the dependence of density function and it characteristics (modal and antimodal age, coefficient of asymmetry) on the MVR parameters. It was shown that E-, TW- and GM-distribution has different types of asymmetry. The coefficient of asymmetry of GM-distribution is associated on the MVR parameters. It is assumed that symmetry of the curves of mortality and birth-rate is coordinated by the mechanisms of MVR.

  12. The Survival of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy and the Flatness of the Rotation Curve of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, HongSheng

    1998-06-01

    How has the ``fluffy'' Sgr dwarf galaxy survived its 10-20 pericentric passages in the halo of the Milky Way for a Hubble time? The scenario that Sgr was deflected to its current orbit by the Magellanic Clouds after a rendezvous on the north Galactic pole 2-3 Gyr ago is examined. It is shown that the conditions of the collision fix both the sense of circulation of Sgr and the Large Magellanic Cloud around the Galaxy and the slope of the Galactic rotation curve. The model argues that the two orthogonal polar circles traced by a dozen or so Galactic halo dwarf galaxies and globular clusters (LMC-SMC-Magellanic Stream-Draco-Ursa Minor along l~270deg and M54-Ter 7-Ter 8-Arp 2-NGC 2419-Pal 15 along l~0deg) are streams of tidal relics from two ancient galaxies that were captured on two intersecting polar rosette orbits by the Galaxy. Our results favor the interpretation of microlensing toward the LMC being due to source or lens stars in tidal features of the Magellanic Clouds. We discuss direct and indirect observations to test the collision scenario.

  13. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu

    2015-01-01

    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  14. Magnetic fluid based squeeze film between porous annular curved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghatlodia, Ahmedabad 380 061, India. MS received 7 March 2000; revised 7 June 2001. Abstract. The squeeze film behaviour between rotating annular plates was analysed theoretically when the curved upper plate with a uniform porous facing approached the impermeable and flat lower plate, considering a magnetic fluid ...

  15. Fractal based curves in musical creativity: A critical annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgaki, Anastasia; Tsolakis, Christos

    In this article we examine fractal curves and synthesis algorithms in musical composition and research. First we trace the evolution of different approaches for the use of fractals in music since the 80's by a literature review. Furthermore, we review representative fractal algorithms and platforms that implement them. Properties such as self-similarity (pink noise), correlation, memory (related to the notion of Brownian motion) or non correlation at multiple levels (white noise), can be used to develop hierarchy of criteria for analyzing different layers of musical structure. L-systems can be applied in the modelling of melody in different musical cultures as well as in the investigation of musical perception principles. Finally, we propose a critical investigation approach for the use of artificial or natural fractal curves in systematic musicology.

  16. Turbine blade profile design method based on Bezier curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, R. A.; Tishchenko, V. A.; Gribin, V. G.; Gavrilov, I. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the technique of two-dimensional parametric blade profile design is presented. Bezier curves are used to create the profile geometry. The main feature of the proposed method is an adaptive approach of curve fitting to given geometric conditions. Calculation of the profile shape is produced by multi-dimensional minimization method with a number of restrictions imposed on the blade geometry.The proposed method has been used to describe parametric geometry of known blade profile. Then the baseline geometry was modified by varying some parameters of the blade. The numerical calculation of obtained designs has been carried out. The results of calculations have shown the efficiency of chosen approach.

  17. A New Path Generation Algorithm Based on Accurate NURBS Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sawssen Jalel; Philippe Marthon; Atef Hamouda

    2016-01-01

    The process of finding an optimum, smooth and feasible global path for mobile robot navigation usually involves determining the shortest polyline path, which will be subsequently smoothed to satisfy the requirements. Within this context, this paper deals with a novel roadmap algorithm for generating an optimal path in terms of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) curves. The generated path is well constrained within the curvature limit by exploiting the influence of the weight parameter of ...

  18. Modelling and assessment of urban flood hazards based on rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves reformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazavi, Reza; Moafi Rabori, Ali; Ahadnejad Reveshty, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Estimate design storm based on rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves is an important parameter for hydrologic planning of urban areas. The main aim of this study was to estimate rainfall intensities of Zanjan city watershed based on overall relationship of rainfall IDF curves and appropriate model of hourly rainfall estimation (Sherman method, Ghahreman and Abkhezr method). Hydrologic and hydraulic impacts of rainfall IDF curves change in flood properties was evaluated via Stormw...

  19. Modelling population-based cancer survival trends using join point models for grouped survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbing; Huang, Lan; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J; Johnson, Karen A

    2009-04-01

    In the United States cancer as a whole is the second leading cause of death and a major burden to health care, thus the medical progress against cancer is a major public health goal. There are many individual studies to suggest that cancer treatment breakthroughs and early diagnosis have significantly improved the prognosis of cancer patients. To better understand the relationship between medical improvements and the survival experience for the patient population at large, it is useful to evaluate cancer survival trends on the population level, e.g., to find out when and how much the cancer survival rates changed. In this paper, we analyze the population-based grouped cancer survival data by incorporating joinpoints into the survival models. A joinpoint survival model facilitates the identification of trends with significant change points in cancer survival, when related to cancer treatments or interventions. The Bayesian Information Criterion is used to select the number of joinpoints. The performance of the joinpoint survival models is evaluated with respect to cancer prognosis, joinpoint locations, annual percent changes in death rates by year of diagnosis, and sample sizes through intensive simulation studies. The model is then applied to the grouped relative survival data for several major cancer sites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. The change points in the survival trends for several major cancer sites are identified and the potential driving forces behind such change points are discussed.

  20. A New Path Generation Algorithm Based on Accurate NURBS Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawssen Jalel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding an optimum, smooth and feasible global path for mobile robot navigation usually involves determining the shortest polyline path, which will be subsequently smoothed to satisfy the requirements. Within this context, this paper deals with a novel roadmap algorithm for generating an optimal path in terms of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS curves. The generated path is well constrained within the curvature limit by exploiting the influence of the weight parameter of NURBS and/or the control points' locations. The novelty of this paper lies in the fact that NURBS curves are not used only as a means of smoothing, but they are also involved in meeting the system's constraints via a suitable parameterization of the weights and locations of control points. The accurate parameterization of weights allows for a greater benefit to be derived from the influence and geometrical effect of this factor, which has not been well investigated in previous works. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through extensive MATLAB computer simulations.

  1. Spline-based models for predictiveness curves and surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Sabel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A biomarker is defined to be a biological characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. The use of biomarkers in cancer has been advocated for a variety of purposes, which include use as surrogate endpoints, early detection of disease, proxies for environmental exposure and risk prediction. We deal with the latter issue in this paper. Several authors have proposed use of the predictiveness curve for assessing the capacity of a biomarker for risk prediction. For most situations, it is reasonable to assume monotonicity of the biomarker effects on disease risk. In this article, we propose the use of flexible modelling of the predictiveness curve and its bivariate analogue, the predictiveness surface, through the use of spline algorithms that incorporate the appropriate monotonicity constraints. Estimation proceeds through use of a two-step algorithm that represents the “smooth, then monotonize” approach. Subsampling procedures are used for inference. The methods are illustrated to data from a melanoma study. PMID:22003414

  2. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. NTCP modelling of lung toxicity after SBRT comparing the universal survival curve and the linear quadratic model for fractionation correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Berit M; Baumann, Pia; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Nyman, Jan; Drugge, Ninni; Hoyer, Morten; Traberg, Anders; Nilsson, Kristina; Morhed, Elisabeth; Ekberg, Lars; Wittgren, Lena; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Levin, Nina; Sederholm, Christer; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lax, Ingmar

    2011-05-01

    In SBRT of lung tumours no established relationship between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of lung toxicity is found. The aim of this study is to compare the LQ model and the universal survival curve (USC) to calculate biologically equivalent doses in SBRT to see if this will improve knowledge on this relationship. Toxicity data on radiation pneumonitis grade 2 or more (RP2+) from 57 patients were used, 10.5% were diagnosed with RP2+. The lung DVHs were corrected for fractionation (LQ and USC) and analysed with the Lyman- Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. In the LQ-correction α/β = 3 Gy was used and the USC parameters used were: α/β = 3 Gy, D(0) = 1.0 Gy, [Formula: see text] = 10, α = 0.206 Gy(-1) and d(T) = 5.8 Gy. In order to understand the relative contribution of different dose levels to the calculated NTCP the concept of fractional NTCP was used. This might give an insight to the questions of whether "high doses to small volumes" or "low doses to large volumes" are most important for lung toxicity. NTCP analysis with the LKB-model using parameters m = 0.4, D(50) = 30 Gy resulted for the volume dependence parameter (n) with LQ correction n = 0.87 and with USC correction n = 0.71. Using parameters m = 0.3, D(50) = 20 Gy n = 0.93 with LQ correction and n = 0.83 with USC correction. In SBRT of lung tumours, NTCP modelling of lung toxicity comparing models (LQ,USC) for fractionation correction, shows that low dose contribute less and high dose more to the NTCP when using the USC-model. Comparing NTCP modelling of SBRT data and data from breast cancer, lung cancer and whole lung irradiation implies that the response of the lung is treatment specific. More data are however needed in order to have a more reliable modelling.

  4. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  5. Is the covariate based non-stationary rainfall IDF curve capable of encompassing future rainfall changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agilan, V.; Umamahesh, N. V.

    2016-10-01

    Storm water management and other engineering design applications are primarily based on rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves and the existing IDF curves are based on the concept of stationary Extreme Value Theory (EVT). However, during the last few decades, global climate change is intensifying the extreme precipitation events and creating a non-stationary component in the extreme rainfall time series. Subsequently, in recent years, advancements in the EVT helped the researchers to propose a method for developing non-stationary rainfall IDF curve by modelling trend present in the observed extreme rainfall series using covariate. But, is it capable of encompassing future rainfall changes? Towards answering this question, the Hyderabad city, India non-stationary rainfall IDF curves are compared with the IDF curves of two future time periods (2015-2056 and 2057-2098). Using 24 Global Climate Models' (GCMs') simulations and 'K' Nearest Neighbor (KNN) weather generator based downscaling method, the IDF curves are developed for two future time periods and they are compared with covariate based non-stationary rainfall IDF curves of the Hyderabad city. The results of this study indicate that the return of period of an extreme rainfall of the Hyderabad city is reducing. In addition, it is noted that the non-stationary IDF curve developed by modelling trend in the observed extreme rainfall with covariate is an appropriate choice for designing the Hyderabad city infrastructure under climate change.

  6. Extensions to regret-based decision curve analysis: an application to hospice referral for terminal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Barnes, Laura E; Hozo, Iztok; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2011-12-23

    Despite the well documented advantages of hospice care, most terminally ill patients do not reap the maximum benefit from hospice services, with the majority of them receiving hospice care either prematurely or delayed. Decision systems to improve the hospice referral process are sorely needed. We present a novel theoretical framework that is based on well-established methodologies of prognostication and decision analysis to assist with the hospice referral process for terminally ill patients. We linked the SUPPORT statistical model, widely regarded as one of the most accurate models for prognostication of terminally ill patients, with the recently developed regret based decision curve analysis (regret DCA). We extend the regret DCA methodology to consider harms associated with the prognostication test as well as harms and effects of the management strategies. In order to enable patients and physicians in making these complex decisions in real-time, we developed an easily accessible web-based decision support system available at the point of care. The web-based decision support system facilitates the hospice referral process in three steps. First, the patient or surrogate is interviewed to elicit his/her personal preferences regarding the continuation of life-sustaining treatment vs. palliative care. Then, regret DCA is employed to identify the best strategy for the particular patient in terms of threshold probability at which he/she is indifferent between continuation of treatment and of hospice referral. Finally, if necessary, the probabilities of survival and death for the particular patient are computed based on the SUPPORT prognostication model and contrasted with the patient's threshold probability. The web-based design of the CDSS enables patients, physicians, and family members to participate in the decision process from anywhere internet access is available. We present a theoretical framework to facilitate the hospice referral process. Further rigorous

  7. Extensions to Regret-based Decision Curve Analysis: An application to hospice referral for terminal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsalatsanis Athanasios

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the well documented advantages of hospice care, most terminally ill patients do not reap the maximum benefit from hospice services, with the majority of them receiving hospice care either prematurely or delayed. Decision systems to improve the hospice referral process are sorely needed. Methods We present a novel theoretical framework that is based on well-established methodologies of prognostication and decision analysis to assist with the hospice referral process for terminally ill patients. We linked the SUPPORT statistical model, widely regarded as one of the most accurate models for prognostication of terminally ill patients, with the recently developed regret based decision curve analysis (regret DCA. We extend the regret DCA methodology to consider harms associated with the prognostication test as well as harms and effects of the management strategies. In order to enable patients and physicians in making these complex decisions in real-time, we developed an easily accessible web-based decision support system available at the point of care. Results The web-based decision support system facilitates the hospice referral process in three steps. First, the patient or surrogate is interviewed to elicit his/her personal preferences regarding the continuation of life-sustaining treatment vs. palliative care. Then, regret DCA is employed to identify the best strategy for the particular patient in terms of threshold probability at which he/she is indifferent between continuation of treatment and of hospice referral. Finally, if necessary, the probabilities of survival and death for the particular patient are computed based on the SUPPORT prognostication model and contrasted with the patient's threshold probability. The web-based design of the CDSS enables patients, physicians, and family members to participate in the decision process from anywhere internet access is available. Conclusions We present a theoretical

  8. Fast fabrication of curved microlens array using DMD-based lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curved microlens array is the core element of the biologically inspired artificial compound eye. Many existing fabrication processes remain expensive and complicated, which limits a broad range of application of the artificial compound eye. In this paper, we report a fast fabrication method for curved microlens array by using DMD-based maskless lithography. When a three-dimensional (3D target curved profile is projected into a two-dimensional (2D mask, arbitrary curved microlens array can be flexibly and efficiently obtained by utilizing DMD-based lithography. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a curved PDMS microlens array with 90 micro lenslets has been fabricated. The physical and optical characteristics of the fabricated microlens array suggest that this method is potentially suitable for applications in artificial compound eye.

  9. Monitoring and Fault Detection in Photovoltaic Systems Based On Inverter Measured String I-V Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Most photovoltaic (PV) string inverters have the hardware capability to measure at least part of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve of the PV strings connected at the input. However, this intrinsic capability of the inverters is not used, since I-V curve measurement and monitoring......-of-system components through increased series resistance losses, or shunting of the PV modules. To achieve this, we propose and experimentally demonstrate three complementary PV system monitoring methods that make use of the I-V curve measurement capability of a commercial string inverter. The first method is suitable...... for monitoring single or independent PV strings, and is based on evaluating the ratio of certain operation points on the string I-V curve. The second method is applicable to PV systems with identical strings, and is based on monitoring and inter-comparison of string I-V curve parameters. For PV systems with non...

  10. Testing the equality of nonparametric regression curves based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this work we propose a new methodology for the comparison of two regression functions f1 and f2 in the case of homoscedastic error structure and a fixed design. Our approach is based on the empirical Fourier coefficients of the regression functions f1 and f2 respectively. As our main results we obtain the ...

  11. Potential density and tree survival: an analysis based on South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, we present a tree survival analysis, based on the Weibull distribution function, for the Nelshoogte replicated CCT study, which has been observed for almost 40 years after planting and provides information about tree survival in response to planting espacements ranging from 494 to 2 965 trees per hectare.

  12. Analysis of possibilities of early diagnostics criteria for Parkinson's disease based on analysis of the input-output curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the possibilities of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease at an early stage, based on characteristics of the input-output curve. The input-output (IO curve was analyzed in two ways: we analyzed the gain of the curve for low-level transcranial stimulation and we analyzed the overall 'quality' of the IO curve. The 'quality' of the curve calculation is based on basic concepts from quantum mechanics and calculation of Tsallis entropy.

  13. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  14. Bootstrap-based procedures for inference in nonparametric receiver-operating characteristic curve regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Tahoces, Pablo G

    2017-01-01

    Prior to using a diagnostic test in a routine clinical setting, the rigorous evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy is essential. The receiver-operating characteristic curve is the measure of accuracy most widely used for continuous diagnostic tests. However, the possible impact of extra information about the patient (or even the environment) on diagnostic accuracy also needs to be assessed. In this paper, we focus on an estimator for the covariate-specific receiver-operating characteristic curve based on direct regression modelling and nonparametric smoothing techniques. This approach defines the class of generalised additive models for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The main aim of the paper is to offer new inferential procedures for testing the effect of covariates on the conditional receiver-operating characteristic curve within the above-mentioned class. Specifically, two different bootstrap-based tests are suggested to check (a) the possible effect of continuous covariates on the receiver-operating characteristic curve and (b) the presence of factor-by-curve interaction terms. The validity of the proposed bootstrap-based procedures is supported by simulations. To facilitate the application of these new procedures in practice, an R-package, known as npROCRegression, is provided and briefly described. Finally, data derived from a computer-aided diagnostic system for the automatic detection of tumour masses in breast cancer is analysed.

  15. Curve Evolution in Subspaces and Exploring the Metameric Class of Histogram of Gradient Orientation based Features using Nonlinear Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatu, Aditya Jayant

    This thesis deals with two unrelated issues, restricting curve evolution to subspaces and computing image patches in the equivalence class of Histogram of Gradient orientation based features using nonlinear projection methods. Curve evolution is a well known method used in various applications like...... tracking interfaces, active contour based segmentation methods and others. It can also be used to study shape spaces, as deforming a shape can be thought of as evolving its boundary curve. During curve evolution a curve traces out a path in the infinite dimensional space of curves. Due to application...... specific requirements like shape priors or a given data model, and due to limitations of the computer, the computed curve evolution forms a path in some finite dimensional subspace of the space of curves. We give methods to restrict the curve evolution to a finite dimensional linear or implicitly defined...

  16. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  17. Model evaluation based on the negative predictive value for interval-censored survival outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungbong; Tsui, Kam-Wah; Andrei, Adin-Cristian

    2017-04-01

    In many cohort studies, time to events such as disease recurrence is recorded in an interval-censored format. An important objective is to predict patient outcomes. Clinicians are interested in predictive covariates. Prediction rules based on the receiver operating characteristic curve alone are not related to the survival endpoint. We propose a model evaluation strategy to leverage the predictive accuracy based on negative predictive functions. Our proposed method makes very few assumptions and only requires a working model to obtain the regression coefficients. A nonparametric estimate of the predictive accuracy provides a simple and flexible approach for model evaluation to interval-censored survival outcomes. The implementation effort is minimal, therefore this method has an increased potential for immediate use in biomedical data analyses. Simulation studies and a breast cancer trial example further illustrate the practical advantages of this approach.

  18. Rendering of specular curved objects in polygon-based computer holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hirohito; Matsushima, Kyoji

    2017-05-01

    A realistic rendering technique is presented for creating large-scale computer-generated holograms. The technique is based on the polygon-based method, but allows specular curved surfaces to be reconstructed without increasing the number of polygons. In this technique, specular flat surfaces are transformed into curved surfaces. This is achieved by controlling the direction of reflected light, using fragmentary plane waves. An actual large-scale computer-generated hologram is created, and is used to verify the validity and practicality of the technique.

  19. Eyewitness identification: Bayesian information gain, base-rate effect equivalency curves, and reasonable suspicion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary L; Yang, Yueran; Smalarz, Laura

    2015-04-01

    We provide a novel Bayesian treatment of the eyewitness identification problem as it relates to various system variables, such as instruction effects, lineup presentation format, lineup-filler similarity, lineup administrator influence, and show-ups versus lineups. We describe why eyewitness identification is a natural Bayesian problem and how numerous important observations require careful consideration of base rates. Moreover, we argue that the base rate in eyewitness identification should be construed as a system variable (under the control of the justice system). We then use prior-by-posterior curves and information-gain curves to examine data obtained from a large number of published experiments. Next, we show how information-gain curves are moderated by system variables and by witness confidence and we note how information-gain curves reveal that lineups are consistently more proficient at incriminating the guilty than they are at exonerating the innocent. We then introduce a new type of analysis that we developed called base rate effect-equivalency (BREE) curves. BREE curves display how much change in the base rate is required to match the impact of any given system variable. The results indicate that even relatively modest changes to the base rate can have more impact on the reliability of eyewitness identification evidence than do the traditional system variables that have received so much attention in the literature. We note how this Bayesian analysis of eyewitness identification has implications for the question of whether there ought to be a reasonable-suspicion criterion for placing a person into the jeopardy of an identification procedure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. NormaCurve: a SuperCurve-based method that simultaneously quantifies and normalizes reverse phase protein array data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Troncale

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Reverse phase protein array (RPPA is a powerful dot-blot technology that allows studying protein expression levels as well as post-translational modifications in a large number of samples simultaneously. Yet, correct interpretation of RPPA data has remained a major challenge for its broad-scale application and its translation into clinical research. Satisfying quantification tools are available to assess a relative protein expression level from a serial dilution curve. However, appropriate tools allowing the normalization of the data for external sources of variation are currently missing. RESULTS: Here we propose a new method, called NormaCurve, that allows simultaneous quantification and normalization of RPPA data. For this, we modified the quantification method SuperCurve in order to include normalization for (i background fluorescence, (ii variation in the total amount of spotted protein and (iii spatial bias on the arrays. Using a spike-in design with a purified protein, we test the capacity of different models to properly estimate normalized relative expression levels. The best performing model, NormaCurve, takes into account a negative control array without primary antibody, an array stained with a total protein stain and spatial covariates. We show that this normalization is reproducible and we discuss the number of serial dilutions and the number of replicates that are required to obtain robust data. We thus provide a ready-to-use method for reliable and reproducible normalization of RPPA data, which should facilitate the interpretation and the development of this promising technology. AVAILABILITY: The raw data, the scripts and the normacurve package are available at the following web site: http://microarrays.curie.fr.

  1. Development of theoretical oxygen saturation calibration curve based on optical density ratio and optical simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Nur Anida; Beng, Gan Kok; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd; Zahedi, Edmond; Morsin, Marlia

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of surface-based Monte Carlo simulation technique for oxygen saturation (SaO2) calibration curve estimation is demonstrated in this paper. Generally, the calibration curve is estimated either from the empirical study using animals as the subject of experiment or is derived from mathematical equations. However, the determination of calibration curve using animal is time consuming and requires expertise to conduct the experiment. Alternatively, an optical simulation technique has been used widely in the biomedical optics field due to its capability to exhibit the real tissue behavior. The mathematical relationship between optical density (OD) and optical density ratios (ODR) associated with SaO2 during systole and diastole is used as the basis of obtaining the theoretical calibration curve. The optical properties correspond to systolic and diastolic behaviors were applied to the tissue model to mimic the optical properties of the tissues. Based on the absorbed ray flux at detectors, the OD and ODR were successfully calculated. The simulation results of optical density ratio occurred at every 20 % interval of SaO2 is presented with maximum error of 2.17 % when comparing it with previous numerical simulation technique (MC model). The findings reveal the potential of the proposed method to be used for extended calibration curve study using other wavelength pair.

  2. Refined tropical curve counts and canonical bases for quantum cluster algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, Travis

    We express the (quantizations of the) Gross-Hacking-Keel-Kontsevich canonical bases for cluster algebras in terms of certain (Block-Göttsche) weighted counts of tropical curves. In the process, we obtain via scattering diagram techniques a new invariance result for these Block-Göttsche counts....

  3. Probabilistic View-based 3D Curve Skeleton Computation on the GPU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustra, Jacek; Jalba, Andrei; Telea, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Computing curve skeletons of 3D shapes is a challenging task. Recently, a high-potential technique for this task was proposed, based on integrating medial information obtained from several 2D projections of a 3D shape. However effective, this technique is strongly influenced in terms of complexity

  4. Estimating Soil Water Retention Curve Using The Particle Size Distribution Based on Fractal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Chari

    2016-02-01

    showed that the fractal dimension of particle size distributions obtained with both methods were not significantly different from each other. DSWRCwas also using the suction-moisture . The results indicate that all three fractal dimensions related to soil texture and clay content of the soil increases. Linear regression relationships between Dm1 and Dm2 with DSWRC was created using 48 soil samples in order to determine the coefficient of 0.902 and 0.871 . Then, based on relationships obtained from the four methods (1- Dm1 = DSWRC, 2-regression equationswere obtained Dm1, 3- Dm2 = DSWRC and 4. The regression equation obtained Dm2. DSWRC expression was used to express DSWRC. Various models for the determination of soil moisture suction according to statistical indicators normalized root mean square error, mean error, relative error.And mean geometric modeling efficiency was evaluated. The results of all four fractalsare close to each other and in most soils it is consistent with the measured data. Models predict the ability to work well in sandy loam soil fractal models and the predicted measured moisture value is less than the estimated fractal dimension- less than its actual value is the moisture curve. Conclusions: In this study, the work of Skaggs et al. (24 was used and it was amended by Fooladmand and Sepaskhah (8 grading curve using the percentage of developed sand, silt and clay . The fractal dimension of the particle size distribution was obtained.The fractal dimension particle size of the radius of the particle size of sand, silt and clay were used, respectively.In general, the study of fractals to simulate the effectiveness of retention curve proved successful. And soon it was found that the use of data, such as sand, silt and clay retention curve can be estimated with reasonable accuracy.

  5. Study on Vehicle Track Model in Road Curved Section Based on Vehicle Dynamic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plenty of experiments and data analysis of vehicle track type in road curved section show that the deviation and the crossing characteristics of vehicle track paths are directly related to the driving stability and security. In this connection, the concept of driving trajectory in curved section was proposed, six track types were classified and defined, and furthermore their characteristic features were determined. Most importantly, considering curve geometry and vehicle dynamic characteristics, each trajectory model was established, respectively, and the optimum driving trajectory models were finally determined based on the crucial factors of vehicle yaw rate, which was also the most important factor that impacts vehicle’s handling stability. Through it all, MATLAB was used to simulate and verify the correctness of models. Finally, this paper comes to the conclusion that normal trajectory and cutting trajectory are the optimum driving trajectories.

  6. LONG TERM SURVIVAL FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY: A POPULATION BASED PARAMETRIC SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Gordon Ward; Ransom, Jeanine; Mandrekar, Jay; Brown, Allen W

    2017-01-01

    Background Long term mortality may be increased following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however the degree to which survival could be reduced is unknown. We aimed to model life expectancy following post-acute TBI to provide predictions of longevity and quantify differences in survivorship with the general population. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study using data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) was performed. A random sample of patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota with a confirmed TBI between 1987 and 2000 was identified and vital status determined in 2013. Parametric survival modelling was then used to develop a model to predict life expectancy following TBI conditional on age at injury. Survivorship following TBI was also compared with the general population and age and gender matched non-head injured REP controls. Results 769 patients were included in complete case analyses. Median follow up time was 16.1 years (IQR 9.0–20.4) with 120 deaths occurring in the cohort during the study period. Survival after acute TBI was well represented by a Gompertz distribution. Victims of TBI surviving for at least 6 months post-injury demonstrated a much higher ongoing mortality rate compared to the US general population and non-TBI controls (hazard ratio 1·47, 95% CI 1·15–1·87). US general population cohort life table data was used to update the Gompertz model’s shape and scale parameters to account for cohort effects and allow prediction of life expectancy in contemporary TBI. Conclusions Survivors of TBI have decreased life expectancy compared to the general population. This may be secondary to the head injury itself or result from patient characteristics associated with both the propensity for TBI and increased early mortality. Post-TBI life expectancy estimates may be useful to guide prognosis, in public health planning, for actuarial applications and in the extrapolation of outcomes for TBI economic models. PMID:27165161

  7. Irregular GIS Curve Fitting based High Speed Railway Earthquake Influence Range Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhaobing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to guarantee that the train can take measures to reduce the damage caused by the earthquake, it propose an irregular GI S curve fitting based high-speed railway earthquake influence range calculation model. Firstly, this model eliminates the abnormal points, calculates feature points and finds demarcation points of the high- speed railway GI S curve to get the processed point collection in Mercator coordinate. Secondly, though usin g the processed point collection, this model applies least square polynomial segmentation fitting method to implement complex high-speed GI S curve fitting. Thirdly, calculate the earthquake influence rang on high-seed railway line, according to the scope of the earthquake equation and the high-speed railway GI S curve fitt ed equation. Finally, the paper selects the Beijing So uth to Dezhou East high-speed railway section which is part of Beijing-Shanghai line as a case study, which proves that the model can calculate the earthquake influence scope on the railway line offering decision support for train operation to ensure safety.

  8. Halftone information hiding technology based on phase feature of space filling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianhua; Cao, Peng; Dong, Zhihong; Cao, Xiaohe

    2017-08-01

    To solve the problems of the production of interference fringes (namely moiré in printing) and improve the image quality in printing process of halftone screening for information hiding, a halftone screening security technique based on the phase feature of space filling curves is studied in this paper. This method effectively solves the problem of moire and optimizes the quality of the screening, so that the images presented after screening have achieved good visual effect. The pseudo-random scrambling encryption of the plaintext information and the halftone screening technique based on the phase feature of the space filling curves are carried out when screening,which not only eliminates the common moire in the screening but also improves the image quality and the security of information.

  9. Construction of Pairing-Friendly Hyperelliptic Curves Based on the Closed Formulae of the Order of the Jacobian Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comuta, Aya; Kawazoe, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yoshizawa, Isamu

    An explicit construction of pairing-friendly hyperelliptic curves with ordinary Jacobians was firstly given by D. Freeman for the genus two case. In this paper, we give an explicit construction of pairing-friendly hyperelliptic curves of genus two and four with ordinary Jacobians based on the closed formulae for the order of the Jacobian of special hyperelliptic curves. For the case of genus two, we prove the closed formula for curves of type y2 = x5 + c. By using the formula, we develop an analogue of the Cocks-Pinch method for curves of type y2 = x5 + c. For the case of genus four, we also develop an analogue of the Cocks-Pinch method for curves of type y2 = x9 + cx. In particular, we construct the first examples of pairing-friendly hyperelliptic curves of genus four with ordinary Jacobians.

  10. On the Use of the Master Curve based on the Precracked Charpy Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.; Gerard, R

    1999-08-01

    Recently, worldwide interest has been demonstrated in the evaluation of the use of the Master Curve approach to characterize fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition regime. This was acknowledged by the recent release of the ASTM Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T{sub 0}, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range (E1921). The present work aims to investigate the use of the Charpy specimen along with the Master Curve approach to derive the fracture toughness behaviour of reactor pressure vessel steels. Therefore, four well characterized and documented reactor pressure vessel steels were selected. A large experimental program to measure fracture toughness with Charpy size specimens was carried out. Four important aspects were investigated: (1) the T0 determination as a function of test temperature; (2) the E1921 specimen size requirement (factor M=30); (3) the censoring procedure for specimens not satisfying the E1921 size requirements; (4) the estimation of the fracture toughness lower bound, and its comparison to the ASME KIC curve. It is found that within the experimental and statistical uncertainties, the reference temperature T0 is not affected by the test temperature, even when data are not valid according to E1921 requirements. By application of the censoring procedure, the determination of the reference temperature may lead to non conservative results. Comparison to larger specimen size suggests the use of M=60 rather than 30 to limit the loss of constraint, in agreement with finite element calculations. Nevertheless, the differences are not large enough to be statistically significant. The lower bound based on the Master Curve is very close to the experimental lower bound, while the ASME K{sub IC} curve trends to be over conservative. Replacing RT{sub NDT} by the new index, RT{sub To}, in the ASME KIC equation reduces this over conservatism.

  11. Evaluation of hydraulic efficiency of disinfection systems based on residence time distribution curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan M; Venayagamoorthy, Subhas K

    2010-12-15

    Hydraulic efficiency is a vital component in evaluating the disinfection capability of a contact system. Current practice evaluates these systems based upon the theoretical detention time (TDT) and the rising limb of the residence time distribution (RTD) curve. This evaluation methodology is expected because most systems are built based on TDT under a "black-box" approach to disinfection system design. Within recent years, the proliferation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has allowed a more insightful approach to disinfection system design and analysis. Research presented in this study using CFD models and physical tracer studies shows that evaluation methods based upon TDT tend to overestimate, severely in some instances, the actual hydraulic efficiency as obtained from the system's flow and scalar transport dynamics and subsequent RTD curve. The main objective of this study was to analyze an alternative measure of hydraulic efficiency, the ratio t(10)/t(90), where t(10) and t(90) are the time taken for 10 and 90% of the input concentration to be observed at the outlet of a system, respectively, for various disinfection systems, primarily a pipe loop system, pressurized tank system, and baffled tank system, from their respective RTD curves and compare the results to the current evaluation method.

  12. Numerical study of base pressure characteristic curve for a four-engine clustered nozzle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to benchmark a four-engine clustered nozzle base flowfield with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The CFD model is a three-dimensional pressure-based, viscous flow formulation. An adaptive upwind scheme is employed for the spatial discretization. The upwind scheme is based on second and fourth order central differencing with adaptive artificial dissipation. Qualitative base flow features such as the reverse jet, wall jet, recompression shock, and plume-plume impingement have been captured. The computed quantitative flow properties such as the radial base pressure distribution, model centerline Mach number and static pressure variation, and base pressure characteristic curve agreed reasonably well with those of the measurement. Parametric study on the effect of grid resolution, turbulence model, inlet boundary condition and difference scheme on convective terms has been performed. The results showed that grid resolution had a strong influence on the accuracy of the base flowfield prediction.

  13. Method of curved surface abnormal holes vision measurement based on high precision turntable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Laipeng; Bi, Chao; Fang, Jianguo; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    For solving the difficult problem that there is no effective way to measure abnormal holes located at blade erection loop of aero-engine case, an image measurement system based on high precision air-bearing turntable is established in this paper. The issue that monocular vision can't measure curved surface has overcome by using high precision turntable to make sure high positioning accuracy of the surface abnormal holes and high-resolution microscope lens which is used to image local tiny features. Besides, an algorithm of determining the boundary points of a trailing edge on the contour of abnormal hole is proposed to achieve a rapid fitting and accuracy. After experiments and analysis, results show that the system can be used to measure local tiny features on curved surfaces validly and efficiently.

  14. A Protocol for Digital Signature Based on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooghadam, Morteza; Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza; Malekian, Ehsan; Zakerolhosseini, Ali

    Digital signature and cryptography algorithms based on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP) have recently received significant attention by researchers due to their high performances. In this research, a novel protocol for digital signature based on the ECDLP has been presented which in comparison with the other protocols is shown to be more efficient. An acceptable security level of the proposed protocol similar to other protocols is also verified. The performance and the time complexity of the proposed protocol in comparison to previous protocols is analyzed and some advantages outlined.

  15. Determination of critical nitrogen dilution curve based on stem dry matter in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim

    Full Text Available Plant analysis is a very promising diagnostic tool for assessment of crop nitrogen (N requirements in perspectives of cost effective and environment friendly agriculture. Diagnosing N nutritional status of rice crop through plant analysis will give insights into optimizing N requirements of future crops. The present study was aimed to develop a new methodology for determining the critical nitrogen (Nc dilution curve based on stem dry matter (SDM and to assess its suitability to estimate the level of N nutrition for rice (Oryza sativa L. in east China. Three field experiments with varied N rates (0-360 kg N ha(-1 using three Japonica rice hybrids, Lingxiangyou-18, Wuxiangjing-14 and Wuyunjing were conducted in Jiangsu province of east China. SDM and stem N concentration (SNC were determined during vegetative stage for growth analysis. A Nc dilution curve based on SDM was described by the equation (Nc = 2.17W(-0.27 with W being SDM in t ha(-1, when SDM ranged from 0.88 to 7.94 t ha(-1. However, for SDM < 0.88 t ha(-1, the constant critical value Nc = 1.76% SDM was applied. The curve was dually validated for N-limiting and non-N-limiting growth conditions. The N nutrition index (NNI and accumulated N deficit (Nand of stem ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 and 51.1 to -7.07 kg N ha(-1, respectively, during key growth stages under varied N rates in 2010 and 2011. The values of ΔN derived from either NNI or Nand could be used as references for N dressing management during rice growth. Our results demonstrated that the present curve well differentiated the conditions of limiting and non-limiting N nutrition in rice crop. The SDM based Nc dilution curve can be adopted as an alternate and novel approach for evaluating plant N status to support N fertilization decision during the vegetative growth of Japonica rice in east China.

  16. Uncertainty estimation with bias-correction for flow series based on rating curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Quanxi; Lerat, Julien; Podger, Geoff; Dutta, Dushmanta

    2014-03-01

    Streamflow discharge constitutes one of the fundamental data required to perform water balance studies and develop hydrological models. A rating curve, designed based on a series of concurrent stage and discharge measurements at a gauging location, provides a way to generate complete discharge time series with a reasonable quality if sufficient measurement points are available. However, the associated uncertainty is frequently not available even though it has a significant impact on hydrological modelling. In this paper, we identify the discrepancy of the hydrographers' rating curves used to derive the historical discharge data series and proposed a modification by bias correction which is also in the form of power function as the traditional rating curve. In order to obtain the uncertainty estimation, we propose a further both-side Box-Cox transformation to stabilize the regression residuals as close to the normal distribution as possible, so that a proper uncertainty can be attached for the whole discharge series in the ensemble generation. We demonstrate the proposed method by applying it to the gauging stations in the Flinders and Gilbert rivers in north-west Queensland, Australia.

  17. The improved Noah land surface model based on storage capacity curve and Muskingum method and application in GRAPES model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lili; Chen, Dehui; Bao, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    ...‐yielding area based on a storage capacity curve for the better grid runoff simulation; (2) introduce routing module based on Muskingum method, to consider the redistribution of soil moisture in two...

  18. Preventing conflicts among bid curves used with transactive controllers in a market-based resource allocation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Hauer, Matthew; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-03-07

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. One of the disclosed embodiments is a method for operating a transactive thermostatic controller configured to submit bids to a market-based resource allocation system. According to the exemplary method, a first bid curve is determined, the first bid curve indicating a first set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a cooling mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. A second bid curve is also determined, the second bid curve indicating a second set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a heating mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. In this embodiment, the first bid curve, the second bid curve, or both the first bid curve and the second bid curve are modified to prevent overlap of any portion of the first bid curve and the second bid curve.

  19. Enhancement of global flood damage assessments using building material based vulnerability curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englhardt, Johanna; de Ruiter, Marleen; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses the development of an enhanced approach for flood damage and risk assessments using vulnerability curves that are based on building material information. The approach draws upon common practices in earthquake vulnerability assessments, and is an alternative for land-use or building occupancy approach in flood risk assessment models. The approach is of particular importance for studies where there is a large variation in building material, such as large scale studies or studies in developing countries. A case study of Ethiopia is used to demonstrate the impact of the different methodological approaches on direct damage assessments due to flooding. Generally, flood damage assessments use damage curves for different land-use or occupancy types (i.e. urban or residential and commercial classes). However, these categories do not necessarily relate directly to vulnerability of damage by flood waters. For this, the construction type and building material may be more important, as is used in earthquake risk assessments. For this study, we use building material classification data of the PAGER1 project to define new building material based vulnerability classes for flood damage. This approach will be compared to the widely applied land-use based vulnerability curves such as used by De Moel et al. (2011). The case of Ethiopia demonstrates and compares the feasibility of this novel flood vulnerability method on a country level which holds the potential to be scaled up to a global level. The study shows that flood vulnerability based on building material also allows for better differentiation between flood damage in urban and rural settings, opening doors to better link to poverty studies when such exposure data is available. Furthermore, this new approach paves the road to the enhancement of multi-risk assessments as the method enables the comparison of vulnerability across different natural hazard types that also use material-based vulnerability curves

  20. Detection of methylation in promoter sequences by melting curve analysis-based semiquantitative real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázcoz Paula

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present two melting curve analysis (MCA-based semiquantitative real time PCR techniques to detect the promoter methylation status of genes. The first, MCA-MSP, follows the same principle as standard MSP but it is performed in a real time thermalcycler with results being visualized in a melting curve. The second, MCA-Meth, uses a single pair of primers designed with no CpGs in its sequence. These primers amplify both unmethylated and methylated sequences. In clinical applications the MSP technique has revolutionized methylation detection by simplifying the analysis to a PCR-based protocol. MCA-analysis based techniques may be able to further improve and simplify methylation analyses by reducing starting DNA amounts, by introducing an all-in-one tube reaction and by eliminating a final gel stage for visualization of the result. The current study aimed at investigating the feasibility of both MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in the analysis of promoter methylation, and at defining potential advantages and shortcomings in comparison to currently implemented techniques, i.e. bisulfite sequencing and standard MSP. Methods The promoters of the RASSF1A (3p21.3, BLU (3p21.3 and MGMT (10q26 genes were analyzed by MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth in 13 astrocytoma samples, 6 high grade glioma cell lines and 4 neuroblastoma cell lines. The data were compared with standard MSP and validated by bisulfite sequencing. Results Both, MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth, successfully determined promoter methylation. MCA-MSP provided information similar to standard MSP analyses. However the analysis was possible in a single tube and avoided the gel stage. MCA-Meth proved to be useful in samples with intermediate methylation status, reflected by a melting curve position shift in dependence on methylation extent. Conclusion We propose MCA-MSP and MCA-Meth as alternative or supplementary techniques to MSP or bisulfite sequencing.

  1. Assessing the Classification Accuracy of Early Numeracy Curriculum-Based Measures Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracy, Seth D.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the ability of early numeracy curriculum-based measures (EN-CBM) administered in preschool to predict performance below the 25th and 40th percentiles on a quantity discrimination measure in kindergarten. Areas under the curve derived from a sample of 279 students ranged…

  2. Diurnal tension curves for assessing the development or progression of glaucoma: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION There are two main types of glaucoma, primary open angle (POAG) and angle closure glaucoma, of which POAG is the more common type. POAG is diagnosed by assessing degenerative changes in the optic disc and loss of visual field (VF). Risk factors for glaucoma include an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), a family history of glaucoma, older age and being of African descent. The prevalence of POAG ranges from 1.1% to 3.0% in Western populations and from 4.2% to 8.8% in populations of African descent. Usually the IOP associated with POAG is elevated above the normal distribution (10-20 mmHg), but when IOP is not elevated it is often referred to as normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). In population based studies, approximately one-third to half of the patients with glaucomatous VF loss have normal IOP on initial examination. People with elevated IOP (>21 mmHg), but with no evidence of optic disc or VF damage have ocular hypertension. It has been estimated that 3 to 6 million people in the United States including 4% to 7% of those older than 40 years have elevated IOP without detectable glaucomatous damage on standard clinical tests. An Italian study found the overall prevalence of ocular hypertension, POAG, and NTG in 4,297 people over 40 years of age to be 2.1%, 1.4% and 0.6% respectively. DIURNAL CURVE: In normal individuals, IOP fluctuates 2 to 6 mmHg over a 24 hour period. IOP is influenced by body position with higher readings found in the supine relative to the upright position. As most individuals sleep in the supine position and are upright during the day, IOP is higher on average in people, both with and without glaucoma, in the nocturnal period. IOP is generally higher in the morning compared to the afternoon. Multiple IOP measurements over the course of a day can be used to generate a diurnal curve and may have clinical importance in terms of diagnosis and management of patients with IOP related conditions since a solitary

  3. The Acceleration/Deceleration Control Algorithm Based on Trapezoid-Curve Jerk in CNC Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Guoyong Zhao; Yugang Zhao; Shijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the acceleration/deceleration control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk in CNC machining. In aviation and mould and die industry, it is much significant to achieve high accuracy CNC machining on complex profile parts. The unsmooth Acceleration/Deceleration (ab. Acc/Dec) control in feed movement is one of the main reasons to bring about machine tools impact and vibration in practical machining. After analyzing the CNC machine tools dynamic model, an Acc/Dec cont...

  4. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  5. Meta-analysis of survival curve data using distributed health data networks: application to hip arthroplasty studies of the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art; Paxton, Liz; Furnes, Ove; Graves, Stephen; Marinac-Dabic, Danica

    2015-12-01

    The motivating example for this paper comes from a distributed health data network, the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries (ICOR), which aims to examine risk factors for orthopedic device failure for registries around the world. Unfortunately, regulatory, privacy, and propriety concerns made sharing of raw data impossible, even if de-identified. Therefore, this article describes an approach to extraction and analysis of aggregate time-to-event data from ICOR. Data extraction is based on obtaining a survival probability and variance estimate for each unique combination of the explanatory variables at each distinct event time for each registry. The extraction procedure allows for a great deal of flexibility; models can be specified after the data have been collected, for example, modeling of interaction effects and selection of subgroups of patients based on their values on the explanatory variables. Our analysis models are adapted from models presented elsewhere--but allowing for censoring in the calculation of the correlation between serial survival probabilities and using the square root of the covariance matrix to transform the data to avoid computational problems in model estimation. Simulations and a real-data example are provided with strengths and limitations of the approach discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches...... of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover...

  7. Optimal algorithm for automatic detection of microaneurysms based on receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Luo, Shuqian

    2010-01-01

    Microaneurysms (MAs) are the first manifestations of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) as well as an indicator for its progression. Their automatic detection plays a key role for both mass screening and monitoring and is therefore in the core of any system for computer-assisted diagnosis of DR. The algorithm basically comprises the following stages: candidate detection aiming at extracting the patterns possibly corresponding to MAs based on mathematical morphological black top hat, feature extraction to characterize these candidates, and classification based on support vector machine (SVM), to validate MAs. Feature vector and kernel function of SVM selection is very important to the algorithm. We use the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the distinguishing performance of different feature vectors and different kernel functions of SVM. The ROC analysis indicates the quadratic polynomial SVM with a combination of features as the input shows the best discriminating performance.

  8. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo

    1987-01-01

    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  9. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPSis unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or opticaltracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model formobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags ina space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-costpassive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tagsand the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. Wecontrol and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetoothnetwork. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperformsthat of the previous scheme.

  10. Composite Field Multiplier based on Look-Up Table for Elliptic Curve Cryptography Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa W. Paryasto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a secure cryptosystem requires operations involving hundreds of bits. One of the most recommended algorithm is Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. The complexity of elliptic curve algorithms and parameters with hundreds of bits requires specific design and implementation strategy. The design architecture must be customized according to security requirement, available resources and parameter choices. In this work we propose the use of composite field to implement finite field multiplication for ECC implementation. We use 299-bit keylength represented in GF((21323 instead of in GF(2299. Composite field multiplier can be implemented using different multiplier for ground-field and for extension field. In this paper, LUT is used for multiplication in the ground-field and classic multiplieris used for the extension field multiplication. A generic architecture for the multiplier is presented. Implementation is done with VHDL with the target device Altera DE2. The work in this paper uses the simplest algorithm to confirm the idea that by dividing field into composite, use different multiplier for base and extension field would give better trade-off for time and area. This work will be the beginning of our more advanced further research that implements composite-field using Mastrovito Hybrid, KOA and LUT.

  11. A Method for Formulizing Disaster Evacuation Demand Curves Based on SI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulei Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of evacuation demand curves is a crucial step in the disaster evacuation plan making, which directly affects the performance of the disaster evacuation. In this paper, we discuss the factors influencing individual evacuation decision making (whether and when to leave and summarize them into four kinds: individual characteristics, social influence, geographic location, and warning degree. In the view of social contagion of decision making, a method based on Susceptible-Infective (SI model is proposed to formulize the disaster evacuation demand curves to address both social influence and other factors’ effects. The disaster event of the “Tianjin Explosions” is used as a case study to illustrate the modeling results influenced by the four factors and perform the sensitivity analyses of the key parameters of the model. Some interesting phenomena are found and discussed, which is meaningful for authorities to make specific evacuation plans. For example, due to the lower social influence in isolated communities, extra actions might be taken to accelerate evacuation process in those communities.

  12. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPS is unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or optical tracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model for mobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags in a space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-cost passive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tags and the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. We control and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth network. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperforms that of the previous scheme.

  13. An Elliptic Curve Based Schnorr Cloud Security Model in Distributed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinothkumar Muthurajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing requires the security upgrade in data transmission approaches. In general, key-based encryption/decryption (symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms ensure the secure data transfer between the devices. The symmetric key mechanisms (pseudorandom function provide minimum protection level compared to asymmetric key (RSA, AES, and ECC schemes. The presence of expired content and the irrelevant resources cause unauthorized data access adversely. This paper investigates how the integrity and secure data transfer are improved based on the Elliptic Curve based Schnorr scheme. This paper proposes a virtual machine based cloud model with Hybrid Cloud Security Algorithm (HCSA to remove the expired content. The HCSA-based auditing improves the malicious activity prediction during the data transfer. The duplication in the cloud server degrades the performance of EC-Schnorr based encryption schemes. This paper utilizes the blooming filter concept to avoid the cloud server duplication. The combination of EC-Schnorr and blooming filter efficiently improves the security performance. The comparative analysis between proposed HCSA and the existing Distributed Hash Table (DHT regarding execution time, computational overhead, and auditing time with auditing requests and servers confirms the effectiveness of HCSA in the cloud security model creation.

  14. An Elliptic Curve Based Schnorr Cloud Security Model in Distributed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthurajan, Vinothkumar; Narayanasamy, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing requires the security upgrade in data transmission approaches. In general, key-based encryption/decryption (symmetric and asymmetric) mechanisms ensure the secure data transfer between the devices. The symmetric key mechanisms (pseudorandom function) provide minimum protection level compared to asymmetric key (RSA, AES, and ECC) schemes. The presence of expired content and the irrelevant resources cause unauthorized data access adversely. This paper investigates how the integrity and secure data transfer are improved based on the Elliptic Curve based Schnorr scheme. This paper proposes a virtual machine based cloud model with Hybrid Cloud Security Algorithm (HCSA) to remove the expired content. The HCSA-based auditing improves the malicious activity prediction during the data transfer. The duplication in the cloud server degrades the performance of EC-Schnorr based encryption schemes. This paper utilizes the blooming filter concept to avoid the cloud server duplication. The combination of EC-Schnorr and blooming filter efficiently improves the security performance. The comparative analysis between proposed HCSA and the existing Distributed Hash Table (DHT) regarding execution time, computational overhead, and auditing time with auditing requests and servers confirms the effectiveness of HCSA in the cloud security model creation.

  15. Ground-based Light Curves Two Pluto Days Before the New Horizons Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, A. S.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Durst, R. F.; Seeger, C. H.; Levine, S. E.; Abe, F.; Suzuki, D.; Nagakane, M.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C.; Kosiarek, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We observed the occultation of a 12th magnitude star, one of the two brightest occultation stars ever in our dozen years of continual monitoring of Pluto's atmosphere through such studies, on 29 June 2015 UTC. At Canterbury University's Mt. John University Observatory on the south island of New Zealand, in clear sky, we used our POETS frame-transfer CCD at 10 Hz with GPS timing on the 1-m McLellan telescope as well as an infrared camera on an 0.6-m telescope and three-color photometry at a slower cadence on a second 0.6-m telescope. The light curves show a central flash, indicating that we were close to the center of the occultation path, and allowing us to explore Pluto's atmosphere lower than usual. The light curves show that Pluto's atmosphere remained robust. Observations from 0.5- and 0.4-m telescopes at the Auckland Observatory gave the first half of the occultation before clouds came in. We coordinated our observations with aircraft observations with NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and its High Speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO). Our ground-based and airborne stellar-occultation effort came only just over two weeks of Earth days and two Pluto days (based on Pluto's rotational period) before the flyby of NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, meaning that the mission's exquisite snapshot of Pluto's atmosphere can be placed in the context of our series of ground-based occultation observations carried out on a regular basis since 2002 following a first Pluto occultation observed in 1988 from aloft. Our observations were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX12AJ29G to Williams College, NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory, and NNX10AB27G to MIT, and by the National Research Foundation of South Africa. We thank Alan Gilmore, Pam Kilmartin, Robert Lucas, Paul Tristam, and Carolle Varughese for assistance at Mt. John.

  16. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  17. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes. PMID:26184224

  18. Spectral optimization simulation of white light based on the photopic eye-sensitivity curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Qi, E-mail: qidai@tongji.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute for Advanced Study, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Key Laboratory of Ecology and Energy-saving Study of Dense Habitat (Tongji University), Ministry of Education, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Hao, Luoxi; Lin, Yi; Cui, Zhe [College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Key Laboratory of Ecology and Energy-saving Study of Dense Habitat (Tongji University), Ministry of Education, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-02-07

    Spectral optimization simulation of white light is studied to boost maximum attainable luminous efficacy of radiation at high color-rendering index (CRI) and various color temperatures. The photopic eye-sensitivity curve V(λ) is utilized as the dominant portion of white light spectra. Emission spectra of a blue InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) and a red AlInGaP LED are added to the spectrum of V(λ) to match white color coordinates. It is demonstrated that at the condition of color temperature from 2500 K to 6500 K and CRI above 90, such white sources can achieve spectral efficacy of 330–390 lm/W, which is higher than the previously reported theoretical maximum values. We show that this eye-sensitivity-based approach also has advantages on component energy conversion efficiency compared with previously reported optimization solutions.

  19. Comparative analysis of base flow recession curves for different Andean catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, P.; Batelaan, O.; Wyseure, G.

    2012-04-01

    Little is known in the Paute River basin, Ecuador about the groundwater resources, the relation between aquifers and their recharge zones and interaction with rivers. The pressure from human activities in the river basin is increasing and impacting the surface water quality and quantity, therefore it becomes increasingly useful to estimate the potential of groundwater exploitation as an alternative resource. Due to the lack of specific groundwater data and information, assessment of suitable alternative methods for groundwater research at different scales is considered. In low flow hydrology literature it is noted that the majority of natural gains to streamflow during low-flow periods are derived from releases from groundwater storage, moreover baseflow is generally suggested to be an indicator of groundwater or other delayed sources. Analysis of flow recession curves allows the determination of characteristics of the groundwater reservoir, which is a prerequisite for the separation of baseflow from total discharge and the estimation of groundwater storage and recharge. The flow recession curve at a river cross section is defined as the discharge hydrograph of the basin during a rainless or dry period. Its analysis yields information on the retention characteristics of the basin and of groundwater storage and depletion. In the Paute River basin baseflows are assumed to be originating from Paramo storage, which is largely determined by the high water retention capacity of the soils in combination with their slopes. In the case of the sub-catchment of the Tarqui River, there are evidences based on topography, hydromorphology, discharges and soils that suggest the presence of a major aquifer in the valley. Hence, the goal of this contribution is the comparison and analysis of groundwater conditions based on baseflow recession analysis for the Tarqui and Yanuncay River sub-catchments. Baseflow analyses are translated in recharge and groundwater resources

  20. Pseudorandom Bit Sequence Generator for Stream Cipher Based on Elliptic Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilna Payingat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a pseudorandom sequence generator for stream ciphers based on elliptic curves (EC. A detailed analysis of various EC based random number generators available in the literature is done and a new method is proposed such that it addresses the drawbacks of these schemes. Statistical analysis of the proposed method is carried out using the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology test suite and it is seen that the sequence exhibits good randomness properties. The linear complexity analysis shows that the system has a linear complexity equal to the period of the sequence which is highly desirable. The statistical complexity and security against known plain text attack are also analysed. A comparison of the proposed method with other EC based schemes is done in terms of throughput, periodicity, and security, and the proposed method outperforms the methods in the literature. For resource constrained applications where a highly secure key exchange is essential, the proposed method provides a good option for encryption by time sharing the point multiplication unit for EC based key exchange. The algorithm and architecture for implementation are developed in such a way that the hardware consumed in addition to point multiplication unit is much less.

  1. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Giovanni, E-mail: giori@nanotech.dtu.dk; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F., E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk

    2015-04-15

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP. - Highlights: • We apply magnetoresistive sensors to study solid-surface hybridization kinetics of DNA. • We measure DNA melting profiles for perfectly matching DNA duplexes and for a single base mismatch. • We present a procedure to correct for temperature dependencies of the sensor output. • We reliably extract melting temperatures for the DNA hybrids. • We demonstrate direct measurement of differential binding signal for two probes on a single sensor.

  2. A Parameter Identification Method for Dynamics of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries Based on Step-Change Current Curves and Constant Current Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameterization of battery dynamics based on terminal operating data is a main concern in engineering applications of batteries. The key technology is designing an adequate test procedure and a data processing procedure to excite different inner dynamics and then estimate the parameters of a corresponding equivalent circuit model (ECM. This paper proposes a parameter identification method that utilizes the terminal voltage curves (TVC under step-change current conditions and constant current conditions. With this method, I-V characteristics of battery’s Ohmic resistance, mass diffusion process, thermal process and SOC varying process are decoupled and parametric functions of an ECM are obtained. Experimental results show that the method is easy to be implemented and modeling accuracy is sufficient for applications.

  3. A Method of Timbre-Shape Synthesis Based On Summation of Spherical Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that there is a rich correspondence between sound and visual curves, perhaps most widely explored through direct input of sound into an oscilloscope. However, there have been relatively few proposals on how to translate sound into three-dimensional curves. We present a novel method...

  4. [Diagnostic P300 threshold based on the analysis of receiver operating characteristic curve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yao-qin; Tang, Yun-xiang; He, Jia

    2013-11-05

    To explore the diagnostic application of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of P300 amplitude and latency in schizophrenia. ROC curve of P300 amplitude and latency was plotted from 91 first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 141 normal controls (NC). Youden's index and distance were calculated in ROC curve to determine the optimal cutoff point of P300 amplitude and latency for schizophrenic diagnosis. Then the subjects were layered by gender and age for improved diagnostic accuracy. The area under ROC curve for P300 amplitude for predicting schizophrenia was 0.746 (P 40 years (28.80%) patients. P300 amplitude has certain values in schizophrenic diagnosis. Gender and age stratification may enhance the diagnostic efficiency of ROC curve in the diagnosis of frequent schizophrenia.

  5. A hybrid energy model for region based curve evolution - Application to CTA coronary segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Muhammad Moazzam; Rajani, Ronak; Liatsis, Panos; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Slabaugh, Greg

    2017-06-01

    State-of-the-art medical imaging techniques have enabled non-invasive imaging of the internal organs. However, high volumes of imaging data make manual interpretation and delineation of abnormalities cumbersome for clinicians. These challenges have driven intensive research into efficient medical image segmentation. In this work, we propose a hybrid region-based energy formulation for effective segmentation in computed tomography angiography (CTA) imagery. The proposed hybrid energy couples an intensity-based local term with an efficient discontinuity-based global model of the image for optimal segmentation. The segmentation is achieved using a level set formulation due to the computational robustness. After validating the statistical significance of the hybrid energy, we applied the proposed model to solve an important clinical problem of 3D coronary segmentation. An improved seed detection method is used to initialize the level set evolution. Moreover, we employed an auto-correction feature that captures the emerging peripheries during the curve evolution for completeness of the coronary tree. We evaluated the segmentation accuracy of the proposed energy model against the existing techniques in two stages. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework with a consistent mean sensitivity and specificity measures of 80% across the CTA data. Moreover, a high degree of agreement with respect to the inter-observer differences justifies the generalization of the proposed method. The proposed method is effective to segment the coronary tree from the CTA volume based on hybrid image based energy, which can improve the clinicians ability to detect arterial abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  7. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kouji; Takahashi, Hideki; Li, Shuguang; Sugimachi, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Kimihiko; Suda, Yoshihiro; Kato, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves), but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task). Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections. Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05), but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p right frontal eye field. Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  8. Bezier Curves Based Numerical Solutions of Delay Systems with Inverse Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghomanjani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applied, for the first time, the Bernstein’s approximation on delay differential equations and delay systems with inverse delay that models these problems. The direct algorithm is given for solving this problem. The delay function and inverse time function are expanded by the Bézier curves. The Bézier curves are chosen as piecewise polynomials of degree n, and the Bézier curves are determined on any subinterval by n+1 control points. The approximated solution of delay systems containing inverse time is derived. To validate accuracy of the present algorithm, some examples are solved.

  9. Prediction of Experimental Rainfall-Eroded Soil Area Based on S-Shaped Growth Curve Model Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Nie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced soil erosion of a mountain area plays a significant role in supplying sediment and shaping the landscape. The related area of soil erosion, as an index of the changed landscape, is easier to calculate visually using some popular imaging tools. By image analysis, our work shows that the changing of the soil erosion area admits the structure of an S-growth curve. Therefore, we propose to establish an S-curve model, based on incremental learning, to predict the soil erosion area. In the process of incremental learning, we dynamically update the accumulative rainfall and rainfall intensity to train the parameters of our S-curve model. In order to verify our prediction model, the index of area is utilized to express the output of eroded soil in a series of experiments. The results show that the proposed S-growth curve model can be used to estimate the growth of the soil erosion area (average relative error 3%–9.7% according to variable soil material and rainfall intensity. The original S-growth curve model can calculate the erosion areas of just one soil material and one rainfall condition whose average relative error is 7.5%–12.2%; compared to the simple time series analysis-moving average method (average relative error 5.7%–12.1%, our proposed S-growth curve model can reveal the physical mechanism and evolution of the research object.

  10. Multiaxial fatigue criterion based on parameters from torsion and axial S-N curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margetin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial high cycle fatigue is a topic that concerns nearly all industrial domains. In recent years, a great deal of recommendations how to address problems with multiaxial fatigue life time estimation have been made and a huge progress in the field has been achieved. Until now, however, no universal criterion for multiaxial fatigue has been proposed. Addressing this situation, this paper offers a design of a new multiaxial criterion for high cycle fatigue. This criterion is based on critical plane search. Damage parameter consists of a combination of normal and shear stresses on a critical plane (which is a plane with maximal shear stress amplitude. Material parameters used in proposed criterion are obtained from torsion and axial S-N curves. Proposed criterion correctly calculates life time for boundary loading condition (pure torsion and pure axial loading. Application of proposed model is demonstrated on biaxial loading and the results are verified with testing program using specimens made from S355 steel. Fatigue material parameters for proposed criterion and multiple sets of data for different combination of axial and torsional loading have been obtained during the experiment.

  11. An Improved Empirical Fuel Cell Polarization Curve Model Based on Review Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review analysis of empirical fuel cell polarization curve models in the literature, an improved model that can predict fuel cell performance with only measured current-voltage data is developed. The fitting characteristics of this new model are validated by fitting bench test data and road test data. In the case of bench test data, a comparison of the new model and two representative models is conducted, and the results show that the new model presents the best fitting effects over a whole range of current densities. Moreover, the fitted ohmic resistances derived from the new model show good agreement with the measured values obtained through a current interruption test. In the case of using road test data, the new model also presents excellent fitting characteristics and convenience for application. It is the author’s belief that the new model is beneficial for the application-oriented research of fuel cells due to its prominent features, such as conciseness, flexibility, and high accuracy.

  12. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  13. Reliability assessment of a manual-based procedure towards learning curve modeling and fmea analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rech

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Separation procedures in drug Distribution Centers (DC are manual-based activities prone to failures such as shipping exchanged, expired or broken drugs to the customer. Two interventions seem as promising in improving the reliability in the separation procedure: (i selection and allocation of appropriate operators to the procedure, and (ii analysis of potential failure modes incurred by selected operators. This article integrates Learning Curves (LC and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis aimed at reducing the occurrence of failures in the manual separation of a drug DC. LCs parameters enable generating an index to identify the recommended operators to perform the procedures. The FMEA is then applied to the separation procedure carried out by the selected operators in order to identify failure modes. It also deployed the traditional FMEA severity index into two sub-indexes related to financial issues and damage to company´s image in order to characterize failures severity. When applied to a drug DC, the proposed method significantly reduced the frequency and severity of failures in the separation procedure.

  14. Optical identity authentication scheme based on elliptic curve digital signature algorithm and phase retrieval algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Desheng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2013-08-10

    An optical identity authentication scheme based on the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) and phase retrieval algorithm (PRA) is proposed. In this scheme, a user's certification image and the quick response code of the user identity's keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC) with added noise, serving as the amplitude and phase restriction, respectively, are digitally encoded into two phase keys using a PRA in the Fresnel domain. During the authentication process, when the two phase keys are presented to the system and illuminated by a plane wave of correct wavelength, an output image is generated in the output plane. By identifying whether there is a match between the amplitude of the output image and all the certification images pre-stored in the database, the system can thus accomplish a first-level verification. After the confirmation of first-level verification, the ECDSA signature is decoded from the phase part of the output image and verified to allege whether the user's identity is legal or not. Moreover, the introduction of HMAC makes it almost impossible to forge the signature and hence the phase keys thanks to the HMAC's irreversible property. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both validate the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

  15. Lamb wave-based BVID imaging for a curved composite sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaze; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2017-02-01

    Composite sandwich structures, consisting of a low density core sandwiched between two laminated facesheets, have been widely used in various aerospace structures. A new Lamb wave-based imaging condition, which will be referred to as the inverse incident wave energy (IIWE) imaging criterion, is proposed in this paper to resolve the situations where the incident wave energy weakly penetrates into the damaged area in the upper facesheet region. Current imaging conditions by analyzing wavefield reconstructed from laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) scanning have been proven to be adequate for imaging damage in layered composite laminates. In this research, those current imaging conditions were applied and compared in the composite foam structures for barely visible impact damage (BVID). A piezoelectric wafer was used to excite Lamb waves into the structure and a LDV was used to scan the potential damaged areas in the upper facesheet of the panel. A BVID site in a curved composite sandwich foam aileron was inspected using various wavefield analysis methods and the damage images were compared with C-scan images. A few imaging conditions that are effective for this BVID site are identified when the incident waves have difficulties penetrating into the damaged region.

  16. Damping Parameters Identification of Cabin Suspension System for Heavy Duty Truck Based on Curve Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the dynamic simulation of cabin system, the damping parameters values of cabin suspension are the key factors. In previous work, for obtaining all the parameters of the cabin system of trucks for long distance transport, a parameters identification model was built by minimizing the error of the root-mean-square acceleration between the tested and the measured. However, the identification precision is not high. In this paper, according to the real cabin system of a heavy duty truck for short distance transport, a 3-DOF model of cabin system was built. Based on curve fitting method, a new identification model for damping parameters was established. At last, the bench test was done and the comparisons were conducted among the tested values, the values identified by the method built in this work, and those obtained by the method built in previous work. The results show that the model built and the method proposed are feasible, and the identification precision is higher than the previous work.

  17. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    Full Text Available In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  18. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham- Yahalom logic. PMID:27007951

  19. Interior Temperature Measurement Using Curved Mercury Capillary Sensor Based on X-ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyue; Jiang, Xing; Lu, Guirong

    2017-07-01

    A method was presented for measuring the interior temperature of objects using a curved mercury capillary sensor based on X-ray radiography. The sensor is composed of a mercury bubble, a capillary and a fixed support. X-ray digital radiography was employed to capture image of the mercury column in the capillary, and a temperature control system was designed for the sensor calibration. We adopted livewire algorithms and mathematical morphology to calculate the mercury length. A measurement model relating mercury length to temperature was established, and the measurement uncertainty associated with the mercury column length and the linear model fitted by least-square method were analyzed. To verify the system, the interior temperature measurement of an autoclave, which is totally closed, was taken from 29.53°C to 67.34°C. The experiment results show that the response of the system is approximately linear with an uncertainty of maximum 0.79°C. This technique provides a new approach to measure interior temperature of objects.

  20. Driver Vision Based Perception-Response Time Prediction and Assistance Model on Mountain Highway Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Chen, Yuren

    2016-12-30

    To make driving assistance system more humanized, this study focused on the prediction and assistance of drivers' perception-response time on mountain highway curves. Field tests were conducted to collect real-time driving data and driver vision information. A driver-vision lane model quantified curve elements in drivers' vision. A multinomial log-linear model was established to predict perception-response time with traffic/road environment information, driver-vision lane model, and mechanical status (last second). A corresponding assistance model showed a positive impact on drivers' perception-response times on mountain highway curves. Model results revealed that the driver-vision lane model and visual elements did have important influence on drivers' perception-response time. Compared with roadside passive road safety infrastructure, proper visual geometry design, timely visual guidance, and visual information integrality of a curve are significant factors for drivers' perception-response time.

  1. Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Z-curve is a three-dimensional curve that constitutes a unique representation of a DNA sequence, i.e., both the Z-curve and the given DNA sequence can be uniquely reconstructed from the other. We employed Z-curve analysis to identify one replication origin in the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii genome, two replication origins in the Halobacterium species NRC-1 genome and one replication origin in the Methanosarcina mazei genome. One of the predicted replication origins of Halobacterium species NRC-1 is the same as a replication origin later identified by in vivo experiments. The Z-curve analysis of the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 genome suggested the existence of three replication origins, which is also consistent with later experimental results. This review aims to summarize applications of the Z-curve in identifying replication origins of archaeal genomes, and to provide clues about the locations of as yet unidentified replication origins of the Aeropyrum pernix K1, Methanococcus maripaludis S2, Picrophilus torridus DSM 9790 and Pyrobaculum aerophilum str. IM2 genomes.

  2. A computational model-based validation of Guyton's analysis of cardiac output and venous return curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.; Cohen, R. J.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Guyton developed a popular approach for understanding the factors responsible for cardiac output (CO) regulation in which 1) the heart-lung unit and systemic circulation are independently characterized via CO and venous return (VR) curves, and 2) average CO and right atrial pressure (RAP) of the intact circulation are predicted by graphically intersecting the curves. However, this approach is virtually impossible to verify experimentally. We theoretically evaluated the approach with respect to a nonlinear, computational model of the pulsatile heart and circulation. We developed two sets of open circulation models to generate CO and VR curves, differing by the manner in which average RAP was varied. One set applied constant RAPs, while the other set applied pulsatile RAPs. Accurate prediction of intact, average CO and RAP was achieved only by intersecting the CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs because of the pulsatility and nonlinearity (e.g., systemic venous collapse) of the intact model. The CO and VR curves generated with pulsatile RAPs were also practically independent. This theoretical study therefore supports the validity of Guyton's graphical analysis.

  3. ESTIMATION OF SURVIVAL FUNCTION BASED ON MODELING OF CENSORING PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Akio, Suzukawa; Nobuhiro, Taneichi; Department of Animal Production and Agricultural Economics, Obihiro University

    2000-01-01

    The Kaplan-Meier estimator(KM-estimator)is an important tool in the analysis of right censored data. It is a non-parametric estimator of an unknown survival function of a lifetime random variable. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a semi-parametric estimator of the survival function. In many practical data, there are several patterns of censoring, for example, censoring is apt to occur for the larger observable time. Such a pattern can be expressed by a function defined by conditional pr...

  4. da Vinci Skills Simulator for Assessing Learning Curve and Criterion-based Training of Robotic Basic Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Luursema, J.M.; Kengen, B.; Schout, B.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To answer 2 research questions: what are the learning curve patterns of novices on the da Vinci skills simulator parameters and what parameters are appropriate for criterion-based robotic training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 novices completed 2 simulator sessions within 3 days.

  5. Extended-Search, Bézier Curve-Based Lane Detection and Reconstruction System for an Intelligent Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the real-time performance and detection rate of a Lane Detection and Reconstruction (LDR system, an extended-search-based lane detection method and a Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm are proposed in this paper. The extended-search-based lane detection method is designed to search boundary blocks from the initial position, in an upwards direction and along the lane, with small search areas including continuous search, discontinuous search and bending search in order to detect different lane boundaries. The Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm is employed to describe a wide range of lane boundary forms with comparatively simple expressions. In addition, two Bézier curves are adopted to reconstruct the lanes' outer boundaries with large curvature variation. The lane detection and reconstruction algorithm — including initial-blocks' determining, extended search, binarization processing and lane boundaries' fitting in different scenarios — is verified in road tests. The results show that this algorithm is robust against different shadows and illumination variations; the average processing time per frame is 13 ms. Significantly, it presents an 88.6% high-detection rate on curved lanes with large or variable curvatures, where the accident rate is higher than that of straight lanes.

  6. Learner Characteristic Based Learning Effort Curve Mode: The Core Mechanism on Developing Personalized Adaptive E-Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…

  7. Optimization of ISOL targets based on Monte-Carlo simulations of ion release curves

    CERN Document Server

    Mustapha, B

    2003-01-01

    A detailed model for simulating release curves from ISOL targets has been developed. The full 3D geometry is implemented using Geant-4. Produced particles are followed individually from production to release. The delay time is computed event by event. All processes involved: diffusion, effusion and decay are included to obtain the overall release curve. By fitting to the experimental data, important parameters of the release process (diffusion coefficient, sticking time, ...) are extracted. They can be used to improve the efficiency of existing targets and design new ones more suitable to produce beams of rare isotopes.

  8. Spectral Similarity Assessment Based on a Spectrum Reflectance-Absorption Index and Simplified Curve Patterns for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Junyi; Li, Huali; Liu, Ping; Chen, Huijuan; Qian, Jing

    2016-01-26

    Hyperspectral images possess properties such as rich spectral information, narrow bandwidth, and large numbers of bands. Finding effective methods to retrieve land features from an image by using similarity assessment indices with specific spectral characteristics is an important research question. This paper reports a novel hyperspectral image similarity assessment index based on spectral curve patterns and a reflection-absorption index. First, some spectral reflection-absorption features are extracted to restrict the subsequent curve simplification. Then, the improved Douglas-Peucker algorithm is employed to simplify all spectral curves without setting the thresholds. Finally, the simplified curves with the feature points are matched, and the similarities among the spectral curves are calculated using the matched points. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) hyperspectral image datasets are then selected to test the effect of the proposed index. The practical experiments indicate that the proposed index can achieve higher precision and fewer points than the traditional spectral information divergence and spectral angle match.

  9. A Critical Review on Wind Turbine Power Curve Modelling Techniques and Their Applications in Wind Based Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Sohoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power curve of a wind turbine depicts the relationship between output power and hub height wind speed and is an important characteristic of the turbine. Power curve aids in energy assessment, warranty formulations, and performance monitoring of the turbines. With the growth of wind industry, turbines are being installed in diverse climatic conditions, onshore and offshore, and in complex terrains causing significant departure of these curves from the warranted values. Accurate models of power curves can play an important role in improving the performance of wind energy based systems. This paper presents a detailed review of different approaches for modelling of the wind turbine power curve. The methodology of modelling depends upon the purpose of modelling, availability of data, and the desired accuracy. The objectives of modelling, various issues involved therein, and the standard procedure for power performance measurement with its limitations have therefore been discussed here. Modelling methods described here use data from manufacturers’ specifications and actual data from the wind farms. Classification of modelling methods, various modelling techniques available in the literature, model evaluation criteria, and application of soft computing methods for modelling are then reviewed in detail. The drawbacks of the existing methods and future scope of research are also identified.

  10. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  11. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavalapati Goutham Reddy

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  12. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  13. Quantum curves

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    One says that a pair (P,Q) of ordinary differential operators specify a quantum curve if [P,Q]=const. If a pair of difference operators (K,L) obey the relation KL=const LK we say that they specify a discrete quantum curve. This terminology is prompted by well known results about commuting differential and difference operators, relating pairs of such operators with pairs of meromorphic functions on algebraic curves obeying some conditions. ...

  14. Aspects of Pairing Based Cryptography on Jacobians of Genus Two Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnshøj, Christian Robenhagen

    The thesis concerns properties of Jacobians of genus two curves defined over a finite field. Such Jacobians have a wide range of applications in data security; e.g. netbanking and digital signature. New properties of the Jacobians are proved; here, a description of the embedding of -torsion point...

  15. Target Volume Delineation in Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography Based on Time Activity Curve Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymurazyan, Artur

    Tumor volume delineation plays a critical role in radiation treatment planning and simulation, since inaccurately defined treatment volumes may lead to the overdosing of normal surrounding structures and potentially missing the cancerous tissue. However, the imaging modality almost exclusively used to determine tumor volumes, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), does not readily exhibit a distinction between cancerous and normal tissue. It has been shown that CT data augmented with PET can improve radiation treatment plans by providing functional information not available otherwise. Presently, static PET scans account for the majority of procedures performed in clinical practice. In the radiation therapy (RT) setting, these scans are visually inspected by a radiation oncologist for the purpose of tumor volume delineation. This approach, however, often results in significant interobserver variability when comparing contours drawn by different experts on the same PET/CT data sets. For this reason, a search for more objective contouring approaches is underway. The major drawback of conventional tumor delineation in static PET images is the fact that two neighboring voxels of the same intensity can exhibit markedly different overall dynamics. Therefore, equal intensity voxels in a static analysis of a PET image may be falsely classified as belonging to the same tissue. Dynamic PET allows the evaluation of image data in the temporal domain, which often describes specific biochemical properties of the imaged tissues. Analysis of dynamic PET data can be used to improve classification of the imaged volume into cancerous and normal tissue. In this thesis we present a novel tumor volume delineation approach (Single Seed Region Growing algorithm in 4D (dynamic) PET or SSRG/4D-PET) in dynamic PET based on TAC (Time Activity Curve) differences. A partially-supervised approach is pursued in order to allow an expert reader to utilize the information available from other imaging

  16. The Predicting Model of E-commerce Site Based on the Ideas of Curve Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhang; Li, Zhang; Dingjun, Chen

    On the basis of the idea of the second multiplication curve fitting, the number and scale of Chinese E-commerce site is analyzed. A preventing increase model is introduced in this paper, and the model parameters are solved by the software of Matlab. The validity of the preventing increase model is confirmed though the numerical experiment. The experimental results show that the precision of preventing increase model is ideal.

  17. Fracture resistance curves and toughening mechanisms in polymer based dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, J A; Goutianos, S; Skovgaard, M; Sørensen, B F

    2011-05-01

    The fracture resistance (R-curve behaviour) of two commercial dental composites (Filtek Z350(®) and Concept Advanced(®)) were studied using Double Cantilever Beam sandwich specimens loaded with pure bending moments to obtain stable crack growth. The experiments were conducted in an environmental scanning electron microscope to (a) accurately measure the applied energy-release rate for crack initiation, (b) measure the early (rising) part of the R-curve, and (c) provide direct microscopic evidence of the toughening mechanisms ahead of and/or in the wake of the crack tip. The two tested composites displayed distinctly different R-curve behaviours. The difference was related to different toughening mechanisms as the two composites had markedly different microstructures. Contrary to common experience, the composite with the finer microstructure (smaller particles), the Concept Advanced(®), showed significantly higher fracture resistance than the composite with the coarser microstructure. The fracture properties were related to the flexural strength of the dental composites. The method, thus, can provide useful insight into how the microstructure enhances toughness, which is necessary for the future development of such materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Model of Stopping Sight Distance of Curve Braking Based on Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-xia Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with straight-line braking, cornering brake has longer braking distance and poorer stability. Therefore, drivers are more prone to making mistakes. The braking process and the dynamics of vehicles in emergency situations on curves were analyzed. A biaxial four-wheel vehicle was simplified to a single model. Considering the braking process, dynamics, force distribution, and stability, a stopping sight distance of the curve braking calculation model was built. Then a driver-vehicle-road simulation platform was built using multibody dynamic software. The vehicle test of brake-in-turn was realized in this platform. The comparison of experimental and calculated values verified the reliability of the computational model. Eventually, the experimental values and calculated values were compared with the stopping sight distance recommended by the Highway Route Design Specification (JTGD20-2006; the current specification of stopping sight distance does not apply to cornering brake sight distance requirements. In this paper, the general values and limits of the curve stopping sight distance are presented.

  19. RobPer: An R Package to Calculate Periodograms for Light Curves Based on Robust Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Thieler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An important task in astroparticle physics is the detection of periodicities in irregularly sampled time series, called light curves. The classic Fourier periodogram cannot deal with irregular sampling and with the measurement accuracies that are typically given for each observation of a light curve. Hence, methods to fit periodic functions using weighted regression were developed in the past to calculate periodograms. We present the R package RobPer which allows to combine different periodic functions and regression techniques to calculate periodograms. Possible regression techniques are least squares, least absolute deviations, least trimmed squares, M-, S- and τ -regression. Measurement accuracies can be taken into account including weights. Our periodogram function covers most of the approaches that have been tried earlier and provides new model-regression-combinations that have not been used before. To detect valid periods, RobPer applies an outlier search on the periodogram instead of using fixed critical values that are theoretically only justified in case of least squares regression, independent periodogram bars and a null hypothesis allowing only normal white noise. Finally, the package also includes a generator to generate artificial light curves.

  20. AUTOMATION OF OPTIMAL IDENTIFICATION OF DYNAMIC ELEMENT TRANSFER FUNCTIONS IN COMPLEX TECHNICAL OBJECTS BASED ON ACCELERATION CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Alikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of present paper is to minimise the errors in the approximation of experimentally obtained acceleration curves.Methods. Based on the features and disadvantages of the well-known Simoyu method for calculating transfer functions on the basis of acceleration curves, a modified version of the method is developed using the MathLab and MathCad software. This is based on minimising the sum of the squares of the experimental point deviations from the solution of the differential equation at the same points.Results. Methods for the implementation of parametric identification are analysed and the Simoyu method is chosen as the most effective. On the basis of the analysis of its advantages and disadvantages, a modified method is proposed that allows the structure and parameters of the transfer function to be identified according to the experimental acceleration curve, as well as the choice of optimal numerical values of those parameters obtained for minimising errors in the approximation of the experimentally obtained acceleration curves.Conclusion. The problem of optimal control over a complex technical facility was solved. On the basis of the modified Simoyu method, an algorithm for the automated selection of the optimal shape and calculation of transfer function parameters of dynamic elements of complex technical objects according to the acceleration curves in the impact channels was developed. This has allowed the calculation efficiency of the dynamic characteristics of control objects to be increased by minimising the approximation errors. The efficiency of the proposed calculation method is shown. Its simplicity makes it possible to apply to practical calculations, especially for use in the design of complex technical objects within the framework of the computer aided design system. The proposed method makes it possible to increase the accuracy of the approximation by at least 20%, which is an important advantage for its practical

  1. Geomagnetic field secular variation in Pacific Ocean: A Bayesian reference curve based on Holocene Hawaiian lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Lanos, Ph.

    2017-11-01

    Hawaii is an ideal place for reconstructing the past variations of the Earth's magnetic field in the Pacific Ocean thanks to the almost continuous volcanic activity during the last 10 000 yrs. We present here an updated compilation of palaeomagnetic data from historic and radiocarbon dated Hawaiian lava flows available for the last ten millennia. A total of 278 directional and 66 intensity reference data have been used for the calculation of the first full geomagnetic field reference secular variation (SV) curves for central Pacific covering the last ten millennia. The obtained SV curves are calculated following recent advances on curve building based on the Bayesian statistics and are well constrained for the last five millennia while for older periods their error envelopes are wide due to the scarce number of reference data. The new Bayesian SV curves show three clear intensity maxima during the last 3000 yrs that are accompanied by sharp directional changes. Such short-term variations of the geomagnetic field could be interpreted as archaeomagnetic jerks and could be an interesting feature of the geomagnetic field variation in the Pacific Ocean that should be further explored by new data.

  2. Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burgh, Hannelore K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413641066; Schmidt, Ruben; Westeneng, Henk-Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993663; de Reus, Marcel A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970728; van den Berg, Leonard H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288255216; van den Heuvel, Martijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304820466

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data

  3. Genetic based fitting techniques for potential energy curves of diatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ian; Perez-Rios, Jesus; Elliott, Dan

    2017-04-01

    We present development of a genetic algorithm for fitting potential energy curves of diatomic molecules to experimental data. Our program takes in a `guess' potential, often from an ab initio calculation, along with experimental measurements of vibrational binding energies, rotational constants, and the experimental uncertainty. The fitting program is able modify the guess potential until it reproduces the experimental data with better than 1% uncertainty. We present the details of this technique along with a comparison of potentials calculated by the genetic algorithm and by an inverted perturbation approach for the X1Σ+ potential of lithium-rubidium.

  4. Fracture resistance curves and toughening mechanisms in polymer based dental composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, J.A.; Goutianos, Stergios; Skovgaard, M.

    2011-01-01

    scanning electron microscope to (a) accurately measure the applied energy-release rate for crack initiation, (b) measure the early (rising) part of the R-curve, and (c) provide direct microscopic evidence of the toughening mechanisms ahead of and/or in the wake of the crack tip. The two tested composites...... significantly higher fracture resistance than the composite with the coarser microstructure. The fracture properties were related to the flexural strength of the dental composites. The method, thus, can provide useful insight into how the microstructure enhances toughness, which is necessary for the future...

  5. An Improved Minimum Error Interpolator of CNC for General Curves Based on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye HUANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved minimum error interpolation algorithm for general curves generation in computer numerical control (CNC. Compared with the conventional interpolation algorithms such as the By-Point Comparison method, the Minimum- Error method and the Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA method, the proposed improved Minimum-Error interpolation algorithm can find a balance between accuracy and efficiency. The new algorithm is applicable for the curves of linear, circular, elliptical and parabolic. The proposed algorithm is realized on a field programmable gate array (FPGA with Verilog HDL language, and simulated by the ModelSim software, and finally verified on a two-axis CNC lathe. The algorithm has the following advantages: firstly, the maximum interpolation error is only half of the minimum step-size; and secondly the computing time is only two clock cycles of the FPGA. Simulations and actual tests have proved that the high accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm, which shows that it is highly suited for real-time applications.

  6. Research on the Integration of Bionic Geometry Modeling and Simulation of Robot Foot Based on Characteristic Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G.; Zhu, H.; Xu, J.; Gao, K.; Zhu, D.

    2017-09-01

    The bionic research of shape is an important aspect of the research on bionic robot, and its implementation cannot be separated from the shape modeling and numerical simulation of the bionic object, which is tedious and time-consuming. In order to improve the efficiency of shape bionic design, the feet of animals living in soft soil and swamp environment are taken as bionic objects, and characteristic skeleton curve, section curve, joint rotation variable, position and other parameters are used to describe the shape and position information of bionic object’s sole, toes and flipper. The geometry modeling of the bionic object is established by using the parameterization of characteristic curves and variables. Based on this, the integration framework of parametric modeling and finite element modeling, dynamic analysis and post-processing of sinking process in soil is proposed in this paper. The examples of bionic ostrich foot and bionic duck foot are also given. The parametric modeling and integration technique can achieve rapid improved design based on bionic object, and it can also greatly improve the efficiency and quality of robot foot bionic design, and has important practical significance to improve the level of bionic design of robot foot’s shape and structure.

  7. Survival trends in metastatic bladder cancer in the United States: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This population-based study shows that decreases in 6-month and 12-month relative survival rates among patients with MBC in 2001-2010 compared to 1991-2000, specifically, more pronounced among CC men and Oth men.

  8. Membrane based macroencapsulation devices for improved pancreatic islet survival and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzypek, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is about the development of novel membrane based macroencapsulation devices for improved pancreatic islet survival and function. To improve pancreatic islets functionality by avoiding their aggregation within macroencapsulation devices, we developed a novel

  9. Estimating haplotype relative risks on human survival in population-based association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Bathum, Lise; Zhao, Jing Hua; Yashin, Anatoli I; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare; Kruse, Torben A

    2005-01-01

    Association-based linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is an increasingly important tool for localizing genes that show potential influence on human aging and longevity. As haplotypes contain more LD information than single markers, a haplotype-based LD approach can have increased power in detecting associations as well as increased robustness in statistical testing. In this paper, we develop a new statistical model to estimate haplotype relative risks (HRRs) on human survival using unphased multilocus genotype data from unrelated individuals in cross-sectional studies. Based on the proportional hazard assumption, the model can estimate haplotype risk and frequency parameters, incorporate observed covariates, assess interactions between haplotypes and the covariates, and investigate the modes of gene function. By introducing population survival information available from population statistics, we are able to develop a procedure that carries out the parameter estimation using a nonparametric baseline hazard function and estimates sex-specific HRRs to infer gene-sex interaction. We also evaluate the haplotype effects on human survival while taking into account individual heterogeneity in the unobserved genetic and nongenetic factors or frailty by introducing the gamma-distributed frailty into the survival function. After model validation by computer simulation, we apply our method to an empirical data set to measure haplotype effects on human survival and to estimate haplotype frequencies at birth and over the observed ages. Results from both simulation and model application indicate that our survival analysis model is an efficient method for inferring haplotype effects on human survival in population-based association studies.

  10. Segmentation of neuronal structures using SARSA (λ)-based boundary amendment with reinforced gradient-descent curve shape fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Shen, Bairong

    2014-01-01

    The segmentation of structures in electron microscopy (EM) images is very important for neurobiological research. The low resolution neuronal EM images contain noise and generally few features are available for segmentation, therefore application of the conventional approaches to identify the neuron structure from EM images is not successful. We therefore present a multi-scale fused structure boundary detection algorithm in this study. In the algorithm, we generate an EM image Gaussian pyramid first, then at each level of the pyramid, we utilize Laplacian of Gaussian function (LoG) to attain structure boundary, we finally assemble the detected boundaries by using fusion algorithm to attain a combined neuron structure image. Since the obtained neuron structures usually have gaps, we put forward a reinforcement learning-based boundary amendment method to connect the gaps in the detected boundaries. We use a SARSA (λ)-based curve traveling and amendment approach derived from reinforcement learning to repair the incomplete curves. Using this algorithm, a moving point starts from one end of the incomplete curve and walks through the image where the decisions are supervised by the approximated curve model, with the aim of minimizing the connection cost until the gap is closed. Our approach provided stable and efficient structure segmentation. The test results using 30 EM images from ISBI 2012 indicated that both of our approaches, i.e., with or without boundary amendment, performed better than six conventional boundary detection approaches. In particular, after amendment, the Rand error and warping error, which are the most important performance measurements during structure segmentation, were reduced to very low values. The comparison with the benchmark method of ISBI 2012 and the recent developed methods also indicates that our method performs better for the accurate identification of substructures in EM images and therefore useful for the identification of imaging

  11. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Köhle, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators; however, in most of the cases, these methods are used in a conflicting way rather than in combination. The article focuses on two of these methods: vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability curves express physical vulnerability as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss, considering, in individual cases only, some structural characteristics of the affected buildings. However, a considerable amount of studies argue that vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, an indicator-based methodology (IBM) for mountain hazards including debris flow (Kappes et al., 2012) is applied to a case study for debris flows in South Tyrol, where in the past a vulnerability curve has been developed. The relatively "new" indicator-based method is being scrutinised and recommendations for its improvement are outlined. The comparison of the two methodological approaches and their results is challenging since both methodological approaches deal with vulnerability in a different way. However, it is still possible to highlight their weaknesses and strengths, show clearly that both methodologies are necessary for the assessment of physical vulnerability and provide a preliminary "holistic methodological framework" for physical vulnerability assessment showing how the two approaches may be used in combination in the future.

  12. Two-Factor User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A password authentication scheme using smart card is called two-factor authentication scheme. Two-factor authentication scheme is the most accepted and commonly used mechanism that provides the authorized users a secure and efficient method for accessing resources over insecure communication channel. Up to now, various two-factor user authentication schemes have been proposed. However, most of them are vulnerable to smart card loss attack, offline password guessing attack, impersonation attack, and so on. In this paper, we design a password remote user authentication with key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme has high level of security. Moreover, the proposed scheme is more practical and secure in contrast to some related schemes.

  13. Overcoming the learning curve: a curriculum-based model for teaching zone II flexor tendon repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Ali Sina; Woon, Colin Y; Pridgen, Brian; Chang, James

    2012-08-01

    Repairs of zone II flexor tendons have benefited in recent years from modifications involving suture technique and configuration. These advances, however, present new obstacles in resident training. A focused tutorial incorporating a practical, hands-on exercise and standardization of technique may offer an effective low-risk, low-cost strategy for overcoming these challenges. Plastic surgery residents (n=14) were asked to perform their preferred zone II flexor tendon repair using a tabletop exercise before and after a focused tutorial. The tutorial reviewed primary literature and presented a standardized technique. Repairs were photographed, tested for load strength, and analyzed to determine effectiveness of this teaching approach. Participants were retested at 6 months to evaluate for persistence of findings. Posttutorial repairs required higher loads to generate a 2-mm gap (plearning curve. Training programs can use this hands-on teaching exercise as part of a hand surgery simulation curriculum.

  14. A Provably Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve for Healthcare Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farash, Mohammad Sabzinejad; Nawaz, Omer; Mahmood, Khalid; Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-07-01

    To enhance the quality of healthcare in the management of chronic disease, telecare medical information systems have increasingly been used. Very recently, Zhang and Qi (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):47, 32), and Zhao (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):46, 33) separately proposed two authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. They claimed that their protocols achieve all security requirements including forward secrecy. However, this paper demonstrates that both Zhang and Qi's scheme, and Zhao's scheme could not provide forward secrecy. To augment the security, we propose an efficient RFID authentication scheme using elliptic curves for healthcare environments. The proposed RFID scheme is secure under common random oracle model.

  15. An industrial batch dryer simulation tool based on the concept of the characteristic drying curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study an industrial batch dryer simulation tool is presented. The numerical model behind the scene is developed using the simulation software Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and compared to measurements from a batch dryer facility in Denmark producing insulation boards. In the constant-rate...... period, the model computes the average heat and mass transfer coefficients from EES built-in correlations for the actual flow configuration (rectangular duct flows). The transfer coefficients are used to compute the single stream heat and mass exchange effectiveness, assuming the temperature and moisture...... content in the material to be invariant in the airflow direction. In the falling-rate period, the concept of the Characteristic Drying Curve (CDC) is used as proposed by Langrish et al. (1991), but modified to account for a possible end-drying rate. Using the CDC both hygroscopic and non...

  16. SU-F-T-02: Estimation of Radiobiological Doses (BED and EQD2) of Single Fraction Electronic Brachytherapy That Equivalent to I-125 Eye Plaque: By Using Linear-Quadratic and Universal Survival Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y; Waldron, T; Pennington, E [University Of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for a single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p < 0.0527), 126 ± 43% (p < 0.0354), and 112 ± 32% (p < 0.0265) higher than those of I125-BT, respectively. The BED and EQD2 doses of the opposite retina were 52 ± 9% lower than I125-BT. The tumor SFED values were 25.2 ± 3.3 Gy and 29.1 ± 2.5 Gy when using USC and LQ models which can be delivered within 1 hour. All BED and EQD2 values using L-Q model were significantly larger when compared to the USC model (p < 0.0274) due to its large single fraction size (> 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.

  17. Assessment of the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for storms in Peninsular Malaysia based on the generalized extreme value distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ariff, Noratiqah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Wan Zin, Wan Zawiah

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall characteristics can be analyzed by using storm events with storms representing actual rainfall events instead of rainfall amounts in fixed time frames. One of the most commonly used methods in rainfall analysis is the construction of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. IDF curves help in designing hydraulic structures by providing a mathematical relationship between storm intensity, duration and return period. In Peninsular Malaysia, these curves are often built using the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution to represent annual maximum storm intensity. The mathematical formula for the curves is usually taken from either known empirical equations or from quantile functions of probability distributions. However, there is no research which compares and analyzes the differences between the curves obtained for storms in Peninsular Malaysia based on the empirical and quantile functions. Thus, the aim of this study is to build IDF curves for storms in Peninsular Malaysia using typical empirical equations and the quantile function of the GEV distribution. Then, the analysis of differences is performed on the curves obtained from both approaches. The analysis consists of the coefficient of variation of root mean square error mean percentage difference and the coefficient of determination, R2. The analysis shows small differences between the curves based on the empirical equations and those obtained using the quantile function of GEV distribution. According to these results, it can be concluded that the simple empirical equations are sufficient in constructing IDF curves based on GEV distribution for storms in Peninsular Malaysia.

  18. Full dates (day, month, year) should be used in population-based cancer survival studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; Ellis, Libby; Coleman, Michel P

    2012-10-01

    Accurate survival estimates are essential for monitoring cancer survival trends, for health care planning and for resource allocation. To obtain precise estimates of survival, full dates (day, month and year) rather than partial dates (month and year) are required. In some jurisdictions, however, cancer registries are constrained from providing full dates on the grounds of confidentiality. The bias resulting from the use of partial dates in the estimation and comparison of survival makes it impossible to determine precisely the differences in the risk of death from cancer between population groups or in successive calendar periods. Important operational arguments also exist against the use of incomplete dates for survival analysis, including increased workload for cancer registry staff and the introduction of avoidable complexity for quality control of survival data. Cancer survival is one of the most widely known outputs produced by population-based cancer registries, and it is a crucial metric for the comparative effectiveness of health services. The bodies that set data access guidelines must take a more balanced view of the risks and benefits of using full dates for the estimation of cancer survival. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. Trends of population-based breast cancer survival in Germany and the US: Decreasing discrepancies, but persistent survival gap of elderly patients in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have revealed both higher cancer survival in the US than in Germany and substantial improvement of cancer survival in the past in these countries. This population-based study aims at comparing most recent 5-year relative survival of breast cancer patients and preceding trends in both countries. Methods Women with a first invasive breast cancer diagnosed and followed up between 1988 and 2008 from Germany and the US (utilizing data from the Saarland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, respectively) were included. Period analysis was used to derive most up-to-date 5-year relative survival and preceding survival trends according to age and stage. Results Since 1993, age standardized relative survival has steadily improved in Germany and the US to 83% and 88%, respectively. In the period 2005–08, relative survival of localized cancer was above 97% in both countries, and 79% and 83% for locally/regionally spread breast cancer, respectively. Prognosis of metastasized disease has remained very poor overall, with improvement essentially being restricted to younger patients. The proportion of patients diagnosed with localized breast cancer was consistently higher in the US. If adjusted for stage, the differences in relative survival between both countries diminished over time and eventually disappeared. Conclusions Similar survival is now observed in both countries for patients below the age of 70 years, but in Germany survival is still much lower for elderly patients. The observed trends point to treatment advances as a major cause for improved survival. However, substantial differences in mammography usage existed between both countries and might probably also account for the observed differences (to a lesser extent, also differences in health care systems, and delivery of cancer care). Encouraging, survival of breast cancer patients has improved in Germany to a much greater extent than in the US, albeit the

  20. Model-Free Estimation of Tuning Curves and Their Attentional Modulation, Based on Sparse and Noisy Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Helmer

    Full Text Available Tuning curves are the functions that relate the responses of sensory neurons to various values within one continuous stimulus dimension (such as the orientation of a bar in the visual domain or the frequency of a tone in the auditory domain. They are commonly determined by fitting a model e.g. a Gaussian or other bell-shaped curves to the measured responses to a small subset of discrete stimuli in the relevant dimension. However, as neuronal responses are irregular and experimental measurements noisy, it is often difficult to determine reliably the appropriate model from the data. We illustrate this general problem by fitting diverse models to representative recordings from area MT in rhesus monkey visual cortex during multiple attentional tasks involving complex composite stimuli. We find that all models can be well-fitted, that the best model generally varies between neurons and that statistical comparisons between neuronal responses across different experimental conditions are affected quantitatively and qualitatively by specific model choices. As a robust alternative to an often arbitrary model selection, we introduce a model-free approach, in which features of interest are extracted directly from the measured response data without the need of fitting any model. In our attentional datasets, we demonstrate that data-driven methods provide descriptions of tuning curve features such as preferred stimulus direction or attentional gain modulations which are in agreement with fit-based approaches when a good fit exists. Furthermore, these methods naturally extend to the frequent cases of uncertain model selection. We show that model-free approaches can identify attentional modulation patterns, such as general alterations of the irregular shape of tuning curves, which cannot be captured by fitting stereotyped conventional models. Finally, by comparing datasets across different conditions, we demonstrate effects of attention that are cell- and even

  1. Highway travel time information system based on cumulative count curves and new tracking technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Martinez-Diaz, M.; Perez Perez, I.

    2016-07-01

    Travel time is probably the most important indicator of the level of service of a highway, and it is also the most appreciated information for its users. Administrations and private companies make increasing efforts to improve its real time estimation. The appearance of new technologies makes the precise measurement of travel times easier than never before. However, direct measurements of travel time are, by nature, outdated in real time, and lack of the desired forecasting capabilities. This paper introduces a new methodology to improve the real time estimation of travel times by using the equipment usually present in most highways, i.e., loop detectors, in combination with Automatic Vehicle Identification or Tracking Technologies. One of the most important features of the method is the usage of cumulative counts at detectors as an input, avoiding the drawbacks of common spot-speed methodologies. Cumulative count curves have great potential for freeway travel time information systems, as they provide spatial measurements and thus allow the calculation of instantaneous travel times. In addition, they exhibit predictive capabilities. Nevertheless, they have not been used extensively mainly because of the error introduced by the accumulation of the detector drift. The proposed methodology solves this problem by correcting the deviations using direct travel time measurements. The method results highly beneficial for its accuracy as well as for its low implementation cost. (Author)

  2. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a “smile contour” delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  3. Up-to-date and precise estimates of cancer patient survival: model-based period analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Hakulinen, Timo

    2006-10-01

    Monitoring of progress in cancer patient survival by cancer registries should be as up-to-date as possible. Period analysis has been shown to provide more up-to-date survival estimates than do traditional methods of survival analysis. However, there is a trade-off between up-to-dateness and the precision of period estimates, in that increasing the up-to-dateness of survival estimates by restricting the analysis to a relatively short, recent time period, such as the most recent calendar year for which cancer registry data are available, goes along with a loss of precision. The authors propose a model-based approach to maximize the up-to-dateness of period estimates at minimal loss of precision. The approach is illustrated for monitoring of 5-year relative survival of patients diagnosed with one of 20 common forms of cancer in Finland between 1953 and 2002 by use of data from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. It is shown that the model-based approach provides survival estimates that are as up-to-date as the most up-to-date conventional period estimates and at the same time much more precise than the latter. The modeling approach may further enhance the use of period analysis for deriving up-to-date cancer survival rates.

  4. Classification of breast mass lesions using model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve derived from fuzzy c-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Yan-Hao; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chang, Pei-Kang; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the representative characteristic kinetic curve of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extracted by fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering for the discrimination of benign and malignant breast tumors using a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. About the research data set, DCE-MRIs of 132 solid breast masses with definite histopathologic diagnosis (63 benign and 69 malignant) were used in this study. At first, the tumor region was automatically segmented using the region growing method based on the integrated color map formed by the combination of kinetic and area under curve color map. Then, the FCM clustering was used to identify the time-signal curve with the larger initial enhancement inside the segmented region as the representative kinetic curve, and then the parameters of the Tofts pharmacokinetic model for the representative kinetic curve were compared with conventional curve analysis (maximal enhancement, time to peak, uptake rate and washout rate) for each mass. The results were analyzed with a receiver operating characteristic curve and Student's t test to evaluate the classification performance. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combined model-based parameters of the extracted kinetic curve from FCM clustering were 86.36% (114/132), 85.51% (59/69), 87.30% (55/63), 88.06% (59/67) and 84.62% (55/65), better than those from a conventional curve analysis. The A(Z) value was 0.9154 for Tofts model-based parametric features, better than that for conventional curve analysis (0.8673), for discriminating malignant and benign lesions. In conclusion, model-based analysis of the characteristic kinetic curve of breast mass derived from FCM clustering provides effective lesion classification. This approach has potential in the development of a CAD system for DCE breast MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  5. Regression analysis of restricted mean survival time based on pseudo-observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Hansen, Mette Gerster; Klein, John P.

    censoring; hazard function; health economics; regression model; survival analysis; mean survival time; restricted mean survival time; pseudo-observations......censoring; hazard function; health economics; regression model; survival analysis; mean survival time; restricted mean survival time; pseudo-observations...

  6. Regression Analysis of Restricted Mean Survival Time Based on Pseudo-Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Hansen, Mette Gerster; Klein, John P.

    2004-01-01

    censoring; hazard function; health economics; mean survival time; pseudo-observations; regression model; restricted mean survival time; survival analysis......censoring; hazard function; health economics; mean survival time; pseudo-observations; regression model; restricted mean survival time; survival analysis...

  7. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  8. Population-based cancer survival in the United States: Data, quality control, and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Harewood, Rhea; Johnson, Christopher J; Carreira, Helena; Spika, Devon; Bonaventure, Audrey; Ward, Kevin; Weir, Hannah K; Coleman, Michel P

    2017-12-15

    Robust comparisons of population-based cancer survival estimates require tight adherence to the study protocol, standardized quality control, appropriate life tables of background mortality, and centralized analysis. The CONCORD program established worldwide surveillance of population-based cancer survival in 2015, analyzing individual data on 26 million patients (including 10 million US patients) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common malignancies. In this Cancer supplement, we analyzed data from 37 state cancer registries that participated in the second cycle of the CONCORD program (CONCORD-2), covering approximately 80% of the US population. Data quality checks were performed in 3 consecutive phases: protocol adherence, exclusions, and editorial checks. One-, 3-, and 5-year age-standardized net survival was estimated using the Pohar Perme estimator and state- and race-specific life tables of all-cause mortality for each year. The cohort approach was adopted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, and the complete approach for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. Articles in this supplement report population coverage, data quality indicators, and age-standardized 5-year net survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Examples of tables, bar charts, and funnel plots are provided in this article. Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of services in providing equitable health care. The high quality of US cancer registry data, 80% population coverage, and use of an unbiased net survival estimator ensure that the survival trends reported in this supplement are robustly comparable by race and state. The results can be used by policymakers to identify and address inequities in cancer survival in each state and for the United States nationally. Cancer 2017;123:4982-93. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U

  9. Strategy of computed tomography sinogram inpainting based on sinusoid-like curve decomposition and eigenvector-guided interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinsheng; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yining; Oukili, Ahmed; Luo, Limin; Chen, Wufan; Toumoulin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Projection incompleteness in x-ray computed tomography (CT) often relates to sparse sampling or detector gaps and leads to degraded reconstructions with severe streak and ring artifacts. To suppress these artifacts, this study develops a new sinogram inpainting strategy based on sinusoid-like curve decomposition and eigenvector-guided interpolation, where each missing sinogram point is considered located within a group of sinusoid-like curves and estimated from eigenvector-guided interpolation to preserve the sinogram texture continuity. The proposed approach is evaluated on real two-dimensional fan-beam CT data, for which the projection incompleteness, due to sparse sampling and symmetric detector gaps, is simulated. A Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA)-based parallelization is applied on the operations of sinusoid fittings and interpolations to accelerate the algorithm. A comparative study is then conducted to evaluate the proposed approach with two other inpainting methods and with a compressed sensing iterative reconstruction. Qualitative and quantitative performances demonstrate that the proposed approach can lead to efficient artifact suppression and less structure blurring.

  10. 18-year survival of posterior composite resin restorations with and without glass ionomer cement as base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Françoise H; Rodolpho, Paulo A Da Rosa; Basso, Gabriela R; Patias, Rômulo; da Rosa, Quéren F; Demarco, Flávio F; Opdam, Niek J; Cenci, Maximiliano S

    2015-06-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using intermediate layers underneath resin-composite restorations have been presented under different perspectives. Yet, few long-term clinical studies evaluated the effect of glass-ionomer bases on restoration survival. The present study investigated the influence of glass-ionomer-cement base in survival of posterior composite restorations, compared to restorations without base. Original datasets of one dental practice were used to retrieve data retrospectively. The presence or absence of an intermediate layer of glass-ionomer-cement was the main factor under analysis, considering survival, annual failure rate and types of failure as outcomes. Other investigated factors were: patient gender, jaw, tooth, number of restored surfaces and composite. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox-regression. In total 632 restorations in 97 patients were investigated. Annual failure rates percentages up to 18-years were 1.9% and 2.1% for restorations with and without base, respectively. In restorations with glass-ionomer-cement base, fracture was the predominant reason for failure, corresponding to 57.8% of total failures. Failure type distribution was different (p=0.007) comparing restorations with and without base, but no effect in the overall survival of restorations was found (p=0.313). The presence of a glass-ionomer-cement base did not affect the survival of resin-composite restorations in the investigated sample. Acceptable annual failure rates after 18-years can be achieved with both techniques, leading to the perspective that an intermediate layer, placed during an interim treatment, may be maintained without clinical detriment, but no improvement in survival should be expected based on such measure. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Voxel-based multimodel fitting method for modeling time activity curves in SPECT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrut, David; Halty, Adrien; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ferrer, Ludovic; Bardiès, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics from time-sequence SPECT images on a per-voxel basis is useful for studying activity nonuniformity or computing absorbed dose distributions by convolution of voxel kernels or Monte-Carlo radiation transport. Current approaches are either region-based, thus assuming uniform activity within the region, or voxel-based but using the same fitting model for all voxels. We propose a voxel-based multimodel fitting method (VoMM) that estimates a fitting function for each voxel by automatically selecting the most appropriate model among a predetermined set with Akaike criteria. This approach can be used to compute the time integrated activity (TIA) for all voxels in the image. To control fitting optimization that may fail due to excessive image noise, an approximated version based on trapezoid integration, named restricted method, is also studied. From this comparison, the number of failed fittings within images was estimated and analyzed. Numerical experiments were used to quantify uncertainties and feasibility was demonstrated with real patient data. Regarding numerical experiments, root mean square errors of TIA obtained with VoMM were similar to those obtained with bi-exponential fitting functions, and were lower ( 10%) than with single model approaches that consider the same fitting function for all voxels. Failure rates were lower with VoMM and restricted approaches than with single-model methods. On real clinical data, VoMM was able to fit 90% of the voxels and led to less failed fits than single-model approaches. On regions of interest (ROI) analysis, the difference between ROI-based and voxel-based TIA estimations was low, less than 4%. However, the computation of the mean residence time exhibited larger differences, up to 25%. The proposed voxel-based multimodel fitting method, VoMM, is feasible on patient data. VoMM leads organ-based TIA estimations similar to conventional ROI-based method. However, for

  12. Survival in a population-based cohort of dementia patients: predictors and causes of mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.; van den Brink, W.; Deeg, D. J.; Eefsting, J. A.; van Tilburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    To examine predictors of survival time and causes of mortality in a population-based cohort of demented subjects. Longitudinal naturalistic follow-up study. A rural area in The Netherlands. The study population consisted of 102 demented subjects derived from a population-based, two-stage prevalence

  13. Cancer survival in China, 2003-2005: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongmei; Zheng, Rongshou; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Siwei; Zou, Xiaonong; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Limei; Tang, Jingao; Chen, Jianguo; Wei, Kuangrong; Huang, Suqin; Wang, Jian; Yu, Liang; Zhao, Deli; Song, Guohui; Chen, Jianshun; Shen, Yongzhou; Yang, Xiaoping; Gu, Xiaoping; Jin, Feng; Li, Qilong; Li, Yanhua; Ge, Hengming; Zhu, Fengdong; Dong, Jianmei; Guo, Guoping; Wu, Ming; Du, Lingbin; Sun, Xibin; He, Yutong; Coleman, Michel P; Baade, Peter; Chen, Wanqing; Yu, Xue Qin

    2015-04-15

    Limited population-based cancer registry data available in China until now has hampered efforts to inform cancer control policy. Following extensive efforts to improve the systematic cancer surveillance in this country, we report on the largest pooled analysis of cancer survival data in China to date. Of 21 population-based cancer registries, data from 17 registries (n = 138,852 cancer records) were included in the final analysis. Cases were diagnosed in 2003-2005 and followed until the end of 2010. Age-standardized relative survival was calculated using region-specific life tables for all cancers combined and 26 individual cancers. Estimates were further stratified by sex and geographical area. The age-standardized 5-year relative survival for all cancers was 30.9% (95% confidence intervals: 30.6%-31.2%). Female breast cancer had high survival (73.0%) followed by cancers of the colorectum (47.2%), stomach (27.4%), esophagus (20.9%), with lung and liver cancer having poor survival (16.1% and 10.1%), respectively. Survival for women was generally higher than for men. Survival for rural patients was about half that of their urban counterparts for all cancers combined (21.8% vs. 39.5%); the pattern was similar for individual major cancers except esophageal cancer. The poor population survival rates in China emphasize the urgent need for government policy changes and investment to improve health services. While the causes for the striking urban-rural disparities observed are not fully understood, increasing access of health service in rural areas and providing basic health-care to the disadvantaged populations will be essential for reducing this disparity in the future. © 2014 UICC.

  14. An Advanced Encryption Standard Powered Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography for RFID, Proven on WISP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaauldin Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information in patients’ medical histories is subject to various security and privacy concerns. Meanwhile, any modification or error in a patient’s medical data may cause serious or even fatal harm. To protect and transfer this valuable and sensitive information in a secure manner, radio-frequency identification (RFID technology has been widely adopted in healthcare systems and is being deployed in many hospitals. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication protocol for RFID tags based on elliptic curve cryptography and advanced encryption standard. Unlike existing authentication protocols, which only send the tag ID securely, the proposed protocol could also send the valuable data stored in the tag in an encrypted pattern. The proposed protocol is not simply a theoretical construct; it has been coded and tested on an experimental RFID tag. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication in just two steps and satisfies all the essential security requirements of RFID-based healthcare systems.

  15. Acid-base titration curves in an integrated computer learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.; Kędzierska, E.; Rodgers, L.; Chmurska, M.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of acid-base reactions is a regular component of many chemistry curricula that requires integrated understanding of various areas of introductory chemistry. Many students have considerable difficulties understanding the concepts and processes involved. It has been suggested and confirmed

  16. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  17. Learning curve of MRI-based planning for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Simon; Rylander, Susanne; Hokland, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate introduction of MRI-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT), including procedure times, dose-volume parameters, and perioperative morbidity. Methods and Materials Study included 42 high-risk prostate cancer patients enrolled in a clinical protocol, offering external beam...

  18. Study on diagnosis criteria of fire-heat syndrome based on receiver operating characteristic curve and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-jun; Huang, Zhao-sheng; Wu, Qing-guang; Huang, Zhang-jie; Wu, Li-rong; Yan, Wen-li; Wang, Qi; Wang, Zong-wei; Chang, David Lungpao; Yang, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    To establish the diagnostic quantitative criteria for fire-heat syndrome (FHS) of Chinese medicine (CM) based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and principal component analysis (PCA). The symptoms and signs of FHS cases and healthy subjects from Guangzhou, Henan and Hunan of China were collected through questionnaire, and the diagnostic quantitative score tables were established for the three regions, respectively, with the method of maximum likelihood analysis. The homogeneity test was then performed on the diagnostic score tables for the three regions with ROC curve, and the diagnostic efficiency of diagnostic score tables for the three regions was compared with the prospective test and retrospective test. The method of PCA was adopted to obtain the analysis matrix for classifying the tapes of FHS. Twenty-seven elements of FHS were confirmed through Chi-square test, and the diagnostic score tables for the three regions were established with the method of maximum likelihood analysis on the basis of the collected case data. According to the ROC curve test, the areas under ROC curve of Guangzhou diagnostic score table assessment with candidates in Guangzhou, Henan and Hunan were 0.998, 0.961 and 0.956, respectively. It showed that the diagnostic efficiency of Guangzhou diagnostic score tables was the highest one. With the prospective test, the area under ROC of Guangzhou diagnostic score table was 0.949, and more than any other diagnostic score table. By PCA, FHS was classified into excess fire and deficiency fire, and then classified into syndrome of flaring up of Heart (Xin) fire, syndrome of Lung (Fei)-Stomach (Wei) excess fire, syndrome of deficiency of Liver (Gan)-yin and Kidney (Shen)-yin, and syndrome of deficiency of Lung-yin from the view of viscera. In the retrospective test, the consistency with clinicians' diagnosis was 69.4%, and in the prospective test, it was 70.1%. The Guangzhou diagnostic score table could be used as the

  19. Determining the folding and binding free energy of DNA-based nanodevices and nanoswitches using urea titration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idili, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract DNA nanotechnology takes advantage of the predictability of DNA interactions to build complex DNA-based functional nanoscale structures. However, when DNA functional and responsive units that are based on non-canonical DNA interactions are employed it becomes quite challenging to predict, understand and control their thermodynamics. In response to this limitation, here we demonstrate the use of isothermal urea titration experiments to estimate the free energy involved in a set of DNA-based systems ranging from unimolecular DNA-based nanoswitches to more complex DNA folds (e.g. aptamers) and nanodevices. We propose here a set of fitting equations that allow to analyze the urea titration curves of these DNA responsive units based on Watson–Crick and non-canonical interactions (stem-loop, G-quadruplex, triplex structures) and to correctly estimate their relative folding and binding free energy values under different experimental conditions. The results described herein will pave the way toward the use of urea titration experiments in the field of DNA nanotechnology to achieve easier and more reliable thermodynamic characterization of DNA-based functional responsive units. More generally, our results will be of general utility to characterize other complex supramolecular systems based on different biopolymers. PMID:28605461

  20. An exploratory analysis of personality, attitudes, and study skills on the learning curve within a team-based learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Adam M; Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-03-25

    To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students' Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course.

  1. Tracing current-voltage curve of solar panel Based on LabVIEW Arduino Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid, CHENNI

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a low cost system to measure current and power-voltage characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) silicon solar panel under natural conditions based on LabVIEW software. The desired parameters of PV panel including fill factor, max power, short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage are calculated. The characteristics of the solar panel have been drawn quickly using the MOSFET as an electronic load, which is controlled by means of a suitable gate-source voltage. The new developm...

  2. Introduction of a prediction model to assigning periodontal prognosis based on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canut, Pedro; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alvarez-Novoa, Pablo; Alvarez-Novoa, Carmen; Marcos, Ana; Noguerol, Blas; Noguerol, Fernando; Zabalegui, Ion

    2017-09-04

    To develop a prediction model for tooth loss due to periodontal disease (TLPD) in patients following periodontal maintenance (PM), and assess its performance using a multicentre approach. A multilevel analysis of eleven predictors of TLPD in 500 patients following PM was carried out to calculate the probability of TLPD. This algorithm was applied to three different TLPD samples (369 teeth) gathered retrospectively by nine periodontist, associating several intervals of probability with the corresponding survival rates, based on significant differences in the mean survival rates. The reproducibility of these associations was assessed in each sample (One-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison with Bonferroni corrections). The model presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity, with optimal calibration and discrimination measurements. Seven intervals of probability were associated with seven survival rates and these associations contained close to 80% of the cases: the probability predicted the survival rate at this percentage. The model performed well in the three samples, since the mean survival rates of each association were significantly different within each sample, while no significant differences between the samples were found in pair-wise comparisons of means. This model might be useful for predicting survival rates in different TLPD samples This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Base curves of therapeutic lenses and their effects on post Epi-LASIK vision and pain: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Sub; Na, Kyung-Sun; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2009-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of bandage contact lenses with two different base curves in promoting epithelial healing after epithelial laser in situ keratomileusis (epi-LASIK). A prospective, observer-masked study was conducted in 27 patients. Each patient randomly received one bandage contact lens with an 8.4-mm base curve in one eye and one with an 8.8-mm base curve in the fellow eye. Corneal epithelial status, pain score, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) were examined during the first postoperative month. Corneal epithelial status, postoperative pain, and spherical equivalent were similar for both lenses during the first postoperative month. The eyes with lenses with an 8.8-mm base curve had better UCVA on postoperative day (POD) 4, but there was no significant difference in UCVA after POD 7. In the patients with preoperative low to moderate myopia and low keratometric values (lenses. On the other hand, in patients with preoperative high myopia and high keratometric values (> or =43.0 D), UCVA was better in eyes with lenses with an 8.8-mm base curve on POD 4. These findings suggest that the base curves of bandage contact lenses affect visual rehabilitation after epi-LASIK, particularly in patients with a steep cornea and high myopia.

  4. Monte Carlo based protocol for cell survival and tumour control probability in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S J

    1999-02-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the theoretical cell survival probability (nominally, the cell survival fraction) is developed to evaluate preclinical treatment conditions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A treatment condition is characterized by the neutron beam spectra, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron carrier drug (boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boron sulfhydryl hydride (BSH)). The cell survival probability defined from Poisson statistics is expressed with the cell-killing yield, the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density, and the tolerable neutron fluence. The radiation transport calculation from the neutron source to tumours is carried out using Monte Carlo methods: (i) reactor-based BNCT facility modelling to yield the neutron beam library at an irradiation port; (ii) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose (10.5 Gy-Eq); (iii) calculation of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density in tumours. A shallow surface tumour could be effectively treated by single exposure producing an average cell survival probability of 10(-3)-10(-5) for probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs, while a deep tumour will require bilateral exposure to achieve comparable cell kills at depth. With very pure epithermal beams eliminating thermal, low epithermal and fast neutrons, the cell survival can be decreased by factors of 2-10 compared with the unmodified neutron spectrum. A dominant effect of cell-killing yield on tumour cell survival demonstrates the importance of choice of boron carrier drug. However, these calculations do not indicate an unambiguous preference for one drug, due to the large overlap of tumour cell survival in the probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs. The cell survival value averaged over a bulky tumour volume is used to predict the overall BNCT therapeutic efficacy, using a simple model of tumour control probability (TCP).

  5. An evidence-based laparoscopic simulation curriculum shortens the clinical learning curve and reduces surgical adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Win G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gunter De Win,1,2 Siska Van Bruwaene,3,4 Jyotsna Kulkarni,5 Ben Van Calster,6 Rajesh Aggarwal,7,8 Christopher Allen,9 Ann Lissens,4 Dirk De Ridder,3 Marc Miserez4,10 1Department of Urology, Antwerp University Hospital, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, 3Department of Urology, University Hospitals of KU Leuven, 4Centre for Surgical Technologies, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 5Kulkarni Endo Surgery Institute, Pune, India; 6Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 7Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 8Steinberg Centre for Simulation and Interactive Learning, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 9School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 10Department of Abdominal Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Background: Surgical simulation is becoming increasingly important in surgical education. However, the method of simulation to be incorporated into a surgical curriculum is unclear. We compared the effectiveness of a proficiency-based preclinical simulation training in laparoscopy with conventional surgical training and conventional surgical training interspersed with standard simulation sessions.Materials and methods: In this prospective single-blinded trial, 30 final-year medical students were randomized into three groups, which differed in the way they were exposed to laparoscopic simulation training. The control group received only clinical training during residency, whereas the interval group received clinical training in combination with simulation training. The Center for Surgical Technologies Preclinical Training Program (CST PTP group received a proficiency-based preclinical simulation course during the final year of medical school but was not exposed to any extra simulation training during surgical residency. After 6 months of surgical residency, the influence on the learning curve while performing

  6. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  7. Building Damage Assessment Using Scenario Based Tsunami Numerical Analysis and Fragility Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawar Rehman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A combination of a deterministic approach and fragility analysis is applied to assess tsunami damage caused to buildings. The area selected to validate the model is Imwon Port in Korea. The deterministic approach includes numerical modeling of tsunami propagation in the East Sea following an earthquake on the western coast of Japan. The model is based on the linear shallow-water equations (LSWE augmented with Boussinesq approximation to account for dispersion effects in wave propagation, and coastal wave run-up is modeled by non-linear shallow-water equations (NLSWE. The output from the deterministic model comprises inundation depth. The numerical output is used to perform fragility analysis for buildings vulnerable to flooding by tsunamis in the port area. Recently developed fragility curves—based on the ordinal regression method—are used for damage probability estimates. The extent of structural damage in the areas under a tsunami hazard is identified by the numerical modeling of tsunami features. Our numerical model offers high bathymetric resolution, which enables us to capture flow features at the individual structure level and results in improved estimation of damage probability. This approach can serve as a measure of assessing structure vulnerability for areas with little or no records of tsunami damage and provide planners with a better understanding of structure behavior when a tsunami strikes.

  8. Classification of stimuli based on stimulus-response curves and their variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Pokora, Ondrej; Rospars, Jean-Pierre

    2008-08-15

    Neuronal responses evoked in sensory neurons by static stimuli of various intensities are usually characterized by their input-output transfer function, i.e. by plotting the firing frequency (or any other measurable neuron response) versus the corresponding stimulus intensity. The aim of the present article is to determine the stimulus intensities which can be considered as "the most important" from two different points of view: transferring as much information as possible and coding the intensity as precisely as possible. These two problems are very different because, for example, an informative signal may be difficult to identify. We show that the role of noise is crucial in both problems. To obtain the range of stimuli which are the best identified, we propose to use measures based on Fisher information as known from the theory of statistical inference. To classify the most important stimuli from the point of view of information transfer, we suggest methods based on information theory. We show that both the most identifiable signal and the most informative signal are not unique. To study this, a generic model of input-output transfer function is analyzed under the influence of several different types of noise. Finally, the methods are illustrated on a model and data pertaining to olfactory sensory neurons.

  9. Complexation and Electronic Communication between Corannulene-Based Buckybowls and a Curved Truxene-TTF Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María; Calbo, Joaquín; Krick Calderon, Rafael M; Pla, Paula; Hsieh, Ya-Chu; Pérez, Emilio M; Wu, Yao-Ting; Ortí, Enrique; Guldi, Dirk M; Martín, Nazario

    2017-03-13

    The association behavior of an electron-donating, bowl-shaped, truxene-based tetrathiafulvalene (truxTTF) with two corannulene-based fullerene fragments, C32 H12 and C38 H14 , is investigated in several solvents. Formation of 1:1 complexes is followed by absorption titrations and complemented by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The binding constants are in the range log Ka =2.9-3.5. DFT calculations reveal that the most stable arrangement is the conformation in which the 1,3-dithiole ring of truxTTF is placed inside the concave cavity of the corannulene derivative. This arrangement is confirmed experimentally by NMR measurements, and implies that a combination of π-π and CH-π interactions is the driving force for association. Time-dependent DFT calculations reproduce the experimental UV/Vis titrations and provide a detailed understanding of the spectral changes observed. Femtosecond transient absorption studies reveal the processes occurring after photoexcitation of either C32 H12 or C38 H14 and their supramolecular associates with truxTTF. In the case of truxTTF⋅C38 H14 , photoexcitation yields the charge-separated state truxTTF(.+) ⋅C38 H14(.-) with a lifetime of approximately 160 ps. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Genetic Algorithm-based Optimization to Match Asteroid Energy Deposition Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarano, Ana Maria; Mathias, Donovan; Wheeler, Lorien; Close, Sigrid

    2017-10-01

    An asteroid entering Earth’s atmosphere deposits energy along its path due to thermal ablation and dissipative forces that can be measured by ground-based and space-borne instruments. Inference of pre-entry asteroid properties and characterization of the atmospheric breakup is facilitated by using an analytic fragment-cloud model (FCM) in conjunction with a Genetic Algorithm (GA). This optimization technique is used to inversely solve for the asteroid’s entry properties, such as diameter, density, strength, velocity, entry angle, ablation coefficient, and strength scaling, from simulations using FCM. The previous parameters’ fitness evaluation involves minimizing residuals and comparing the incremental energy deposited to ascertain the best match between the physics-based calculated energy deposition and the observed meteors. This steady-state GA provided sets of solutions agreeing with literature, such as the meteor from Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013 and Tagish Lake, Canada in 2000, which were used as case studies in order to validate the optimization routine. The assisted exploration and exploitation of this multi-dimensional search space enables inference and uncertainty analysis that can inform studies of near-Earth asteroids and consequently improve risk assessment.

  11. Learning curve of MRI-based planning for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Simon; Rylander, Susanne; Hokland, Steffen; Søndergaard, Christian Skou; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Tanderup, Kari; Bentzen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate introduction of MRI-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT), including procedure times, dose-volume parameters, and perioperative morbidity. Study included 42 high-risk prostate cancer patients enrolled in a clinical protocol, offering external beam radiotherapy + two HDRBT 8.5 Gy boosts. Time was recorded for initiation of anesthesia (A), fixation of needle implant (B), end of MR imaging (C), plan approval (D), and end of HDRBT delivery (E). We defined time A-E as total procedure time, A-B as operating room time, B-C as MRI procedure time, C-D as treatment planning time, and D to E as treatment delivery time. Dose-volume parameters were retrieved from the dose planning system. Results from the first 21 patients were compared with the last 21 patients. Total procedure time, operating room time, MRI procedure time, and treatment planning time decreased significantly from average 7.6 to 5.3 hours (p < 0.01), 3.6 to 2.4 hours (p < 0.01), 1.6 to 0.8 hours (p < 0.01), and 2.0 to 1.3 hours (p < 0.01), respectively. HDRBT delivery time remained unchanged at 0.5 hours. Clinical target volume prostate+3mmD90 fulfilled planning aim in 92% of procedures and increased significantly from average 8.3 to 9.0 Gy (p < 0.01). Urethral D0.1 cm(3) and rectal D2 cm(3) fulfilled planning aim in 78% and 95% of procedures, respectively, and did not change significantly. Hematuria occurred in (95%), hematoma (80%), moderate to strong pain (35%), and urinary retention (5%) of procedures. After introduction of MRI-based HDRBT, procedure times were significantly reduced. D90 Clinical target volumeprostate+3mm fulfilled constraints in most patients and improved over time, but not at expense of an increased urethral or rectal dose. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgh, Hannelore K; Schmidt, Ruben; Westeneng, Henk-Jan; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data to predict survival of ALS patients using deep learning, a machine learning technique highly effective in a broad range of big-data analyses. A group of 135 ALS patients was included from whom high-resolution diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted images were acquired at the first visit to the outpatient clinic. Next, each of the patients was monitored carefully and survival time to death was recorded. Patients were labeled as short, medium or long survivors, based on their recorded time to death as measured from the time of disease onset. In the deep learning procedure, the total group of 135 patients was split into a training set for deep learning (n = 83 patients), a validation set (n = 20) and an independent evaluation set (n = 32) to evaluate the performance of the obtained deep learning networks. Deep learning based on clinical characteristics predicted survival category correctly in 68.8% of the cases. Deep learning based on MRI predicted 62.5% correctly using structural connectivity and 62.5% using brain morphology data. Notably, when we combined the three sources of information, deep learning prediction accuracy increased to 84.4%. Taken together, our findings show the added value of MRI with respect to predicting survival in ALS, demonstrating the advantage of deep learning in disease prognostication.

  13. Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore K. van der Burgh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data to predict survival of ALS patients using deep learning, a machine learning technique highly effective in a broad range of big-data analyses. A group of 135 ALS patients was included from whom high-resolution diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted images were acquired at the first visit to the outpatient clinic. Next, each of the patients was monitored carefully and survival time to death was recorded. Patients were labeled as short, medium or long survivors, based on their recorded time to death as measured from the time of disease onset. In the deep learning procedure, the total group of 135 patients was split into a training set for deep learning (n = 83 patients, a validation set (n = 20 and an independent evaluation set (n = 32 to evaluate the performance of the obtained deep learning networks. Deep learning based on clinical characteristics predicted survival category correctly in 68.8% of the cases. Deep learning based on MRI predicted 62.5% correctly using structural connectivity and 62.5% using brain morphology data. Notably, when we combined the three sources of information, deep learning prediction accuracy increased to 84.4%. Taken together, our findings show the added value of MRI with respect to predicting survival in ALS, demonstrating the advantage of deep learning in disease prognostication.

  14. Hot Spots Detection of Operating PV Arrays through IR Thermal Image Using Method Based on Curve Fitting of Gray Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall efficiency of PV arrays is affected by hot spots which should be detected and diagnosed by applying responsible monitoring techniques. The method using the IR thermal image to detect hot spots has been studied as a direct, noncontact, nondestructive technique. However, IR thermal images suffer from relatively high stochastic noise and non-uniformity clutter, so the conventional methods of image processing are not effective. The paper proposes a method to detect hotspots based on curve fitting of gray histogram. The result of MATLAB simulation proves the method proposed in the paper is effective to detect the hot spots suppressing the noise generated during the process of image acquisition.

  15. Disparities in pediatric leukemia early survival in Argentina: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibotti, Gilda; Moreno, Florencia; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana

    2014-10-01

    To identify disparities-using recursive partitioning (RP)-in early survival for children with leukemias treated in Argentina, and to depict the main characteristics of the most vulnerable groups. This secondary data analysis evaluated 12-month survival (12-ms) in 3 987 children diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 with lymphoid leukemia (LL) and myeloid leukemia (ML) and registered in Argentina's population-based oncopediatric registry. Prognostic groups based on age at diagnosis, gender, socioeconomic index of the province of residence, and migration to a different province to receive health care were identified using the RP method. Overall 12-ms for LL and ML cases was 83.7% and 59.9% respectively. RP detected major gaps in 12-ms. Among 1-10-year-old LL patients from poorer provinces, 12-ms for those who did and did not migrate was 87.0% and 78.2% respectively. Survival of ML patients < 2 years old from provinces with a low/medium socioeconomic index was 38.9% compared to 62.1% for those in the same age group from richer provinces. For 2-14-year-old ML patients living in poor provinces, patient migration was associated with a 30% increase in 12-ms. Major disparities in leukemia survival among Argentine children were found. Patient migration and socioeconomic index of residence province were associated with survival. The RP method was instrumental in identifying and characterizing vulnerable groups.

  16. An IUPAC-based approach to estimate the detection limit in co-extraction-based optical sensors for anions with sigmoidal response calibration curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ramos, M D; Cuadros-Rodríguez, L; Arroyo-Guerrero, E; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2011-11-01

    An approach based on IUPAC methodology to estimate the limit of detection of bulk optode-based analytical methods for anions has been developed. The traditional IUPAC methodology for calculating the detection limit was modified to be adapted to particular cases where the calibration curves have a sigmoidal profile. Starting from the different full theoretical models for every co-extraction mechanism of the analyte in the membrane in bulk optodes, several particular simplified models at low analyte concentration were obtained and validated. The slope of the calibration curve at low analyte concentration was calculated from the first derivative of the simplified equation and, subsequently, the detection limit was estimated. This fitted-for-purpose estimation strategy was applied to anion quantification for in-house bulk optode-based analytical methods, and the estimated limits of detection were compared with those obtained by applying classical geometrical methodology. This way of establishing the detection limit yields values that maintain their true statistical and probabilistic aspects. It can be easily applied to any analytical system which yields non-linear calibration curves at low analyte concentration.

  17. An improved method for delineating source protection zones for karst springs based on analysis of recession curve data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civita, Massimo V.

    2008-08-01

    A standard method for delineating source protection zones, particularly for karst and carbonate springs, has been improved. The method, based on recession curve analysis, defines four vulnerability scenarios with an evaluation of the appropriate dimensions of the protection areas, accommodating situations where field-test data are not available. The new approach makes it easier to separate the components of the spring discharge hydrograph. The objective is to achieve simplification, and an effective, more rigorous, procedure in the determination of the parameters used by Mangin’s model—Mangin A (1975) Contribution a l’étude hydrodynamique des aquifères karstiques-Troisieme partie: Constitution et fonctionnement des aquifères karstiques (Contribution to the hydrodynamic study of karst aquifers, part 3: formation and work of karst aquifers). Ann Speleol 30(1):21 124. The original procedure, plus the lack of sufficient data, was open to subjective interpretation. With the aid of modern technology, a very large quantity of data is now available and it is necessary to process it using denoise type computer-based filters before passing to interpretation. Working with discharge data series, a statistical approach is proposed to give an analytical solution for determining the values of fundamental parameters of the recession curve model. The new procedure is defined and compared with the original methodology. The new approach has been tested and applied to a number of karst springs in Italy. A case history for a spring located in the Piedmont region of the Maritime Alps, is presented. The proposed new procedure can be utilised to mark the limits of the protection zones of tapped groundwater supplied for potable use, as required by European and local legislation.

  18. Similar survival of patients with multiple vs. single primary melanomas based on Utah SEER data (1973-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Douglas; Farnham, James M; Hyngstrom, John; Klapperich, Marki E; Secrest, Aaron M; Empey, Sarah; Bowen, Glen M; Wada, David; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Grossmann, Kenneth; Bowles, Tawnya L; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2018-02-27

    Survival data are mixed comparing patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) to those with single primary melanomas (SPM). To compare MPM vs. SPM patient survival, using a matching method that avoids potential biases associated with other analytic approaches. Records of 14,138 individuals obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results registry of all melanomas diagnosed or treated in Utah from 1973-2011 were reviewed. A single matched control patient was selected randomly from the SPM cohort for each MPM patient, with the restriction that they survived at least as long as the interval between the first and second diagnoses for the matched MPM patient. Survival curves (n=887 MPM, 887 SPM) without covariates showed a significant survival disadvantage for MPM patients (chi-squared = 39.29, p < 0.001). However, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed no significant survival difference (hazard ratio = 1.07, p = 0.55). Restricting the multivariate analysis to invasive melanomas also showed no significant survival difference (hazard ratio = 0.99, p = 0.96). Breslow depth, ulceration status, and specific cause of death was not available for all patients. Patients with MPM had similar survival time as patients with SPM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Survival in Mediterranean Ambulatory Patients With Chronic Heart Failure. A Population-based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frigola Capell, E.; Comin-Colet, J.; Davins-Miralles, J.; Gich-Saladich, I.J.; Wensing, M.; Verdu-Rotellar, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Scarce research has been performed in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure in the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to describe survival trends in our target population and the impact of prognostic factors. METHODS: We carried out a population-based retrospective

  20. 18-year survival of posterior composite resin restorations with and without glass ionomer cement as base.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, F.H. van de; Rosa Rodolpho, P.A. Da; Basso, G.R.; Patias, R.; Rosa, Q.F. da; Demarco, F.F.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Cenci, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Advantages and disadvantages of using intermediate layers underneath resin-composite restorations have been presented under different perspectives. Yet, few long-term clinical studies evaluated the effect of glass-ionomer bases on restoration survival. The present study investigated the

  1. Customized versus population-based growth curves: prediction of low body fat percent at term corrected gestational age following preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Tameeka L; Katikaneni, Lakshmi D; Taylor, Sarah N; Korte, Jeffrey E; Ebeling, Myla D; Wagner, Carol L; Newman, Roger B

    2012-07-01

    Compare customized versus population-based growth curves for identification of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and body fat percent (BF%) among preterm infants. Prospective cohort study of 204 preterm infants classified as SGA or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) by population-based and customized growth curves. BF% was determined by air-displacement plethysmography. Differences between groups were compared using bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Customized curves reclassified 30% of the preterm infants as SGA. SGA infants identified by customized method only had significantly lower BF% (13.8 ± 6.0) than the AGA (16.2 ± 6.3, p = 0.02) infants and similar to the SGA infants classified by both methods (14.6 ± 6.7, p = 0.51). Customized growth curves were a significant predictor of BF% (p = 0.02), whereas population-based growth curves were not a significant independent predictor of BF% (p = 0.50) at term corrected gestational age. Customized growth potential improves the differentiation of SGA infants and low BF% compared with a standard population-based growth curve among a cohort of preterm infants.

  2. Deep Learning based multi-omics integration robustly predicts survival in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Poirion, Olivier B; Lu, Liangqun; Garmire, Lana X

    2017-10-05

    Identifying robust survival subgroups of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) will significantly improve patient care. Currently, endeavor of integrating multi-omics data to explicitly predict HCC survival from multiple patient cohorts is lacking. To fill in this gap, we present a deep learning (DL) based model on HCC that robustly differentiates survival subpopulations of patients in six cohorts. We build the DL based, survival-sensitive model on 360 HCC patients' data using RNA-seq, miRNA-seq and methylation data from TCGA, which predicts prognosis as good as an alternative model where genomics and clinical data are both considered. This DL based model provides two optimal subgroups of patients with significant survival differences (P=7.13e-6) and good model fitness (C-index=0.68). More aggressive subtype is associated with frequent TP53 inactivation mutations, higher expression of stemness markers (KRT19, EPCAM) and tumor marker BIRC5, and activated Wnt and Akt signaling pathways. We validated this multi-omics model on five external datasets of various omics types: LIRI-JP cohort (n=230, C-index=0.75), NCI cohort (n=221, C-index=0.67), Chinese cohort (n=166, C-index=0.69), E-TABM-36 cohort (n=40, C-index=0.77), and Hawaiian cohort (n=27, C-index=0.82). This is the first study to employ deep learning to identify multi-omics features linked to the differential survival of HCC patients. Given its robustness over multiple cohorts, we expect this workflow to be useful at predicting HCC prognosis prediction. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Cancer survival in adult patients in Spain. Results from nine population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, M D; Salmerón, D; Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Mateos, A; Torrella, A; Jiménez, R; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Ardanaz, E; Sant, M; Minicozzi, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J

    2017-07-17

    With the aim of providing cancer control indicators, this work presents cancer survival in adult (≥15 years) patients in Spain diagnosed during the period 2000-2007 from Spanish cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE project. Cancer cases from nine Spanish population-based cancer registries were included and analysed as a whole. All primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed in adult patients were eligible for the analysis. Cancer patients were followed until 31 December 2008. For each type of cancer, 1-, 3- and 5-year observed and relative survival were estimated by sex, age and years from diagnosis. Furthermore, age-standardized 5-year relative survival for the period 2000-2007 has been compared with that of the period 1995-1999. Skin melanoma (84.6 95% CI 83.0-86.2), prostate (84.6% 95% CI 83.6-85.6) and thyroid (84.2% CI 95% 82.0-86.6) cancers showed the highest 5-year relative survival, whereas the worst prognosis was observed in pancreatic (6% 95% CI 5.1-7.0) and oesophageal (9.4% 95% CI 7.9-11.1) cancers. Overall, survival is higher in women (58.0%) than in men (48.9%). The absolute difference in relative survival between 2000-2007 and 1995-1999 was positive for all cancers as a whole (+4.8% in men, +1.6% in women) and for most types of tumours. Survival increased significantly for chronic myeloid leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectum cancer in both sexes, and for acute lymphoid leukaemia, prostate, liver and colon cancers in men and Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer in women. Survival patterns by age were similar in Europe and Spain. A decline in survival by age was observed in all tumours, being more pronounced for ovarian, corpus uteri, prostate and urinary bladder and less for head and neck and rectum cancers. High variability and differences have been observed in survival among adults in Spain according to the type of cancer diagnosed, from above 84% to below 10%, reflecting high heterogeneity. The differences in prognosis by age, sex

  4. Survival Trends in Elderly Patients with Glioblastoma in the United States: a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Bista, Amir; Sharma, Sandhya

    2016-09-01

    Concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide along with radiotherapy following surgery (the Stupp regimen) is the preferred therapy for young patients with glioblastoma as well as for elderly (>70 years) ones with favorable risk factors. This study investigated the survival trend since the introduction of the use of the Stupp regimen in elderly patients in a population-based setting. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database was used to identify patients aged ≥70 years with glioblastoma as the first primary cancer diagnosed from 1999 to 2010. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard method were used for analysis. A total of 5,575 patients were included in the survival analysis. Survival in Stupp era (year of diagnosis ≥2005) was significantly better compared to the pre-Stupp era with p<0.001 by log-rank test, with 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival of 18.8% vs. 12.9%, 6.5% vs. 2.1% and 3.1% vs. 0.9% respectively, and hazard ratio for death in 3 years in the Stupp era was 0.87 (95% confidence interval=0.82-0.92; p<0.001) when compared with the pre-Stupp era. Factors such as younger age (<85 years), female sex, married status, Caucasian race and total resection favored better survival compared to their counterparts. This study shows that the survival of elderly patients with glioblastoma has improved since the introduction of the Stupp regimen. However, there are significant differences in survival rates among various cohorts. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. A population-based study of retinoblastoma incidence and survival in Argentine children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Florencia; Sinaki, Banafsheh; Fandiño, Adriana; Dussel, Verónica; Orellana, Liliana; Chantada, Guillermo

    2014-09-01

    An increased incidence of retinoblastoma in some developing countries has been reported but no conclusive data are available from population-based studies at national level. To report the incidence and survival of retinoblastoma in Argentina from the National Pediatric Cancer Registry (ROHA) and the influence of socio-economical indicators on outcome. Cases reported to the ROHA (2000-2009) were analyzed. Incidence rates were calculated using National Vital Statistics and survival was estimated. The extended human development index (EHDI) was used as a socio-economical indicator. With 438 patients reported, an incidence of 5.0 cases per million children 0-14 years old (95% CI 3.5-6.4) was calculated. Median age at diagnosis was significantly higher for children from provinces with lower EHDI; (24 vs. 35 months for unilateral, (P = 0.003) and 9 versus 11.5 months for bilateral retinoblastoma (P = 0.027). The 3-year probability of survival was 0.87 and 0.94 for unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma, respectively. Residents in provinces with higher EHDI had a better 3-year survival (0.93 vs. 0.77 for lower EHDI, P < 0.0001). Probability of survival was higher for patients treated at tertiary level institutions (P = 0.0015). The combination of low EHDI residence province with no treatment at a tertiary institution was associated with the worst survival outcome. For both, unilateral and bilateral disease, children who died were in average diagnosed at older age. The incidence of retinoblastoma in Argentina is comparable to that of developed countries. Retinoblastoma is diagnosed later and survival is lower in the less developed areas of the country. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos

    2017-09-01

    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  7. Survival in patients with primary Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: National Cancer Data Base analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymenko, Oleksandr; Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Zeitouni, Nathalie C

    2017-11-23

    The predictors of mortality, second surgery, and postoperative radiation therapy for treating Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) are not well described. We sought to determine the impact of patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment site and modality on survival after primary DFSP. A retrospective analysis of data from the National Cancer Data Base program was performed for patients diagnosed with DFSP from 2003 to 2012. A total of 5249 cases were identified. Of these, 3.1% of patients died during an average of 51.4 months of follow up. After adjusting for relevant factors, uninsured and/or Medicaid/Medicare insurance, anaplastic histology, and positive postoperative margins predicted mortality, while treatment at Integrated Network Cancer programs predicted survival (P data was not cancer-specific. Better understanding of factors affecting survival outcomes may help improve management of DFSP and delineate other potential causes of increased morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tebben

    Full Text Available The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  9. Evaluation of the learning curve for transurethral plasmakinetic enucleation and resection of prostate using a mentor-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Feng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the mentor-based learning curve of one single surgeon with transurethral plasmakinetic enucleation and resection of prostate (PKERP prospectively. Materials and Methods Ninety consecutive PKERP operations performed by one resident under the supervision of an experienced endourologist were studied. Operations were analyzed in cohorts of 10 cases to determine when a plateau was reached for the variables such as operation efficiency, enucleation efficiency and frequency of mentor advice (FMA. Patient demographic variables, perioperative data, complications and 12-month follow-up data were analyzed and compared with the results of a senior urologist. Results The mean operative efficiency and enucleation efficiency increased from a mean of 0.49±0.09g/min and 1.11±0.28g/min for the first 10 procedures to a mean of 0.63±0.08g/min and 1.62±0.36g/min for case numbers 31-40 (p=0.003 and p=0.002. The mean value of FMA decreased from a mean of 6.7±1.5 for the first 10 procedures to a mean of 2.8±1.2 for case numbers 31-40 (p<0.01. The senior urologist had a mean operative efficiency and enucleation efficiency equivalent to those of the senior resident after 40 cases. There was significant improvement in 3, 6 and 12 month’s parameter compared with preoperative values (p<0.001. Conclusions PKERP can be performed safely and efficiently even during the initial learning curve of the surgeon when closely mentored. Further well-designed trials with several surgeons are needed to confirm the results.

  10. Evaluation of the Learning Curve for Transurethral Plasmakinetic Enucleation and Resection of Prostate Using a Mentor-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lang; Song, Jian; Zhang, Daoxin; Tian, Ye

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the mentor-based learning curve of one single surgeon with transurethral plasmakinetic enucleation and resection of prostate (PKERP) prospectively. Ninety consecutive PKERP operations performed by one resident under the supervision of an experienced endourologist were studied. Operations were analyzed in cohorts of 10 cases to determine when a plateau was reached for the variables such as operation efficiency, enucleation efficiency and frequency of mentor advice (FMA). Patient demographic variables, perioperative data, complications and 12-month follow-up data were analyzed and compared with the results of a senior urologist. The mean operative efficiency and enucleation efficiency increased from a mean of 0.49±0.09g/min and 1.11±0.28g/min for the first 10 procedures to a mean of 0.63±0.08g/min and 1.62±0.36g/min for case numbers 31-40 (p=0.003 and p=0.002). The mean value of FMA decreased from a mean of 6.7±1.5 for the first 10 procedures to a mean of 2.8±1.2 for case numbers 31-40 (penucleation efficiency equivalent to those of the senior resident after 40 cases. There was significant improvement in 3, 6 and 12 month's parameter compared with preoperative values (p<0.001). PKERP can be performed safely and efficiently even during the initial learning curve of the surgeon when closely mentored. Further well-designed trials with several surgeons are needed to confirm the results. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  11. Multiplicative Noise and Blur Removal by Framelet Decomposition and and $l_1$-based L-curve Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Michael; Zhao, Xi-Le; Wang, Fan

    2016-06-22

    This paper proposes a framelet based convex optimization model for multiplicative noise and blur removal problem. The main idea is to employ framelet expansion to represent the original image and use the variable decomposition to solve the problem. Because of the nature of multiplicative noise, we decompose the observed data into the original image variable and the noise variable to obtain the resulting model. The original image variable is represented by framelet, it is determined by using l1-norm in the selection and shrinkage of framelet coefficients. The noise variable is measured by using the mean and the variance of the underlying probability distribution. This framelet setting can be applied to analysis, synthesis and balanced approaches, and the resulting optimization models are convex such that they can be solved very efficiently by the alternating direction of multiplier method. An another contribution of this paper is to propose to select the regularization parameter by using the l1-based L-curve method for these framelet based models. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of these models and show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that by the existing methods.

  12. Factors driving inequality in prostate cancer survival: a population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M Burns

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: As cancer control strategies have become more successful, issues around survival have become increasingly important to researchers and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the role of a range of clinical and socio-demographic variables in explaining variations in survival after a prostate cancer diagnosis, paying particular attention to the role of healthcare provider(s i.e. private versus public status. METHODS: Data were extracted from the National Cancer Registry Ireland, for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1998-2009 (N = 26,183. A series of multivariate Cox and logistic regression models were used to examine the role of healthcare provider and socio-economic status (area-based deprivation on survival, controlling for age, stage, Gleason grade, marital status and region of residence. Survival was based on all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Older individuals who were treated in a private care setting were more likely to have survived than those who had not, when other factors were controlled for. Differences were evident with respect to marital status, region of residence, clinical stage and Gleason grade. The effect of socio-economic status was modified by healthcare provider, such that risk of death was higher in those men of lower socio-economic status treated by public, but not private providers in the Cox models. The logistic models revealed a socio-economic gradient in risk of death overall; the gradient was larger for those treated by public providers compared to those treated by private providers when controlling for a range of other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: The role of healthcare provider and socio-economic status in survival of men with prostate cancer may give rise to concerns that warrant further investigation.

  13. Survival in pediatric medulloblastoma: a population-based observational study to improve prognostication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alexander G; Wang, Anthony C; Westwick, Harrison J; Ibrahim, George M; Ariani, Rojine T; Crevier, Louis; Perreault, Sebastien; Davidson, Tom; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fallah, Aria

    2017-03-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common form of brain malignancy of childhood. The mainstay of epidemiological data regarding childhood medulloblastoma is derived from case series, hence population-based studies are warranted to improve the accuracy of survival estimates. To utilize a big-data approach to update survival estimates in a contemporary cohort of children with medulloblastoma. We performed a population-based retrospective observational cohort study utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database that captures all children, less than 20 years of age, between 1973 and 2012 in 18 geographical regions representing 28% of the US population. We included all participants with a presumed or histologically diagnosis of medulloblastoma. The main outcome of interest is survivors at 1, 5 and 10 years following diagnosis. A cohort of 1735 children with a median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis of 7 (4-11) years, with a diagnosis of medulloblastoma were identified. The incidence and prevalence of pediatric medulloblastoma has remained stable over the past 4 decades. There is a critical time point at 1990 when the overall survival has drastically improved. In the contemporary cohort (1990 onwards), the percentage of participants alive was 86, 70 and 63% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Multivariate Cox-Regression model demonstrated Radiation (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.30-0.46, p medulloblastoma survival. In contrast to previous reports, the majority of patients survive in the modern era, and those alive 8 years following initial diagnosis are likely a long-term survivor. The importance of minimizing treatment-related toxicity is increasingly apparent given the likelihood of long-term survival.

  14. Analyzing age-specific genetic effects on human extreme age survival in cohort-based longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Jacobsen, Rune; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of age-specific genetic effects on human survival over extreme ages is confronted with a deceleration pattern in mortality that deviates from traditional survival models and sparse genetic data available. As human late life is a distinct phase of life history, exploring the genetic...... effects on extreme age survival can be of special interest to evolutionary biology and health science. We introduce a non-parametric survival analysis approach that combines population survival information with individual genotype data in assessing the genetic effects in cohort-based longitudinal studies...

  15. da Vinci skills simulator for assessing learning curve and criterion-based training of robotic basic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Willem M; Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Kengen, Bas; Schout, Barbara M A; Witjes, J Alfred; Bekkers, Ruud L

    2013-03-01

    To answer 2 research questions: what are the learning curve patterns of novices on the da Vinci skills simulator parameters and what parameters are appropriate for criterion-based robotic training. A total of 17 novices completed 2 simulator sessions within 3 days. Each training session consisted of a warming-up exercise, followed by 5 repetitions of the "ring and rail II" task. Expert participants (n = 3) performed a warming-up exercise and 3 repetitions of the "ring and rail II" task on 1 day. We analyzed all 9 parameters of the simulator. Significant learning occurred on 5 parameters: overall score, time to complete, instrument collision, instruments out of view, and critical errors within 1-10 repetitions (P motion and excessive instrument force only showed improvement within the first 5 repetitions. No significant learning on the parameter drops and master workspace range was found. Using the expert overall performance score (n = 3) as a criterion (overall score 90%), 9 of 17 novice participants met the criterion within 10 repetitions. Most parameters showed that basic robotic skills are learned relatively quickly using the da Vinci skills simulator, but that 10 repetitions were not sufficient for most novices to reach an expert level. Some parameters seemed inappropriate for expert-based criterion training because either no learning occurred or the novice performance was equal to expert performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interdependent multi-layer networks: modeling and survivability analysis with applications to space-based networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a novel approach and algorithmic tools for the modeling and survivability analysis of networks with heterogeneous nodes, and examines their application to space-based networks. Space-based networks (SBNs) allow the sharing of spacecraft on-orbit resources, such as data storage, processing, and downlink. Each spacecraft in the network can have different subsystem composition and functionality, thus resulting in node heterogeneity. Most traditional survivability analyses of networks assume node homogeneity and as a result, are not suited for the analysis of SBNs. This work proposes that heterogeneous networks can be modeled as interdependent multi-layer networks, which enables their survivability analysis. The multi-layer aspect captures the breakdown of the network according to common functionalities across the different nodes, and it allows the emergence of homogeneous sub-networks, while the interdependency aspect constrains the network to capture the physical characteristics of each node. Definitions of primitives of failure propagation are devised. Formal characterization of interdependent multi-layer networks, as well as algorithmic tools for the analysis of failure propagation across the network are developed and illustrated with space applications. The SBN applications considered consist of several networked spacecraft that can tap into each other's Command and Data Handling subsystem, in case of failure of its own, including the Telemetry, Tracking and Command, the Control Processor, and the Data Handling sub-subsystems. Various design insights are derived and discussed, and the capability to perform trade-space analysis with the proposed approach for various network characteristics is indicated. The select results here shown quantify the incremental survivability gains (with respect to a particular class of threats) of the SBN over the traditional monolith spacecraft. Failure of the connectivity between nodes is also examined, and the

  17. Interdependent multi-layer networks: modeling and survivability analysis with applications to space-based networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Castet

    Full Text Available This article develops a novel approach and algorithmic tools for the modeling and survivability analysis of networks with heterogeneous nodes, and examines their application to space-based networks. Space-based networks (SBNs allow the sharing of spacecraft on-orbit resources, such as data storage, processing, and downlink. Each spacecraft in the network can have different subsystem composition and functionality, thus resulting in node heterogeneity. Most traditional survivability analyses of networks assume node homogeneity and as a result, are not suited for the analysis of SBNs. This work proposes that heterogeneous networks can be modeled as interdependent multi-layer networks, which enables their survivability analysis. The multi-layer aspect captures the breakdown of the network according to common functionalities across the different nodes, and it allows the emergence of homogeneous sub-networks, while the interdependency aspect constrains the network to capture the physical characteristics of each node. Definitions of primitives of failure propagation are devised. Formal characterization of interdependent multi-layer networks, as well as algorithmic tools for the analysis of failure propagation across the network are developed and illustrated with space applications. The SBN applications considered consist of several networked spacecraft that can tap into each other's Command and Data Handling subsystem, in case of failure of its own, including the Telemetry, Tracking and Command, the Control Processor, and the Data Handling sub-subsystems. Various design insights are derived and discussed, and the capability to perform trade-space analysis with the proposed approach for various network characteristics is indicated. The select results here shown quantify the incremental survivability gains (with respect to a particular class of threats of the SBN over the traditional monolith spacecraft. Failure of the connectivity between nodes is also

  18. Polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T and A1298C associated with survival in patients with colorectal cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Ching; Lai, Ching-Yu; Chang, Shih-Ni; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Tang, Reiping; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lin, Yi-Kuei

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy in Taiwan. We genotyped MTHFR polymorphisms C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) for 498 CRC patients treated with 5-FU-based chemotherapy after receiving surgery. Survival analyses on MTHFR polymorphisms were performed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier curve. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between MTHFR genotypes and survival. Overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in CRC patients with MTHFR 677 CT+TT genotypes compared with those with 677 CC genotype (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.98). Although the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was not associated with OS in CRC, this polymorphism was associated with significantly shorter OS in rectal cancer. Among rectal cancer patients, OS was shorter for patients with AC+CC genotypes than for those with the AA genotype (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.35-2.83). In haplotype analysis, better OS was found for colon cancer patients carrying the MTHFR 677T-1298A haplotype (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.55-0.97), but worse survival was linked to rectal cancer patients carrying the MTHFR 677C-1298C haplotype (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.08-2.18). Our findings suggest that MTHFR genotypes provide prognostic information for CRC patients treated with 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

  19. Volume-based assessment by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT predicts survival in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Seung Hyup; Choi, Joon Young [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hee Kyung [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hojoong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Keunchil [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yong Chan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jhingook; Shim, Young Mog [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    We evaluated the prognostic impact of volume-based assessment by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reviewed 194 consecutive patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with surgical resection (surgical group) and 115 patients treated with nonsurgical therapy (nonsurgical group: 50 stage IIIA, 65 stage IIIB). Metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of primary tumours were measured using pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Overall survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of PET parameters and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. To evaluate and compare the predictive performance of PET parameters, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used. In the Cox proportional hazards models, MTV (HR = 1.27 for a doubling of MTV, P = 0.008) and TLG (HR = 1.22 for a doubling of TLG, P = 0.035) were significantly associated with an increased risk of death after adjusting for age, gender, histological cell type, T stage, N stage, and treatment variables in the surgical group. SUVmax was not a significant prognostic factor in either the surgical or nonsurgical group. In the time-dependent ROC curve analysis, volume-based PET parameters predicted survival better than SUVmax. The volume-based PET parameters (MTV and TLG) are significant prognostic factors for survival independent of tumour stage and better prognostic imaging biomarkers than SUVmax in patients with stage IIIA NSCLC after surgical resection. (orig.)

  20. Smoking and survival of colorectal cancer patients: population-based study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Viola; Jansen, Lina; Hoffmeister, Michael; Ulrich, Alexis; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-09-15

    Current evidence on the association between smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis after diagnosis is heterogeneous and few have investigated dose-response effects or outcomes other than overall survival. Therefore, the association of smoking status and intensity with several prognostic outcomes was evaluated in a large population-based cohort of CRC patients; 3,130 patients with incident CRC, diagnosed between 2003 and 2010, were interviewed on sociodemographic factors, smoking behavior, medication and comorbidities. Tumor characteristics were collected from medical records. Vital status, recurrence and cause of death were documented for a median follow-up time of 4.9 years. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, associations between smoking characteristics and overall, CRC-specific, non-CRC related, recurrence-free and disease-free survival were evaluated. Among stage I-III patients, being a smoker at diagnosis and smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day were associated with lower recurrence-free (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.79 and aHR: 1.31; 95%-CI: 0.92-1.87) and disease-free survival (aHR: 1.26; 95%-CI: 0.95-1.67 and aHR: 1.29; 95%-CI: 0.94-1.77). Smoking was associated with decreased survival in stage I-III smokers with pack years ≥20 (Overall survival: aHR: 1.40; 95%-CI: 1.01-1.95), in colon cancer cases (Overall survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.05-2.17) and men (Recurrence-free survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.09-2.10; disease-free survival: aHR: 1.49; 95%-CI: 1.12-1.97), whereas no associations were seen among women, stage IV or rectal cancer patients. The observed patterns support the existence of adverse effects of smoking on CRC prognosis among nonmetastatic CRC patients. The potential to enhance prognosis of CRC patients by promotion of smoking cessation, embedded in tertiary prevention programs warrants careful evaluation in future investigations. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Curved Beam Computed Tomography based Structural Rigidity Analysis of Bones with Simulated Lytic Defect: A Comparative Study with Finite Element Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oftadeh, R.; Karimi, Z.; Villa-Camacho, J.; Tanck, E.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Goebel, R.; Snyder, B.D.; Hashemi, H.N.; Vaziri, A.; Nazarian, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain

  2. Increased pancreatic cancer survival with greater lymph node retrieval in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carlo M; Lin, Chee Paul; Oster, Robert A; Reddy, Sushanth; Wang, Thomas; Vickers, Selwyn; Heslin, Martin

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the role of lymph node (LN) retrieval in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We utilized the National Cancer Data Base; Cox regression models and logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluation. We evaluated 26,792 patients with PA who underwent PD. The mean LN retrieved in LN(-) patients was 10.8 vs 14.4 for LN(+) patients (P < 0.0001). Greater LN retrieval is an independent predictor of a negative microscopic margin and decreased length of stay. The median survival of LN(-) patients exceeded that of LN(+) patients (24.5 vs 15.1 months, P < 0.0001). Increasing LN retrieval is a significant predictor of survival in all patients, and in LN(-) patients. The relationship of increased LN retrieval and enhanced survival is a nearly linear trend. Rather than demonstrating an inflection point that defines the extent of adequate lymphadenectomy, this dataset demonstrates an incremental relationship between LN retrieval and survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College Ajmer Rajasthan INDIA (India); Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Rajasthan Technical University Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  4. Provable Secure and Efficient Digital Rights Management Authentication Scheme Using Smart Card Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the concept of ubiquitous computing is firstly proposed by Mark Weiser, its connotation has been extending and expanding by many scholars. In pervasive computing application environment, many kinds of small devices containing smart cart are used to communicate with others. In 2013, Yang et al. proposed an enhanced authentication scheme using smart card for digital rights management. They demonstrated that their scheme is secure enough. However, Mishra et al. pointed out that Yang et al.’s scheme suffers from the password guessing attack and the denial of service attack. Moreover, they also demonstrated that Yang et al.’s scheme is not efficient enough when the user inputs an incorrect password. In this paper, we analyze Yang et al.’s scheme again, and find that their scheme is vulnerable to the session key attack. And, there are some mistakes in their scheme. To surmount the weakness of Yang et al.’s scheme, we propose a more efficient and provable secure digital rights management authentication scheme using smart card based on elliptic curve cryptography.

  5. A Melting Curve Analysis–Based PCR Assay for One-Step Genotyping of β-Thalassemia Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fu; Huang, Qiuying; Chen, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Yuqiu; Zhang, Xinhua; Cai, Ren; Chen, Yajun; Xie, Jiansheng; Feng, Shanwei; Wei, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Qizhi; Zhang, Tianlang; Luo, Shiqiang; Yang, Xuehuang; Hao, Ying; Qu, Yanxia; Li, Qingge; Xu, Xiangmin

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of disease-causing mutations demands a simple, direct, and cost-effective diagnostic genotyping technique capable of detecting multiple mutations. This study validated the efficacy of a novel melting curve analysis–based genotyping assay (MeltPro HBB assay) for 24 β-thalassemia mutations in the Chinese population. The diagnostic potential of this assay was evaluated in 1022 pretyped genomic DNA samples, including 909 clinical cases of β-thalassemia minor or major, using a double-blind analysis in a multicenter validation study. Reproducibility of the assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 10 pg per reaction. All 24 β-thalassemia mutations were accurately genotyped, and β-thalassemia genotypes were correctly determined in all 1022 samples, yielding overall sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The concordance rate was 99.4% between this assay and the reference method. It was concluded that the MeltPro HBB assay is useful for reliable genotyping of multiple β-thalassemia mutations in clinical settings and may have potential as a versatile method for rapid genotyping of known mutations because of its high throughput, accuracy, ease of use, and low cost. PMID:21704277

  6. The Influence of the Annual Number of Storms on the Derivation of the Flood Frequency Curve through Event-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sordo-Ward

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the question of how to select the minimum set of storms that should be simulated each year in order to estimate an accurate flood frequency curve for return periods ranging between 1 and 1000 years. The Manzanares basin (Spain was used as a study case. A continuous 100,000-year hourly rainfall series was generated using the stochastic spatial–temporal model RanSimV3. Individual storms were extracted from the series by applying the exponential method. For each year, the extracted storms were transformed into hydrographs by applying an hourly time-step semi-distributed event-based rainfall–runoff model, and the maximum peak flow per year was determined to generate the reference flood frequency curve. Then, different flood frequency curves were obtained considering the N storms with maximum rainfall depth per year, with 1 ≤ N ≤ total number of storms. Main results show that: (a the degree of alignment between the calculated flood frequency curves and the reference flood frequency curve depends on the return period considered, increasing the accuracy for higher return periods; (b for the analyzed case studies, the flood frequency curve for medium and high return period (50 ≤ return period ≤ 1000 years can be estimated with a difference lower than 3% (compared to the reference flood frequency curve by considering the three storms with the maximum total rainfall depth each year; (c when considering only the greatest storm of the year, for return periods higher than 10 years, the difference for the estimation of the flood frequency curve is lower than 10%; and (d when considering the three greatest storms each year, for return periods higher than 100 years, the probability of achieving simultaneously a hydrograph with the annual maximum peak flow and the maximum volume is 94%.

  7. Moduli of Trigonal Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stankova-Frenkel, Z E

    1997-01-01

    We study the moduli of trigonal curves. We establish the exact upper bound of ${36(g+1)}/(5g+1)$ for the slope of trigonal fibrations. Here, the slope of any fibration $X\\to B$ of stable curves with smooth general member is the ratio Hodge class $\\lambda$ on the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ to the base $B$. We associate to a trigonal family $X$ a canonical rank two vector bundle $V$, and show that for Bogomolov-semistable $V$ the slope satisfies the stronger inequality ${\\delta_B}/{\\lambda_B}\\leq 7+{6}/{g}$. We further describe the rational Picard group of the {trigonal} locus $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$ in the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ of genus $g$ curves. In the even genus case, we interpret the above Bogomolov semistability condition in terms of the so-called Maroni divisor in $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$.

  8. Survival Comparison of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in Canada and the United States: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anne L; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Quon, Bradley S; Marshall, Bruce C; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza K; Elbert, Alexander; Goss, Christopher H

    2017-04-18

    In 2011, the median age of survival of patients with cystic fibrosis reported in the United States was 36.8 years, compared with 48.5 years in Canada. Direct comparison of survival estimates between national registries is challenging because of inherent differences in methodologies used, data processing techniques, and ascertainment bias. To use a standardized approach to calculate cystic fibrosis survival estimates and to explore differences between Canada and the United States. Population-based study. 42 Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics and 110 U.S. cystic fibrosis care centers. Patients followed in the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (CCFR) and U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) between 1990 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare survival between patients followed in the CCFR (n = 5941) and those in the CFFPR (n = 45 448). Multivariable models were used to adjust for factors known to be associated with survival. Median age of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis increased in both countries between 1990 and 2013; however, in 1995 and 2005, survival in Canada increased at a faster rate than in the United States (P cystic fibrosis survival between Canada and the United States persisted after adjustment for risk factors associated with survival, except for private-insurance status among U.S. patients. Differential access to transplantation, increased posttransplant survival, and differences in health care systems may, in part, explain the Canadian survival advantage. U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

  9. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, DN; Adarsha, MS; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2–10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. Materials and Methods This study evaluated the existing literature – survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The

  10. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, Dn; Adarsha, Ms; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2-10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. This study evaluated the existing literature - survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The weighted mean was computed. The study found that the window preparation was of the

  11. Optimal Threshold Determination for Discriminating Driving Anger Intensity Based on EEG Wavelet Features and ROC Curve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Driving anger, called “road rage”, has become increasingly common nowadays, affecting road safety. A few researches focused on how to identify driving anger, however, there is still a gap in driving anger grading, especially in real traffic environment, which is beneficial to take corresponding intervening measures according to different anger intensity. This study proposes a method for discriminating driving anger states with different intensity based on Electroencephalogram (EEG spectral features. First, thirty drivers were recruited to conduct on-road experiments on a busy route in Wuhan, China where anger could be inducted by various road events, e.g., vehicles weaving/cutting in line, jaywalking/cyclist crossing, traffic congestion and waiting red light if they want to complete the experiments ahead of basic time for extra paid. Subsequently, significance analysis was used to select relative energy spectrum of β band (β% and relative energy spectrum of θ band (θ% for discriminating the different driving anger states. Finally, according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the optimal thresholds (best cut-off points of β% and θ% for identifying none anger state (i.e., neutral were determined to be 0.2183 ≤ θ% < 1, 0 < β% < 0.2586; low anger state is 0.1539 ≤ θ% < 0.2183, 0.2586 ≤ β% < 0.3269; moderate anger state is 0.1216 ≤ θ% < 0.1539, 0.3269 ≤ β% < 0.3674; high anger state is 0 < θ% < 0.1216, 0.3674 ≤ β% < 1. Moreover, the discrimination performances of verification indicate that, the overall accuracy (Acc of the optimal thresholds of β% for discriminating the four driving anger states is 80.21%, while 75.20% for that of θ%. The results can provide theoretical foundation for developing driving anger detection or warning devices based on the relevant optimal thresholds.

  12. Incidence and survival of childhood leukemia in Recife, Brazil: A population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Mecneide Mendes; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; de Castro, Claudia Cristina Lima; Mello, Maria Julia Gonçalves; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer with incidence rates of around 48 per million for children under 15 years of age. The median age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) in children aged 0-14 years in Brazil is 53.3 per million. While overall survival rates for children with leukemia have improved significantly, data for incidence, trends, and relative survival among children and adolescents with leukemia in Recife, Brazil, remain incomplete, which hampers our analyses and provision of the best healthcare. The objective of this report is to provide that data. Data from the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Recife were analyzed from 1998 to 2007. Our analyses included frequencies and AAIR, together with age-specific incidence rates for all leukemias, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia. To evaluate incidence trends, joinpoint regression, including annual average percent change, were analyzed. Relative survival was calculated using the life-table method. One hundred seventy-five cases were identified, 51% in females. The review reduced the not otherwise specified (NOS) leukemia category by 50% and diagnosis by death certificate only from 5.7% to 1.1%. The AAIR for leukemia was 41.1 per million, with a peak among children aged 1-4 (78.3 per million). Incidence trends during the period were stable. The five-year relative survival rate was 69.8%. These data represent the incidence rate and survival of childhood leukemia in Recife, located in the northeast region of Brazil, using a high-quality database. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sex differences in cancer survival in Estonia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Aareleid, Tiiu

    2015-02-19

    In Estonia, women have much longer life expectancy than men. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in cancer survival in Estonia and to explore the role of age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis and tumour subsite. Using data from the population-based Estonian Cancer Registry, we examined the relative survival of adult patients diagnosed with nine common cancers in Estonia in 1995-2006 and followed up through 2011. Excess hazard ratios (EHR) of death associated with female gender adjusted for age, stage at diagnosis and tumour subsite were estimated. A total of 20 828 male and 13 166 female cases were analysed. The main data quality indicators were similar between men and women. Women had more cases with unknown extent of disease at diagnosis. Overall, the age-adjusted 5-year relative survival ratio was higher among women than men for all studied sites, but the difference was significant for cancers of mouth and pharynx (22% units), lung (5% units), skin melanoma (17% units) and kidney (8% units). The increase in survival over time was larger for women than men for cancers of mouth and pharynx, colon, rectum, kidney and skin melanoma. In multivariate analysis, women had a significantly lower EHR of death within five years after diagnosis for five of the nine cancers studied (cancers of mouth and pharynx, stomach, lung, skin melanoma and kidney). Adjustment for stage and subsite explained some, but not all of the women's advantage. We found a significant female survival advantage in Estonia for cancers of mouth and pharynx, stomach, lung, kidney and skin melanoma. The differences in favour of women tended to increase over time as from the 1990s to the 2000s, survival improved more among women than among men. A large part of the women's advantage is likely attributable to biological factors, but other factors, such as co-morbidities, treatment compliance or health behaviour, are also probable contributors to gender survival disparities in Estonia and

  14. Estimation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters based on fractional delay and sine curve fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Jiang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to estimate the channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) based on fractional delay (FD) and sine curve fitting. Choose one channel as the reference channel and apply FD to the output samples of reference channel to obtain the ideal samples of non-reference channels with no mismatches. Based on least square method, the sine curves are adopted to fit the ideal and the actual samples of non-reference channels, and then the mismatch parameters can be estimated by comparing the ideal sine curves and the actual ones. The principle of this algorithm is simple and easily understood. Moreover, its implementation needs no extra circuits, lowering the hardware cost. Simulation results show that the estimation accuracy of this algorithm can be controlled within 2%. Finally, the practicability of this algorithm is verified by the measurement results of channel mismatch errors of a two-channel TIADC prototype.

  15. A Practice-based Study on the Survival of Restored Endodontically Treated Teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skupien, J.A.; Opdam, N.; Winnen, R.; Bronkhorst, E.; Kreulen, C.; Pereira-Cenci, T.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study evaluated the survival of endodontically treated teeth (ETTs) and investigated factors influencing restoration and tooth survival. METHODS: Data from 795 ETTs were recorded, and success (restoration still intact) and survival (restoration intact or

  16. Incidence, prevalence, and survival of moyamoya disease in Korea: a nationwide, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il Min; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Hann, Hoo Jae; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Hyeong Sik

    2014-04-01

    There is a scarcity of information on the epidemiology and natural course of moyamoya disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the nationwide epidemiological features of moyamoya disease in Korea, including incidence, prevalence, and survival. We used the data from nationwide, population-based Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database and Rare Intractable Disease registration program, which includes physician-certified diagnoses based on uniform criteria for moyamoya disease from 2007 to 2011. Age-specific incidence and prevalence were calculated, and survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier method. The total number of patients with moyamoya disease was 8154 in 2011, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.8. The incidence from 2007 to 2011 was 1.7 to 2.3/10(5), and the prevalence in 2011 was 16.1/10(5). In total, 66.3% of patients aged 0 to 14 years underwent surgery, whereas only 21.5% in the older than 15 years age group underwent surgery. The 1- and 5-year survival rates of adult patients were 96.9% and 92.9%, respectively, and of child patients were 99.6% and 99.3%, respectively. The prevalence and incidence presented in this study are higher than those in previous studies. This study demonstrates that the burden of moyamoya disease in Korea is substantial.

  17. The dChip survival analysis module for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minvielle Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide expression signatures are emerging as potential marker for overall survival and disease recurrence risk as evidenced by recent commercialization of gene expression based biomarkers in breast cancer. Similar predictions have recently been carried out using genome-wide copy number alterations and microRNAs. Existing software packages for microarray data analysis provide functions to define expression-based survival gene signatures. However, there is no software that can perform survival analysis using SNP array data or draw survival curves interactively for expression-based sample clusters. Results We have developed the survival analysis module in the dChip software that performs survival analysis across the genome for gene expression and copy number microarray data. Built on the current dChip software's microarray analysis functions such as chromosome display and clustering, the new survival functions include interactive exploring of Kaplan-Meier (K-M plots using expression or copy number data, computing survival p-values from the log-rank test and Cox models, and using permutation to identify significant chromosome regions associated with survival. Conclusions The dChip survival module provides user-friendly way to perform survival analysis and visualize the results in the context of genes and cytobands. It requires no coding expertise and only minimal learning curve for thousands of existing dChip users. The implementation in Visual C++ also enables fast computation. The software and demonstration data are freely available at http://dchip-surv.chenglilab.org.

  18. Gene Expression-Based Survival Prediction in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Multi-Site, Blinded Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedden, Kerby; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Enkemann, Steve A.; Tsao, Ming S.; Yeatman, Timothy J.; Gerald, William L.; Eschrich, Steve; Jurisica, Igor; Venkatraman, Seshan E.; Meyerson, Matthew; Kuick, Rork; Dobbin, Kevin K.; Lively, Tracy; Jacobson, James W.; Beer, David G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Misek, David E.; Chang, Andrew C.; Zhu, Chang Qi; Strumpf, Dan; Hanash, Samir; Shepherd, Francis A.; Ding, Kuyue; Seymour, Lesley; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Pennell, Nathan; Weir, Barbara; Verhaak, Roel; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Golub, Todd; Gruidl, Mike; Szoke, Janos; Zakowski, Maureen; Rusch, Valerie; Kris, Mark; Viale, Agnes; Motoi, Noriko; Travis, William; Sharma, Anupama

    2009-01-01

    Although prognostic gene expression signatures for survival in early stage lung cancer have been proposed, for clinical application it is critical to establish their performance across different subject populations and in different laboratories. Here we report a large, training-testing, multi-site blinded validation study to characterize the performance of several prognostic models based on gene expression for 442 lung adenocarcinomas. The hypotheses proposed examined whether microarray measurements of gene expression either alone or combined with basic clinical covariates (stage, age, sex) can be used to predict overall survival in lung cancer subjects. Several models examined produced risk scores that substantially correlated with actual subject outcome. Most methods performed better with clinical data, supporting the combined use of clinical and molecular information when building prognostic models for early stage lung cancer. This study also provides the largest available set of microarray data with extensive pathological and clinical annotation for lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:18641660

  19. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  20. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  1. Lateral-torsional response of base-isolated buildings with curved surface sliding system subjected to near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The curved surface sliding (CSS) system is one of the most in-demand techniques for the seismic isolation of buildings; yet there are still important aspects of its behaviour that need further attention. The CSS system presents variation of friction coefficient, depending on the sliding velocity of the CSS bearings, while friction force and lateral stiffness during the sliding phase are proportional to the axial load. Lateral-torsional response needs to be better understood for base-isolated structures located in near-fault areas, where fling-step and forward-directivity effects can produce long-period (horizontal) velocity pulses. To analyse these aspects, a six-storey reinforced concrete (r.c.) office framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming three values of the radius of curvature for the CSS system. Seven in-plan distributions of dynamic-fast friction coefficient for the CSS bearings, ranging from a constant value for all isolators to a different value for each, are considered in the case of low- and medium-type friction properties. The seismic analysis of the test structures is carried out considering an elastic-linear behaviour of the superstructure, while a nonlinear force-displacement law of the CSS bearings is considered in the horizontal direction, depending on sliding velocity and axial load. Given the lack of knowledge of the horizontal direction at which near-fault ground motions occur, the maximum torsional effects and residual displacements are evaluated with reference to different incidence angles, while the orientation of the strongest observed pulses is considered to obtain average values.

  2. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  3. [Discharge curve among psychiatric patients after admission and risk factors associated with long stay based on "patient survey"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiharu; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    The "Reform Vision of Mental Health Services" (2004) announced the basic policy for the transition from hospital based to community based care, and set up numerical objectives, such as the average proportion remaining hospitalized in the first year after admission and the incidence rate of discharge among psychiatric patients hospitalized for more than one year. Using data from the "Patient Survey" performed in 2002 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, we estimated discharge curves for each mental disorder during the first year after admission and assessed the effects of variables, i.e., diagnosis, sex, age, hospital type, and residential area, on remaining hospitalized after one year from admission and the incidence rate of discharge among psychiatric patients hospitalized for more than one year. The estimated number of discharged psychiatric patients was 27,974 in September, 2002, and 86% of them were discharged less than one year after admission. The incidence rate of discharge (per 100 person-year) in the first year was 314.8, but the rate after the second year sharply decreased to 19.9. Patients with dementia, mental retardation, and schizophrenia tended to stay for a long period in hospital, and proportions remaining hospitalized after one year from admission were 27.0%, 16.4%, and 14.6% respectively. Based on multivariate analysis using the weighted Poisson regression model, risk factors associated with an increased chance of remaining hospitalized after the first year included a long length of continuous hospitalization, diagnoses of dementia, mental retardation, and schizophrenia, male, older age, and being in a mental hospital. On the other hand, as to the incidence rate of discharge after one year, a long length of continuous hospitalization and being in a mental hospital were related with a long stay, but other variables were slightly different. Being female, patients aged 45-54 years old, and diagnoses of epilepsy and schizophrenia were

  4. Total variation based DCE-MRI decomposition by separating lesion from background for time-intensity curve estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zheng, Yuanjie; Liang, Dong; Tang, Pinpin; Ren, Fuquan; Zhang, Lina; Zhao, Zuowei

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to obtain the accurate time intensity curve (TIC) of a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance image (DCE-MRI) by eliminating the normal tissue enhancement and obtaining pure lesion information. The TIC of DCE-MRI is sometimes distorted because of the influence of normal tissue. In this paper, a new tracer-kinetic modeling based on total variation (DC-TV) is proposed to address this problem by decomposing the DCE-MRI into the normal tissue image and the lesion image. As TIC generation is not standardized and a credible program is expected, an accurate TIC generation is presented in this paper. We propose a new tracer-kinetic model DC-TV to decompose the lesion region in breast DCE-MRIs. The original image is decomposed into a normal tissue image and a lesion image to obtain the pure lesion enhancement information. The acquired lesion images are smooth and correspond to the diffusion of the contrast agent in the lesion. The normal tissue image sequences are stable and correspond to the enhanced normal tissue. To speed up the computational process of our convergent algorithm, the split Bregman iteration algorithm is applied. To compare the algorithm results, images generated by decomposed methods without normal tissue constraint based on total variation are compared with those generated by our method. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by the correlation of normal tissue images with the lesion classification accuracy of lesion images. Ninety-eight lesions, including 40 benign and 58 malignant, are evaluated. The dataset includes various typical pathologies of the breast such as invasive ductal carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, tubular carcinoma, phyllodes tumor, hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma, among others. The area under the ROC for the pure lesion enhancement images acquired by DC-TV is greater than that acquired by the original DCE-MRIs. The pure enhancement information from the original breast DCE-MRI lesions can be

  5. Imperfection Sensitivity of Nonlinear Vibration of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Based on Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Eshraghi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Imperfection sensitivity of large amplitude vibration of curved single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is considered in this study. The SWCNT is modeled as a Timoshenko nano-beam and its curved shape is included as an initial geometric imperfection term in the displacement field. Geometric nonlinearities of von Kármán type and nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen are employed to derive governing equations of motion. Spatial discretization of governing equations and associated boundary conditions is performed using differential quadrature (DQ method and the corresponding nonlinear eigenvalue problem is iteratively solved. Effects of amplitude and location of the geometric imperfection, and the nonlocal small-scale parameter on the nonlinear frequency for various boundary conditions are investigated. The results show that the geometric imperfection and non-locality play a significant role in the nonlinear vibration characteristics of curved SWCNTs.

  6. Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suppasri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazards. This study was undertaken to develop fragility curves using visual inspection of high-resolution satellite images (IKONOS taken before and after tsunami events to classify whether the buildings were destroyed or not based on the remaining roof. Then, a tsunami inundation model is created to reconstruct the tsunami features such as inundation depth, current velocity, and hydrodynamic force of the event. It is assumed that the fragility curves are expressed as normal or lognormal distribution functions and the estimation of the median and log-standard deviation is performed using least square fitting. From the results, the developed fragility curves for different types of building materials (mixed type, reinforced concrete and wood show consistent performance in damage probability and when compared to the existing curves for other locations.

  7. Enhancing the Lasso Approach for Developing a Survival Prediction Model Based on Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Kaneko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, researchers in oncology have sought to develop survival prediction models using gene expression data. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso has been widely used to select genes that truly correlated with a patient’s survival. The lasso selects genes for prediction by shrinking a large number of coefficients of the candidate genes towards zero based on a tuning parameter that is often determined by a cross-validation (CV. However, this method can pass over (or fail to identify true positive genes (i.e., it identifies false negatives in certain instances, because the lasso tends to favor the development of a simple prediction model. Here, we attempt to monitor the identification of false negatives by developing a method for estimating the number of true positive (TP genes for a series of values of a tuning parameter that assumes a mixture distribution for the lasso estimates. Using our developed method, we performed a simulation study to examine its precision in estimating the number of TP genes. Additionally, we applied our method to a real gene expression dataset and found that it was able to identify genes correlated with survival that a CV method was unable to detect.

  8. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, CHANG; HU, DONG-HUI; FENG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (P<0.01). However, intake of 100 μg/mouse of essential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly

  9. Education level and survival after oesophageal cancer surgery: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselaers, Nele; Ljung, Rickard; Mattsson, Fredrik; Johar, Asif; Wikman, Anna; Lagergren, Pernilla; Lagergren, Jesper

    2013-12-03

    This study aimed to investigate whether a higher education level is associated with an improved long-term survival after oesophagectomy for cancer. A prospective, population-based cohort study. Sweden-nationwide. 90% of all patients with oesophageal and cardia cancer who underwent a resection in Sweden in 2001-2005 were enrolled in this study (N=600; 80.3% male) and followed up until death or the end of the study period (2012). The study exposure was level of education, defined as compulsory (≤9 years), moderate (10-12 years) or high (≥13 years). The main outcome measure was overall 5-year survival after oesophagectomy. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between education level and mortality, expressed as HRs with 95% CIs, with adjustment for sex, age, tumour stage, histological type, complications, comorbidities and annual surgeon volume. The patient group with highest education was used as the reference category. Among the 600 included patients, 281 (46.8%) had compulsory education, 238 (39.7%) had moderate education and 81 (13.5%) had high education. The overall 5-year survival rate was 23.1%, 24.4% and 32.1% among patients with compulsory, moderate and high education, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, a slightly higher, yet not statistically significantly increased point HR was found among the compulsory educated patients (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.47). In patients with tumour stage IV, increased adjusted HRs were found for compulsory (HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.07 to 7.73) and moderately (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.15 to 6.95) educated patients. No statistically significant associations were found for the other tumour stages. This study provides limited evidence of an association between lower education and worse long-term survival after oesophagectomy for cancer.

  10. Predicting survival outcome of localized melanoma: an electronic prediction tool based on the AJCC Melanoma Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Seng-jaw; Ding, Shouluan; Coit, Daniel; Balch, Charles M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Thompson, John F; Gimotty, Phyllis

    2010-08-01

    We sought to develop a reliable and reproducible statistical model to predict the survival outcome of patients with localized melanoma. A total of 25,734 patients with localized melanoma from the 2008 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Database were used for the model development and validation. The predictive model was developed from the model development data set (n = 14,760) contributed by nine major institutions and study groups and was validated on an independent model validation data set (n = 10,974) consisting of patients from a separate melanoma center. Multivariate analyses based on the Cox model were performed for the model development, and the concordance correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the adequacy of the predictive model. Patient characteristics in both data sets were virtually identical, and tumor thickness was the single most important prognostic factor. Other key prognostic factors identified by stratified analyses included ulceration, lesion site, and patient age. Direct comparisons of the predicted 5- and 10-year survival rates calculated from the predictive model and the observed Kaplan-Meier 5- and 10-year survival rates estimated from the validation data set yielded high concordance correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.93, respectively. A Web-based electronic prediction tool was also developed ( http://www.melanomaprognosis.org/ ). This is the first predictive model for localized melanoma that was developed based on a very large data set and was successfully validated on an independent data set. The high concordance correlation coefficients demonstrated the accuracy of the predicted model. This predictive model provides a clinically useful tool for making treatment decisions, for assessing patient risk, and for planning and analyzing clinical trials.

  11. Growth curves of preschool children in the northeast of iran: a population based study using quantile regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payande, Abolfazl; Tabesh, Hamed; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Saki, Azadeh; Safarian, Mohammad

    2013-01-14

    Growth charts are widely used to assess children's growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. The objectives of this study are going to construct growth charts and normal values of weight-for-age for children aged 0 to 5 years using a powerful and applicable methodology. The results compare with the World Health Organization (WHO) references and semi-parametric LMS method of Cole and Green. A total of 70737 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 0 to 5 years were recruited in July 2004 for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks as a part of a national survey. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The nonparametric quantile regression method obtained by local constant kernel estimation of conditional quantiles curves using for estimation of curves and normal values. The weight-for-age growth curves for boys and girls aged from 0 to 5 years were derived utilizing a population of children living in the northeast of Iran. The results were similar to the ones obtained by the semi-parametric LMS method in the same data. Among all age groups from 0 to 5 years, the median values of children's weight living in the northeast of Iran were lower than the corresponding values in WHO reference data. The weight curves of boys were higher than those of girls in all age groups. The differences between growth patterns of children living in the northeast of Iran versus international ones necessitate using local and regional growth charts. International normal values may not properly recognize the populations at risk for growth problems in Iranian children. Quantile regression (QR) as a flexible method which doesn't require restricted assumptions, proposed for estimation reference curves and normal values.

  12. Curved geometry and Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Caravelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose--Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.

  13. Cancer Prevalence in Aichi, Japan for 2012: Estimates Based on Incidence and Survival Data from Population-Based Cancer Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa-Senda, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Michiyo; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Koide, Kayoko; Kondo, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Hideo; Ito, Hidemi

    2017-08-27

    Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death among both men and women in Japan. Monitoring cancer prevalence is important because prevalence data play a critical role in the development and implementation of health policy. We estimated cancer prevalence in 2012 based on cancer incidence and 5-year survival rate in Aichi Prefecture using data from a population-based cancer registry, the Aichi Cancer Registry, which covers 7.4 million people. Methods: The annual number of incident cases between 2008 and 2012 was used. Survival data of patients diagnosed in 2006–2008 and followed up until the end of 2012 were selected for survival analysis. Cancer prevalence was estimated from incidence and year-specific survival probabilities. Cancer prevalence was stratified by sex, cancer site (25 major cancers), and age group at diagnosis. Results: The estimated prevalence for all cancers in 2012 was 68,013 cases among men, 52,490 cases among women, with 120,503 cases for both sexes. Colorectal cancer was the most incident cancer with 6,654 cases, accounting for 16.0% of overall incident cases, followed by stomach cancer with 5,749 cases (13.8%) and lung cancer with 5,593 cases (13.4%). Prostate cancer was the most prevalent among men, accounting for 21.5%, followed by colorectal and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was the most prevalent among women, accounting for 28.6%, followed by colorectal, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusion: This study provides cancer prevalence data that could serve as useful essential information for local governments in cancer management, to carry out more practical and reasonable countermeasures for cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Development of a model to predict breast cancer survival using data from the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Elliot A; Liu, Lei; Hess, Kenneth R; Gordon, Elisa J; Paruch, Jennifer L; Palis, Bryan; Dahlke, Allison R; McCabe, Ryan; Cohen, Mark E; Winchester, David P; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-02-01

    With the large amounts of data on patient, tumor, and treatment factors available to clinicians, it has become critically important to harness this information to guide clinicians in discussing a patient's prognosis. However, no widely accepted survival calculator is available that uses national data and includes multiple prognostic factors. Our objective was to develop a model for predicting survival among patients diagnosed with breast cancer using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to serve as a prototype for the Commission on Cancer's "Cancer Survival Prognostic Calculator." A retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer (2003-2006) in the NCDB was included. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to predict overall survival was developed. Model discrimination by 10-fold internal cross-validation and calibration was assessed. There were 296,284 patients for model development and internal validation. The c-index for the 10-fold cross-validation ranged from 0.779 to 0.788 after inclusion of all available pertinent prognostic factors. A plot of the observed versus predicted 5 year overall survival showed minimal deviation from the reference line. This breast cancer survival prognostic model to be used as a prototype for building the Commission on Cancer's "Cancer Survival Prognostic Calculator" will offer patients and clinicians an objective opportunity to estimate personalized long-term survival based on patient demographic characteristics, tumor factors, and treatment delivered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. E2F1/TS Immunophenotype and Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer Treated with 5FU-Based Adjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzyc-Bielicka, Violetta; Domagala, Pawel; Bielicki, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rogowski, Wojciech; Domagala, Wenancjusz

    2016-07-01

    The predictive value of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression alone for 5FU-based treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been clinically confirmed. Little is known on the association of expression of E2F1, which controls the transcription of genes encoding proteins engaged in DNA synthesis including TS, and survival of patients with CRC. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between expression of both E2F1 and TS in CRCs and survival of patients administered adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy, in order to find a better predictor of treatment outcome than expression of TS or E2F1 alone. Nuclear TS and E2F1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays from 190 CRCs (Astler-Coller stage B2 or C). Multivariate analysis identified significant association of the combined E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype with worse OS (HR = 3,78, P = 0,009) and DFS (HR = 2,30, P = 0,03) of patients with colon cancer. There were significant differences between E2F1+TS+ and E2F1-TS- Kaplan-Meier survival curves in relation to DFS (P = 0.008) and OS (P = 0.01). About 37 and 31 % difference in 3-year DFS and OS respectively were seen between patients with E2F1+TS+ vs. E2F1-TS- colon cancer immunophenotype. The E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype may be a marker of poor prognosis (the worst DFS and OS) of patients with colon cancer treated with 5FU-based adjuvant therapy. A subgroup of patients with this immunophenotype may require different and perhaps more aggressive treatment than 5FU-based chemotherapy. Thus, the combined E2F1/TS immunophenotype could be a potential indicator of colon cancer sensitivity to 5FU.

  16. Separate base usages of genes located on the leading and lagging strands in Chlamydia muridarum revealed by the Z curve method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiu-Juan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleotide compositional asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in bacterial genomes has been the subject of intensive study in the past few years. It is interesting to mention that almost all bacterial genomes exhibit the same kind of base asymmetry. This work aims to investigate the strand biases in Chlamydia muridarum genome and show the potential of the Z curve method for quantitatively differentiating genes on the leading and lagging strands. Results The occurrence frequencies of bases of protein-coding genes in C. muridarum genome were analyzed by the Z curve method. It was found that genes located on the two strands of replication have distinct base usages in C. muridarum genome. According to their positions in the 9-D space spanned by the variables u1 – u9 of the Z curve method, K-means clustering algorithm can assign about 94% of genes to the correct strands, which is a few percent higher than those correctly classified by K-means based on the RSCU. The base usage and codon usage analyses show that genes on the leading strand have more G than C and more T than A, particularly at the third codon position. For genes on the lagging strand the biases is reverse. The y component of the Z curves for the complete chromosome sequences show that the excess of G over C and T over A are more remarkable in C. muridarum genome than in other bacterial genomes without separating base and/or codon usages. Furthermore, for the genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis, in which distinct base and/or codon usages have been observed, closer phylogenetic distance is found compared with other bacterial genomes. Conclusion The nature of the strand biases of base composition in C. muridarum is similar to that in most other bacterial genomes. However, the base composition asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in C. muridarum is more significant than that in

  17. Modeling the CO2 emissions and energy saved from new energy vehicles based on the logistic-curve

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Jun Tang; Xiao-Feng Wu; Xian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government has outlined plans for developing new energy vehicles (NEVs) to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper used a logistic-curve to predict the market share of NEVs in the next decade, and then calculated the potential environment benefits of each and every car or the total according to the report of IPCC (2006). The results indicated that NEVs were of benefit in achieving above goals, particularly electric vehicles (EVs). However, they will have a l...

  18. A Hybrid Reliable Heuristic Mapping Method Based on Survivable Virtual Networks for Network Virtualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliable mapping of virtual networks is one of the hot issues in network virtualization researches. Unlike the traditional protection mechanisms based on redundancy and recovery mechanisms, we take the solution of the survivable virtual topology routing problem for reference to ensure that the rest of the mapped virtual networks keeps connected under a single node failure condition in the substrate network, which guarantees the completeness of the virtual network and continuity of services. In order to reduce the cost of the substrate network, a hybrid reliable heuristic mapping method based on survivable virtual networks (Hybrid-RHM-SVN is proposed. In Hybrid-RHM-SVN, we formulate the reliable mapping problem as an integer linear program. Firstly, we calculate the primary-cut set of the virtual network subgraph where the failed node has been removed. Then, we use the ant colony optimization algorithm to achieve the approximate optimal mapping. The links in primary-cut set should select a substrate path that does not pass through the substrate node corresponding to the virtual node that has been removed first. The simulation results show that the acceptance rate of virtual networks, the average revenue of mapping, and the recovery rate of virtual networks are increased compared with the existing reliable mapping algorithms, respectively.

  19. A practice-based research network on the survival of ceramic inlay/onlay restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collares, Kauê; Corrêa, Marcos B; Laske, Mark; Kramer, Enno; Reiss, Bernd; Moraes, Rafael R; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D N J M; Opdam, Niek J M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate prospectively the longevity of ceramic inlay/onlay restorations placed in a web-based practice-based research network and to investigate risk factors associated with restoration failures. Data were collected by a practice-based research network called Ceramic Success Analysis (CSA). 5791 inlay/onlay ceramic restorations were placed in 5523 patients by 167 dentists between 1994 and 2014 in their dental practices. For each restoration specific information related to the tooth, procedures and materials used were recorded. Annual failure rates (AFRs) were calculated and variables associated with failure were assessed by a multivariate Cox-regression analysis with shared frailty. The mean observation time was 3 years (maximum 15 years) of clinical service, and AFRs at 3 and 10 years follow up were calculated as 1.0% and 1.6%. Restorations with cervical outline in dentin showed a 78% higher risk for failure compared to restorations with margins in enamel. The presence of a liner or base of glass-ionomer cement resulted in a risk for failure twice as large as that of restorations without liner or base material. Restorations performed with simplified adhesive systems (2-step etch-and-rinse and 1-step self-etch) presented a risk of failure 142% higher than restorations performed with adhesives with bonding resin as a separate step (3-step etch-and-rinse and 2-step self-etch). 220 failures were recorded and the most predominant reason for failure was fracture of the restoration or tooth (44.5%). Ceramic inlay/onlay restorations made from several glass ceramic materials and applied by a large number of dentists showed a good survival. Deep cervical cavity outline, presence of a glass ionomer lining cement, and use of simplified adhesive systems were risk factors for survival. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cause-specific or relative survival setting to estimate population-based net survival from cancer? An empirical evaluation using women diagnosed with breast cancer in Geneva between 1981 and 1991 and followed for 20 years after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffar, Robin; Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Woods, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Both cause-specific and relative survival settings can be used to estimate net survival, the survival that would be observed if the only possible underlying cause of death was the disease under study. Both resulting net survival estimators are biased by informative censoring and prone to biases related to the data settings within which each is derived. We took into account informative censoring to derive theoretically unbiased estimators and examine which of the two data settings was the most robust against incorrect assumptions in the data. We identified 2489 women in the Geneva Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1981 and 1991, and estimated net survival up to 20-years using both cause-specific and relative survival settings, by tackling the informative censoring with weights. To understand the possible origins of differences between the survival estimates, we performed sensitivity analyses within each setting. We evaluated the impact of misclassification of cause of death and of using inappropriate life tables on survival estimates. Net survival was highest using the cause-specific setting, by 1% at one year and by up to around 11% twenty years after diagnosis. Differences between both sets of net survival estimates were eliminated after recoding between 15% and 20% of the non-specific deaths as breast cancer deaths. By contrast, a dramatic increase in the general population mortality rates was needed to see the survival estimates based on relative survival setting become closer to those derived from cause-specific setting. Net survival estimates derived using the cause-specific setting are very sensitive to misclassification of cause of death. Net survival estimates derived using the relative-survival setting were robust to large changes in expected mortality. The relative survival setting is recommended for estimation of long-term net survival among patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of Pressing Quality for Press-Fit Assembly Based on Press-Fit Curve and Maximum Press-Mounting Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict pressing quality of precision press-fit assembly, press-fit curves and maximum press-mounting force of press-fit assemblies were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA. The analysis was based on a 3D Solidworks model using the real dimensions of the microparts and the subsequent FEA model that was built using ANSYS Workbench. The press-fit process could thus be simulated on the basis of static structure analysis. To verify the FEA results, experiments were carried out using a press-mounting apparatus. The results show that the press-fit curves obtained by FEA agree closely with the curves obtained using the experimental method. In addition, the maximum press-mounting force calculated by FEA agrees with that obtained by the experimental method, with the maximum deviation being 4.6%, a value that can be tolerated. The comparison shows that the press-fit curve and max press-mounting force calculated by FEA can be used for predicting the pressing quality during precision press-fit assembly.

  2. Person centered prediction of survival in population based screening program by an intelligent clinical decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Maserat, Elham; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Javan Amoli, Amir Hossein; Mohaghegh Shalmani, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    To survey person centered survival rate in population based screening program by an intelligent clinical decision support system. Colorectal cancer is the most common malignancy and major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Colorectal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death in Iran. In this survey, we used cosine similarity as data mining technique and intelligent system for estimating survival of at risk groups in the screening plan. In the first step, we determined minimum data set (MDS). MDS was approved by experts and reviewing literatures. In the second step, MDS were coded by python language and matched with cosine similarity formula. Finally, survival rate by percent was illustrated in the user interface of national intelligent system. The national intelligent system was designed in PyCharm environment. Main data elements of intelligent system consist demographic information, age, referral type, risk group, recommendation and survival rate. Minimum data set related to survival comprise of clinical status, past medical history and socio-demographic information. Information of the covered population as a comprehensive database was connected to intelligent system and survival rate estimated for each patient. Mean range of survival of HNPCC patients and FAP patients were respectively 77.7% and 75.1%. Also, the mean range of the survival rate and other calculations have changed with the entry of new patients in the CRC registry by real-time. National intelligent system monitors the entire of risk group and reports survival rates by electronic guidelines and data mining technique and also operates according to the clinical process. This web base software has a critical role in the estimation survival rate in order to health care planning.

  3. Potential for improved survival with intensification of daunorubicin based induction chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia patients who do not receive transplant: A multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, John L; Sullivan, Matthew R; Winer, Eric S; Lansigan, Frederick; Cardin, Michael S; Castillo, Jorge J

    2015-08-01

    During induction daunorubicin intensification from 45 mg/m(2)/day to 90 mg/m(2)/day has shown improved response and survival rates in AML patients. We retrospectively reviewed outcomes of daunorubicin 60 mg/m(2)/day (DNR60) versus daunorubicin 90 mg/m(2)/day (DNR90) in adult AML patients. Newly diagnosed AML patients ≥18 years who received 7+3 with or without etoposide as frontline therapy from 1/1/2006 to 5/1/2013 were identified. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves were estimated for overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were developed to determine independent predictors for survival. A total of 128 patients were included (DNR90=48 patients, DNR60=80 patients). The estimated 3-year OS rate in the DNR90 group was 56% (95% CI 38-70%), while in the DNR60 group was 34% (95% CI 23-44%). Multivariate analysis (MVA) in non-allotransplanted patients showed that unfavorable cytogenetics and worse performance status were associated with decreased OS while DNR intensification, etoposide use and site were associated with improved OS. In MVA of allotransplanted patients re-induction based on day-14 marrow was associated with worse OS. Based on our retrospective study, initial DNR based induction chemotherapy intensification improved OS in non-allotransplanted patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this preliminary finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  5. A Muskingum-based methodology for river discharge estimation and rating curve development under significant lateral inflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Perumal, Muthiah

    2017-11-01

    Quite often the discharge at a site is estimated using the rating curve developed for that site and its development requires river flow measurements, which are costly, tedious and dangerous during severe floods. To circumvent the conventional rating curve development approach, Perumal et al. in 2007 and 2010 applied the Variable Parameter Muskingum Stage-hydrograph (VPMS) routing method for developing stage-discharge relationships especially at those ungauged river sites where stage measurements and details of section geometry are available, but discharge measurements are not made. The VPMS method enables to estimate rating curves at ungauged river sites with acceptable accuracy. But the application of the method is subjected to the limitation of negligible presence of lateral flow within the routing reach. To overcome this limitation, this study proposes an extension of the VPMS method, henceforth, known herein as the VPMS-Lin method, for enabling the streamflow assessment even when significant lateral inflow occurs along the river reach considered for routing. The lateral inflow is estimated through the continuity equation expressed in the characteristic form as advocated by Barbetta et al. in 2012. The VPMS-Lin, is tested on two rivers characterized by different geometric and hydraulic properties: 1) a 50 km reach of the Tiber River in (central Italy) and 2) a 73 km reach of the Godavari River in the peninsular India. The study demonstrates that both the upstream and downstream discharge hydrographs are well reproduced, with a root mean square error equal on average to about 35 and 1700 m3 s-1 for the Tiber River and the Godavari River case studies, respectively. Moreover, simulation studies carried out on a river stretch of the Tiber River using the one-dimensional hydraulic model MIKE11 and the VPMS-Lin models demonstrate the accuracy of the VMPS-Lin model, which besides enabling the estimation of streamflow, also enables the estimation of reach averaged

  6. Light-curve Analysis of Ordinary Type IIP Supernovae Based on Neutrino-driven Explosion Simulations in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobin, V. P.; Wongwathanarat, A.; Janka, H.-Th.; Müller, E.

    2017-09-01

    Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe IIP) are the most numerous subclass of core-collapse SNe originating from massive stars. In the framework of the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, we study the properties of the SN outburst for a red supergiant progenitor model and compare the corresponding light curves with observations of the ordinary Type IIP SN 1999em. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of (parametrically triggered) neutrino-driven explosions are performed with the (explicit, finite-volume, Eulerian, multifluid hydrodynamics) code Prometheus, using a presupernova model of a 15 M ⊙ star as initial data. On approaching homologous expansion, the hydrodynamic and composition variables of the 3D models are mapped to a spherically symmetric configuration, and the simulations are continued with the (implicit, Lagrangian, radiation hydrodynamics) code Crab to follow the evolution of the blast wave during the SN outburst. Our 3D neutrino-driven explosion model with an explosion energy of about 0.5× {10}51 erg produces 56Ni in rough agreement with the amount deduced from fitting the radioactively powered light-curve tail of SN 1999em. The considered presupernova model, 3D explosion simulations, and light-curve calculations can explain the basic observational features of SN 1999em, except for those connected to the presupernova structure of the outer stellar layers. Our 3D simulations show that the distribution of 56Ni-rich matter in velocity space is asymmetric with a strong dipole component that is consistent with the observations of SN 1999em. The monotonic decline in luminosity from the plateau to the radioactive tail in ordinary SNe IIP is a manifestation of the intense turbulent mixing at the He/H composition interface.

  7. Evaluating Continuous Tumor Measurement-Based Metrics as Phase II Endpoints for Predicting Overall Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinxin; Meyers, Jeffrey; Han, Yu; Grothey, Axel; Bogaerts, Jan; Sargent, Daniel J.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We sought to develop and validate clinically relevant, early assessment continuous tumor measurement–based metrics for predicting overall survival (OS) using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 data warehouse. Methods: Data from 13 trials representing 2096 patients with breast cancer, non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), or colorectal cancer were used in a complete case analysis. Tumor measurements from weeks 0–6-12 assessments were used to evaluate the ability of slope (absolute change in tumor size from 0-6 and 6–12 weeks) and percent change (relative change in tumor size from 0–6 and 6–12 weeks) metrics to predict OS using Cox models, adjusted for average baseline tumor size. Metrics were evaluated by discrimination (via concordance or c-index), calibration (goodness-of-fit type statistics), association (hazard ratios), and likelihood (Bayesian Information Criteria), with primary focus on the c-index. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Comparison of c-indices suggests slight improvement in predictive ability for the continuous tumor measurement–based metrics vs categorical RECIST response metrics, with slope metrics performing better than percent change metrics for breast cancer and NSCLC. However, these differences were not statistically significant. The goodness-of-fit statistics for the RECIST metrics were as good as or better than those for the continuous metrics. In general, all the metrics performed poorly in breast cancer, compared with NSCLC and colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Absolute and relative change in tumor measurements do not demonstrate convincingly improved overall survival predictive ability over the RECIST model. Continued work is necessary to address issues of missing tumor measurements and model selection in identifying improved tumor measurement–based metrics. PMID:26296640

  8. Estimation of haplotype associated with several quantitative phenotypes based on maximization of area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating haplotypes associated with several quantitative phenotypes is proposed. The concept of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was introduced, and a linear combination of the quantitative phenotypic values was considered. This set of values was divided into two parts: values for subjects with and without a particular haplotype. The goodness of its partition was evaluated by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The AUC value varied from 0 to 1; this value was close to 1 when the partition had high accuracy. Therefore, the strength of association between phenotypes and haplotypes was considered to be proportional to the AUC value. In our algorithm, the parameters representing a degree of association between the haplotypes and phenotypes were estimated so as to maximize the AUC value; further, the haplotype with the maximum AUC value was considered to be the best haplotype associated with the phenotypes. This algorithm was implemented by using R language. The effectiveness of our algorithm was evaluated by applying it to real genotype data of the Calpine-10 gene obtained from diabetics. The results showed that our algorithm was more reasonable and advantageous for use with several quantitative phenotypes than the generalized linear model or the neural network model.

  9. Obesity and survival in population-based patients with pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M

    2012-12-01

    Obesity has been consistently associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality. However, studies of obesity and overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer are notably lacking, especially in population-based studies. Active and passive follow-up were used to determine vital status and survival for 510 pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed from 1995 to 1999 in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area. Survival rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models as measures of the association between pre-diagnostic obesity and pancreatic cancer survival. An elevated hazard ratio of 1.3 (95 % CI, 0.91-1.81) was observed for obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] compared with normal range BMI (patients. Associations between BMI and overall survival did not statistically significantly vary by known prognostic and risk factors (all p-interaction ≥0.18), yet elevated HRs consistently were observed for obese compared with normal BMI patients [localized disease at diagnosis (HR, 3.1), surgical resection (HR, 1.6), ever smokers (HR, 1.6), diabetics (HR, 3.3)]. Poor survival was observed among men, older patients, more recent and current smokers, whereas improved survival was observed for Asian/Pacific Islanders. Our results in general provide limited support for an association between pre-diagnostic obesity and decreased survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Patterns of reduced survival associated with obesity in some patient subgroups could be due to chance and require assessment in larger pooled studies.

  10. Survival and complications of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigrodski, Ariel J; Hillstead, Matthew B; Meng, Graham K; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2012-03-01

    Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. The purpose of this systemic review was to assess zirconia-based FDPs in terms of survival and complications. Searches performed in PubMed databases were enriched by hand searches to identify suitable publications. The keywords used were: "zirconia" and "fixed dental prosthesis," "zirconia" and "crown," "zirconia" and "fixed partial denture" and "humans," "zirconia" and "crown" and "humans," "crown" and "all-ceramics," and "fixed partial denture" and "all-ceramics". Titles and abstracts were read to identify literature that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only peer reviewed clinical studies published in the English language from January 1999 through June 2011 were included. Twelve clinical studies based on zirconia, framework design, and porcelain veneering technique met the inclusion criteria. Of the studies identified, 1 was a randomized clinical study with 3-year follow-up results; the others were cohort prospective studies. Clinical complications included chipping of veneering porcelain, abutment failure, and framework fracture. One study investigated pressed ceramics as the veneering material and found no chipping of veneering porcelain after 3 years. Short term clinical data suggest that zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses may serve as an alternative to metal ceramic fixed dental prostheses in the anterior and posterior dentition. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Planning of the energetic operation based on storage guide-curves; Planejamento da operacao energetica baseado em curvas-guias de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambelli, Monica de S.; Cicogna, Marcelo A.; Soares, Secundino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica

    2006-07-01

    The proposal of this work is to present a long term hydrothermal scheduling operating policy based on the concept of storage guide-curves. According to this policy, at each stage of the planning period the decision of the amount of water to be discharged by each hydrothermal unit must be such that keep its reservoir at levels pre-determined by curves obtained by an optimization method. The performance analysis for this operating policy is given by simulation with historical inflow data, considering a single hydrothermal system, constituted by a single hydro plant, and a composite system, constituted by hydro plants in cascade, adopting as performance criteria the minimization of the expected operating cost. The results demonstrate that, although simple and clear, this operating policy presents a competitive performance in the long term hydrothermal scheduling. (author)

  12. Disparities in Survival with Bystander CPR following Cardiopulmonary Arrest Based on Neighborhood Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Thakkar Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p=0.05, with a stronger disparity between low- and high-income neighborhoods (p=0.01 and p=0.03, resp.. Survival with bystander CPR was statistically greater in white- versus black-predominant neighborhoods (p=0.04. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with high- versus low-education neighborhoods (p=0.03. Neighborhoods with more high school age persons displayed the lowest survival. We discovered a significant disparity in OHCA survival within neighborhoods of low-income, black-predominance, and low-education. Reduced survival was seen in neighborhoods with larger populations of high school students. This group is a potential target for training, and instruction can conceivably change survival outcomes in these neighborhoods, closing the gap, thus improving survival for all.

  13. Device for geophysical prospecting of ore deposits. [for deposits featuring electronic conductivity; based on polarization curves to determine electrochemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryss, J.M.; Bakhtin, J.G.; Chamaev, V.N.; Panteleimonov, V.M.

    1976-03-30

    A device is described for geophysical prospecting of ore deposits, wherein the supply circuit is made up of a direct-current source provided with apparatus for changing current intensity, a main current-carrying electrode having electrical contact with an ore body, and an auxiliary current-carrying electrode electrically connected with the medium enclosing said ore body. Connected in said supply circuit at the main current carrying electrode is a current intensity detector connected whereto is a series circuit made up of a compensating voltage generator, a summing unit and a unit for measuring the potentials of electrochemical reactions on the surface of the ore body. A recording unit is connected to the unit for setting values of the potentials of electrochemical reactions and to record in the form of polarization curves the relationships between the set potentials of electrochemical reactions on the surface of the ore body and the currents flowing through the surface of that body. (DDA)

  14. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve-Based Prediction Model for Periodontal Disease Updated With the Calibrated Community Periodontal Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiu-Wen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Lai, Hongmin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of a prediction model for periodontal disease using the community periodontal index (CPI) has been undertaken by using an area under a receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve. How the uncalibrated CPI, as measured by general dentists trained by periodontists in a large epidemiologic study, and affects the performance in a prediction model, has not been researched yet. A two-stage design was conducted by first proposing a validation study to calibrate CPI between a senior periodontal specialist and trained general dentists who measured CPIs in the main study of a nationwide survey. A Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression model was applied to estimate the non-updated and updated clinical weights used for building up risk scores. How the calibrated CPI affected performance of the updated prediction model was quantified by comparing AUROC curves between the original and updated models. Estimates regarding calibration of CPI obtained from the validation study were 66% and 85% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. After updating, clinical weights of each predictor were inflated, and the risk score for the highest risk category was elevated from 434 to 630. Such an update improved the AUROC performance of the two corresponding prediction models from 62.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.7% to 63.6%) for the non-updated model to 68.9% (95% CI: 68.0% to 69.6%) for the updated one, reaching a statistically significant difference (P <0.05). An improvement in the updated prediction model was demonstrated for periodontal disease as measured by the calibrated CPI derived from a large epidemiologic survey.

  15. Network-based survival analysis reveals subnetwork signatures for predicting outcomes of ovarian cancer treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Cox regression is commonly used to predict the outcome by the time to an event of interest and in addition, identify relevant features for survival analysis in cancer genomics. Due to the high-dimensionality of high-throughput genomic data, existing Cox models trained on any particular dataset usually generalize poorly to other independent datasets. In this paper, we propose a network-based Cox regression model called Net-Cox and applied Net-Cox for a large-scale survival analysis across multiple ovarian cancer datasets. Net-Cox integrates gene network information into the Cox's proportional hazard model to explore the co-expression or functional relation among high-dimensional gene expression features in the gene network. Net-Cox was applied to analyze three independent gene expression datasets including the TCGA ovarian cancer dataset and two other public ovarian cancer datasets. Net-Cox with the network information from gene co-expression or functional relations identified highly consistent signature genes across the three datasets, and because of the better generalization across the datasets, Net-Cox also consistently improved the accuracy of survival prediction over the Cox models regularized by L(2 or L(1. This study focused on analyzing the death and recurrence outcomes in the treatment of ovarian carcinoma to identify signature genes that can more reliably predict the events. The signature genes comprise dense protein-protein interaction subnetworks, enriched by extracellular matrix receptors and modulators or by nuclear signaling components downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In the laboratory validation of the signature genes, a tumor array experiment by protein staining on an independent patient cohort from Mayo Clinic showed that the protein expression of the signature gene FBN1 is a biomarker significantly associated with the early recurrence after 12 months of the treatment in the ovarian cancer patients who are

  16. Survival benefit of postoperative radiation in papillary meningioma: Analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Whitney A; Amini, Arya; Hankinson, Todd C; Foreman, Nicholas K; Gaspar, Laurie E; Kavanagh, Brian D; Karam, Sana D; Rusthoven, Chad G; Liu, Arthur K

    2017-01-01

    Papillary meningioma represents a rare subset of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade III meningioma that portends an overall poor prognosis. There is relatively limited data regarding the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT). We used the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to compare overall survival (OS) outcomes of surgically resected papillary meningioma cases undergoing PORT compared to post-operative observation. The NCDB was queried for patients with papillary meningioma, diagnosed between 2004 and 2013, who underwent upfront surgery with or without PORT. Overall survival (OS) was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate (UVA) and multivariate (MVA) analyses were performed. In total, 190 patients were identified; 89 patients underwent PORT, 101 patients were observed. Eleven patients received chemotherapy (6 with PORT, 5 without). 2-Year OS was significantly improved with PORT vs. no PORT (93.0% vs. 74.4%), as was 5-year OS (78.5% vs. 62.5%) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.85; p = 0.01). On MVA, patients receiving PORT had improved OS compared to observation (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.76; p = 0.005). On subset analysis by age group, the benefit of PORT vs. no PORT was significant in patients ≤18 years (n = 13), with 2-year OS of 85.7% vs. 50.0% (HR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.80; p = 0.032) and for patients >18 years (n = 184), with 2-year OS of 94.7% vs. 76.1% (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-1.00; p = 0.049), respectively. In this large contemporary analysis, PORT was associated with improved survival for both adult and pediatric patients with papillary meningioma. PORT should be considered in those who present with this rare, aggressive tumor.

  17. Survival As a Quality Metric of Cancer Care: Use of the National Cancer Data Base to Assess Hospital Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lawrence N; Palis, Bryan E; McCabe, Ryan; Mallin, Kathy; Loomis, Ashley; Winchester, David; McKellar, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Survival is considered an important indicator of the quality of cancer care, but the validity of different methodologies to measure comparative survival rates is less well understood. We explored whether the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) could serve as a source of unadjusted and risk-adjusted cancer survival data and whether these data could be used as quality indicators for individual hospitals or in the aggregate by hospital type. The NCDB, an aggregate of > 1,500 hospital cancer registries, was queried to analyze unadjusted and risk-adjusted hazards of death for patients with stage III breast cancer (n = 116,787) and stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 252,392). Data were analyzed at the individual hospital level and by hospital type. At the hospital level, after risk adjustment, few hospitals had comparative risk-adjusted survival rates that were statistically better or worse. By hospital type, National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer centers had risk-adjusted survival ratios that were statistically significantly better than those of academic cancer centers and community hospitals. Using the NCDB as the data source, survival rates for patients with stage III breast cancer and stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer were statistically better at National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer centers when compared with other hospital types. Compared with academic hospitals, risk-adjusted survival was lower in community hospitals. At the individual hospital level, after risk adjustment, few hospitals were shown to have statistically better or worse survival, suggesting that, using NCDB data, survival may not be a good metric to determine relative quality of cancer care at this level.

  18. Using a Candidate Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map to Identify QTL for Winter Survival in Perennial Ryegrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Paina

    Full Text Available Important agronomical traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne breeding programs such as winter survival and heading date, are quantitative traits that are generally controlled by multiple loci. Individually, these loci have relatively small effects. The aim of this study was to develop a candidate gene based Illumina GoldenGate 1,536-plex assay, containing single nucleotide polymorphism markers designed from transcripts involved in response to cold acclimation, vernalization, and induction of flowering. The assay was used to genotype a mapping population that we have also phenotyped for winter survival to complement the heading date trait previously mapped in this population. A positive correlation was observed between strong vernalization requirement and winter survival, and some QTL for winter survival and heading date overlapped on the genetic map. Candidate genes were located in clusters along the genetic map, some of which co-localized with QTL for winter survival and heading date. These clusters of candidate genes may be used in candidate gene based association studies to identify alleles associated with winter survival and heading date.

  19. Abandoning Peracetic Acid-Based Dialyzer Reuse Is Associated with Improved Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiling; Mooney, Ann; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, J. Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher mortality risk reported with reuse versus single use of dialyzers is potentially related to reuse reagents that modify membrane surface characteristics and the blood-membrane interface. A key mechanism may involve stimulation of an inflammatory response. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a prospective crossover design, laboratory markers and mortality from 23 hemodialysis facilities abandoning reuse with peracetic acid mixture were tracked. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin, and prealbumin were measured for 2 consecutive months before abandoning reuse and subsequently within 3 and 6 months on single use. Survival models were utilized to compare the 6-month period before abandoning reuse (baseline) and the 6-month period on single use of dialyzers after a 3-month “washout period.” Results Patients from baseline and single-use periods had a mean age of approximately 63 years; 44% were female, 54% were diabetic, 60% were white, and the mean vintage was approximately 3.2 years. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death was 0.70 and after case-mix adjustment was 0.74 for single use compared with reuse. Patients with CRP ≥ 5 mg/L during reuse (mean CRP = 26.6 mg/ml in April) declined on single use to 20.2 mg/L by August and 20.4 mg/L by November. WBC count declined slightly during single use, but nutritional markers were unchanged. Conclusions Abandonment of peracetic-acid-based reuse was associated with improved survival and lower levels of inflammatory but not nutritional markers. Further study is needed to evaluate a potential link between dialyzer reuse, inflammation, and mortality. PMID:20947788

  20. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  1. [Evaluation of combined determinations of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies for nasopharyngeal carcinoma assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve based on logistic regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong-lin; Zheng, Yu-ming; Cheng, Ji-ru; Li, Jun; Mo, Yong-kun; Zhong, Qing-yan

    2009-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), including immunoglobulin (Ig) A against EBV capsid antigens (VCA), IgA against early antigens (EA), IgG against BRLF1 transcription activator (Rta) and IgA against EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1), assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve based on logistic regression. Serum samples derived from 211 untreated patients with NPC and 203 non-NPC ENT patients were examined for the presence of VCA/IgA and EA/IgA by immunoenzymatic assay, Rta/IgG and EBNA1/IgA by enzyme-linked immnunosorbent assay (ELISA). The different Logistic regression models were established for various combined determinations of antibodies, respectively. Using the predicted probability as the analyzed variable, ROC curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different combined determinations. The sensitivity of VCA/IgA (98.1%) and the specificity of EA/IgA (98.5%) were the highest while detecting solely. The results which were analyzed by ROC curve based on Logistic regression showed that the sensitivity and specificity were improved. In two-marker combinations, VCA/IgA + Rta/IgG whose area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.991 had the highest diagnostic accuracy, and its sensitivity, specificity and Youden index were 94.8%, 98.0% and 0.928 respectively. No significant difference of AUC were found comparing VCA/IgA + Rta/IgG with VCA/IgA + Rta/IgG + EBNA1/IgA and four-marker combination( P > 0.05), of which sensitivity, specificity and Youden index were 94.8%, 98.5%, 0.933 and 96.7%, 97.0%, 0.937, respectively. The approach of ROC curve based on Logistic regression can improve synthetic efficiency for combined determination of multiple markers. The combined determination of VCA/IgA and Rta/IgG with a complementary effect is optimal for NPC serodiagnosis.

  2. The Accuracy of Seven Mathematical Functions in Modeling Dairy Cattle Lactation Curves Based on Test-Day Records From Varying Sample Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvestre, A. M; Petim-Batista, F; Colaco, J

    2006-01-01

    .... (2005) studied the shape of lactation curve. Carta et al. (1995) studied the influence of seasonal effects on lactation curves of dairy goats, and Groenewald et al. (1995) and Hohenboken et al. (1992) investigated the suitability of mathematical models to represent the lactation curve of Merino sheep and beef cows, respectively. Lactation curv...

  3. A Comparison of Growth and Survival of Aquacultured Juvenile Florida Pompano fed Fishmeal and Plant-Based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the growth and survival of aquacultured juvenile Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed two different diets. Pompano (initial weight 7.7 g /fish) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: Zeigler pellets (fishmeal; 35% protein, 5% lipid) and a plant-based Repashy Soilent Green algae gel (plant-based; 35% protein, 6% lipid). Fish were fed rations of 5% body weight twice daily for eight weeks. Despite nearly equivalent proximate compositions for the two feeds, survival rates were significantly affected by diet. All fish fed the Zeigler diet survived; however, mortality was observed in 92% of the fish fed the Repashy diet. At the end of the trial, mean weight gain of surviving pompano was highest in fish fed Zeigler pellets. Mean specific growth rate (SGR) for fish fed the Zeigler diet (0.24% per day) was higher than for fish fed Repashy (-2.44%).While plant-based feeds have been successfully used with the species, these results suggest that the plant-based Repashy diet is not suitable for survival or growth of aquacultured Florida pompano.

  4. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  5. Development of a Melting Curve-Based Allele-Specific PCR of Apolipoprotein E (APOE Genotyping Method for Genomic DNA, Guthrie Blood Spot, and Whole Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (APOE are associated with various health conditions and diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, etc. Hence, genotyping of APOE has broad applications in biomedical research and clinical settings, particularly in the era of precision medicine. The study aimed to develop a convenient and accurate method with flexible throughput to genotype the APOE polymorphisms. A melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method was developed to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of APOE, i.e. rs429358 at codon 112 and rs7412 at codon 158. These two SNPs determine the genotype of APOE2, E3, and E4. PCR-based Sanger sequencing was used as the reference method for APOE genotyping. A 100% concordance rate was obtained in 300 subjects between the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method and the Sanger sequencing method. This method was applied to a genetic association analysis of APOE and schizophrenia consisting of 711 patients with schizophrenia and 665 control subjects from Taiwan. However, no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were detected between these two groups. Further experiments showed that DNA dissolved from blood collected on Guthrie filter paper and total blood cell lysate without DNA extraction can be used in the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method. Thus, we suggest that this is a fast, accurate and robust APOE genotyping method with a flexible throughput and suitable for DNA template from different preparations. This convenient method shall meet the different needs of various research and clinical laboratories.

  6. A risk factor-based model for upper aerodigestive tract cancers in India: predicting and validating the receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Kumar, Narinder; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-07-01

    A study was conducted to develop and validate a screening model using risk scores to identify individuals at high risk for developing upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in an Indian population. A hospital-based case-control study (n = 480) was conducted in Pune, India. We assessed risk factors for UADT cancers by administering a questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. We developed a risk factor model based on the statistically significant risk factors in multiple logistic regression. A total, single risk score was calculated per individual based on the adjusted odds ratio for each of their risk factors. Standard receiver operator characteristic curve was plotted for the total score and the presence of UADT cancers. The stratification ability of the model was determined using the c-statistic. The optimal criterion value was determined at the point on curve at which the Youden's index was maximal. Confidence intervals were calculated by bootstrapping. Total risk score for each individual ranged from 0 to 26. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95.8; P < 0.001) suggests strong predictive ability. A risk score criterion value of ≤10 produced optimal sensitivity (93.5%), specificity (71.1%), false-positive rate (28.8%), false-negative rate (6.4%), positive predictive value (74.8%), and negative predictive value (96.6%). This risk factor-based model has the potential of satisfactorily screening and detection of UADT cancers at its early stage in a high-risk population like India. The identified at-risk individuals can then be targeted for clinical examination and for focused preventive/treatment measures at the hospital. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Survival of patients discharged after acute myocardial infarction and evidence-based drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouya, Ghazaleh; Reichardt, Berthold; Ohrenberger, Gerald; Wolzt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    There is consensus that patients should be treated with antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors/ARBs, and lipid lowering drugs for secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but this evidence-based pharmacotherapy is underutilized. A quality improvement program was conducted in the Austrian county of Burgenland to emphasize the importance of cardiovascular drug therapy at hospital discharge in patients with AMI. In this prospective cohort study 250 members of a regional health insurance company, Burgenländische Gebietskrankenkasse (BGKK), with AMI during the year 2003 were identified using BGKK database. Discharge prescriptions and pharmacy reimbursement data of all included patients were determined. Overall prescription rate for patients discharged from hospital after AMI (n = 207) was 86% for platelet aggregation inhibitors, 77% for ACE-inhibitors or ARBs, 72% for beta-blockers, and 68% for a lipid lowering agent including statins. The all-cause mortality rate during a mean follow-up period of 552 days was 20%. Hazard ratio (HR) for death of patients with maximum 2 medications vs. those receiving 3 or 4 medications was 2.23 (95% CI: 1.19-4.18; p = 0.012). These data demonstrate that use of evidence-based drug treatment for prevention of mortality in patients with AMI is associated with risk reduction and survival benefit. Continuous quality improvement initiatives serve to improve outcome after AMI.

  8. An oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma quantitative histomorphometric-based image classifier of nuclear morphology can risk stratify patients for disease-specific survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Lewis, James S; Dupont, William D; Plummer, W Dale; Janowczyk, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-12-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of head and neck carcinoma. Its incidence is increasing worldwide, and it is associated with major morbidity and mortality. It is often unclear which patients have aggressive, treatment refractory tumors vs those whose tumors will be more responsive to treatment. Better identification of patients with high- vs low-risk cancers could help provide more tailored treatment approaches and could improve survival rates while decreasing treatment-related morbidity. This study investigates computer-extracted image features of nuclear shape and texture on digitized images of H&E-stained tissue sections for risk stratification of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients compared with standard clinical and pathologic parameters. With a tissue microarray cohort of 115 retrospectively identified oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients, 50 were randomly chosen as the modeling set, and the remaining 65 constituted the test set. Following nuclear segmentation and feature extraction, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to identify the five most prognostic quantitative histomorphometric features from the modeling set. These top ranked features were then combined via a machine learning classifier to construct the oral cavity histomorphometric-based image classifier (OHbIC). The classifier was then validated for its ability to risk stratify patients for disease-specific outcomes on the test set. On the test set, the classifier yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.72 in distinguishing disease-specific outcomes. In univariate survival analysis, high-risk patients predicted by the classifier had significantly poorer disease-specific survival (P=0.0335). In multivariate analysis controlling for T/N-stage, resection margins, and smoking status, positive classifier results were independently predictive of poorer disease-specific survival: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)=11.023 (2

  9. Analysis of the Tax Burden in Romania based on the Laffer Curve in the Period 1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal pressure requires certain limits of affordability for taxpayers. These limits are imposed by the reactions of taxpayers who can resist to compulsory levies increase, reacting with evasion, fraud, reduce productive activity or even riots. If by a certain time, the tax pay is made voluntarily by the honest taxpayer, at a time when taxes exceed certain limits of endurance events occur that bring serious damages to state's desire to collect these revenues. Taxpayer behavior becomes abnormal in any way always trying to avoid paying tax, hoping for a reduction in tax burden. The phenomenon to increase or decrease the size of the tax burden is the result of economic and social role of the state. Analysis of state intervention in the economy led to a new liberal economic thinking, thinking that was approached it by the American economist Arthur Laffer. The aim of this paper consists in the empirical analysis of the correlation betwen the tax pressure rate and the tax incomes for Romania in the period 1991 – 2009 using the methodology creating by the Laffer curve.

  10. Magnetic Fluid-Based Squeeze Film Behaviour in Curved Porous-Rotating Rough Annular Plates and Elastic Deformation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Shimpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been directed to study and analyze the squeeze film performance between rotating transversely rough curved porous annular plates in the presence of a magnetic fluid lubricant considering the effect of elastic deformation. A stochastic random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces. With the aid of suitable boundary conditions, the associated stochastically averaged Reynolds' equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution in turn, which results in the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. The graphical representations establish that the transverse roughness, in general, adversely affects the performance characteristics. However, the magnetization registers a relatively improved performance. It is found that the deformation causes reduced load-carrying capacity which gets further decreased by the porosity. This investigation tends to indicate that the adverse effect of porosity, standard deviation and deformation can be compensated to certain extent by the positive effect of the magnetic fluid lubricant in the case of negatively skewed roughness by choosing the rotational inertia and the aspect ratio, especially for suitable ratio of curvature parameters.

  11. Fabrication of Prototype of Artificial Retina Adapted to a Curved Image Plane Based on Arrayed PMMA Microfibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hong Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional visual prosthesis combines both a camera and an electrode array implanted on the visual neural networks. Here, we introduce a new design of artificial retina which integrate the transmission of image and the electrical stimulation of cortical neurons on a single PMMA micro fiber. It is comprised of multiple PMMA microfibers with both ends connected with one flexible and one rigid substrates. The flexible one is a PDMS mold of microrods and ready to conform to a curved image plane. The rigid one is in the form of a silica plate coated with a PMMA thin film and could be attached to a CMOS image sensor for the evaluation of its optical performance. The multiple PMMA microfibers were directly drawn from liquid PMMA thin film with PDMS rods. With arrayed PMMA microfibers, the image planes could be transferred from the flexible to rigid substrate. Each PMMA microfiber delivers a part of the image the PDMS mold transmits. Incorporated with O/E convertors, each micro fiber could function as an unit of electrical stimulation in accordance with part of the image the artificial retina delivered and is ready to function as a cortical neural prosthesis in the future application.

  12. Type-2 Fuzzy Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesah, R. S.; Zakaria, R.; Wahab, A. F.; Talibe, A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses about the formulation of type-2 fuzzy curve model. The generalization is carried out due to the existence of complex uncertainty which cannot be represented with classical type-1 fuzzy set. Hence, type-2 fuzzy set is proposed to define this type of complex uncertainty. Based on the complex uncertainty of data, fuzzy set theory type-2 with fuzzy number type-2 concept is used to represent the data with complex uncertainty. This process re-defines the data as type-2 fuzzy data which is also the result obtained by generalizing type-1 fuzzy data. Therefore, B-spline function is chosen to show the development of type-2 B-spline curve model via generalization. It is then followed by a number of processes, i.e. fuzzification, reduction and defuzzification are defined to model type-2 fuzzy B-spline curve to obtain a crisp type-2 fuzzy curve.

  13. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  14. Treatment of base of tongue cancer, stage III and stage IV with primary surgery: survival and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Khaled; Rieger, Jen; Harris, Jeffery R; Mlynarek, Alex; Williams, David; Islam, Tahera; Seikaly, Hadi

    2015-08-01

    This study examines functional outcome (speech and swallowing), survival, and disease control in patients receiving an intensified treatment regimen with primary aggressive surgery, and postoperative radiotherapy or postoperative concomitant chemoradiotherapy, for previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base. Sixty-six consecutive patients treated from June 1997 to June 2006 were followed prospectively through the Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Surgery Reconstruction Clinic. Speech and swallowing data were gathered at four evaluation times during the first year. Speech assessment was conducted by PERCI, Nasometer, and C-AIDS and swallowing assessment by Modified barium swallow, Diet survey and G-tube. Also, the overall survival, disease-specific survival and loco regional control were measured. The average age of the patients was 56.8, 85 % male and 15 % female. All patients had primary surgical resection and 83 % received postoperative radiotherapy and 17 % chemoradiation therapy. Overall survival at 3 years was 80.3 % and 5 years 52.2 %. Disease-specific survival at 3 years was 86.7 % and 5 years was 77.5 %. Local control was 94 %. Distal metastasis and second primary were found to be 7.5 % each. Primary surgical treatment of advanced BOT cancer offers excellent functional outcome, local control and disease-specific survival.

  15. Cancer survival among children of Turkish descent in Germany 1980–2005: a registry-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razum Oliver

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effect of migrant status on childhood cancer survival. We studied cancer survival among children of Turkish descent in the German Cancer Childhood Registry, one of the largest childhood cancer registries worldwide. Methods We identified children of Turkish descent among cancer cases using a name-based approach. We compared 5-year survival probabilities of Turkish and other children in three time periods of diagnosis (1980–87, 1988–95, 1996–2005 using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests. Results The 5-year survival probability for all cancers among 1774 cases of Turkish descent (4.76% of all 37.259 cases was 76.9% compared to 77.6% in the comparison group (all other cases; p = 0.15. We found no age- or sex-specific survival differences (p-values between p = 0.18 and p = 0.90. For the period 1980–87, the 5-year survival probability among Turkish children with lymphoid leukaemia was significantly lower (62% versus 75.8%; p Conclusion Our results suggest that nowadays Turkish migrant status has no bearing on the outcome of childhood cancer therapies in Germany. The inclusion of currently more than 95% of all childhood cancer cases in standardised treatment protocols is likely to contribute to this finding.

  16. Factors associated with survival in pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma: An analysis of the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulack, Brian C; Rialon, Kristy L; Englum, Brian R; Kim, Jina; Talbot, Lindsay J; Adibe, Obinna O; Rice, Henry E; Tracy, Elisabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor in children with important distinctions from the adult disease. We reviewed the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to determine factors associated with long-term survival. The NCDB was queried for patients less than 18 years of age who were diagnosed with ACC between 1998 and 2011. Kaplan-Meier analysis was utilized to determine factors significantly associated with overall survival. A total of 111 patients were included (median age: 4 years, 69% female). ACC was more common in the youngest cohort, with 48% of cases occurring in children younger than the age of 3. Median tumor size was 9.5 cm (IQR: 6.5-13.0), and 87% of patients underwent some form of surgical resection. Among children with available data, 19 of 62 presented with metastases. Overall 1- and 3-year survival was 70% and 64%, respectively. Age, tumor size, extension of tumor into surrounding tissue, and metastatic disease were all found to be significantly associated with survival. Among patients who underwent a surgical procedure, margin status was also found to be significantly associated with survival. Age, tumor size, extension of tumor, metastatic disease, and margin status are significantly associated with long-term survival in children with adrenocortical carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of intended intraoperative cholangiography and early detection of bile duct injury on survival after cholecystectomy: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Cecilia; Persson, Gunnar; Nilsson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the routine use of intraoperative cholangiography can improve survival from complications related to bile duct injuries. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Prospectively collected data from the Swedish national registry of gallstone surgery and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, GallRiks. Multivariate analysis done by Cox regression. Population All cholecystectomies recorded in GallRiks between 1 May 2005 and 31 December 2010. Main outcome measures Evidence of bile duct injury, rate of intended use of intraoperative cholangiography, and rate of survival after cholecytectomy. Results During the study, 51 041 cholecystectomies were registered in GallRiks and 747 (1.5%) iatrogenic bile duct injuries identified. Patients with bile duct injuries had an impaired survival compared with those without injury (mortality at one year 3.9% v 1.1%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that early detection of a bile duct injury, during the primary operation, improved survival. The intention to use intraoperative cholangiography reduced the risk of death after cholecystectomy by 62% (hazard ratio 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.46)). Conclusions The high incidence of bile duct injury recorded is probably from GallRiks’ ability to detect the entire range of injury severities, from minor ductal lesions to complete transections of major ducts. Patients with bile duct injury during cholecystectomy had impaired survival, and early detection of the injury improved survival. The intention to perform an intraoperative cholangiography reduced the risk of death after cholecystectomy. PMID:23060654

  18. The learning curve for narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of precancerous gastric lesions by using Web-based video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Silva, Diogo; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Magalhães, Joana; Magalhães, Ricardo; Veloso, Nuno; Ferreira, Carlos; Figueiredo, Pedro; Moutinho, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2014-06-01

    A simplified narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy classification of gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions was derived and validated in a multicenter study. This classification comes with the need for dissemination through adequate training. To address the learning curve of this classification by endoscopists with differing expertise and to assess the feasibility of a YouTube-based learning program to disseminate it. Prospective study. Five centers. Six gastroenterologists (3 trainees, 3 fully trained endoscopists [FTs]). Twenty tests provided through a Web-based program containing 10 randomly ordered NBI videos of gastric mucosa were taken. Feedback was sent 7 days after every test submission. Measures of accuracy of the NBI classification throughout the time. From the first to the last 50 videos, a learning curve was observed with a 10% increase in global accuracy, for both trainees (from 64% to 74%) and FTs (from 56% to 65%). After 200 videos, sensitivity and specificity of 80% and higher for intestinal metaplasia were observed in half the participants, and a specificity for dysplasia greater than 95%, along with a relevant likelihood ratio for a positive result of 7 to 28 and likelihood ratio for a negative result of 0.21 to 0.82, were achieved by all of the participants. No constant learning curve was observed for the identification of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and sensitivity to dysplasia. The trainees had better results in all of the parameters, except specificity for dysplasia, compared with the FTs. Globally, participants agreed that the program's structure was adequate, except on the feedback, which should have consisted of a more detailed explanation of each answer. No formal sample size estimate. A Web-based learning program could be used to teach and disseminate classifications in the endoscopy field. In this study, an NBI classification for gastric mucosal features seems to be easily learned for the identification of gastric preneoplastic

  19. An inflammation-based prognostic index predicts survival advantage after transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinato, David J; Sharma, Rohini

    2012-08-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the preferred treatment for unresectable, intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, survival after TACE can be highly variable, suggesting the need for more accurate patient selection to improve therapeutic outcome. We have explored the prognostic ability of the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a biomarker of systemic inflammation, as a predictor of survival after TACE. Fifty-four patients with a diagnosis of HCC eligible for TACE were selected. Clinicopathologic variables were collected, including demographics, tumor staging, liver functional reserve, and laboratory variables. Dynamic changes in the NLR before and after TACE were studied as predictors of survival using both a univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. Patients in whom the NLR remained stable or normalized after TACE showed a significant improvement in overall survival of 26 months compared with patients showing a persistently abnormal index (P = 0.006). Other predictors of survival on univariate analysis were Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (P = 0.05), intrahepatic spread (P = 0.01), tumor diameter > 5 cm (P = 0.02), > 1 TACE (P = 0.01), alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 (P = 0.002), and radiologic response to TACE (P analysis. Changes in alpha-fetoprotein after treatment did not predict survival. Patients with a persistently increased NLR have a worse outcome after TACE. NLR is a simple and universally available stratifying biomarker that can help identify patients with a significant survival advantage after TACE. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 601.41 - Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. 601.41 Section 601.41 Food... Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or... survival or irreversible morbidity. Approval under this section will be subject to the requirement that the...

  1. Time trends in population-based breast cancer survival in Estonia: analysis by age and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Innos, Kaire

    2014-02-01

    Survival from breast cancer (BC) in Estonia has been consistently among the lowest in Europe. The aim of this study was to examine most recent trends in BC survival in Estonia by age and stage. The trends in overall BC incidence and mortality are also shown in the paper. Estonian Cancer Registry data on all cases of BC, diagnosed in women in Estonia during 1995-2007 (n = 7424) and followed up for vital status through 2009, were used to estimate relative survival ratios (RSR). Period hybrid approach was used to obtain the most recent estimates (2005-2009). Stage was classified as localized, local/regional spread or distant. BC incidence continued to rise throughout the study period, but mortality has been in steady decline since 2000. The distribution of patients shifted towards older age and earlier stage at diagnosis. Overall age-standardized five-year RSR increased from 63% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2005-2009. Younger age groups experienced a more rapid improvement compared to women over 60. Significant survival increase was observed for both localized and locally/regionally spread BC with five-year RSRs reaching 96% and 70% in 2005-2009, respectively; the latest five-year RSR for distant BC was 11%. Survival for T4 tumors was poor and large age difference was seen for locally/regionally spread BC. Considerable improvement in BC survival was observed over the study period. Women under 60 benefited most from both earlier diagnosis and treatment advances of locally/regionally spread cancers. However, the survival gap with more developed countries persists. Further increase in survival, but also decline in BC mortality in Estonia could be achieved by facilitating early diagnosis in all age groups, but particularly among women over 60. Investigations should continue to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the stage-specific survival deficit in Estonia.

  2. Survival of extensive restorations in primary molars: 15-year practice-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseveenjav, Battsetseg; Furuholm, Jussi; Mulic, Aida; Valen, Håkon; Maisala, Tuomo; Turunen, Seppo; Varsio, Sinikka; Auero, Merja; Tjäderhane, Leo

    2017-12-03

    Caries decline in the western world is accompanied by strong polarization among children; 8% of Finnish 5-year-olds having 76% of untreated caries. This high caries risk group needs preventive and restorative strategies. To explore survival of extensive restorations in primary molars. This study was based on health records from 2002 to 2016 of children under 18 years. Of severely affected primary molars (n = 1061), 41% were restored with preformed metal crowns (PMCs), 38% with glass-ionomer cement (GIC)/polyacid-modified resin composite (PAMRC)/resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and 21% with resin composites (RC). Younger children (3-8) received 97% of the PMCs and 86% of GIC/PAMRC/RMGIC; older ones (≥9) 91% of the RC restorations. Neither amalgam nor indirect restorations were registered. General dentists (GDs) engaged in primary care restored with GIC/PAMRC/RMGIC (52%) or RC (48%). GDs in general anesthesia care service placed 66% and specializing/specialized dentists 31% of PMCs. PMCs had lower failure rate (1.4% vs 3.0%) than GIC/PAMRC/RMGIC (P = 0.001). Choosing PMCs reduced patient visits compared to other restorations (P < 0.001). Severely affected primary molars of children at high caries risk are better managed, using PMCs to optimize the resources in public oral health services. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trends in treatment, incidence and survival of hypopharynx cancer: a 20-year population-based study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Japke F; Timmermans, Adriana J; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Overbeek, Lucy I H; Smit, Laura A; Hilgers, Frans J M; Stuiver, Martijn M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2017-10-28

    Hypopharynx cancer has the worst prognosis of all head and neck squamous cell cancers. Since the 1990s, a treatment shift has appeared from a total laryngectomy towards organ preservation therapies. Large randomized trials evaluating treatment strategies for hypopharynx cancer, however, remain scarce, and frequently this malignancy is evaluated together with larynx cancer. Therefore, our aim was to determine trends in incidence, treatment and survival of hypopharynx cancer. We performed a population-based cohort study including all patients diagnosed with T1-T4 hypopharynx cancer between 1991 and 2010 in the Netherlands. Patients were recorded by the national cancer registry database and verified by a national pathology database. 2999 patients were identified. The incidence increased significantly with 4.1% per year until 1997 and decreased non-significantly afterwards. For women, the incidence increased with 1.7% per year during the entire study period. Total laryngectomy as primary treatment significantly decreased, whereas radiotherapy and chemoradiation increased. The 5-year overall survival significantly increased from 28% in 1991-2000 to 34% in 2001-2010. Overall survival for T3 was equal for total laryngectomy and (chemo)radiotherapy, but for T4-patients the survival was significantly better after primary total laryngectomy (± adjuvant radiotherapy). This large population-based study demonstrates a shift in treatment preference towards organ preservation therapies. The 5-year overall survival increased significantly in the second decade. The assumed equivalence of organ preservation and laryngectomy may require reconsideration for T4 disease.

  4. Microarray-based analysis of survival of soil microbial community during ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Guanghe

    2010-05-17

    A 15 h ozonation was performed on bioremediated soil to remove recalcitrant residual oil. To monitor the survival of indigenous microorganisms in the soil during in-situ chemical oxidation(ISCO) culturing and a functional genearray, GeoChip, was used to examine the functional genes and structure of the microbial community during ozonation (0h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 10hand15h). Breakthrough ozonation decreased the population of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria by about 3 orders of magnitude. The total functional gene abundance and diversity decreased during ozonation, as the number of functional genes was reduced by 48percent after 15 h. However, functional genes were evenly distributed during ozonation as judged by the Shannon-Weaver Evenness index. A sharp decrease in gene number was observed in the first 6 h of ozonation followed by a slower decrease in the next 9 h, which was consistent with microbial populations measured by a culture based method. Functional genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphors and sulfur cycling, metal resistance and organic remediation were detected in all samples. Though the pattern of gene categories detected was similar for all time points, hierarchica lcluster of all functional genes and major functional categories all showed a time-serial pattern. Bacteria, archaea and fungi decreased by 96.1percent, 95.1percent and 91.3percent, respectively, after 15 h ozonation. Delta proteobacteria, which were reduced by 94.3percent, showed the highest resistance to ozonation while Actinobacteria, reduced by 96.3percent, showed the lowest resistance. Microorganisms similar to Rhodothermus, Obesumbacterium, Staphylothermus, Gluconobacter, and Enterococcus were dominant at all time points. Functional genes related to petroleum degradation decreased 1~;;2 orders of magnitude. Most of the key functional genes were still detected after ozonation, allowing a rapid recovery of the microbial community after ozonation. While ozone had a large impact on the

  5. Optimal Threshold Determination for Discriminating Driving Anger Intensity Based on EEG Wavelet Features and ROC Curve Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wan, Ping; Wu, Chaozhong; Lin, Yingzi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    ... intervening measures according to different anger intensity. This study proposes a method for discriminating driving anger states with different intensity based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral features...

  6. Conditional survival for longer-term survivors from 2000?2004 using population-based cancer registry data in Osaka, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background We usually report five-year survival from population-based cancer registries in Japan; however these survival estimates may be pessimistic for cancer survivors, because many patients with unfavourable prognosis die shortly after diagnosis. Conditional survival can provide relevant information for cancer survivors, their family and oncologists. Methods We used the period approach to estimate the latest 10-year survival of 38,439 patients with stomach, colorectal, lung, breast and pr...

  7. Early mortality and overall survival of acute myeloid leukemia based on facility type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijaya R; Shostrom, Valerie; Giri, Smith; Gundabolu, Krishna; Monirul Islam, K M; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Maness, Lori J

    2017-08-01

    Cancer health disparities may exist based on the facility type. We aimed to determine the association between the academic status of centers and outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using the National Cancer Data Base, we compared 1-month mortality and long-term overall survival (OS) of 60 738 patients with AML, who received first course treatment between 2003 and 2011 at academic or nonacademic centers (community cancer program, comprehensive community cancer program, and others). Multivariate analysis was done using logistic regression for one-month mortality and Cox regression with backward elimination approach for OS. Patients treated at academic centers differed from those at nonacademic centers in that they were younger with a median age of 62 versus 70 years (P < .0001), more often an ethnic minority (P < .0001), had lower education level (P = .005), lower co-morbidity score (P < .0001), a different income (P < .0001), and insurance profile (P < .0001), and more often received chemotherapy (P < .0001) and transplant (P < .0001). Receipt of care at nonacademic centers was associated with worse 1-month mortality (29% vs. 16%, P < .0001) and 5-year OS (15% vs. 25%; P < .0001). After adjusting for prognostic covariates, the 1-month mortality (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.46-1.59; P < .0001) and OS were significantly worse in nonacademic centers, compared to academic centers. Our large database study suggests that the receipt of initial therapy at academic centers is associated with lower 1-month mortality and higher long-term OS. Investigation of the underlying reasons may allow reducing this disparity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Design and analysis methods for fish survival experiments based on release-recapture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burnham, Kenneth P

    1987-01-01

    .... The application of the methods developed here is more general, however, as it includes experiments to estimate survival of fish as they pass over spillways or through bypass systems and several dams...

  9. Trends in incidence and survival of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Estonia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrik, Peeter; Valter, Ann; Valter, Epp; Baburin, Aleksei; Innos, Kaire

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in Estonia, but also poor survival in international comparisons, with a significant survival gap between the sexes. The aim of this study was to analyze the time trends in CM incidence and relative survival by age, TNM stage and anatomical subsite among men and women in Estonia. Data from the Estonian Cancer Registry were used to calculate age-standardized (World) and age-specific incidence of CM in 1995-2013, and five-year relative survival ratios (RSR) for cases diagnosed in 1995-2012 and followed through in 2014. Period hybrid analysis was used to calculate the most recent survival estimates for 2010-2014. Between 1995 and 2013, the age-standardized incidence of CM increased significantly in Estonia among both sexes, at a rate of around 4% per year. Among women, the proportion of trunk melanomas increased from 26% in 1995-1999 to 39% in 2010-2012 and became the most common site. The proportion of stage I cases and T1 tumors increased considerably. Women had more favorable stage distribution and thinner tumors than men. The age-adjusted five-year RSR increased significantly, from 64% in 1995-1999 to 81% in 2010-2014. The latest age-adjusted RSRs were 76% among men and 84% among women. Survival gains were the largest in patients below 50 years, those with head and neck or trunk melanomas, and stage III cancer. The proportion of stage I and T1 cases is lower in Estonia compared with the Scandinavian data and is likely a major contributor to the persisting overall survival deficit in Estonia. The apparent deficit in stage II survival also warrants further investigation. A public health program is necessary in Estonia to raise awareness of CM and to significantly increase early stage diagnosis.

  10. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve (DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites using ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Pr...

  11. Nomogram based overall survival prediction in stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligo-metastatic lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanadini-Lang, S; Rieber, J; Filippi, A R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radical local treatment of pulmonary metastases is practiced with increasing frequency due to acknowledgment and better understanding of oligo-metastatic disease. This study aimed to develop a nomogram predicting overall survival (OS) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT...... be helpful for interdisciplinary discussion and evaluation of local and systemic treatment options in the oligo-metastatic setting. KEY MESSAGE: A nomogram for prediction of overall survival after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for pulmonary metastases was developed and externally validated. This tool...

  12. Gene–gene interaction analysis for the survival phenotype based on the Cox model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seungyeoun; Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Jung Mi; Park, Taesung

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: For the past few decades, many statistical methods in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been developed to identify SNP–SNP interactions for case-control studies. However, there has been less work for prospective cohort studies, involving the survival time. Recently, Gui et al. (2011) proposed a novel method, called Surv-MDR, for detecting gene–gene interactions associated with survival time. Surv-MDR is an extension of the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) metho...

  13. Preoperative CT-based nomogram for predicting overall survival in women with non-endometrioid carcinomas of the uterine corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhman, Y.; Yakar, D.; Goldman, D.A.; Katz, S.S.; Vargas, H.A.; Micc\\`o, , Maura; Zheng, J.; Moskowitz, C.S.; Soslow, R.A.; Hricak, H.; Abu-Rustum, N.R.; Sala, E.

    2015-01-01

    To develop a preoperative CT-based nomogram for predicting overall survival (OS) in patients with non-endometrioid carcinomas of the uterine corpus.Waiving informed consent, the institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study of 193 women with histopathologically proven

  14. Scatter search based met heuristic for robust optimization of the deploying of "DWDM" technology on optical networks with survivability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Pérez José A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the application of a met heuristic approach based on the Scatter Search to deal with robust optimization of the planning problem in the deploying of the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM technology on an existing optical fiber network taking into account, in addition to the forecasted demands, the uncertainty in the survivability requirements.

  15. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth: an educational of simulation-based training in a low resource setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, E.J.T.; Ersdal, H.; Ostergaard, D.; Mduma, E.; Broerse, J.E.W.; Evjen-Olsen, B.; van Roosmalen, J.; Stekelenburg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. Design Educational intervention study. Setting Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. Population Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambulance

  16. Survival after traumatic spinal cord injury in Denmark: a hospital-based study among patients injured in 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, B B; Stapelfeldt, C M; Parner, E T; Mikkelsen, E M

    2017-04-01

    Hospital-based cohort study at Spinal Cord Injury Centre of Western Denmark (VCR). To examine the overall survival and mortality over time adjusted for age at the time of injury and gender. Review of medical records of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) patients admitted at VCR between 1990 and 2012. The patients were followed up until death, emigration or end of study (December 2014). Survival and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for sub-groups defined by year of injury (1990-1994, 1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2012). Mortality was analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression. Adjustment for gender and age at injury was performed (restricted cubic splines). In total, 665 patients (males 82%) were followed; 136 (20%) patients died during the observation period. Two-year survival varied from 93% in 2005-2009 to 98% in 2000-2004. Using 1990-1994 as a reference, the adjusted MRRs varied between 1.22 (CI: 0.43; 3.42) and 0.48 (CI: 0.13; 2.71). The 5- and 10-year survival varied between 85% (2005-2009) and 95% (1990-1994), and between 77% (2005-2009) and 91% (1990-1994), respectively. No trend over time was observed either for 2-, 5- or 10-year survival. Men's mortality did not differ consistently from that of women. Except for the most recent time period, the overall survival after TSCI was higher among those aged injury. Survival after TSCI in Denmark did not change considerably from 1990 to 2014, and there seemed to be no gender difference. Mortality was highest among patients above 60 years of age at injury.

  17. Holomorphic curves in loop groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, M.A.; Pressley, A.N.

    1988-09-01

    It was observed by Atiyah that there is a correspondence between based gauge equivalence classes of SU/sub n/-instantons over S/sup 4/ of charge d on the one hand, and based holomorphic curves of genus zero in ..cap omega..SU/sub n/ of degree d on the other hand. In this paper we study the parameter space of such holomorphic curves which have the additional property that they lie entirely in the subgroup ..cap omega../sub alg/SU/sub n/ of algebraic loops. We describe a cell decomposition of this parameter space, and compute its complex dimension to be (2n-1)d.

  18. Prognostic factors of overall survival and cancer-specific survival in patients with resected early-stage rectal adenocarcinoma: a SEER-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Chao; Chung, Kuan-Chih; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Liu, Chia-Cheng; Lu, Chien-Chang

    2017-12-01

    The benefits of radiotherapy for colorectal cancer are well documented, but the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on early-stage rectal adenocarcinoma remains unclear. This study aimed to identify predictors of overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with stage II rectal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy. Patients with early-stage rectal adenocarcinoma in the postoperative state were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The primary endpoints were OS and overall CSS. Stage IIA patients without radiotherapy had significantly lower OS and CSS compared with those who received radiation before or after surgery. Stage IIB patients with radiotherapy before surgery had significantly higher OS and CSS compared with patients in the postoperative or no radiotherapy groups. Patients with signet ring cell carcinoma had the poorest OS among all the groups. Multivariable analysis showed that ethnicity (HR, 0.388, p=0.006) and radiation before surgery (HR, 0.614, p=0.006) were favorable prognostic factors for OS, while age (HR, 1.064, pstage IIB (HR, 3.011, p=0.011), and more than one tumor deposit (TD) (HR, 2.300, p=0.001) were unfavorable prognostic factors for OS. Old age (HR, 1.047, pstage IIB (HR, 8.619, p=0.005), circumferential resection margin between 0.1 mm and 10 mm (HR, 1.529, p=0.039), and more than one TD (HR, 2.688, p=0.001) were unfavorable prognostic factors for CSS. This population-based study identified predictors of OS and CSS in patients with early-stage resected rectal adenocarcinoma, which may help to guide future management of this patient population. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Evaluation of red blood cell labelling methods based on a statistical model for red blood cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korell, Julia; Coulter, Carolyn V; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-12-21

    The aim of this work is to compare different labelling methods that are commonly used to estimate the lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs), e.g. in anaemia of renal failure, where the effect of treatment with erythropoietin depends on the lifespan of RBCs. A previously developed model for the survival time of RBCs that accounts for plausible physiological processes of RBC destruction was used to simulate ideal random and cohort labelling methods for RBCs, as well as the flaws associated with these methods (e.g. reuse of label and loss of the label from the surviving RBCs). Random labelling with radioactive chromium and cohort labelling using heavy nitrogen were considered. Blood sampling times were determined for RBC survival studies using both labelling methods by applying the theory of optimal design. It was assessed whether the underlying parameter values of the model are estimable from these studies, and the precision of the parameter estimates were calculated. In theory, parameter estimation would be possible for both types of ideal labelling methods without flaws. However, flaws associated with random labelling are significant and not all parameters controlling RBC survival in the model can be estimated with good precision. In contrast, cohort labelling shows good precision in the parameter estimates even in the presence of reuse and prolonged incorporation of the label. A model based analysis of RBC survival studies is recommended in future to account for limitations in methodology as well as likely causes of RBC destruction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rurality and survival differences in lung cancer: a large population-based multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozet, Astrid; Westeel, Virginie; Berion, Pascal; Danzon, Arlette; Debieuvre, Didier; Breton, Jean-Luc; Monnier, Alain; Lahourcade, Jean; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Mercier, Mariette

    2008-03-01

    Several studies have suggested rural health disadvantages. In France, studies on rural-urban patterns of lung cancer survival have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether rural residence was associated with poor survival in three French counties. The database consisted of all primary lung cancer cases diagnosed in 2000 and 2001 collected through the Doubs cancer registry. A degree of rurality, obtained from socio-demographic and farming parameters of the 1999 French census treated with factor analysis, was attributed to each patient according to his/her place of residence. Among the 802 patients, 21% resided in rural areas, 11% were semi-urban inhabitants and 68% were urban residents. Survival differed significantly between these three rurality categories (p=0.04), with 2-year survival rates of 18, 29 and 24%, respectively. Using a Cox model, rural areas were significantly correlated with poor survival as compared with semi-urban areas (OR=1.42; 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.90; p=0.02). There was no survival difference between semi-urban and urban patients (OR=1.18; 95% confidence interval=0.91-1.53; p=0.21). Patient and tumour characteristics, especially stage and staging procedures, as well as first line treatment, did not vary with the degree of rurality. In conclusion, rurality has to be considered as a strong prognostic factor. Several intricate factors might be hypothesized such as increasing time to diagnosis leading to heavier tumour burden, worse treatment compliance and socioeconomic status. Before practical interventions can be proposed, prospective studies are warranted with further definition of rural risk factors for decreased survival in rural lung cancer patients.

  1. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry-based meat preparations during grilling, frying and baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-03-16

    The burden of food-borne diseases still represents a threat to public health; in 2012, the domestic setting accounted for 57.6% of strong-evidence EU food-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Next to cross-contamination, inadequate cooking procedure is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to food-borne illness. The few studies which have assessed the effect of domestic cooking on the presence and numbers of pathogens in different types of meat have shown that consumer-style cooking methods can allow bacteria to survive and that the probability of eating home-cooked poultry meat that still contains surviving bacteria after heating is higher than previously assumed. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to reproduce and assess the effect of several types of cooking treatments (according to label instructions and not following label instructions) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 artificially inoculated in five types of poultry-based meat preparations (burgers, sausages, ready-to-cook-kebabs, quail roulades and extruded roulades) that are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella. Three contamination levels (10 cfu/g; 100 cfu/g and 1000 cfu/g) and three cooking techniques (grilling, frying and baking) were applied. Cooking treatments performed according to label instructions eliminated Salmonella Typhimurium (absence per 25g) for contamination levels of 10 and 100 cfu/g but not for contamination levels of 1000 cfu/g. After improper cooking, 26 out of 78 samples were Salmonella-positive, and 23 out of these 26 samples were artificially contaminated with bacterial loads between 100 and 1000 cfu/g. Nine out of 26 samples provided quantifiable results with a minimum level of 1.4MPN/g in kebabs (initial inoculum level: 100 cfu/g) after grilling and a maximum level of 170MPN/g recorded in sausages (initial inoculum level: 1000 cfu/g) after grilling. Kebabs were the most common Salmonella-positive meat product after cooking

  2. Treatment algorithm based on the multivariate survival analyses in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with trans-arterial chemoembolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh J Prajapati

    Full Text Available To develop the treatment algorithm from multivariate survival analyses (MVA in patients with Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC C (advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients treated with Trans-arterial Chemoembolization (TACE.Consecutive unresectable and non-tranplantable patients with advanced HCC, who received DEB TACE were studied. A total of 238 patients (mean age, 62.4yrs was included in the study. Survivals were analyzed according to different parameters from the time of the 1st DEB TACE. Kaplan Meier and Cox Proportional Hazard model were used for survival analysis. The SS was constructed from MVA and named BCLC C HCC Prognostic (BCHP staging system (SS.Overall median survival (OS was 16.2 months. In HCC patients with venous thrombosis (VT of large vein [main portal vein (PV, right or left PV, hepatic vein, inferior vena cava] (22.7% versus small vein (segmental/subsegmental PV (9.7% versus no VT had OSs of 6.4 months versus 20 months versus 22.8 months respectively (p<0.001. On MVA, the significant independent prognostic factors (PFs of survival were CP class, eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG performance status (PS, single HCC<5 cm, site of VT, metastases, serum creatinine and serum alpha-feto protein. Based on these PFs, the BCHP staging system was constructed. The OSs of stages I, II and III were 28.4 months, 11.8 months and 2.4 months accordingly (p<0.001. The treatment plan was proposed according to the different stages.On MVA of patients with advanced HCC treated with TACE, significant independent prognostic factors (PFs of survival were CP class, ECOG PS, single HCC<5 cm or others, site of VT, metastases, serum creatinine and serum alpha-feto protein. New BCHP SS was proposed based on MVA data to identify the suitable advanced HCC patients for TACE treatments.

  3. Effects of carbonation on probiotic survivability, physicochemical, and sensory properties of milk-based symbiotic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen; Cheng, Jianjun; Guo, Mingruo

    2014-04-01

    Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the United States and there may be a niche for carbonated drinkable yogurt in the functional foods market. Pomegranate (P) and vanilla (V) yogurt beverages were formulated, containing inulin as a prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium, to produce symbiotic products. These beverages were stabilized with high-methoxyl pectin and whey protein concentrate and compared to samples with approximately 2 volumes of added carbon dioxide (CO2 ). Samples were stored in sealed glass bottles at 4 °C for 9 wk for evaluation of physicochemical and functional properties. Trials were carried out in triplicate and 3 replicates from each trial were analyzed. Physicochemical attributes were analyzed using standard AOAC methods. Survivability of the probiotics and changes in pH and viscosity were measured weekly. Chemical composition of the carbonated beverages was: protein: 1.58 ± 0.05%, 1.59 ± 0.06%, fat: 1.24 ± 0.2%, 1.18 ± 0.11%, total solids: 14.78 ± 0.11%, 14.93 ± 0.05%, ash: 0.49 ± 0.02%, 0.46 ± 0.03%, and carbohydrate (by difference): 11.47 ± 0.12%, 11.69 ± 0.14% for P and V, respectively. Both L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium were stable and remained above 10(6) CFU/g for both flavors of beverage both with and without carbonation. The new manufacturing technology for these prototypes may have potential for commercialization of carbonated symbiotic milk-based beverages. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  5. An approach to determining functional parameters of microperiphyton fauna in colonization surveys for marine bioassessment based on rarefaction curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjian; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yangfan; Warren, Alan; Xu, Henglong

    2014-12-01

    The functional parameters, i.e., the estimated equilibrium species number (S eq), the colonization rate constant, and the time taken to reach 90 % of S eq (T 90), of microperiphyton fauna have been widely used to determine the water quality status in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this investigation was to develop a protocol for determining functional parameters of microperiphyton fauna in colonization surveys for marine bioassessment based on rarefaction and regression analyses. The temporal dynamics in species richness of microperiphyton fauna during the colonization period was analyzed based on a dataset of periphytic ciliates in Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea. The results showed that (1) based on observed species richness and estimated maximum species numbers, a total of 16 glass slides were required in order to achieve coefficients of variation of <5 % in the functional parameters; (2) the rarefied average species richness and functional parameters showed weak sensitivity to sampling effort; (3) the temporal variations in average species richness were well-fitted to the MacArthur-Wilson model; and (4) the sampling effort of ~8 glass slides was sufficient to achieve coefficients of variation of <5 % in equilibrium average species number (AvS eq), colonization rate (AvG), and the time to reach 90 % of AvS eq (AvT 90) based on the average species richness. The findings suggest that the AvS eq, AvG, and AvT 90 values based on rarefied average species richness of microperiphyton might be used as reliable ecological indicators for the bioassessment of marine water quality in coastal habitats.

  6. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  7. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  8. Measuring dispersed spot of positioning CMOS camera from star image quantitative interpretation based on a bivariate-error least squares curve fitting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Qiu, Yuehong; Yao, Dalei; Yan, Xingtao

    2017-02-01

    For a positioning CMOS camera, we put forward a system which can measure quantitatively dispersed spot parameters and the degree of energy concentration of certain optical system. Based on this method, the detection capability of the positioning CMOS camera can be verified. The measuring method contains some key instruments, such as 550mm collimator, 0.2mm star point, turntable and a positioning CMOS camera. Firstly, the definition of dispersed spot parameters is introduced. Then, the steps of measuring dispersed spot parameters are listed. The energy center of dispersed spot is calculated using centroid algorithm, and then a bivariate-error least squares curve Gaussian fitting method is presented to fit dispersion spot energy distribution curve. Finally, the connected region shaped by the energy contour of the defocused spots is analyzed. The diameter equal to the area which is 80% of the total energy of defocused spots and the energy percentage to the 3×3 central area of the image size are both calculated. The experimental results show that 80% of the total energy of defocused spots is concentrated in the diameter of the inner circle of 15μm, and the percentage to the 3×3 pixels central area can achieve 80% and even higher. Therefore, the method meets the needs of the optical systems in positioning CMOS camera for the imaging quality control.

  9. Response surface methodology based on central composite design accompanied by multivariate curve resolution to model gradient hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography: Prediction of separation for five major opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammadreza; Bagheri, Mohsen; Moazeni-Pourasil, Roudabeh Sadat; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on bare silica presents some benefits for analysis and purification of ionizable basic alkaloids. This mode was used to separate five major opium alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine. Central composite design based on response surface methodology was applied for experimental design, modeling, and optimization in a single-step gradient method. The main effects and their interactions (initial percentage of modifier, changing range of modifier in run time, pH of buffer, and its concentration) were investigated in 30 experiments. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares, by resolving overlapped curves, helped in the accurate calculation of baseline resolution factors to be modeled and optimized more accurately. Then three crucial resolution factors besides elution time were modeled in quadratic and cubic equations and optimized. In addition to the four factors, five extra logarithmic, and nonlogarithmic factors extracted from the four factors to give nine factors overall were inspected on mechanism of retention. It was shown that a linear combination consist of four independence variables successfully describes morphinans retentivity in a single-step gradient method. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Simplified Flood Inundation Mapping Based On Flood Elevation-Discharge Rating Curves Using Satellite Images in Gauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghun Jung

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests an approach to obtain flood extent boundaries using spatial analysis based on Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper imageries and the digital elevation model. The suggested approach firstly extracts the flood inundation areas using the ISODATA image-processing algorithm from four Landsat 5TM imageries. Then, the ground elevations at the intersections of the extracted flood extent boundaries and the specified river cross sections are read from the digital elevation to estimate the elevation-discharge relationship. Lastly, the flood extent is generated based on the estimated elevation-discharge relationship. The methodology was tested over two river reaches in Indiana, United States. The estimated elevation-discharge relationship showed a good match with the correlation coefficients varying between 0.82 and 0.99. In addition, self-validation was also performed for the estimated spatial extent of the flood by comparing it to the waterbody extracted from the Landsat images used to develop the elevation-discharge relationship. The result indicated that the match between the estimated and the extracted flood extents was better with higher flood magnitude. We expect that the suggested methodology will help under-developed and developing countries to obtain flood maps, which have difficulties getting flood maps through traditional approaches based on computer modeling.

  11. Fuzzy Extractor and Elliptic Curve Based Efficient User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Maurya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the quality of service and reduce the possibility of security attacks, a secure and efficient user authentication mechanism is required for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the Internet of Things (IoT. Session key establishment between the sensor node and the user is also required for secure communication. In this paper, we perform the security analysis of A.K.Das’s user authentication scheme (given in 2015, Choi et al.’s scheme (given in 2016, and Park et al.’s scheme (given in 2016. The security analysis shows that their schemes are vulnerable to various attacks like user impersonation attack, sensor node impersonation attack and attacks based on legitimate users. Based on the cryptanalysis of these existing protocols, we propose a secure and efficient authenticated session key establishment protocol which ensures various security features and overcomes the drawbacks of existing protocols. The formal and informal security analysis indicates that the proposed protocol withstands the various security vulnerabilities involved in WSNs. The automated validation using AVISPA and Scyther tool ensures the absence of security attacks in our scheme. The logical verification using the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic confirms the correctness of the proposed protocol. Finally, the comparative analysis based on computational overhead and security features of other existing protocol indicate that the proposed user authentication system is secure and efficient. In future, we intend to implement the proposed protocol in real-world applications of WSNs and IoT.

  12. Survival after radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, MA; Brasso, K; Christensen, IJ

    2014-01-01

    hazard of all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality after 10 years was 15.4% (95% confide3nce interval [CI] 13.2-17.7) and 6.6% (95% CI 4.9-8.2) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first survival analysis of a complete, nationwide cohort of men undergoing RP for localised prostate cancer......OBJECTIVES: To describe survival and cause of death in a nationwide cohort of Danish patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). To describe risk factors associated with prostate cancer mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study of 6489 men with localised prostate...... cancer treated with RP at six different hospitals in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. Survival was described using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Causes of death were obtained from the national registry and cross-checked with patient files. Cumulative incidence of death, any cause and prostate cancer...

  13. Negative impact of rurality on lung cancer survival in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westeel, Virginie; Pitard, Alexandre; Martin, Mael; Thaon, Isabelle; Depierre, Alain; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Arveux, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that rurality is a risk factor for worse prognosis in cancer. The study population included the 2268 lung cancer cases collected between 1981 and 1996 in the Doubs Cancer Registry (France). The numbers of patients were 849 (31.8%) in rural areas and 89 (3.3%) in very rural areas. The relative 5-year survival was 15.2% in rural areas and 13.4% in urban areas (p = 0.5), and 2.7% in very rural areas and 14.4% in extended urban areas (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses of observed and relative survival showed that patients living in very rural areas (p < 0.0001), 65 years of age and older and having small cell carcinoma had a significantly shorter survival. This study showed that the multidimensional definition of rurality identified a population with unfavorable prognoses.

  14. Survival benefit of statin use in ankylosing spondylitis: a general population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Amar; Lu, Na; Schoenfeld, Sara R; Fisher, Mark C; Dubreuil, Maureen; Rai, Sharan K; Zhang, Yuqing; Choi, Hyon K

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We examined the potential survival benefit of statin use in AS within a general population context. We performed an incident user cohort study with time-stratified propensity score matching using a UK general population database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2014. To account for potential confounders, we compared propensity score-matched cohorts of statin initiators and non-initiators using 1-year cohort accrual blocks. The variables used to create the propensity score model included disease duration, body mass index, lifestyle factors, comorbidities and medication use. Using unmatched AS cohorts, statin initiators (n=1430) showed a 43% higher risk of mortality than non-initiators (n=1430) (HR=1.43; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.84). After propensity score matching, patients with AS who initiated statins (n=1108) had 96 deaths, and matched non-initiators (n=1108) had 134 deaths over a mean follow-up of 5.3 and 5.1 years, respectively. This corresponded to mortality rates of 16.5 and 23.8 per 1000 person-years (PY), respectively, resulting in an HR of 0.63 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.85) and an absolute mortality rate difference of 7.3 deaths per 1000 PY (95% CI 2.1 to 12.5). This general population-based cohort study suggests that statin initiation is associated with a substantially lower risk of mortality among patients with AS. The magnitude of the inverse association appears to be larger than that observed in randomised trials of the general population and in population-based cohort studies of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Computer based prognosis model with dimensionality reduction and validation of attributes for prolonged survival prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Raji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical databases contain large volume of data about patients and their clinical information. For extracting the features and their relationships from a huge database, various data mining techniques need to be employed. As Liver transplantation is the curative surgical procedure for the patients suffering from end stage liver disease, predicting the survival rate after Liver transplantation has a big impact. Appropriate selection of attributes and methods are necessary for the survival prediction. Liver transplantation data with 256 attributes were collected from 389 attributes of the United Nations Organ Sharing registry for the survival prediction. Initially 59 attributes were filtered manually, and then Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied for reducing the dimensionality of the data. After performing PCA, 197 attributes were obtained and they were ranked into 27 strong/relevant attributes. Using association rule mining techniques, the association between the selected attributes was identified and verified. Comparison of rules generated by various association rules mining algorithm before and after PCA was also carried out for affirming the results. The various rule mining algorithms used were Apriori, Treap mining and Tertius algorithms. Among these algorithms, Treap mining algorithm generated the rules with high accuracy. A Multilayer Perceptron model was built for predicting the long term survival of patients after Liver transplantation which produced high accuracy prediction result. The model performance was compared with Radial Basis Function model to prove the accuracy of survival of liver patients'. The top ranked attributes obtained from rule mining were fed to the models for effective training. This ensures that Treap mining generated associations of high impact attributes which in-turn made the survival prediction flawless.

  16. Predicting censored survival data based on the interactions between meta-dimensional omics data in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dokyoon; Li, Ruowang; Dudek, Scott M; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of survival models to predict cancer patient prognosis is one of the most important areas of emphasis in cancer research. A binary classification approach has difficulty directly predicting survival due to the characteristics of censored observations and the fact that the predictive power depends on the threshold used to set two classes. In contrast, the traditional Cox regression approach has some drawbacks in the sense that it does not allow for the identification of interactions between genomic features, which could have key roles associated with cancer prognosis. In addition, data integration is regarded as one of the important issues in improving the predictive power of survival models since cancer could be caused by multiple alterations through meta-dimensional genomic data including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome. Here we have proposed a new integrative framework designed to perform these three functions simultaneously: (1) predicting censored survival data; (2) integrating meta-dimensional omics data; (3) identifying interactions within/between meta-dimensional genomic features associated with survival. In order to predict censored survival time, martingale residuals were calculated as a new continuous outcome and a new fitness function used by the grammatical evolution neural network (GENN) based on mean absolute difference of martingale residuals was implemented. To test the utility of the proposed framework, a simulation study was conducted, followed by an analysis of meta-dimensional omics data including copy number, gene expression, DNA methylation, and protein expression data in breast cancer retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). On the basis of the results from breast cancer dataset, we were able to identify interactions not only within a single dimension of genomic data but also between meta-dimensional omics data that are associated with survival. Notably, the predictive power of our best meta-dimensional model

  17. Prognostic factors for survival in adult patients with recurrent glioblastoma: a decision-tree-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audureau, Etienne; Chivet, Anaïs; Ursu, Renata; Corns, Robert; Metellus, Philippe; Noel, Georges; Zouaoui, Sonia; Guyotat, Jacques; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Faillot, Thierry; Litre, Fabien; Desse, Nicolas; Petit, Antoine; Emery, Evelyne; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Peltier, Johann; Duntze, Julien; Dezamis, Edouard; Voirin, Jimmy; Menei, Philippe; Caire, François; Dam Hieu, Phong; Barat, Jean-Luc; Langlois, Olivier; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Riondel, Adeline; Sorbets, Elodie; Zanello, Marc; Roux, Alexandre; Carpentier, Antoine; Bauchet, Luc; Pallud, Johan

    2017-11-20

    We assessed prognostic factors in relation to OS from progression in recurrent glioblastomas. Retrospective multicentric study enrolling 407 (training set) and 370 (external validation set) adult patients with a recurrent supratentorial glioblastoma treated by surgical resection and standard combined chemoradiotherapy as first-line treatment. Four complementary multivariate prognostic models were evaluated: Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, single-tree recursive partitioning, random survival forest, conditional random forest. Median overall survival from progression was 7.6 months (mean, 10.1; range, 0-86) and 8.0 months (mean, 8.5; range, 0-56) in the training and validation sets, respectively (p = 0.900). Using the Cox model in the training set, independent predictors of poorer overall survival from progression included increasing age at histopathological diagnosis (aHR, 1.47; 95% CI [1.03-2.08]; p = 0.032), RTOG-RPA V-VI classes (aHR, 1.38; 95% CI [1.11-1.73]; p = 0.004), decreasing KPS at progression (aHR, 3.46; 95% CI [2.10-5.72]; p < 0.001), while independent predictors of longer overall survival from progression included surgical resection (aHR, 0.57; 95% CI [0.44-0.73]; p < 0.001) and chemotherapy (aHR, 0.41; 95% CI [0.31-0.55]; p < 0.001). Single-tree recursive partitioning identified KPS at progression, surgical resection at progression, chemotherapy at progression, and RTOG-RPA class at histopathological diagnosis, as main survival predictors in the training set, yielding four risk categories highly predictive of overall survival from progression both in training (p < 0.0001) and validation (p < 0.0001) sets. Both random forest approaches identified KPS at progression as the most important survival predictor. Age, KPS at progression, RTOG-RPA classes, surgical resection at progression and chemotherapy at progression are prognostic for survival in recurrent glioblastomas and should inform the treatment decisions.

  18. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  19. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  20. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  1. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  2. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  3. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  4. Conditional survival for longer-term survivors from 2000-2004 using population-based cancer registry data in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2013-06-22

    We usually report five-year survival from population-based cancer registries in Japan; however these survival estimates may be pessimistic for cancer survivors, because many patients with unfavourable prognosis die shortly after diagnosis. Conditional survival can provide relevant information for cancer survivors, their family and oncologists. We used the period approach to estimate the latest 10-year survival of 38,439 patients with stomach, colorectal, lung, breast and prostate cancer diagnosed between 1990 and 2004 and followed-up from 2000-04 in Osaka, Japan. Conditional survival is an estimate, with the pre-condition of having already survived a certain length of time. Conditional five-year relative survival of one to five years after diagnosis was calculated by site, age and stage for survivors under the age of 70. Five-year relative survival for stomach cancer was 60%. Conditional five-year relative survival was 77% one year after diagnosis and 97% five years after diagnosis. This means that 97% of patients who survive five years after diagnosis can survive a further five years. Conditional five-year relative survival improved successively with each additional year that patients lived after diagnosis for stomach, colorectal and lung cancer. These figures for breast and prostate cancer were stable at high survival. Liver cancer did not show an increase in conditional five-year survival. Conditional five-year survival is a relevant figure for long-term cancer survivors in Japan. It is important for population-based cancer registries to provide figures which cancer patients and oncologists really need.

  5. Population-based study of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and survival outcomes of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Isabelle; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Chang, George J

    2010-03-17

    Despite increased demand for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), the survival benefit of this procedure remains uncertain. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to identify 107 106 women with breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy for treatment between 1998 and 2003 and a subset of 8902 women who also underwent CPM during the same period. Associations between predictor variables and the likelihood of undergoing CPM were evaluated by use of chi(2) analyses. Risk-stratified (estrogen receptor [ER] status, stage, and age) adjusted survival analyses were performed by using Cox regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. In a univariate analysis, CPM was associated with improved disease-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57 to 0.69; P mastectomy also had a lower overall risk for contralateral breast cancer than women with ER-negative tumors (0.46% vs 0.90%, difference = 0.44%; P < .001). CPM is associated with a small improvement in 5-year breast cancer-specific survival mainly in young women with early-stage ER-negative breast cancer. This effect is related to a higher baseline risk of contralateral breast cancer.

  6. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-18

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate(ASR) in DNNR(52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan(13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR(26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan(3.2%). The daily survival rate(DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources.

  7. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  8. An Improved and Secure Biometric Authentication Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Mahmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2015-11-01

    Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) offers the patients convenient and expedite healthcare services remotely anywhere. Patient security and privacy has emerged as key issues during remote access because of underlying open architecture. An authentication scheme can verify patient's as well as TMIS server's legitimacy during remote healthcare services. To achieve security and privacy a number of authentication schemes have been proposed. Very recently Lu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 39(3):1-8, 2015) proposed a biometric based three factor authentication scheme for TMIS to confiscate the vulnerabilities of Arshad et al.'s (J. Med. Syst. 38(12):136, 2014) scheme. Further, they emphasized the robustness of their scheme against several attacks. However, in this paper we establish that Lu et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to numerous attacks including (1) Patient anonymity violation attack, (2) Patient impersonation attack, and (3) TMIS server impersonation attack. Furthermore, their scheme does not provide patient untraceability. We then, propose an improvement of Lu et al.'s scheme. We have analyzed the security of improved scheme using popular automated tool ProVerif. The proposed scheme while retaining the plusses of Lu et al.'s scheme is also robust against known attacks.

  9. Defining a fusion-gain system operation characteristic (SOC) curve based on probability of detection and probability of false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Hoffman, Jim; Petty, Joe

    2001-08-01

    One issue that concerns the data fusion community is whether or not fusion of sensory information is beneficial. Beneficial results from fusion can be understood from a logical argument that if two types of sensors are measuring an object and only one source is available, then fusion is beneficial. Such an argument holds in the case of person identification system with the fusion of audio and video information. If only video is available, then a system comprising of audio alone could not identify the person. We further refine the fusion benefit to assess what is the measure of fusion gain? A fusion gain system operator characteristic (FG-SOC) metric and a system reliability (SR) metric are used to define a fusion gain. A multi-source data fusion system performance modeling gain directly addresses both system performance and data sufficiency using system simulation and functional modeling methods. The FG- SOC approach models the relationships between sensor performance, revisit rate, and object density by extending current statistical tracking performance models to asynchronous sensing situations. The FG-SCO application establishes a method for the relative comparison of multiple sensor collection alternatives using a functional performance characterization and can be used to evaluate sensor fusion planning and control alternatives based on fusion system performance.

  10. Comparative evaluation of a new lactation curve model for pasture-based Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adediran, S A; Ratkowsky, D A; Donaghy, D J; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2012-09-01

    Fourteen lactation models were fitted to average and individual cow lactation data from pasture-based dairy systems in the Australian states of Victoria and Tasmania. The models included a new "log-quadratic" model, and a major objective was to evaluate and compare the performance of this model with the other models. Nine empirical and 5 mechanistic models were first fitted to average test-day milk yield of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows using the nonlinear procedure in SAS. Two additional semiparametric models were fitted using a linear model in ASReml. To investigate the influence of days to first test-day and the number of test-days, 5 of the best-fitting models were then fitted to individual cow lactation data. Model goodness of fit was evaluated using criteria such as the residual mean square, the distribution of residuals, the correlation between actual and predicted values, and the Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. Goodness of fit was similar in all but one of the models in terms of fitting average lactation but they differed in their ability to predict individual lactations. In particular, the widely used incomplete gamma model most displayed this failing. The new log-quadratic model was robust in fitting average and individual lactations, and was less affected by sampled data and more parsimonious in having only 3 parameters, each of which lends itself to biological interpretation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) for Binary Mixtures at Non-Equitoxic Ratios Based on Toxic Ratios-Effects Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposed a QSAR model to predict joint effects at non-equitoxic ratios for binary mixtures containing reactive toxicants, cyanogenic compounds and aldehydes. Toxicity of single and binary mixtures was measured by quantifying the decrease in light emission from the Photobacterium phosphoreum for 15 min. The joint effects of binary mixtures (TUsum) can thus be obtained. The results showed that the relationships between toxic ratios of the individual chemicals and their joint effects can be described by normal distribution function. Based on normal distribution equations, the joint effects of binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( TUsumn:m) can be predicted quantitatively using the joint effects at equitoxic ratios ( TUsum1:1). Combined with a QSAR model of TUsum1:1in our previous work, a novel QSAR model can be proposed to predict the joint effects of mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( TUsumn:m). The proposed model has been validated using additional mixtures other than the one used for the development of the model. Predicted and observed results were similar (p>0.05). This study provides an approach to the prediction of joint effects for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios. PMID:23930105

  12. Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate and HPLC-based reaction progress curve data for the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by Sinapis alba myrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase A. Klingaman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article, “HPLC-based enzyme kinetics assay for glucosinolate hydrolysis facilitate analysis of systems with both multiple reaction products and thermal enzyme denaturation” (C.K. Klingaman, M.J. Wagner, J.R. Brown, J.B. Klecker, E.H. Pauley, C.J. Noldner, J.R. Mays, [1]. This data article describes (1 the synthesis and spectral characterization data of a non-natural glucosinolate analogue, 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, (2 HPLC standardization data for glucosinolate, isothiocyanate, nitrile, and amine analytes, (3 reaction progress curve data for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions with variable substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, buffer pH, and temperature, and (4 normalized initial velocities of hydrolysis/formation for analytes. These data provide a comprehensive description of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate (5 and glucotropaeolin (6 under widely varied conditions.

  13. 40-year trends in an index of survival for all cancers combined and survival adjusted for age and sex for each cancer in England and Wales, 1971-2011: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Manuela; Coleman, Michel P; Rachet, Bernard

    2015-03-28

    Assessment of progress in cancer control at the population level is increasingly important. Population-based survival trends provide a key insight into the overall effectiveness of the health system, alongside trends in incidence and mortality. For this purpose, we aimed to provide a unique measure of cancer survival. In this observational study, we analysed trends in survival with population-based data for 7·2 million adults diagnosed with a first, primary, invasive malignancy in England and Wales during 1971-2011 and followed up to the end of 2012. We constructed a survival index for all cancers combined using data from the National Cancer Registry and the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit. The index is designed to be independent of changes in the age distribution of patients with cancer and of changes in the proportion of lethal cancers in each sex. We analysed trends in the cancer survival index at 1, 5, and 10 years after diagnosis for the selected periods 1971-72, 1980-81, 1990-91, 2000-01, 2005-06, and 2010-11. We also estimated trends in age-sex-adjusted survival for each cancer. We define the difference in net survival between the oldest (75-99 years) and youngest (15-44 years) patients as the age gap in survival. We evaluated the absolute change (%) in the age gap since 1971. The overall index of net survival increased substantially during the 40-year period 1971-2011, both in England and in Wales. For patients diagnosed in 1971-72, the index of net survival was 50% at 1 year after diagnosis. 40 years later, the same value of 50% was predicted at 10 years after diagnosis. The average 10% survival advantage for women persisted throughout this period. Predicted 10-year net survival adjusted for age and sex for patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 ranged from 1·1% for pancreatic cancer to 98·2% for testicular cancer. Net survival for the oldest patients (75-99 years) was persistently lower than for the youngest (15-44 years), even after

  14. Combining in vitro embryotoxicity data with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling to define in vivo dose-response curves for developmental toxicity of phenol in rat and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikwold, Marije; Spenkelink, Bert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans

    2013-09-01

    In vitro assays are often used for the hazard characterisation of compounds, but their application for quantitative risk assessment purposes is limited. This is because in vitro assays cannot provide a complete in vivo dose-response curve from which a point of departure (PoD) for risk assessment can be derived, like the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or the 95 % lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose (BMDL). To overcome this constraint, the present study combined in vitro data with a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model applying reverse dosimetry. To this end, embryotoxicity of phenol was evaluated in vitro using the embryonic stem cell test (EST), revealing a concentration-dependent inhibition of differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes. In addition, a PBK model was developed on the basis of in vitro and in silico data and data available from the literature only. After evaluating the PBK model performance, effective concentrations (ECx) obtained with the EST served as an input for in vivo plasma concentrations in the PBK model. Applying PBK-based reverse dosimetry provided in vivo external effective dose levels (EDx) from which an in vivo dose-response curve and a PoD for risk assessment were derived. The predicted PoD lies within the variation of the NOAELs obtained from in vivo developmental toxicity data from the literature. In conclusion, the present study showed that it was possible to accurately predict a PoD for the risk assessment of phenol using in vitro toxicity data combined with reverse PBK modelling.

  15. Simple models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and platelets for predicting survival in hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qing; Bi, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xin-Sen; Qu, Kai; Miao, Run-Chen; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yan-Yan; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Several hepatic cirrhosis-derived noninvasive models have been developed to predict the incidence and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the two novel established cirrhosis-associated models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and platelets in hepatitis B-associated HCC. We retrospectively evaluated 182 HCC patients with positive hepatitis B surface antigen who received radical therapy at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Laboratory data prior to operation were collected to calculate the GGT to platelets ratio (GPR) and the S-index. Predictive factors associated with overall survival and recurrence-free survival were assessed using log-rank test and multivariate Cox analysis. Additional analyses were performed after patients were stratified based on cirrhosis status, tumor size, therapy methods, and so forth, to investigate the prognostic significance in different subgroups. During a median follow-up time of 45.0 months, a total of 88 (48.4%) patients died and 79 (43.4%) patients recurred. The cut-off points for GPR and S-index in predicting death were determined to be 0.76 and 0.56, respectively. Compared with patients with a lower GPR, those with GPR ≥0.76 had a higher probability of cirrhosis and a larger tumor (both P<0.05). GPR and S-index were both found to be significantly associated with survival by univariate log-rank test. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size ≥5 and high level of GPR, but not high Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage or S-index, as independent factors for predicting poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The GPR is an effective preoperative predictor for outcomes in hepatitis B-associated HCC.

  16. Curva de sobrevida e fatores prognósticos no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico infanto-juvenil Survival curve and prognosis factors in the childhood systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Appenzeller

    2005-08-01

    the univariate analysis, male sex, infection and the use of cyclophosphamide were associated with death. In the multivariate regression, only male sex was related to death (odds ratio = 5.8. CONCLUSIONS: During a follow-up period of 27 years, death was observed in 21.8%. Although infection was directly responsible for half of the deaths, survival was not influenced by the presence of infection or renal insufficiency. Male sex was the only variable that influenced survival in this cohort. A greater attention should be given to boys with SLE in order to improve survival.

  17. Impact of immunohistochemistry-based molecular subtype on chemosensitivity and survival in Hispanic breast cancer patients following neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rodolfo; Ossa, Carlos Andrés; Montoya, María Elvira; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Ascuntar, Johana; Borrero, Mauricio; Gil, Mónica; Herrera, Sabrina; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Herazo, Fernando; Jiménez, Alejo; Madrid, Jorge; Reyes, Pedro Alejandro; Zuluaga, Lina; García, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced breast cancer, showing improvement in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates in patients achieving pathological complete response (pCR). The relationship between immunohistochemistry-based molecular subtyping (IMS), chemo sensitivity and survival is currently a matter of interest. We explore this relationship in a Hispanic cohort of breast cancer patients treated with NAC. Methods A retrospective survival analysis was performed on Colombian females with breast cancer treated at Instituto de Cancerología-Clinica Las Américas between January 2009 and December 2011. Patients were classified according to immunohistochemistry-based subtyping into the following five groups: Luminal A, Luminal B, Luminal B/HER 2+, HER2-enriched, and triple-negative breast cancer. Demographic characteristics, recurrence pattern, and survival rate were reviewed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results A total of 328 patients fulfilled the study’s inclusion parameters and the distribution of subtypes were as follows: Luminal A: 73 (22.3%), Luminal B/HER2−: 110 (33.5%), Luminal B/HER2+: 75 (22.9%), HER2-enriched: 30 (9.1%), and triple-negative: 40 (12.2%). The median follow-up was 41 months (interquartile range: 31–52). Pathological response to NAC was as follows: complete pathological response (pCR) in 28 (8.5%) patients, partial 247 (75.3%); stable disease 47 (14.3%), and progression 6 (1.8%) patients. The presence of pCR had a significant DFS and OS in the entire group (p = 0.01) but subtypes had different DFS in Luminal B (p = 0.01) and triple negative (p = 0.02) and also OS in Luminal B (p = 0.01) and triple negative (p = 0.01). Conclusions pCR is associated with an improved overall survival and disease-free survival rates in this group of Hispanics patients. Advanced stages, Luminal B subtypes, triple-negative tumours and non-pCR showed lower DFS

  18. Differences in management of older women influence breast cancer survival: results from a population-based database in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Eaker

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown that less aggressive patterns of diagnostic activity and care are provided to elderly breast carcinoma patients. We sought to investigate whether differences in the management of older women with breast cancer are associated with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an observational study using a population-based clinical breast cancer register of one health-care region in Sweden, we identified 9,059 women aged 50-84 y diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 1992 and 2002. The 5-y relative survival ratio was estimated for patients classified by age group, diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment. The 5-y relative survival for breast cancer patients was lower (up to 13% in women 70-84 y of age compared to women aged 50-69 y, and the difference was most pronounced in stage IIB-III and in the unstaged. Significant differences in disease management were found, as older women had larger tumors, had fewer nodes examined, and did not receive treatment by radiotherapy or by chemotherapy as often as the younger women. Adjustment for diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment diminished the relative excess mortality in stages III and in the unstaged, whereas the excess mortality was only marginally affected in stage IIB. CONCLUSIONS: Less diagnostic activity, less aggressive treatment, and later diagnosis in older women are associated with poorer survival. The large differences in treatment of older women are difficult to explain by co-morbidity alone.

  19. Population-Based Evidence that Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is Related to Weight Loss at Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Arcuti, Simona; Jesus, Pierre; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Nicol, Marie; Raymondeau, Marie; Desport, Jean Claude; Preux, Pierre Marie; Couratier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In a population-based setting, we aimed to (i) describe weight loss (WL) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients at the time of diagnosis and (ii) evaluate the association between WL and survival. All patients recruited in the FRALim register (2000-2013) were considered to be included in this study. Time-to-death analyses were performed using a multivariable Cox model. Model discrimination and calibration were assessed. Among 322 patients in the register, 261 (81%) were included. At the time of diagnosis, 50.6% of patients reported a WL of more than 5%: 14.6% with WL between 5 and 10% and 36.0% with a WL of more than 10%. WL was independently associated with survival (p = 0.002). Patients with a WL of 10% or more experienced a 45% increase in the risk of death (95% CI 6-99) with respect to patients with a WL lower than 5% or no WL. The introduction of WL significantly improved the model's discrimination achieving a survival C statistic of 79.5% (95% CI 75.6-83.5, p = 0.006) at 12 months. More than 50% of ALS patients experience a WL of more than 5% at the time of diagnosis. This finding highlights the need for randomized trials to evaluate the effect of nutritional interventions to improve ALS survival. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  1. Species accumulation curves and incidence-based species richness estimators to appraise the diversity of cultivable yeasts from beech forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Kemler, Martin; Begerow, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Yeast-like fungi inhabit soils throughout all climatic zones in a great abundance. While recent estimations predicted a plethora of prokaryotic taxa in one gram of soil, similar data are lacking for fungi, especially yeasts. We assessed the diversity of soil yeasts in different forests of central Germany using cultivation-based techniques with subsequent identification based on rDNA sequence data. Based on experiments using various pre-cultivation sample treatment and different cultivation media we obtained the highest number of yeasts by analysing mixed soil samples with a single nutrient-rich medium. Additionally, several species richness estimators were applied to incidence-based data of 165 samples. All of them predicted a similar range of yeast diversity, namely 14 to 16 species. Randomized species richness curves reached saturation in all applied estimators, thus indicating that the majority of species is detected after approximately 30 to 50 samples analysed. In this study we demonstrate that robust species identification as well as mathematical approaches are essential to reliably estimate the sampling effort needed to describe soil yeast communities. This approach has great potential for optimisation of cultivation techniques and allows high throughput analysis in the future.

  2. Nanotribology-based novel characterization techniques for the dielectric charging failure mechanism in electrostatically actuated NEMS/MEMS devices using force-distance curve measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Usama; Bhushan, Bharat; Papaioannou, George; Coccetti, Fabio; Pons, Patrick; Plana, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The work presents a comprehensive package of novel nanoscale characterization techniques to study dielectric charging in electrostatic nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS and MEMS). The proposed assessment methodologies are based on the force-distance curve (FDC) measurements performed using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure, for the first time, the induced surface potential and adhesive force over charged dielectric films. They were employed to study plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride films for application in electrostatic capacitive RF MEMS switches. Three different techniques were introduced including the application of FDC measurements to study charging in bare SiN(x) films, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors, and MEMS switches. The results from the three methods were correlated and compared with the published data from other characterization techniques, mainly charge/discharge current transient (C/DCT) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The unique advantages of the proposed FDC-based characterization techniques are twofold. First, they can measure the multiphysics coupling between the dielectric charging phenomenon and tribological issues at the interface between the switch bridge and the dielectric surface. Second, the FDC-based techniques can measure larger levels of induced surface potential over charged dielectric films which results from the high electric field normally used to actuate MEMS switches. Based on the proposed FDC techniques, the influence of several parameters on dielectric charging/discharging processes was investigated: the dielectric film thickness, deposition conditions, substrate, and electrical stress conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  4. CTLA-4 blockade during dendritic cell based booster vaccination influences dendritic cell survival and CTL expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders E; Ronchese, Franca

    2007-01-01

    and the lysis of relevant in vivo targets. However, the CTLA-4 blockage dependent expansion of CTLs also affect DC survival during booster DC injections and our data suggest that during a booster DC vaccine, the largest increase in CTL levels is already obtained during the first vaccination.......Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells and critical for the priming of CD8+ T cells. Therefore the use of these cells as adjuvant cells has been tested in a large number of experimental and clinical vaccination studies, in particular cancer vaccine studies. A number of protocols...... are emerging that combine vaccination with CTL expanding strategies, such as e.g. blockade of CTLA-4 signalling. On the other hand, the lifespan and in vivo survival of therapeutic DCs have only been addressed in a few studies, although this is of importance for the kinetics of CTL induction during vaccination...

  5. Survival benefits of antiretroviral therapy in Brazil: a model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Paula M; Girouard, Michael P; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Veloso, Valdilea G; Losina, Elena; Struchiner, Claudio J; MacLean, Rachel L; Parker, Robert A; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Brazil, universal provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been guaranteed free of charge to eligible HIV-positive patients since December 1996. We sought to quantify the survival benefits of ART attributable to this programme. Methods We used a previously published microsimulation model of HIV disease and treatment (CEPAC-International) and data from Brazil to estimate life expectancy increase for HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Brazil. We divided the period of 1997 to 2014 into six eras reflecting increased drug regimen efficacy, regimen availability and era-specific mean CD4 count at ART initiation. Patients were simulated first without ART and then with ART. The 2014-censored and lifetime survival benefits attributable to ART in each era were calculated as the product of the number of patients initiating ART in a given era and the increase in life expectancy attributable to ART in that era. Results In total, we estimated that 598,741 individuals initiated ART. Projected life expectancy increased from 2.7, 3.3, 4.1, 4.9, 5.5 and 7.1 years without ART to 11.0, 17.5, 20.7, 23.0, 25.3, and 27.0 years with ART in Eras 1 through 6, respectively. Of the total projected lifetime survival benefit of 9.3 million life-years, 16% (or 1.5 million life-years) has been realized as of December 2014. Conclusions Provision of ART through a national programme has led to dramatic survival benefits in Brazil, the majority of which are still to be realized. Improvements in initial and subsequent ART regimens and higher CD4 counts at ART initiation have contributed to these increasing benefits. PMID:27029828

  6. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  7. Efficient detection of symmetries polynomially parametrized curves

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar Arribas, Juan Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    We present efficient algorithms for detecting central and mirror symmetry for the case of algebraic curves defined by means of polynomial parametrizations. The algorithms are based on an algebraic relationship between proper parametrizations of a same curve, which leads to a triangular polynomial system that can be solved in a very fast way; in particular, curves parametrized by polynomials of serious degrees/coefficients can be analyzed in a few seconds. In our analysis we provide a good num...

  8. Effect of solvent composition on the van't Hoff enthalpic curve using amylose 3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate-based sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ang-Yeh; Cheng, Kai-Tse; Chen, Sin-Chang; Tsui, Hung-Wei

    2017-09-15

    Van't Hoff plots have been widely used for investigating the thermodynamic properties of adsorption processes in various chromatography systems. By measuring the retention factor k over a certain temperature range, the plot of ln k versus 1/T often yields a straight line with a slope of -ΔHvH0/R. Although this method provides information on adsorption enthalpy changes, its theoretical basis does not account for the effect of the solvent. In this paper, the relationship between apparent enthalpy changes determined directly from van't Hoff plots and solvent modifier concentrations is systematically investigated using three simple solutes-tetrahydrofuran, acetone, and tert-butanol-in an n-hexane-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) mobile phase with an amylose 3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate-based sorbent. The apparent enthalpy changes of solutes are strongly dependent on MTBE concentration, increasing rapidly with MTBE content at low concentrations but leveling off after ΔH0 reaches approximately -15kJ/mol. These data cannot be explained by the thermodynamic model currently used in the literature. A new three-equilibrium-constant thermodynamic model is developed herein to account for solute-sorbent, solvent-sorbent, and solute-solvent interactions. The thermodynamic parameters of the model are estimated from the apparent enthalpy changes at different MTBE concentrations. The results reveal that two key dimensionless groups control the van't Hoff enthalpic curves: the fractions of solute molecules bound to modifier molecules and adsorption sites occupied by modifier molecules. As a result, the shapes of van't Hoff enthalpic curves reflect the adsorption isotherm of MTBE without complexation or information regarding solute-MTBE complexation without MTBE competitive adsorption. The new model is thus demonstrated to be more reliable than the current model for examining the thermodynamic properties of retention mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene-gene interaction analysis for the survival phenotype based on the Cox model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyeoun; Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Jung Mi; Park, Taesung

    2012-09-15

    For the past few decades, many statistical methods in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been developed to identify SNP-SNP interactions for case-control studies. However, there has been less work for prospective cohort studies, involving the survival time. Recently, Gui et al. (2011) proposed a novel method, called Surv-MDR, for detecting gene-gene interactions associated with survival time. Surv-MDR is an extension of the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method to the survival phenotype by using the log-rank test for defining a binary attribute. However, the Surv-MDR method has some drawbacks in the sense that it needs more intensive computations and does not allow for a covariate adjustment. In this article, we propose a new approach, called Cox-MDR, which is an extension of the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) to the survival phenotype by using a martingale residual as a score to classify multi-level genotypes as high- and low-risk groups. The advantages of Cox-MDR over Surv-MDR are to allow for the effects of discrete and quantitative covariates in the frame of Cox regression model and to require less computation than Surv-MDR. Through simulation studies, we compared the power of Cox-MDR with those of Surv-MDR and Cox regression model for various heritability and minor allele frequency combinations without and with adjusting for covariate. We found that Cox-MDR and Cox regression model perform better than Surv-MDR for low minor allele frequency of 0.2, but Surv-MDR has high power for minor allele frequency of 0.4. However, when the effect of covariate is adjusted for, Cox-MDR and Cox regression model perform much better than Surv-MDR. We also compared the performance of Cox-MDR and Surv-MDR for a real data of leukemia patients to detect the gene-gene interactions with the survival time. leesy@sejong.ac.kr; tspark@snu.ac.kr.

  10. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  11. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  12. A Method of Time-Intensity Curve Calculation for Vascular Perfusion of Uterine Fibroids Based on Subtraction Imaging with Motion Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Wu, Ruoyu; Li, Tao; Zhao, Dawei; Shan, Xin; Wang, Puling; Peng, Song; Li, Faqi; Wu, Baoming

    2016-12-01

    The time-intensity curve (TIC) from contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequence of uterine fibroids provides important parameter information for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of efficacy of treatment such as high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery. However, respiration and other physiological movements inevitably affect the process of CEUS imaging, and this reduces the accuracy of TIC calculation. In this study, a method of TIC calculation for vascular perfusion of uterine fibroids based on subtraction imaging with motion correction is proposed. First, the fibroid CEUS recording video was decoded into frame images based on the record frame rate. Next, the Brox optical flow algorithm was used to estimate the displacement field and correct the motion between two frames based on warp technique. Then, subtraction imaging was performed to extract the positional distribution of vascular perfusion (PDOVP). Finally, the average gray of all pixels in the PDOVP from each image was determined, and this was considered the TIC of CEUS image sequence. Both the correlation coefficient and mutual information of the results with proposed method were larger than those determined using the original method. PDOVP extraction results have been improved significantly after motion correction. The variance reduction rates were all positive, indicating that the fluctuations of TIC had become less pronounced, and the calculation accuracy has been improved after motion correction. This proposed method can effectively overcome the influence of motion mainly caused by respiration and allows precise calculation of TIC.

  13. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  14. Trends in treatment and survival for advanced laryngeal cancer: A 20-year population-based study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Adriana J; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Overbeek, Lucy I H; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F; van Tinteren, Harm; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine time trends for primary treatment modalities in advanced laryngeal cancer, overall survival (OS), and laryngectomy-free interval (LFI) over the last 2 decades in The Netherlands. We conducted an analysis of T3 to T4 laryngeal cancer data from 2 combined national (population-based and pathology-based) cancer registries. A total of 2072 T3 cases (14.7%) and 1722 T4 cases (12.2%) were identified. Total laryngectomy as primary treatment modality decreased, whereas radiotherapy (RT) increased. For T3 disease, 5-year OS after primary total laryngectomy (+/- adjuvant RT), RT, and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) was 49%, 47%, and 45%, respectively. For T4 disease, this was 48%, 34%, and 42% (overall p < .0001), respectively. Five-year LFI for T3 disease was 81% (RT) and 77% (CRT), and for T4 disease it was 81% and 87%, respectively. From 1991 to 2010 total laryngectomy as primary treatment modality for advanced laryngeal cancer decreased and RT increased. T3 disease showed similar survival rates for all primary treatment modalities. For T4 disease, total laryngectomy (+ adjuvant RT) showed the best survival. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1247-E1255, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Community-based HIV prevention research among substance-using women in survival sex work: The Maka Project Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allinott Shari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting.

  16. Survival rate variation with different histological subtypes of poor prognostic male anal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kelash; Vikash, Sindhu; Chen, Liaobin; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The prognosis of male anal squamous cell carcinoma (MASCC) and female anal squamous cell carcinoma (FASCC) is variable. The influence of tumor subtype on the survival rate and gender is poorly known. Our study is the largest population-based study and aims to outline the difference in survival between MASCC and FASCC patients. Methods A retrospective population-based study was performed to compare the disease-specific mortalities (DSMs) between genders related to the tumor subtypes. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database was employed to obtain the data from January 1988 to December 2014. Results A total of 4,516, (3,249 males and 1,267 females), patients with anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) were investigated. The 5-year DSMs were 24.18% and 18.08% for men and women, respectively. The univariate analysis of the male basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and cloacogenic carcinoma (CC) patients demonstrated higher DSMs (P <0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, BSCC and CC were associated with soaring DSMs in male patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the cohort of BSCC and CC patients, male patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in survival rate compared to females. A more precise classification of ASCC and individualized management for MASCC are warranted. PMID:29137429

  17. Impact of Nodal Level Distribution on Survival in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano, Emily; Patel, Tapan D; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Baredes, Soly; Park, Richard Chan Woo

    2016-07-01

    Regional lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, decreasing survival by up to 50%. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OC-SCCa) most commonly spreads to levels I, II, and III. Retrospective analysis of a population-based tumor registry. Academic medical center. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried for cases of OC-SCCa from 2004 to 2011 (22,973 cases). Resulting data including patient demographics, clinicopathological features, topographical distribution of nodal metastasis, and survival based on lymph node level involvement were analyzed. In total, 8281 patients were identified with OC-SCCa who underwent neck dissection. Level I, closely followed by levels II and III, represented the most commonly involved nodal basins. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) for patients with only level I, II, or III was 42.0% compared with 30.6% for the level IV group (P Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma most commonly involves nodal levels I, II, and III. Involvement of nodal level IV or V portends a worse prognosis than patients with only level I to III disease, and multimodality therapy should be considered for these patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. Simple models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and platelets for predicting survival in hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Q

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Qing Pang, Jian-Bin Bi, Zhi-Xin Wang, Xin-Sen Xu, Kai Qu, Run-Chen Miao, Wei Chen, Yan-Yan Zhou, Chang Liu Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Several hepatic cirrhosis-derived noninvasive models have been developed to predict the incidence and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the two novel established cirrhosis-associated models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and platelets in hepatitis B-associated HCC. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 182 HCC patients with positive hepatitis B surface antigen who received radical therapy at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Laboratory data prior to operation were collected to calculate the GGT to platelets ratio (GPR and the S-index. Predictive factors associated with overall survival and recurrence-free survival were assessed using log-rank test and multivariate Cox analysis. Additional analyses were performed after patients were stratified based on cirrhosis status, tumor size, therapy methods, and so forth, to investigate the prognostic significance in different subgroups. Results: During a median follow-up time of 45.0 months, a total of 88 (48.4% patients died and 79 (43.4% patients recurred. The cut-off points for GPR and S-index in predicting death were determined to be 0.76 and 0.56, respectively. Compared with patients with a lower GPR, those with GPR ≥0.76 had a higher probability of cirrhosis and a larger tumor (both P<0.05. GPR and S-index were both found to be significantly associated with survival by univariate log-rank test. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size ≥5 and high level of GPR, but not high Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage or S-index, as independent factors for predicting poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival. Conclusion: The GPR is

  19. A comparison of the conditional inference survival forest model to random survival forests based on a simulation study as well as on two applications with time-to-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasejje, Justine B; Mwambi, Henry; Dheda, Keertan; Lesosky, Maia

    2017-07-28

    Random survival forest (RSF) models have been identified as alternative methods to the Cox proportional hazards model in analysing time-to-event data. These methods, however, have been criticised for the bias that results from favouring covariates with many split-points and hence conditional inference forests for time-to-event data have been suggested. Conditional inference forests (CIF) are known to correct the bias in RSF models by separating the procedure for the best covariate to split on from that of the best split point search for the selected covariate. In this study, we compare the random survival forest model to the conditional inference model (CIF) using twenty-two simulated time-to-event datasets. We also analysed two real time-to-event datasets. The first dataset is based on the survival of children under-five years of age in Uganda and it consists of categorical covariates with most of them having more than two levels (many split-points). The second dataset is based on the survival of patients with extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) which consists of mainly categorical covariates with two levels (few split-points). The study findings indicate that the conditional inference forest model is superior to random survival forest models in analysing time-to-event data that consists of covariates with many split-points based on the values of the bootstrap cross-validated estimates for integrated Brier scores. However, conditional inference forests perform comparably similar to random survival forests models in analysing time-to-event data consisting of covariates with fewer split-points. Although survival forests are promising methods in analysing time-to-event data, it is important to identify the best forest model for analysis based on the nature of covariates of the dataset in question.

  20. Survival impact of centralization and clinical guidelines for soft tissue sarcoma (A prospective and exhaustive population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Derbel

    Full Text Available The outcome of sarcoma has been suggested in retrospective and non-exhaustive studies to be better through management by a multidisciplinary team of experts and adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. The aim of this prospective and exhaustive population based study was to confirm the impact of adherence to CPGs on survival in patients with localized sarcoma.Between 2005 and 2007, all evaluable adult patients with a newly diagnosis of localized sarcoma located in Rhone Alpes region (n = 634, including 472 cases of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS, were enrolled. The prognostic impact of adherence to CPGs on progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS was assessed by multivariate Cox model in this cohort.The median age was 61 years (range 16-92. The most common subtypes were liposarcoma (n = 133, 28%, unclassified sarcoma (n = 98, 20.7% and leiomyosarcoma (n = 69, 14.6%. In the initial management phase, from diagnosis to adjuvant treatment, the adherence to CPGs for patients with localized STS was 36% overall, corresponding to 56%, 85%, 96% and 84% for initial surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and follow-up, respectively. Adherence to CPGs for surgery was the strongest independent prognostic factor of PFS, along with age, gender, grade, and tumor size. For OS, multivariate analysis adherence to CPGs for surgery was a strong independent prognostic factor, with an important interaction with a management in the regional expert centers.This study demonstrates impact of CPGs and treatment within an expert center on survival for STS patients in a whole population-based cohort.

  1. Adjuvant radiotherapy improves overall survival in patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma: A National Cancer Data Base analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Priscilla K; Amini, Arya; Jones, Bernard L; Koshy, Matthew; Sher, David J; Lieu, Christopher H; Schefter, Tracey E; Goodman, Karyn A; Rusthoven, Chad G

    2017-09-01

    For patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma, perioperative chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are considered standard options. In the current study, the authors used the National Cancer Data Base to compare overall survival (OS) between these regimens. Patients who underwent gastrectomy for nonmetastatic gastric adenocarcinoma from 2004 through 2012 were divided into those treated with perioperative chemotherapy without RT versus those treated with adjuvant CRT. Survival was estimated and compared using univariate and multivariate models adjusted for patient and tumor characteristics, surgical margin status, and the number of lymph nodes examined. Subset analyses were performed for factors chosen a priori, and potential interactions between treatment and covariates were assessed. A total of 3656 eligible patients were identified, 52% of whom underwent perioperative chemotherapy and 48% of whom received postoperative CRT. The median follow-up was 47 months, and the median age of the patients was 62 years. Analysis of the entire cohort demonstrated improved OS with adjuvant RT on both univariate (median of 51 months vs 42 months; P = .013) and multivariate (hazard ratio, 0.874; 95% confidence interval, 0.790-0.967 [P = .009]) analyses. Propensity score-matched analysis also demonstrated improved OS with adjuvant RT (median of 49 months vs 39 months; P = .033). On subset analysis, a significant interaction was observed between the survival impact of adjuvant RT and surgical margins, with a greater benefit of RT noted among patients with surgical margin-positive disease (hazard ratio with RT: 0.650 vs 0.952; P for interaction Cancer Data Base analysis, the use of adjuvant RT in addition to chemotherapy was associated with a significant OS advantage for patients with resected gastric cancer. The survival advantage observed with adjuvant CRT was most pronounced among patients with positive surgical margins. Cancer 2017;123:3402-9. © 2017 American

  2. EFFECT OF VARIOUS POROUS STRUCTURES ON THE SHLIOMIS MODEL BASED FERROFLUID LUBRICATION OF THE FILM SQUEEZED BETWEEN ROTATING ROUGH CURVED CIRCULAR PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimit R Patel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been made to analyze the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication of a squeeze film between rotating rough curved circular plates where the upper plate has a porous facing. Different models of porosity are treated. The stochastic modeling of Christensen and Tonder has been employed to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. The related stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is numerically solved to obtain the pressure distribution, leading to the calculation of load carrying capacity. The results presented in graphical form establish that the Kozeny-Carman model is more favorable as compared to the Irmay one from the design point of view. It is observed that the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication performs relatively better than the Neuringer-Rosensweig one. Although the bearing suffers due to transverse surface roughness, with a suitable choice of curvature parameters and rotational ratio, the negative effect of porosity and standard deviation can be minimized by the ferrofluid lubrication at least in the case of negatively skewed roughness.

  3. Managing bias in ROC curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert D.; Webster-Clark, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Two modifications to the standard use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for evaluating virtual screening methods are proposed. The first is to replace the linear plots usually used with semi-logarithmic ones (pROC plots), including when doing "area under the curve" (AUC) calculations. Doing so is a simple way to bias the statistic to favor identification of "hits" early in the recovery curve rather than late. A second suggested modification entails weighting each active based on the size of the lead series to which it belongs. Two weighting schemes are described: arithmetic, in which the weight for each active is inversely proportional to the size of the cluster from which it comes; and harmonic, in which weights are inversely proportional to the rank of each active within its class. Either scheme is able to distinguish biased from unbiased screening statistics, but the harmonically weighted AUC in particular emphasizes the ability to place representatives of each class of active early in the recovery curve.

  4. Survival prediction based on compound covariate under Cox proportional hazard models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Emura

    Full Text Available Survival prediction from a large number of covariates is a current focus of statistical and medical research. In this paper, we study a methodology known as the compound covariate prediction performed under univariate Cox proportional hazard models. We demonstrate via simulations and real data analysis that the compound covariate method generally competes well with ridge regression and Lasso methods, both already well-studied methods for predicting survival outcomes with a large number of covariates. Furthermore, we develop a refinement of the compound covariate method by incorporating likelihood information from multivariate Cox models. The new proposal is an adaptive method that borrows information contained in both the univariate and multivariate Cox regression estimators. We show that the new proposal has a theoretical justification from a statistical large sample theory and is naturally interpreted as a shrinkage-type estimator, a popular class of estimators in statistical literature. Two datasets, the primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver data and the non-small-cell lung cancer data, are used for illustration. The proposed method is implemented in R package "compound.Cox" available in CRAN at http://cran.r-project.org/.

  5. The Norwegian dietary guidelines and colorectal cancer survival (CRC-NORDIET) study: a food-based multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Hege Berg; Ræder, Hanna; Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Paur, Ingvild; Kværner, Ane Sørlie; Billington, Siv Åshild; Eriksen, Morten Tandberg; Wiedsvang, Gro; Erlund, Iris; Færden, Arne; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Zucknick, Manuela; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Blomhoff, Rune

    2017-01-30

    Colorectal cancer survivors are not only at risk for recurrent disease but also at increased risk of comorbidities such as other cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and functional decline. In this trial, we aim at investigating whether a diet in accordance with the Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines and focusing at dampening inflammation and oxidative stress will improve long-term disease outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer patients. This paper presents the study protocol of the Norwegian Dietary Guidelines and Colorectal Cancer Survival study. Men and women aged 50-80 years diagnosed with primary invasive colorectal cancer (Stage I-III) are invited to this randomized controlled, parallel two-arm trial 2-9 months after curative surgery. The intervention group (n = 250) receives an intensive dietary intervention lasting for 12 months and a subsequent maintenance intervention for 14 years. The control group (n = 250) receives no dietary intervention other than standard clinical care. Both groups are offered equal general advice of physical activity. Patients are followed-up at 6 months and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 years after baseline. The study center is located at the Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, and patients are recruited from two hospitals within the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority. Primary outcomes are disease-free survival and overall survival. Secondary outcomes are time to recurrence, cardiovascular disease-free survival, compliance to the dietary recommendations and the effects of the intervention on new comorbidities, intermediate biomarkers, nutrition status, physical activity, physical function and quality of life. The current study is designed to gain a better understanding of the role of a healthy diet aimed at dampening inflammation and oxidative stress on long-term disease outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer patients. Since previous research on the role of diet for

  6. Extended Pleurectomy-Decortication-Based Treatment for Advanced Stage Epithelial Mesothelioma Yielding a Median Survival of Nearly Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Simone, Charles B; Culligan, Melissa J; Barsky, Andrew R; Doucette, Abigail; McNulty, Sally; Hahn, Stephen M; Alley, Evan; Sterman, Daniel H; Glatstein, Eli; Cengel, Keith A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess survival for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), epithelial subtype, utilizing extended pleurectomy-decortication combined with intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) and adjuvant pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. From 2005 to 2013, 90 patients underwent lung-sparing surgery and PDT for MPM. All patients had a preoperative diagnosis of epithelial subtype, of which 17 proved to be of mixed histology. The remaining 73 patients with pure epithelial subtype were analyzed. All patients received lung-sparing surgery and PDT; 92% also received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 5.3 years for living patients. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in all 73 patients. Thirty-day mortality was 3% and 90-day mortality was 4%. For all 73 patients (89% American Joint Commission on Cancer stage III/IV, 69% N2 disease, median tumor volume 550 mL), the median overall and disease-free survivals were 3 years and 1.2 years, respectively. For the 19 patients without lymph node metastases (74% stage III/IV, median tumor volume 325 mL), the median overall and disease-free survivals were 7.3 years and 2.3 years, respectively. This is a mature dataset for MPM that demonstrates the ability to safely execute a complex treatment plan that included a surgical technique that consistently permitted achieving a macroscopic complete resection while preserving the lung. The role for lung-sparing surgery is unclear but this series demonstrates that it is an option, even for advanced cases. The overall survival of 7.3 years for the node negative subset of patients, still of advanced stage, is encouraging. Of particular interest is the overall survival being approximately triple the disease-free survival, perhaps PDT related. The impact of PDT is unclear, but it is hoped that it will be established by an ongoing randomized trial. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 10 year survival after breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer in the Netherlands: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaren, M.C. van; Munck, L.; Bock, G.H. de; Jobsen, J.J.; Dalen, T. van; Linn, S.C.; Poortmans, P.; Strobbe, L.J.A.; Siesling, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigators of registry-based studies report improved survival for breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer. As these studies did not present long-term overall and breast cancer-specific survival, the effect of breast-conserving

  8. Overall survival patterns in patients with multiple myeloma in the era of novel agents and the role of initial clinical presentation and comorbidities: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortgiesen, Berdien; Van Roon, Eric N.; Joosten, Peter; Kibbelaar, Robby; Storm, Huib; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Van Rees, Bas P.; Woolthuis, Gerhard; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Hoogendoorn, Mels

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials have shown improved response rates, progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) when using the novel agents thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib. However, outcome data provided by population-based registries, reflecting

  9. Does postoperative radiation therapy impact survival in non-metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma? A SEER-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, Okyaz; Akbarov, Ilgar; Wille, Sebastian; Engelmann, Udo

    2015-10-01

    The effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on survival in sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) with no evidence of distant metastasis remains unclear. Subjects diagnosed with non-metastatic sRCC were identified using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) (2004-2012) database and divided into groups based on their surgical treatment (ST): no surgery or radiation therapy (NSR); partial nephrectomy (PNE); radical nephrectomy with ureterectomy and bladder cuff resection (RNE + UE + BLAD); and radical nephrectomy (RNE). Certain radical nephrectomy cases also received adjuvant external-beam radiation therapy (RNE + RAD). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS). A multivariable competing risks regression analysis was used to calculate disease-specific survival (DSS) probability and to determine factors associated with cause-specific mortality (CSM). A total of 408 patients were included in this study. The 5-year OS and predicted DSS were significantly higher in the patients who underwent STs (i.e., PNE, RNE + UE + BLAD, RNE, and RNE + RAD) (20.1-54.0 and 20.1-59.9 %, respectively) than in the NSR group (9.0 and 11.6 %, respectively) (P therapy did not increase OS in non-metastatic sRCC patients.

  10. Pre- and post-diagnostic β-blocker use and lung cancer survival: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Janick; Jansen, Lina; Haefeli, Walter E; Hoffmeister, Michael; Wolkewitz, Martin; Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P van; Vissers, Pauline A J; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-06-06

    Beta-blockers have been associated with decreased cancer mortality. However, evidence for lung cancer is sparse and reported beneficial effects might be based on biased analyses. In this so far largest study we investigated the association between β-blocker use and lung cancer survival. Therefore, patients with a lung cancer diagnosis between April 1998 and December 2011 were selected from a database linkage of the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the PHARMO Database Network. After matching eligible patients on the propensity score, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic and time-dependent β-blocker use and overall survival. Duration and dose-response analyses and stratified analyses by β-blocker type, histological subgroups and stage were conducted. Of 3,340 eligible lung cancer patients, 1437 (43%) took β-blockers four months prior to diagnosis. Pre-diagnostic β-blocker use was not associated with overall survival (HR 1.00 (0.92-1.08)) in the adjusted model. Time-dependent post-diagnostic analysis showed similar results with a HR of 1.03 (0.94-1.11). Trend analyses showed no association for cumulative dose (HR 0.99 (0.97-1.02)) and cumulative duration (HR 1.00 (0.96-1.05)). In conclusion, β-blocker use is not associated with reduced mortality among lung cancer patients.

  11. Brief reports: Controlling the survival of human pluripotent stem cells by small molecule-based targeting of topoisomerase II alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Uri; Cowell, Ian G; Austin, Caroline A; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2015-03-01

    Pluripotent-specific inhibitors (PluriSIns) make a powerful tool to study the mechanisms controlling the survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Here, we characterize the mechanism of action of PluriSIn#2, a compound that selectively eliminates undifferentiated hPSCs, while sparing various other cell types derived from them. Toxicogenomic analysis predicts this compound to be a topoisomerase inhibitor. Gene expression analyses reveal that one of the human topoisomerase enzymes, topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), is uniquely expressed in hPSCs: TOP2A is highly expressed in undifferentiated cells, is downregulated during their differentiation, and its expression depends on the expression of core pluripotency transcription factors. Furthermore, siRNA-based knockdown of TOP2A in undifferentiated hPSCs results in their cell death, revealing that TOP2A expression is required for the survival of these cells. We find that PluriSIn#2 does not directly inhibit TOP2A enzymatic activity, but rather selectively represses its transcription, thereby significantly reducing TOP2A protein levels. As undifferentiated hPSCs require TOP2A activity for their survival, TOP2A inhibition by PluriSIn#2 thus causes their cell death. Therefore, TOP2A dependency can be harnessed for the selective elimination of tumorigenic hPSCs from culture. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  13. The sales learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  14. A population-based study of survival and discharge status for survivors after head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Teasdale, T W

    2004-01-01

    -Meier survival functions were calculated for these two categories. Hospital records for a random sample of 389 survivors in 1997 after cranial fracture, acute brain lesion or chronical subdural haematoma, which occurred in 1982, 1987 and 1992 in patients aged 15 years or more at injury, were reviewed. Survivors......OBJECTIVES: Creation of a basis for the planning of rehabilitation after head injury in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cranial fractures or traumatic cerebral lesions occurring in Denmark in 1979-93 were identified by computerized searches in the national hospital register. Kaplan...... were characterized by age, gender, place and severity of injury, as well as neurophysical, speech and mental deficits at discharge from hospital. RESULTS: Acute/subacute mortality of hospitalized patients was 27% for cerebral lesions and 4% after cranial fracture. As attrition by death outweighed...

  15. A sulfur-based survival strategy for putative phototrophic life in the venusian atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Grinspoon, David H; Abbas, Ousama; Irwin, Louis N; Bullock, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Several observations indicate that the cloud deck of the venusian atmosphere may provide a plausible refuge for microbial life. Having originated in a hot proto-ocean or been brought in by meteorites from Earth (or Mars), early life on Venus could have adapted to a dry, acidic atmospheric niche as the warming planet lost its oceans. The greatest obstacle for the survival of any organism in this niche may be high doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Here we make the argument that such an organism may utilize sulfur allotropes present in the venusian atmosphere, particularly S(8), as a UV sunscreen, as an energy-converting pigment, or as a means for converting UV light to lower frequencies that can be used for photosynthesis. Thus, life could exist today in the clouds of Venus.

  16. A Sulfur-Based Survival Strategy for Putative Phototrophic Life in the Venusian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Grinspoon, David H.; Abbas, Ousama; Irwin, Louis N.; Bullock, Mark A.

    2004-03-01

    Several observations indicate that the cloud deck of the venusian atmosphere may provide a plausible refuge for microbial life. Having originated in a hot proto-ocean or been brought in by meteorites from Earth (or Mars), early life on Venus could have adapted to a dry, acidic atmospheric niche as the warming planet lost its oceans. The greatest obstacle for the survival of any organism in this niche may be high doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Here we make the argument that such an organism may utilize sulfur allotropes present in the venusian atmosphere, particularly S8, as a UV sunscreen, as an energy-converting pigment, or as a means for converting UV light to lower frequencies that can be used for photosynthesis. Thus, life could exist today in the clouds of Venus.

  17. Survival of hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus in cranberry-based juices at refrigeration (4 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewlikar, Snigdha; D'Souza, Doris H

    2017-04-01

    Viral foodborne illness continues to be a health-concern globally, with numerous fruit and juice outbreaks of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) reported worldwide. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging pathogen with limited epidemiological data. Both, HAV and AiV are resistant to low pH and can survive under adverse environmental conditions leading to transmission ease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of HAV and AiV in commercially-available cranberry-based juices (Cranberry juice cocktail, CJ and a 100% juice with cranberry, MJ) over 21 days at refrigeration (4 °C). Equal volumes of juice was mixed with each virus individually (final titer of 6 log PFU/mL) and stored at refrigeration over 21 days. At each time interval, the inoculated juices were serially diluted in cell culture media and infectious virus survival was determined by standard plaque assays. Each experiment was carried out in duplicate and replicated thrice. Reductions of 0.72 ± 0.06 (after day 1) to 2.3 ± 0.18 log PFU/mL (after day 21) and 0.63 ± 0.02 (after day 1) to 1.84 ± 0.14 log PFU/mL (after day 21) were obtained for AiV with MJ and CJ, respectively. Reductions ranging from 0.67 ± 0.03 (after day 1) to 1.09 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL (after day 21) and 0.93 ± 0.27 (after day1) to 1.49 ± 0.18 log PFU/mL (after day 21) were obtained for HAV at refrigeration in MJ and CJ, respectively. HAV showed greater survival than AiV in these juices over refrigerated storage. These results provide survival data of HAV and AiV in cranberry-based juices that can be used in risk-modeling and risk assessment studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morof, Diane F; Kerber, Kate; Tomczyk, Barbara; Lawn, Joy; Blanton, Curtis; Sami, Samira; Amsalu, Ribka

    2014-01-01

    Over 40% of all deaths among children under 5 are neonatal deaths (0-28 days), and this proportion is increasing. In 2012, 2.9 million newborns died, with 99% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Many of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally are currently or have recently been affected by complex humanitarian emergencies. Despite the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality and risks inherent in complex emergency situations, research investments are not commensurate to burden and little is known about the epidemiology or best practices for neonatal survival in these settings. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology to prioritize research questions on neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. Experts evaluated 35 questions using four criteria (answerability, feasibility, relevance, equity) with three subcomponents per criterion. Using SAS 9.2, a research prioritization score (RPS) and average expert agreement score (AEA) were calculated for each question. Twenty-eight experts evaluated all 35 questions. RPS ranged from 0.846 to 0.679 and the AEA ranged from 0.667 to 0.411. The top ten research priorities covered a range of issues but generally fell into two categories- epidemiologic and programmatic components of neonatal health. The highest ranked question in this survey was "What strategies are effective in increasing demand for, and use of skilled attendance?" In this study, a diverse group of experts used the CHRNI methodology to systematically identify and determine research priorities for neonatal health and survival in complex humanitarian emergencies. The priorities included the need to better understand the magnitude of the disease burden and interventions to improve neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. The findings from this study will provide guidance to researchers and program implementers in neonatal and complex humanitarian fields to engage

  19. Survival of European mouflon (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Hawai'i based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Stephens, R.M.; Thompson, T.L.; Danner, R.M.; Kawakami, B.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable techniques for estimating age of ungulates are necessary to determine population parameters such as age structure and survival. Techniques that rely on dentition, horn, and facial patterns have limited utility for European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), but tooth cementum lines may offer a useful alternative. Cementum lines may not be reliable outside temperate regions, however, because lack of seasonality in diet may affect annulus formation. We evaluated the utility of tooth cementum lines for estimating age of mouflon in Hawai'i in comparison to dentition. Cementum lines were present in mouflon from Mauna Loa, island of Hawai'i, but were less distinct than in North American sheep. The two age-estimation methods provided similar estimates for individuals aged ???3 yr by dentition (the maximum age estimable by dentition), with exact matches in 51% (18/35) of individuals, and an average difference of 0.8 yr (range 04). Estimates of age from cementum lines were higher than those from dentition in 40% (14/35) and lower in 9% (3/35) of individuals. Discrepancies in age estimates between techniques and between paired tooth samples estimated by cementum lines were related to certainty categories assigned by the clarity of cementum lines, reinforcing the importance of collecting a sufficient number of samples to compensate for samples of lower quality, which in our experience, comprised approximately 22% of teeth. Cementum lines appear to provide relatively accurate age estimates for mouflon in Hawai'i, allow estimating age beyond 3 yr, and they offer more precise estimates than tooth eruption patterns. After constructing an age distribution, we estimated annual survival with a log-linear model to be 0.596 (95% CI 0.5540.642) for this heavily controlled population. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press.

  20. RNA-TVcurve: a Web server for RNA secondary structure comparison based on a multi-scale similarity of its triple vector curve representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Shi, Xiaohu; Liang, Yanchun; Xie, Juan; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Qin

    2017-01-21

    RNAs have been found to carry diverse functionalities in nature. Inferring the similarity between two given RNAs is a fundamental step to understand and interpret their functional relationship. The majority of functional RNAs show conserved secondary structures, rather than sequence conservation. Those algorithms relying on sequence-based features usually have limitations in their prediction performance. Hence, integrating RNA structure features is very critical for RNA analysis. Existing algorithms mainly fall into two categories: alignment-based and alignment-free. The alignment-free algorithms of RNA comparison usually have lower time complexity than alignment-based algorithms. An alignment-free RNA comparison algorithm was proposed, in which novel numerical representations RNA-TVcurve (triple vector curve representation) of RNA sequence and corresponding secondary structure features are provided. Then a multi-scale similarity score of two given RNAs was designed based on wavelet decomposition of their numerical representation. In support of RNA mutation and phylogenetic analysis, a web server (RNA-TVcurve) was designed based on this alignment-free RNA comparison algorithm. It provides three functional modules: 1) visualization of numerical representation of RNA secondary structure; 2) detection of single-point mutation based on secondary structure; and 3) comparison of pairwise and multiple RNA secondary structures. The inputs of the web server require RNA primary sequences, while corresponding secondary structures are optional. For the primary sequences alone, the web server can compute the secondary structures using free energy minimization algorithm in terms of RNAfold tool from Vienna RNA package. RNA-TVcurve is the first integrated web server, based on an alignment-free method, to deliver a suite of RNA analysis functions, including visualization, mutation analysis and multiple RNAs structure comparison. The comparison results with two popular RNA

  1. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  2. Using the Hilbert curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, John

    2004-04-01

    The aim is to compute random samples from the posterior probability distribution for some object, modelled as a mixture distribution with a variable number of component "atoms", usually having relatively few attributes. We use a space-filling curve (specifically the Hilbert curve) to parameterise an atom's attributes by a single number, This simplifies the geometry, and we describe seven "engines" (LifeStory1&2, GuidedWalk, Leapfrog1&2, Chameleon1&2) for driving a MCMC exploration program. A binary variant of slice sampling underlies the engines.

  3. The use of in vitro toxicity data and physiologically based kinetic modeling to predict dose-response curves for in vivo developmental toxicity of glycol ethers in rat and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisse, Jochem; de Jong, Esther; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Woutersen, Ruud A; Piersma, Aldert H; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Verwei, Miriam

    2010-12-01

    At present, regulatory assessment of systemic toxicity is almost solely carried out using animal models. The European Commission's REACH legislation stimulates the use of animal-free approaches to obtain information on the toxicity of chemicals. In vitro toxicity tests provide in vitro concentration-response curves for specific target cells, whereas in vivo dose-response curves are regularly used for human risk assessment. The present study shows an approach to predict in vivo dose-response curves for developmental toxicity by combining in vitro toxicity data and in silico kinetic modeling. A physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model was developed, describing the kinetics of four glycol ethers and their embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites in rat and man. In vitro toxicity data of these metabolites derived in the embryonic stem cell test were used as input in the PBK model to extrapolate in vitro concentration-response curves to predicted in vivo dose-response curves for developmental toxicity of the parent glycol ethers in rat and man. The predicted dose-response curves for rat were found to be in concordance with the embryotoxic dose levels measured in reported in vivo rat studies. Therefore, predicted dose-response curves for rat could be used to set a point of departure for deriving safe exposure limits in human risk assessment. Combining the in vitro toxicity data with a human PBK model allows the prediction of dose-response curves for human developmental toxicity. This approach could therefore provide a means to reduce the need for animal testing in human risk assessment practices.

  4. A seamless flash-flood early warning tool based on IDF-curves and coupling of weather-radar with numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Kaethi; Knechtl, Valentin; Andres, Norina; Sideris, Ioannis; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    A flash-flood is a flood that develops rapidly after a heavy precipitation event. Flash-flood forecasting is an important field of research because flash floods cause a lot of fatalities and damage. A flash-flood early warning tool is developed based on precipitation statistics. Our target areas are small ungauged areas of southern-Switzerland. A total of 759 sub-cathcments was considered. In a first intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for each catchment have been calculated basin on: A) Gridded precipitation products for the period 1961 to 2012 and B) gridded reforecast of the COSMO-LEPS NWP for the period 1971-2000. These different IDF-curves at the catchment level in combination with precipitation forecasts are the basis for the flash-flood early warning tool. The forecast models used are COSMO-2 (deterministic, updated every three hours and with a lead time of 24 hours) and COSMO-LEPS (probabilistic, 16 member and with a lead time of five days). In operational mode COSMO-2 is nudged to real-time data of a weather-radar precipitation obtained by blending the radar qpe with information from a national network of precipitation data. This product is called COMBIPRECIP. The flash-flood early warning tool has been evaluated against observed events. These events are either discharge peaks in gauged sub-areas or reports of damages caused by flash-flood events. The hypothesis that it is possible to detect hydrological events with the flash-flood early warning tool can be partly confirmed. The highest skill is obtained if the return-period of weather radar QPE is assessed at hourly time scale. With this it was possible to confirm most of the damage events occurred in 2010 and 2011. The prototype tool is affected by several false alarms. This is because initial conditions of the soils are not considered. Further steps will be therefore focussed on the addition of real-time hydrological information as obtained from the application of high resolution distributed

  5. Similarity recognition of online data curves based on dynamic spatial time warping for the estimation of lithium-ion battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Laifa; Lu, Chen; Noktehdan, Azadeh

    2015-10-01

    Battery capacity estimation is a significant recent challenge given the complex physical and chemical processes that occur within batteries and the restrictions on the accessibility of capacity degradation data. In this study, we describe an approach called dynamic spatial time warping, which is used to determine the similarities of two arbitrary curves. Unlike classical dynamic time warping methods, this approach can maintain the invariance of curve similarity to the rotations and translations of curves, which is vital in curve similarity search. Moreover, it utilizes the online charging or discharging data that are easily collected and do not require special assumptions. The accuracy of this approach is verified using NASA battery datasets. Results suggest that the proposed approach provides a highly accurate means of estimating battery capacity at less time cost than traditional dynamic time warping methods do for different individuals and under various operating conditions.

  6. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Collier Cameron, A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Gillon, M.; Jehin, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Street, R. A., E-mail: amss@astro.keele.ac.uk [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  7. Prevalence and survival prognosis of prostate cancer in patients with end-stage renal disease: a retrospective study based on the Korea national database (2003-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Han; Joung, Jae Young; Suh, Yoon Seok; Kim, Young Ae; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Kuark, Tong Sun; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-09-08

    The study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of prostate cancer (PC) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), determine the risk factors for overall survival (OS) and PC-specific survival (CSS), and evaluate differences in PC-related clinical therapeutic patterns between patients with and without PC-ESRD. This observational population study, performed at the National Cancer Center and Cancer Research Institute in Korea, included patients with PC and ESRD from the nationwide Korean Health Insurance System and Korean Central Cancer Registry data. Five-year overall and cancer-specific survival. A joinpoint regression analysis was performed to predict incidence and mortality of PC. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meir curves with log rank tests of patients with dialysis or transplantation. Of 3945 patients with PC-ESRD, 3.9% were on dialysis (N=152), 0.2% had kidney transplantation (N=10, D-TPL group); 3783 (95.9%) had neither dialysis nor transplantation (non-D-TPL ESRD group). There were 697 PC-specific deaths. The median respective OS, PC-specific survival, and 5-year survival rates in the non-ESRD, non-D-TPL ESRD, dialysis ESRD, and transplantation ESRD groups were significantly different (p<0.001). Presence of ESRD, age, body mass index, SEER stage, no treatment within 6 months after diagnosis, no surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormonal therapy, non-adenocarcinoma pathology, and Charlson comorbidity index were independent risk factors for OS and CSS. With a 10.1% nationwide prevalence of PC-ESRD, the presence of ESRD was a significant survival factor along with other significant clinicopathological factors.

  8. [Survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus after hand washing using alcohol-based handrub].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Midori; Takada, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Masao; Yasuda, Etsuko; Watase, Mariko; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2006-12-01

    Hand washing is the most fundamental method for preventing infection. Currently, hand washing with an alcohol-based handrub is the international gold standard method. However, in our study we found many samples of ineffective hand washing using an alcohol-based handrub. The rates of ineffective samples were 10.4% (5/48) in 2004 and 34.3% (12/35) in 2005. We examined the morphology by Gram staining and biochemical properties of the bacteria which remained after hand washing in 2005. Their colonies were divided into 3 groups (round colonies, irregular-shaped and diffusive colonies). The round colonies were considered Staphylococcus spp., and the irregular-shaped colonies or diffusive colonies were considered Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. In the 12 ineffective hand washing samples (more than the same number of bacteria colonies as before hand washing, or > or = 300), there were 3 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Staphylococcus spp., and 9 samples considered to be the result of the survival of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria including Bacillus cereus. Based on these results, we should take careful measures, such as wearing sterile gloves if necessary. We should never be overconfident regarding the effect of hand washing.

  9. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  10. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  11. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  12. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  13. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    painting and reading. Unlike most others he dislikes computers. Figure 1. Ritabrata Munshi. Introd uction. In the first part of the article (Resonance, Vol. 4, No.9 ) we proved the Jordan sepa.ration theorem which says that a simple closed curve in E2 separates it into at least two components. In this concluding part after some ...

  14. Graphing Polar Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  15. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  16. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  17. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  18. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  19. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  20. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  1. A practice-based research network on the survival of ceramic inlay/onlay restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collares, K.; Correa, M.B.; Laske, M.; Kramer, E.; Reiss, B.; Moraes, R.R.; Huysmans, M.C.; Opdam, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the longevity of ceramic inlay/onlay restorations placed in a web-based practice-based research network and to investigate risk factors associated with restoration failures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected by a practice-based research network called

  2. Overall survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer improved with an increase in second-line chemotherapy after gemcitabine-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan Dong; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Zhi Min; Ma, Wen; Zhou, Si Wei; Xie, De Rong

    2011-03-09

    In the last decade, gemcitabine-based regimen as first-line therapy has demonstrated low efficacy regarding overall survival benefit for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore a new strategy, such as an increased second-line chemotherapy rate, in order to improve overall survival. Retrospective data analysis. The data in the literature on gemcitabine-based therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer were collected by searching databases, such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, and EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews). Linear regression was used to explore the relationship between overall survival and second-line chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and residual survival. Ten randomized controlled trials, involving 2,679 patients, were included in the present study. The results indicated that overall survival was positively correlated with a combination of chemotherapy, stage of disease and second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (r = 0.753; P = 0.003). Meanwhile median overall survival would be prolonged about 1.56 days if second-line chemotherapy was increased by 1% (t = 4.33; P = 0.001). Progression-free survival was not significantly correlated with second-line chemotherapy (r = 0.092; P = 0.701); in contrast, residual survival was positively correlated with second-line chemotherapy (r = 0.717; P chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer; more attention should be paid after first-line therapy which must be administered skillfully in order to improve overall survival, and this is worthy of further study.

  3. Nomogram-based Prediction of Overall Survival in Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Receiving First-line Platinum-based Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Necchi, Andrea; Sonpavde, Guru; Lo Vullo, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    , AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient-level data from 29 centers were collected, including metastatic UC and first-line cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy administered between January 2006 and January 2011. INTERVENTION: First-line, platinum-based, combination chemotherapy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS...... (development: 687, validation: 333). In a platinum-stratified Cox model, significant variables for OS were performance status (pchemotherapy (p=0......-line chemotherapy for metastatic UC. PATIENT SUMMARY: We proposed two models for estimating overall survival of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma receiving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. These nomograms have been developed on real-world patients who were treated outside of clinical trials...

  4. Twenty years of Internet-based research at SCiP: A discussion of surviving concepts and new methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2017-10-01

    This discussion of the symposium 20 Years of Internet-Based Research at SCiP: Surviving Concepts, New Methodologies compares the issues faced by the pioneering Internet-based psychology researchers who presented at the first symposia on the topic, at the 1996 annual meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology, to the issues facing researchers today. New methodologies unavailable in the early days of Web-based psychological research are discussed, with an emphasis on mobile computing with smartphones that is capitalizing on capabilities such as touch screens and gyro sensors. A persistent issue spanning the decades has been the challenge of conducting scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. In the 1996 symposia on Internet-based research, four advantages were identified: easy access to a geographically unlimited subject population, including subjects from very specific and previously inaccessible target populations; bringing the experiment to the subject; high statistical power through large sample size; and reduced cost. In retrospect, it appears that Internet-based research has largely lived up to this early promise-with the possible exception of sample size, since the public demand for controlled psychology experiments has not always been greater than the supply offered by researchers. There are many reasons for optimism about the future of Internet-based research. However, unless courses and textbooks on psychological research methods begin to give Web-based research the attention it deserves, the future of Internet-based psychological research will remain in doubt.

  5. An approach based on the total-species accumulation curve and higher taxon richness to estimate realistic upper limits in regional species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Ugland, Karl Inne; Plicanti, Adriana; Scuderi, Danilo; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Most of accumulation curves tend to underestimate species richness, as they do not consider spatial heterogeneity in species distribution, or are structured to provide lower bound estimates and limited extrapolations. The total-species (T-S) curve allows extrapolations over large areas while taking into account spatial heterogeneity, making this estimator more prone to attempt upper bound estimates of regional species richness. However, the T-S curve may overestimate species richness due to (1) the mismatch among the spatial units used in the accumulation model and the actual units of variation in β-diversity across the region, (2) small-scale patchiness, and/or (3) patterns of rarity of species. We propose a new framework allowing the T-S curve to limit overestimation and give an application to a large dataset of marine mollusks spanning over 11 km2 of subtidal bottom (W Mediterranean). As accumulation patterns are closely related across the taxonomic hierarchy up to family level, improvements of the T-S curve leading to more realistic estimates of family richness, that is, not exceeding the maximum number of known families potentially present in the area, can be considered as conducive to more realistic estimates of species richness. Results on real data showed that improvements of the T-S curve to accounts for true variations in β-diversity within the sampled areas, small-scale patchiness, and rarity of families led to the most plausible richness when all aspects were considered in the model. Data on simulated communities indicated that in the presence of high heterogeneity, and when the proportion of rare species was not excessive (>2/3), the procedure led to almost unbiased estimates. Our findings highlighted the central role of variations in β-diversity within the region when attempting to estimate species richness, providing a general framework exploiting the properties of the T-S curve and known family richness to estimate plausible upper bounds in γ-diversity.

  6. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  7. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  8. Association between surgical delay and survival in high-risk emergency abdominal surgery. A population-based Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, Morten; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Buck, David Levarett

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with perforated peptic ulcer, surgical delay has recently been shown to be a critical determinant of survival. The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to evaluate the association between surgical delay by hour and mortality in high-risk patients undergoing ...... abdominal surgery, no statistically significant adjusted association between mortality and surgical delay was found. Additional research in diagnosis-specific subgroups of high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery is warranted....... emergency abdominal surgery in general. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All in-patients aged ≥18 years having emergency abdominal laparotomy or laparoscopy performed within 48 h of admission between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2010 in 13 Danish hospitals were included. Baseline and clinical data, including......OBJECTIVE: In patients with perforated peptic ulcer, surgical delay has recently been shown to be a critical determinant of survival. The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to evaluate the association between surgical delay by hour and mortality in high-risk patients undergoing...

  9. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth and survival of larval and early juvenile lesser sandeel in patchy prey field in the North Sea: An examination using individual-based modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Deurs, Mikael van

    2012-01-01

    concentrations is regarded important for survival. Intense aggregations of zooplankton in near-surface waters provide these conditions for larval fish. Simulation studies by individual-based modeling can help understanding of the mechanisms for survival during early life-stages. In this study, we examined how...... growth and survival of larvae and early juveniles of Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea are influenced by availability and patchiness of the planktonic prey by adapting and applying a generic bioenergetic individual-based model for larval fish. Input food conditions were generated...... by modeling copepod size spectra dynamics and patchiness based on particle count transects and Continuous Plankton Recorder time series data. The study analyzes the effects of larval hatching time, presence of zooplankton patchiness and within patch abundance on growth and survival of sandeel early life...

  11. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  12. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  13. Carbon Lorenz curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Loek [Utrecht University School of Economics (USE), Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram. (author)

  14. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Population-Based Study on Incidence and Survival in the United States, 1975 – 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wang, Haijun; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUD With the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has changed dramatically. We performed a population-based study of APL in the United States to determine its incidence and relative survival (RS) during a 34-year period. METHODS We identified 1397 patients diagnosed with APL between 1975 and 2008 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were categorized into four age groups and three calendar periods. As a comparison, we also reviewed the outcome of APL patients treated at our institution during approximately the same time interval. RESULTS The incidences of APL increased with the time period and patient age. Short- and long-term RS improved with each calendar period, with the greatest improvement occurring between 1991 and 1999; 5-year RS rates were 0.18 for patients diagnosed in 1975–1990, 0.52 in 1991–1999, and 0.64 in 2000–2008. Age was an important predictor of survival. For example, the 5-year RS rate in patients diagnosed in 2000–2008 was 0.38 for patients aged ≥60 years and 0.73 and 0.75 for patients aged <20 years and 20–39 years, respectively. Similar treads of improvements in the survival were observed in APL patients treated at our institution. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of APL has increased, especially in the last decade. Clinical outcome improved remarkably in patients with APL diagnosed from 1991 to 1999, mainly because of the increased use of ATRA. PMID:22707337

  15. Incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancer in Denmark: a nation-wide, population-based study from 1980 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Schmidt; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Grønhøj, Christian; Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Nørregaard, Cecilie; Agander, Tina Klitmøller; Specht, Lena; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-10-23

    Oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPCs) constitute a significant and increasing proportion of head and neck carcinomas and are an important global cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OPC in the Danish population from 1980 to 2014. This study included all patients registered in the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry over the period 1980-2014. The age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) per 100,000, annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) were evaluated. Five-year relative survival (RS) was calculated with Cox regression analyses in relation to gender, anatomical location and histology. A total of 6555 patients (69% male) were included, with a median age at diagnosis of 60 years. The AAIR of patients with OPC increased from 0.815 per 100,000 in 1980 to 4.51 per 100,000 in 2014 with an AAPC of 5.3. The 5-year RS increased significantly from 33.1% over the period 1980-1984 to 58.5% (25.4% points) over the period 2010-2014. With no significant difference stratified for gender. Tumors located at the palatine tonsils (n = 3333) and salivary gland OPC (n = 90) had significantly better survival compared with other sub-locations and histology subtypes. In the APC model the birth cohort effect rate ratio increased until 1925 and then decreased until 1935 from which point it increased in the last cohorts. In this population-based study, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of OPCs and in the RS for OPC. We also identified a profound birth cohort effect on the incidence.

  16. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  17. Multipulse phase resetting curves

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbatio...

  18. Closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, K S

    1993-01-01

    This lecture reviews recent research on closed timelike curves (CTCS), including these questions: Do the laws of physics prevent CTCs from ever forming in classical spacetime? If so, by what physical mechanism are C'I‘Cs prevented? Can the laws of physics be adapted in any reasonable way to a. spacetime that contains C'I‘Cs, or do they necessarily give nonsense? What insights into quantum gravity can one gain by asking questions such as these?

  19. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  20. Wolff: straight not curved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, A

    2017-11-01

    It was 140 years ago that George von Meyer presented his anatomical diagrams of human bones to a meeting in Zurich. There he was told by Prof. Karl Culmann that the trabecular lines shown within the diagram of the upper femur closely resembled those lines of force which Culmann had determined with Graphic Statics to be passing through a curved, loaded Fairbairn crane. This drew the attention of Julius Wolff, who used this as the basis for his 'Trajectorial theory' which was widely accepted and, to date, has been the underlying basis for all biomechanical investigations of this region. Following Wolff and Culmann, the upper femur is considered to be a curved structure and is investigated as such. Unfortunately, this concept is wrong. The upper femur is not curved but is angular. It is formed by the junction of two straight bones, the femoral neck and the femoral shaft, as may be simply seen as the neck/shaft angle constructed on the antero-posterior radiograph of any normal femur. The internal trabecular bone forms only part of the load bearing structure of the femoral neck. The configuration of this trabecular substance in this region suggests that it is related specifically to the force present during flexion and extension movements of the hip joint. This being so, combined with the delayed timing of the appearance of the trabecular columns, it must be questioned as to whether the remodelling of the upper femur is in response to one or to two distinct forces.

  1. The Performance and Survivability of Dichromated Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Holograms for Space Based Photonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    ALCOHOL) HOLOGRAMS FOR SPACE BASED PHOTONIC APPLICATIONS Steven P. Hotaling, Rome Laboratory; Gurusamy Manivannan, Rupak Changkakoti, Roger A. Lessard...Hotaling, Rome Laboratory; Gurusamy lianivannan, WU - il Rupak Changkakoti, Roger A. Lessard, Quebec, Canada 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...alcohol) Holograms for Space Based Photonic Applications Steven P. HOTALING*, Gurusamy MANIVANNAN", Rupak CHANGKAKOTI*" and Roger A. LESSARD" * USAF

  2. Combining Gait Speed and Recall Memory to Predict Survival in Late Life: Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Bandinelli, Stefania; Maietti, Elisa; Guralnik, Jack; Zuliani, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Luigi; Volpato, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gait speed, recall memory, and mortality. A cohort study (last follow-up December 2009). Tuscany, Italy. Individual data from 1,014 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older with baseline gait speed and recall memory measurements and follow-up for a median time of 9.10 (IQR 7.1;9.3) years. Participants were a mean (SD) age of 73.9 (7.3) years, and 55.8% women. Participants walking faster than 0.8 m/s were defined as fast walkers; good recall memory was defined as a score of 2 or 3 in the 3-word delayed recall section of the Mini-Mental State Examination. All-cause mortality. There were 302 deaths and the overall 100 person-year death rate was 3.77 (95% CI: 3.37-4.22). Both low gait speed and poor recall memory were associated with mortality when analysed separately (HR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.87-3.27 and HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.16-1.87, respectively). When we grouped participants according to both recall and gait speed, death rates (100 person-years) progressively increased from those with both good gait speed and memory (2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.5), to those with fast walk but poor memory (3.4; 95% CI: 2.8-4.2), to those with slow walk and good memory (8.8; 95% CI: 6.4-12.1), to those with both slow walk and poor memory (13.0; 95% CI: 10.6-16.1). In multivariate analysis, poor memory significantly increases mortality risk among persons with fast gait speed (HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.04-1.89). In older persons, gait speed and recall memory are independent predictors of expected survival. Information on memory function might better stratify mortality risk among persons with fast gait speed. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Study of Ground Response Curve (GRC) Based on a Damage Model / Badanie Krzywej Odpowiedzi Gruntu (Grc) W Oparciu O Model Pękania Skał

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molladavoodi, H.

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of stresses and displacements around underground openings is necessary in a wide variety of civil, petroleum and mining engineering problems. In addition, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is generally formed around underground openings as a result of high stress magnitudes even in the absence of blasting effects. The rock materials surrounding the underground excavations typically demonstrate nonlinear and irreversible mechanical response in particular under high in situ stress states. The dominant cause of irreversible deformations in brittle rocks is damage process. One of the most widely used methods in tunnel design is the convergence-confinement method (CCM) for its practical application. The elastic-plastic models are usually used in the convergence-confinement method as a constitutive model for rock behavior. The plastic models used to simulate the rock behavior, do not consider the important issues such as stiffness degradation and softening. Therefore, the use of damage constitutive models in the convergence-confinement method is essential in the design process of rock structures. In this paper, the basic concepts of continuum damage mechanics are outlined. Then a numerical stepwise procedure for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic stress field, with consideration of a damage model for rock mass has been implemented. The ground response curve and radius of excavation damage zone were calculated based on an isotropic damage model. The convergence-confinement method based on damage model can consider the effects of post-peak rock behavior on the ground response curve and excavation damage zone. The analysis of results show the important effect of brittleness parameter on the tunnel wall convergence, ground response curve and excavation damage radius. Analiza naprężeń i przemieszczeń powstałych wokół otworu podziemnego wymagana jest przy szerokiej gamie projektów z zakresu budownictwa lądowego, inżynierii górniczej oraz naftowej. Ponadto

  4. Botnet C&C Traffic and Flow Lifespans Using Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Oujezsky

    2017-03-01

    Based on our research we have figured out a possibility to distinguish the individual lifespans of C&C communications that are identical to each other by using survival projection curves, although it occurred in a different time course.

  5. Population-based study of breast cancer in older women: prognostic factors of relative survival and predictors of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dialla Pegdwende

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of women with breast cancer (BC are elderly. However, there is a lack of information regarding BC prognostic factors and care in this population. The aims of this study were to assess the prognostic factors of relative survival (RS among women with BC aged ≥ 75 years old and to identify the predictive factors of treatments administered to this population. Methods A population-based study was performed using data from the Cote d’Or breast and gynaecological cancer registry. Women aged 75 years and older with primary invasive BC and resident in Cote d’Or at the time of diagnosis made between January 1998 and December 2008 were retrospectively selected. Prognostic factors of RS were estimated in a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. RS rate for the whole population was given at 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors of the treatments administered. Results Six hundred and eighty-one women were included. Median age at diagnosis was 80. Comorbidities (p=0.02, pT stage (p=0.04, metastases (p= Conclusions Comorbid conditions adversely affect survival in older women with breast cancer. Moreover the results of this study showed that there are numerous predictors of the type of treatment administered, and that the most important were age and comorbidities.

  6. Radiation therapy dose is associated with improved survival for unresected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Outcomes from the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Todd A; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Sheu, Tommy; Blanchard, Pierre; Sandulache, Vlad C; Lai, Stephen Y; Cabanillas, Maria E; Williams, Michelle D; Pezzi, Christopher M; Lu, Charles; Garden, Adam S; Morrison, William H; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D; Gunn, G Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The outcomes of patients with unresected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were assessed, and potential correlations were explored between radiation therapy (RT) dose and overall survival (OS). The study cohort was comprised of patients who underwent either no surgery or grossly incomplete resection. Correlates of OS were explored using univariate analysis and multivariable analysis (MVA). In total, 1288 patients were analyzed. The mean patient age was 70.2 years, 59.7% of patients were women, and 47.6% received neck RT. The median OS was 2.27 months, and 11% of patients remained alive at 1 year. A positive RT dose-survival correlation was observed for the entire study cohort, for those who received systemic therapy, and for those with stage IVA/IVB and IVC disease. On MVA, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.317; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.137-1.526), ≥ 1 comorbidity (HR, 1.587; 95% CI, 1.379-1.827), distant metastasis (HR, 1.385; 95% CI, 1.216-1.578), receipt of systemic therapy (HR, 0.637; 95% CI, 0.547-0.742), and receipt of RT compared with no RT (Cancer 2017;123:1653-1661. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Rapid detection and grouping of porcine bocaviruses by an EvaGreen(®) based multiplex real-time PCR assay using melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaowen; Liu, Gaopeng; Opriessnig, Tanja; Wang, Zining; Yang, Zongqi; Jiang, Yonghou

    2016-08-01

    Several novel porcine bocaviruses (PBoVs) have been identified in pigs in recent years and association of these viruses with respiratory signs or diarrhea has been suggested. In this study, an EvaGreen(®)-based multiplex real-time PCR (EG-mPCR) with melting curve analysis was developed for simultaneous detection and grouping of novel PBoVs into the same genogroups G1, G2 and G3. Each target produced a specific amplicon with a melting peak of 81.3 ± 0.34 °C for PBoV G1, 78.2 ± 0.37 °C for PBoV G2, and 85.0 ± 0.29 °C for PBoV G3. Non-specific reactions were not observed when other pig viruses were used to assess the EG-mPCR assay. The sensitivity of the EG-mPCR assay using purified plasmid constructs containing the specific viral target fragments was 100 copies for PBoV G1, 50 for PBoV G2 and 100 for PBoV G3. The assay is able to detect and distinguish three PBoV groups with intra-assay and inter-assay variations ranging from 0.13 to 1.59%. The newly established EG-mPCR assay was validated with 227 field samples from pigs. PBoV G1, G2 and G3 was detected in 15.0%, 25.1% and 41.9% of the investigated samples and coinfections of two or three PBoV groups were also detected in 25.1% of the cases, indicating that all PBoV groups are prevalent in Chinese pigs. The agreement of the EG-mPCR assay with an EvaGreen-based singleplex real-time PCR (EG-sPCR) assay was 99.1%. This EG-mPCR will serve as a rapid, sensitive, reliable and cost effective alternative for routine surveillance testing of multiple PBoVs in pigs and will enhance our understanding of the epidemiological features and possible also pathogenetic changes associated with these viruses in pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiochemical Properties and Probiotic Survivability of Symbiotic Corn-Based Yogurt-Like Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuina; Zheng, Huajie; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-09-01

    Corn is a major grain produced in northern China. Corn-based functional food products are very limited. In this study, a symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was developed. Corn milk was prepared through grinding, extrusion and milling, and hydration processes. Corn extrudate was prepared under the optimized conditions of corn flour particle size symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was: total solids (17.13 ± 0.31), protein (1.12 ± 0.03), fat (0.30 ± 0.05), carbohydrates (15.14 ± 0.19), and ash (0.16 ± 0.02), respectively. pH value of this symbiotic product decreased from 4.50 ± 0.03 to 3.88 ± 0.13 and the population of L. plantarum declined from 7.8 ± 0.09 to 7.1 ± 0.14 log CFU/mL during storage at 4 °C. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that there were no changes in protein profile during storage. Texture and consistency were also stable during the period of this study. It can be concluded that a set-type corn-based symbiotic yogurt-like product with good texture and stability was successfully developed that would be a good alternative to the dairy yogurt. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Repair may increase survival of direct posterior restorations - A practice based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, L.; Laske, M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate repairs of direct restorations by a group of Dutch general dental practitioners (GDPs) and its consequences on longevity of restorations. METHODS: Data set was based on dental records of patients attending 11 general dental practices (24 Dentists) in the Netherlands.

  10. The forecast of the postoperative survival time of patients suffered from non-small cell lung cancer based on PCA and extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Huang, De-Shuang; Zhu, Zhi-Hua; Rong, Tie-Hua

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, a new effective model is proposed to forecast how long the postoperative patients suffered from non-small cell lung cancer will survive. The new effective model which is based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) and principal component analysis (PCA) can forecast successfully the postoperative patients' survival time. The new model obtains better prediction accuracy and faster convergence rate which the model using backpropagation (BP) algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to forecast the postoperative patients' survival time can not achieve. Finally, simulation results are given to verify the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed new model.

  11. The Prevalence of Area-under-a-Curve and Anti-Derivative Conceptions over Riemann Sum-Based Conceptions in Students' Explanations of Definite Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to broadly examine how commonly various conceptualizations of the definite integral are drawn on by students as they attempt to explain the meaning of integral expressions. Previous studies have shown that certain conceptualizations, such as the area under a curve or the values of an anti-derivative, may be less productive in…

  12. Pulse-Based Fast Battery IoT Charger Using Dynamic Frequency and Duty Control Techniques Based on Multi-Sensing of Polarization Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Di Yin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pulse-based charging method for battery cells has been recognized as a fast and efficient way to overcome the shortcoming of a slow charging time in distributed battery cells, which is regarded as a connection of cells such as the Internet of Things (IoT. The pulse frequency for controlling the battery charge duration is dynamically controlled within a certain range in order to inject the maximum charge current into the battery cells. The optimal frequency is determined in order to minimize battery impedance. The adaptation of the proposed pulse duty and frequency decreases the concentration of the polarization by sensing the runtime characteristics of battery cells so that it guarantees a certain level of safety in charging the distributed battery cells within the operating temperature range of 5–45 °C. The sensed terminal voltage and temperature of battery cells are dynamically monitored while the battery is charging so as to adjust the frequency and duty of the proposed charging pulse method, thereby preventing battery degradation. The evaluation results show that a newly designed charging algorithm for the implemented charger system is about 18.6% faster than the conventional constant-current (CC charging method with the temperature rise within a reasonable range. The implemented charger system, which is based on the proposed dynamic frequency and duty control by considering the cell polarization, charges to about 80% of its maximum capacity in less than 56 min and involves a 13 °C maximum temperature rise without damaging the battery.

  13. Social inequality and incidence of and survival from breast cancer in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of socioeconomic, demographic and health-related indicators on the incidence of and survival from breast cancer diagnosed in 1994-2003 with follow-up through 2006 in Denmark using information from nationwide population-based registers. The analyses were based on data...... on 25,855 patients with breast cancer in a cohort of 3.22 million people born between 1925 and 1973 and aged >or=30 years. In general, the incidence of breast cancer increased with increasing social advantage, with unemployment or retirement, with increasing urbanicity and with being single or divorced....... A history of admission for a psychiatric disorder increased the incidence of breast cancer. The overall relative short-term survival was high (96%), but survival improved with higher educational level and income. Whilst the relative 5-year survival after breast cancer was high (79%), there was significantly...

  14. Evaluation of portfolio credit risk based on survival analysis for progressive censored data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Jamil J.; Ismail, Noriszura; Ramli, Siti Norafidah Mohd

    2017-04-01

    In credit risk management, the Basel committee provides a choice of three approaches to the financial institutions for calculating the required capital: the standardized approach, the Internal Ratings-Based (IRB) approach, and the Advanced IRB approach. The IRB approach is usually preferred compared to the standard approach due to its higher accuracy and lower capital charges. This paper use several parametric models (Exponential, log-normal, Gamma, Weibull, Log-logistic, Gompertz) to evaluate the credit risk of the corporate portfolio in the Jordanian banks based on the monthly sample collected from January 2010 to December 2015. The best model is selected using several goodness-of-fit criteria (MSE, AIC, BIC). The results indicate that the Gompertz distribution is the best model parametric model for the data.

  15. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    population based observational study. SETTING: 19 regions from 11 European countries covering 850 000 annual births participating in the EPICE (Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe for very preterm births) project. PARTICIPANTS: 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks' gestation in 2011...... of death or severe morbidity, or both. We modelled associations using risk ratios, with propensity score weighting to account for potential confounding bias. Analyses were adjusted for clustering within delivery hospital. RESULTS: Only 58.3% (n=4275) of infants received all evidence based practices...... ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.87) and in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity, or both (0.82, 0.73 to 0.92), corresponding to an estimated 18% decrease in all deaths without an increase in severe morbidity if these interventions had been provided to all infants. CONCLUSIONS: More...

  16. Unique TTC repeat base pair loss mutation in cases of pure neural leprosy: A survival strategy of Mycobacterium leprae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek De

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genomic reduction helps obligate intracellular microbes to survive difficult host niches. Adaptation of Mycobacterium leprae in cases of pure neural leprosy (PNL in the intracellular niche of peripheral nerves can be associated with some gene loss. Recently, a stable but variable number of tandem repefzats (TTC have been reported in strains of M. leprae. FolP and rpoB genes are the two common mutation sites which deal with the susceptibility of the bacteria to drugs. Aim: We attempted to find if genomic reduction of M. leprae in context of these TTC repeats or mutations in folP1 and rpoB can be the reason for the restriction of M. leprae in the nerves in PNL. Materials and Methods: DNA extracts taken from fine needle aspiration of affected nerves of 24 PNL cases were studied for tandem repeats with 21TTC primer in multiplex-PCR. Mutations were also studied by PCR Amplification of SRDR (Sulphone Resistance Determining Region of the folP1 and multiple primer PCR amplification refractory mutation system (MARS of the rpoB. Results: Of the 24 PNL, only 1 patient showed mutation in the rpoB gene and none in the folp1 gene. Studying the mutation in TTC region of the M. leprae gene we found that all the cases have a loss of a few bases in the sequence. Conclusion: We can conclude that there is consistent loss in the bases in the TTC region in all cases of pure neural Hansen and we postulate that it may be an adaptive response of the bacteria to survive host niche resulting in its restriction to peripheral nerves.

  17. Association between surgical delay and survival in high-risk emergency abdominal surgery. A population-based Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester-Andersen, Morten; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Buck, David Levarett; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2016-01-01

    In patients with perforated peptic ulcer, surgical delay has recently been shown to be a critical determinant of survival. The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to evaluate the association between surgical delay by hour and mortality in high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery in general. All in-patients aged ≥ 18 years having emergency abdominal laparotomy or laparoscopy performed within 48 h of admission between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2010 in 13 Danish hospitals were included. Baseline and clinical data, including surgical delay and 90-day mortality were collected. The crude and adjusted association between surgical delay by hour and 90-day mortality was assessed by binary logistic regression. A total of 2803 patients were included. Median age (interquartile range [IQR]) was 66 (51-78) years, and 515 patients (18.4%) died within 90 days of surgery. Over the first 24 h after hospital admission, each hour of surgical delay beyond hospital admission was associated with a median (IQR) decrease in 90-day survival of 2.2% (1.9-3.3%). No statistically significant association between surgical delay by hour and 90-day mortality was shown; crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval 1.016 (1.004-1.027) and 1.003 (0.989-1.017), respectively. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the primary finding. In the present population-based cohort study of high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery, no statistically significant adjusted association between mortality and surgical delay was found. Additional research in diagnosis-specific subgroups of high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery is warranted.

  18. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  19. Power Efficient Service Differentiation Based on Traffic-Aware Survivable Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes of Se...... while for the proposed approach the difference in power consumption is almost negligible.Moreover, incase of the proposed approach,silver serviceclass can benefit for superior quality of service compared to the gold service class, due to the grooming mechanism.......This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes...... of Serviceareconsidered: platinum, gold, silver and best effort.Platinumconnections benefit from a 1+1 protection scheme, gold connections and silver connections are assigned to a 1:1 protection with the difference that in case of gold connections the same pair of transponders is shared by the working and protection...

  20. Evolution of the extinction curves in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Asano, Ryosuke S.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nozawa, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of extinction curves in galaxies based on our evolution model of grain size distribution. In this model, we considered various processes: dust formation by SNe II and AGB stars, dust destruction by SN shocks in the ISM, metal accretion onto the surface of grains (referred to as grain growth), shattering and coagulation. We find that the extinction curve is flat in the earliest stage of galaxy evolution. As the galaxy is enriched with dust, shattering becomes effec...

  1. Educational attainment and differences in relative survival after acute myocardial infarction in Norway: a registry-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Wangen, Knut R

    2017-08-28

    Although there is a broad societal interest in socioeconomic differences in survival after an acute myocardial infarction, only a few studies have investigated how such differences relate to the survival in general population groups. We aimed to investigate education-specific survival after acute myocardial infarction and to compare this with the survival of corresponding groups in the general population. Our study included the entire population of Norwegian patients admitted to hospitals for acute myocardial infarction during 2008-2010, with a 6- year follow-up period. Patient survival was measured relative to the expected survival in the general population for three educational groups: primary, secondary and tertiary. Education, sex, age and calendar year-specific expected survival were obtained from population life tables and adjusted for the presence of infarction-related mortality. Six-year patient survivals were 56.3% (55.3-57.2) and 65.5% (65.6-69.3) for the primary and tertiary educational groups (95% CIs), respectively. Also 6-year relative survival was markedly lower for the primary educational group: 70.2% (68.6-71.8) versus 81.2% (77.4-84.4). Throughout the follow-up period, patient survival tended to remain lower than the survival in the general population with the same educational background. Both patient survival and relative survival after acute myocardial infarction are positively associated with educational level. Our findings may suggest that secondary prevention has been more effective for the highly educated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Apparent annual survival estimates of tropical songbirds better reflect life history variation when based on intensive field methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Riordan, Margaret M.; Repin, Rimi; Mouton, James C.; Blake, William M.

    2017-01-01

    AimAdult survival is central to theories explaining latitudinal gradients in life history strategies. Life history theory predicts higher adult survival in tropical than north temperate regions given lower fecundity and parental effort. Early studies were consistent with this prediction, but standard-effort netting studies in recent decades suggested that apparent survival rates in temperate and tropical regions strongly overlap. Such results do not fit with life history theory. Targeted marking and resighting of breeding adults yielded higher survival estimates in the tropics, but this approach is thought to overestimate survival because it does not sample social and age classes with lower survival. We compared the effect of field methods on tropical survival estimates and their relationships with life history traits.LocationSabah, Malaysian Borneo.Time period2008–2016.Major taxonPasseriformes.MethodsWe used standard-effort netting and resighted individuals of all social and age classes of 18 tropical songbird species over 8 years. We compared apparent survival estimates between these two field methods with differing analytical approaches.ResultsEstimated detection and apparent survival probabilities from standard-effort netting were similar to those from other tropical studies that used standard-effort netting. Resighting data verified that a high proportion of individuals that were never recaptured in standard-effort netting remained in the study area, and many were observed breeding. Across all analytical approaches, addition of resighting yielded substantially higher survival estimates than did standard-effort netting alone. These apparent survival estimates were higher than for temperate zone species, consistent with latitudinal differences in life histories. Moreover, apparent survival estimates from addition of resighting, but not from standard-effort netting alone, were correlated with parental effort as measured by egg temperature across species

  3. Prognostic and survival analysis of presbyopia: The healthy twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Adiyani; Sung, Joohon

    2015-12-01

    Presbyopia, a vision condition in which the eye loses its flexibility to focus on near objects, is part of ageing process which mostly perceptible in the early or mid 40s. It is well known that age is its major risk factor, while sex, alcohol, poor nutrition, ocular and systemic diseases are known as common risk factors. However, many other variables might influence the prognosis. Therefore in this paper we developed a prognostic model to estimate survival from presbyopia. 1645 participants which part of the Healthy Twin Study, a prospective cohort study that has recruited Korean adult twins and their family members based on a nation-wide registry at public health agencies since 2005, were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis as well as Cox proportional hazard model to reveal the prognostic factors for presbyopia while survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Besides age, sex, diabetes, and myopia; the proposed model shows that education level (especially engineering program) also contribute to the occurrence of presbyopia as well. Generally, at 47 years old, the chance of getting presbyopia becomes higher with the survival probability is less than 50%. Furthermore, our study shows that by stratifying the survival curve, MZ has shorter survival with average onset time about 45.8 compare to DZ and siblings with 47.5 years old. By providing factors that have more effects and mainly associate with presbyopia, we expect that we could help to design an intervention to control or delay its onset time.

  4. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altwegg Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers.

  5. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25 676 887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Weir, Hannah K; Carreira, Helena; Harewood, Rhea; Spika, Devon; Wang, Xiao-Si; Bannon, Finian; Ahn, Jane V; Johnson, Christopher J; Bonaventure, Audrey; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Stiller, Charles; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Chen, Wan-Qing; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi J; Rachet, Bernard; Soeberg, Matthew J; You, Hui; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Storm, Hans; Tucker, Thomas C; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Methods Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15–99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0–14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995–2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Findings 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005–09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15–19% in North America, and as low as 7–9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10–20% between 1995–99 and 2005–09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer

  6. Analysis of the relationship between economic growth and industrial pollution in Zaozhuang, China-based on the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wei-Liang; Lu, Shao-Yong; Wang, Yu-Fan; Ren, Zongming

    2016-08-01

    In Zaozhuang, economic development affects the discharge amount of industrial wastewater, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). To reveal the trend of water environmental quality related to the economy in Zaozhuang, this paper simulated the relationships between industrial wastewater discharge, COD, NH3-N load, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for Zaozhuang (2002-2012) using environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) models. The results showed that the added value of industrial GDP, the per capita GDP, and wastewater emission had average annual growth rates of 16.62, 16.19, and 17.89 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012, while COD and NH3-N emission in 2012, compared with 2002, showed average annual decreases of 10.70 and 31.12 %, respectively. The export of EKC models revealed that industrial wastewater discharge had a typical inverted-U-shaped relationship with per capita GDP. However, both COD and NH3-N showed the binding curve of the left side of the "U" curve and left side U-shaped curve. The economy in Zaozhuang had been at the "fast-growing" stage, with low environmental pollution according to the industrial pollution level. In recent years, Zaozhuang has abated these heavy-pollution industries emphatically, so pollutants have been greatly reduced. Thus, Zaozhuang industrial wastewater treatment has been quite effective, with water quality improved significantly. The EKC models provided scientific evidence for estimating industrial wastewater discharge, COD, and NH3-N load as well as their changeable trends for Zaozhuang from an economic perspective.

  7. Microstructure based simulations for prediction of flow curves and selection of process parameters for inter-critical annealing in DP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, M. J.; Farivar, H.; Prahl, U.; Phanikumar, G.

    2017-04-01

    Dual phase steels are versatile advanced high strength steels that are being used for sheet metal applications in automotive industry. It also has the potential for application in bulk components like gear. The inter-critical annealing in dual phase steels is one of the crucial steps that determine the mechanical properties of the material. Selection of the process parameters for inter-critical annealing, in particular, the inter-critical annealing temperature and time is important as it plays a major role in determining the volume fractions of ferrite and martensite, which in turn determines the mechanical properties. Selection of these process parameters to obtain a particular required mechanical property requires large number of experimental trials. Simulation of microstructure evolution and virtual compression/tensile testing can help in reducing the number of such experimental trials. In the present work, phase field modeling implemented in the commercial software Micress® is used to predict the microstructure evolution during inter-critical annealing. Virtual compression tests are performed on the simulated microstructure using finite element method implemented in the commercial software, to obtain the effective flow curve of the macroscopic material. The flow curves obtained by simulation are experimentally validated with physical simulation in Gleeble® and compared with that obtained using linear rule of mixture. The methodology could be used in determining the inter-critical annealing process parameters required for achieving a particular flow curve.

  8. Survival of patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and new primary cancers: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Stentoft, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-07-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of new solid or haematological cancers, but how prognosis is affected in patients with preceding myeloproliferative neoplasms is unclear. We used data from population-based medical databases in Denmark from 1980 to 2011 to compare survival between cancer patients with and without a preceding diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm, matched for age, sex, year of diagnosis, and type of cancer. We assessed outcomes by cancer stage and comorbidities. Data were available for 1246 patients with a history of myeloproliferative neoplasms and we matched 5155 patients without a history of myeloproliferative neoplasm for comparison. Among patients with new localised solid cancers, 5-year survival was 49.8% (95% CI 39.1-59.6) for patients with preceding essential thrombocythaemia, 47·9% (42·1-53·4) for those with preceding polycythaemia vera, and 48.0% (34.1-60.7) for those with preceding chronic myeloid leukaemia. The values were 72.4% (68.4-76.0), 63.9% (61.5-66.2), and 74.3% (68.2-79.4), respectively, in matched patients without preceding myeloproliferative neoplasms. The risk of death among patients with a solid tumour and preceding myeloproliferative neoplasm was 1.21-2.28 times higher than in patients without myeloproliferative neoplasms. Excess mortality risk was observed irrespective of whether new cancers were diagnosed within 5 years or 5 years or more after myeloproliferative neoplasm. Preceding myeloproliferative neoplasm is a predictor for poor outlook in patients who develop new primary cancers. Lundbeck and Novo Nordisk Foundation Programme for Clinical Research Infrastructure, Danish Cancer Society, and Aarhus University Research Foundation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence of, phenotypes of and survival from small bowel cancer in Denmark, 1994-2010: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Rasmus Dahlin; Andersson, Mikael; Riis, Lene Buhl; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine

    2016-09-01

    Small bowel cancer (SBC) is a rare and highly heterogeneous disease in respect to both anatomical distribution and histological morphology. We aimed to conduct a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study of the incidence of, phenotypes of, stage of, synchronous/metachronous cancer occurrence of and survival from SBC during 1994-2010. The study population included all individuals aged 16 years or older living in Denmark during 1994-2010 (n = 7,070,142). Patients with SBC were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry. Incidence rates were calculated overall and according to the anatomical origin and morphological subtype. Patients were followed up from the date of cancer diagnosis to the date of emigration, death or the end of the study (31 December 2010). SBC was diagnosed in 1088 patients during 1994-2010. The total annual incidence of SBC was 1.10 per 100,000 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.17 per 100,000], with an annual percentage change of 1.9 % (95 % CI 0.6-3.1 %, p = 0.003) during the observation period. This increase was mainly explained by an increase in the occurrence of duodenal adenocarcinomas, with an annual percentage change of 7.5 % (95 % CI 4.9-10.2 %, p cancer at the time of diagnosis and 32 % had one or more synchronous/metachronous cancers. All morphological subtypes were associated with poor 5-year prognoses, in particular duodenal adenocarcinomas, with a 5-year survival rate of only 16 % (95 % CI 12-22 %). The incidence of SBC has increased in recent decades, mainly because of a large increase in the incidence of duodenal adenocarcinomas, which are also associated with the poorest prognosis.

  10. The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    Treats the arithmetic theory of elliptic curves in its modern formulation, through the use of basic algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. This book discusses the necessary algebro-geometric results, and offers an exposition of the geometry of elliptic curves, and the formal group of an elliptic curve.

  11. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  12. Modeling Type IIn Supernova Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Janie; Roming, Peter; Fryer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present near-by Type IIn supernovae observed with Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Based on the diversity of optical light curve properties, this Type II subclass is commonly referred to as heterogeneous. At the time of discovery, our IIn sample is ~ 2 magnitudes brighter at ultraviolet wavelengths than at optical wavelengths, and ultraviolet brightness decays faster than the optical brightness. We use a semi-analytical supernova (SN) model to better understand our IIn observations, and focus on matching specific observed light curves features, i.e peak luminosity and decay rate. The SN models are used to study the effects of initial SN conditions on early light curves, and to show the extent of the "uniqueness" problem in SN light curves. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from members of the Swift UVOT team, the NASA astrophysics archival data analysis program, and the NASA Swift guest investigator program.

  13. Internationally comparable diagnosis-specific survival probabilities for calculation of the ICD-10-based Injury Severity Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedeborg, R.; Warner, M.; Chen, L. H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) -based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) performs well but requires diagnosis-specific survival probabilities (DSPs), which are empirically derived, for its calculation. The objective was to examine if DSPs b...... based on data pooled from several countries could increase accuracy, precision, utility, and international comparability of DSPs and ICISS. METHODS: Australia, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, and Sweden provided ICD-10-coded injury hospital discharge data, including in......-hospital mortality status. Data from the seven countries were pooled using four different methods to create an international collaborative effort ICISS (ICE-ICISS). The ability of the ICISS to predict mortality using the country-specific DSPs and the pooled DSPs was estimated and compared. RESULTS: The pooled DSPs...... generated empirically derived DSPs. These pooled DSPs facilitate international comparisons and enables the use of ICISS in all settings where ICD-10 hospital discharge diagnoses are available. The modest reduction in performance of the ICE-ICISS compared with the country-specific scores is unlikely...

  14. Mitochondrial-Based Treatments that Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in a Translational Large Animal Intraarticular Fracture Survival Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Animal Intraarticular Fracture Survival Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James A. Martin, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Iowa Iowa City, IA...Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in a Translational Large Animal Intraarticular Fracture Survival Model 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0583 5c...traumatic osteoarthritis, large animal model, oxidative stress, mitochondria, mechanotransduction, amobarbital, n-acetyl cysteine 16. SECURITY

  15. An ensemble-based Cox proportional hazards regression framework for predicting survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC patients [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From March through August 2015, nearly 60 teams from around the world participated in the Prostate Cancer Dream Challenge (PCDC. Participating teams were faced with the task of developing prediction models for patient survival and treatment discontinuation using baseline clinical variables collected on metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC patients in the comparator arm of four phase III clinical trials. In total, over 2,000 mCRPC patients treated with first-line docetaxel comprised the training and testing data sets used in this challenge. In this paper we describe: (a the sub-challenges comprising the PCDC, (b the statistical metrics used to benchmark prediction performance, (c our analytical approach, and finally (d our team’s overall performance in this challenge. Specifically, we discuss our curated, ad-hoc, feature selection (CAFS strategy for identifying clinically important risk-predictors, the ensemble-based Cox proportional hazards regression framework used in our final submission, and the adaptation of our modeling framework based on the results from the intermittent leaderboard rounds. Strong predictors of patient survival were successfully identified utilizing our model building approach. Several of the identified predictors were new features created by our team via strategically merging collections of weak predictors. In each of the three intermittent leaderboard rounds, our prediction models scored among the top four models across all participating teams and our final submission ranked 9th place overall with an integrated area under the curve (iAUC of 0.7711 computed in an independent test set. While the prediction performance of teams placing between 2nd- 10th (iAUC: 0.7710-0.7789 was better than the current gold-standard prediction model for prostate cancer survival, the top-performing team, FIMM-UTU significantly outperformed all other contestants with an iAUC of 0.7915.  In summary, our ensemble-based Cox

  16. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  17. A Hyaluronan-Based Injectable Hydrogel Improves the Survival and Integration of Stem Cell Progeny following Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Ballios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of stem cells and their progeny in adult transplantation models has been limited by poor survival and integration. We designed an injectable and bioresorbable hydrogel blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC and tested it with two cell types in two animal models, thereby gaining an understanding of its general applicability for enhanced cell distribution, survival, integration, and functional repair relative to conventional cell delivery in saline. HAMC improves cell survival and integration of retinal stem cell (RSC-derived rods in the retina. The pro-survival mechanism of HAMC is ascribed to the interaction of the CD44 receptor with HA. Transient disruption of the retinal outer limiting membrane, combined with HAMC delivery, results in significantly improved rod survival and visual function. HAMC also improves the distribution, viability, and functional repair of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs. The HAMC delivery system improves cell transplantation efficacy in two CNS models, suggesting broad applicability.

  18. Variable ranking based on the estimated degree of separation for two distributions of data by the length of the receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Waleed M; Snyder, A Peter

    2015-05-30

    Variable responses are fundamental for all experiments, and they can consist of information-rich, redundant, and low signal intensities. A dataset can consist of a collection of variable responses over multiple classes or groups. Usually some of the variables are removed in a dataset that contain very little information. Sometimes all the variables are used in the data analysis phase. It is common practice to discriminate between two distributions of data; however, there is no formal algorithm to arrive at a degree of separation (DS) between two distributions of data. The DS is defined herein as the average of the sum of the areas from the probability density functions (PDFs) of A and B that contain a≥percentage of A and/or B. Thus, DS90 is the average of the sum of the PDF areas of A and B that contain ≥90% of A and/or B. To arrive at a DS value, two synthesized PDFs or very large experimental datasets are required. Experimentally it is common practice to generate relatively small datasets. Therefore, the challenge was to find a statistical parameter that can be used on small datasets to estimate and highly correlate with the DS90 parameter. Established statistical methods include the overlap area of the two data distribution profiles, Welch's t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC). The area between the ROC curve and diagonal (ACD) and the length of the ROC curve (LROC) are introduced. The established, ACD, and LROC methods were correlated to the DS90 when applied on many pairs of synthesized PDFs. The LROC method provided the best linear correlation with, and estimation of, the DS90. The estimated DS90 from the LROC (DS90-LROC) is applied to a database, as an example, of three Italian wines consisting of thirteen variable responses for variable ranking consideration. An important highlight of the DS90-LROC method is utilizing the LROC curve methodology to

  19. Impact of prey field variability on early cod larval survival: a sensitivity study of a Baltic cod Individual-based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn O. Schmidt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Baltic larval cod drift, growth and survival use idealised constructed mean prey fields of nauplius distributions. These simulations revealedthe best feeding conditions for Baltic cod larvae longer than 6 mm. For shorter, first feeding larvae (between 4.5 and 6 mm pronounced differences in growth and survival were observed,which depend on food availability and to a lesser degree on ambient temperature. We performed runs with an Individual-based Model (IBM for Baltic cod larvae in order to demonstrate hownatural variability in prey abundance influences the survival success of first feeding larvae. In the Baltic, this larval stage lives mainly between 20 and 40 m depth and feeds exclusivelyon the nauplii of different calanoid copepods (Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus acuspes, Temora longicornis and Centropages hamatus.Prey data obtained from vertically stratified samples in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea in 2001 and 2002 indicate a strong variability at spatial and temporal scales. We calculatedlarval survival and growth in relation to natural variation of prey fields, i.e. species-specific nauplius abundance.The results of the model runs yielded larval survival rates from 60 to 100% if the mean size of nauplii species was taken and lower survival if prey consisted of early nauplius stages only.

  20. No survival improvement for patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma over the past two decades: a population-based study of 1207 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Xu

    Full Text Available Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL is a rare lymphoid malignancy with dismal prognosis. We conducted a large population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database (1973-2010 to determine the temporal survival trends and prognostic factors of AITL patients. A total of 1207 patients with AITL were included in this study, with a median age at diagnosis of 69 years. At presentation, most patients (79.5% had an advanced-stage disease. Overall survival (OS probabilities at 2, 5 and 10 years were 46.8%, 32.9%, and 21.9% respectively. Two-year, 5-year, and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rates were 56.1%, 44.0%, and 35.9% respectively.On multivariate analysis, age older than 70 years, advanced-stage disease and male sex were identified adverse predictors for OS and DSS. We failed to find any survival differences among subgroups diagnosed in the 5 periods studied (1992 to 1998, 1999 to 2001, 2002 to 2004, 2005 to 2007, and 2008 to 2010. The current study represents the largest specific series of patients with AITL and the first investigation on temporal changes in survival of AITL patients. There has been no survival improvement for AITL patients over the past two decades. Further investigations are warranted to develop more effective treatment for AITL.

  1. Accuracy of cause of death data routinely recorded in a population-based cancer registry: impact on cause-specific survival and validation using the Geneva cancer registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the underlying cause of death of cancer patients is of interest because it can be used to estimate net survival. The population-based Geneva Cancer Registry is unique because registrars are able to review the official cause of death. This study aims to describe the difference between the official and revised cause-of-death variables and the impact on cancer survival estimates. Methods The recording process for each cause of death variable is summarised. We describe the differences between the two cause-of-death variables for the 5,065 deceased patients out of the 10,534 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1970 and 2009. The Kappa statistic and logistic regression are applied to evaluate the degree of concordance. The impact of discordance on cause-specific survival is examined using the Kaplan Meier method. Results The overall agreement between the two variables was high. However, several subgroups presented a lower concordance, suggesting differences in calendar time and less attention given to older patients and more advanced diseases. Similarly, the impact of discordance on cause-specific survival was small on overall survival but larger for several subgroups. Conclusion Estimation of cancer-specific survival could therefore be prone to bias when using the official cause of death. Breast cancer is not the more lethal cancer and our results can certainly not be generalised to more lethal tumours. PMID:24373194

  2. CD49d Is the Strongest Flow Cytometry–Based Predictor of Overall Survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Pietro; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Fegan, Chris; Zucchetto, Antonella; Cro, Lilla; Nückel, Holger; Baldini, Luca; Kurtova, Antonina V.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Pepper, Chris; Rossi, Davide; Gattei, Valter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although CD49d is an unfavorable prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), definitive validation evidence is lacking. A worldwide multicenter analysis was performed using published and unpublished CLL series to evaluate the impact of CD49d as an overall (OS) and treatment-free survival (TFS) predictor. Patients and Methods A training/validation strategy was chosen to find the optimal CD49d cutoff. The hazard ratio (HR) for death and treatment imposed by CD49d was estimated by pooled analysis of 2,972 CLLs; Cox analysis stratified by center and stage was used to adjust for confounding variables. The importance of CD49d over other flow cytometry–based prognosticators (eg, CD38, ZAP-70) was ranked by recursive partitioning. Results Patients with ≥ 30% of neoplastic cells expressing CD49d were considered CD49d+. Decrease in OS at 5 and 10 years among CD49d+ patients was 7% and 23% (decrease in TFS, 26% and 25%, respectively). Pooled HR of CD49d for OS was 2.5 (2.3 for TFS) in univariate analysis. This HR remained significant and of similar magnitude (HR, 2.0) in a Cox model adjusted for clinical and biologic prognosticators. Hierarchic trees including all patients or restricted to those with early-stage disease or those age ≤ 65 years always selected CD49d as the most important flow cytometry–based biomarker, with negligible additional prognostic information added by CD38 or ZAP-70. Consistently, by bivariate analysis, CD49d reliably identified patient subsets with poorer outcome independent of CD38 and ZAP-70. Conclusion In this analysis of approximately 3,000 patients, CD49d emerged as the strongest flow cytometry–based predictor of OS and TFS in CLL. PMID:24516016

  3. CD49d is the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Pietro; Shanafelt, Tait D; Fegan, Chris; Zucchetto, Antonella; Cro, Lilla; Nückel, Holger; Baldini, Luca; Kurtova, Antonina V; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A; Gaidano, Gianluca; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Pepper, Chris; Rossi, Davide; Gattei, Valter

    2014-03-20

    Although CD49d is an unfavorable prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), definitive validation evidence is lacking. A worldwide multicenter analysis was performed using published and unpublished CLL series to evaluate the impact of CD49d as an overall (OS) and treatment-free survival (TFS) predictor. A training/validation strategy was chosen to find the optimal CD49d cutoff. The hazard ratio (HR) for death and treatment imposed by CD49d was estimated by pooled analysis of 2,972 CLLs; Cox analysis stratified by center and stage was used to adjust for confounding variables. The importance of CD49d over other flow cytometry-based prognosticators (eg, CD38, ZAP-70) was ranked by recursive partitioning. Patients with ≥ 30% of neoplastic cells expressing CD49d were considered CD49d+. Decrease in OS at 5 and 10 years among CD49d+ patients was 7% and 23% (decrease in TFS, 26% and 25%, respectively). Pooled HR of CD49d for OS was 2.5 (2.3 for TFS) in univariate analysis. This HR remained significant and of similar magnitude (HR, 2.0) in a Cox model adjusted for clinical and biologic prognosticators. Hierarchic trees including all patients or restricted to those with early-stage disease or those age ≤ 65 years always selected CD49d as the most important flow cytometry-based biomarker, with negligible additional prognostic information added by CD38 or ZAP-70. Consistently, by bivariate analysis, CD49d reliably identified patient subsets with poorer outcome independent of CD38 and ZAP-70. In this analysis of approximately 3,000 patients, CD49d emerged as the strongest flow cytometry-based predictor of OS and TFS in CLL.

  4. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth: an evaluation of simulation-based training in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris; Mduma, Estomih; Broerse, Jacqueline; Evjen-Olsen, Bjørg; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. Educational intervention study. Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambulance drivers involved in maternity care. In March 2012, health care workers were trained in HMS BAB, a half-day simulation-based training, using a train-the-trainer model. The training focused on basic delivery care, active management of third stage of labor, and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, including bimanual uterine compression. Evaluation questionnaires provided information on course perception. Knowledge, skills, and confidence of facilitators and learners were tested before and after training. Four master trainers trained eight local facilitators, who subsequently trained 89 learners. After training, all facilitators passed the knowledge test, but pass rates for the skills test were low (29% pass rate for basic delivery and 0% pass rate for management of postpartum hemorrhage). Evaluation revealed that HMS BAB training was considered acceptable and feasible, although more time should be allocated for training, and teaching materials should be translated into the local language. Knowledge, skills, and confidence of learners increased significantly immediately after training. However, overall pass rates for skills tests of learners after training were low (3% pass rate for basic delivery and management of postpartum hemorrhage). The HMS BAB simulation-based training has potential to contribute to education of health care providers. We recommend a full day of training and validation of the facilitators to improve the training. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. A Sensor-Based Visual Effect Evaluation of Chevron Alignment Signs’ Colors on Drivers through the Curves in Snow and Ice Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to quantitatively evaluate the visual feedback of drivers has been considered as the primary research for reducing crashes in snow and ice environments. Different colored Chevron alignment signs cause diverse visual effect. However, the effect of Chevrons on visual feedback and on the driving reaction while navigating curves in SI environments has not been adequately evaluated. The objective of this study is twofold: (1 an effective and long-term experiment was designed and developed to test the effect of colored Chevrons on drivers’ vision and vehicle speed; (2 a new quantitative effect evaluation model is employed to measure the effect of different colors of the Chevrons. Fixation duration and pupil size were used to describe the driver’s visual response, and Cohen’s d was used to evaluate the colors’ psychological effect on drivers. The results showed the following: (1 after choosing the proper color for Chevrons, drivers reduced the speed of the vehicle while approaching the curves. (2 It was easier for drivers to identify the road alignment after setting the Chevrons. (3 Cohen’s d related to different colors of Chevrons have different effect sizes. The conclusions provide evident references for freeway warning products and the design of intelligent vehicles.

  6. Prediction of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results of a community-based study in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, G B; Gruska, M; Titscher, G; Blazek, G; Havelec, L; Marktl, W; Muellner, W; Kaff, A

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was the assessment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the definition of possible predictive factors for final hospital discharge. Out of a database of 89,557 consecutive missions of the Vienna emergency medical system (EMS) during 1990, there were 623 missions due to a collapse of non-traumatic origin: in 374 cases (60.0%) the patients were declared dead without further attempts at resuscitation. The remaining 249 patients were analysed for predictive factors at site. Survival to hospital admission: 109 patients survived to hospital admission (43.7%); bystander support had a small impact (P < 0.05) on survival to hospital arrival whereas age and gender had no predictive power. Most patients with ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) survived primarily (69 of 117, i.e. 59.0%). Survival to hospital discharge: 27 patients were discharged from hospital care (10.8%). ECG findings on arrival of the EMS physician at the site proved to be the only powerful predictor for survival: 24 of 117 patients with VT/VF survived compared with only one of 81 with primary asystole, two of 39 with severe bradycardia, and no patient with electromechanical dissociation.

  7. Community-Based Management of Child Malnutrition in Zambia: HIV/AIDS Infection and Other Risk Factors on Child Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Moramarco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM; (2 Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality. In addition, a time-to event analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure and time to cure events; (3 Results: The analysis included 858 malnourished children (19 months ± 9.4; 49.9% males. Program outcomes met international standards with a better performance for MAM compared to SAM. Cox regression identified SAM (3.8; 2.1–6.8, HIV infection (3.1; 1.7–5.5, and WAZ <−3 (3.1; 1.6–5.7 as predictors of death. Time to event showed 80% of children recovered by SAM/MAM at 24 weeks. (4 Conclusions: Preventing deterioration of malnutrition, coupled to early detection of HIV/AIDS with adequate antiretroviral treatment, and extending the duration of feeding supplementation, could be crucial e