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Sample records for survival conversely dysfunctional

  1. Algebra Survival Guide A Conversational Handbook for the Thoroughly Befuddled

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaport, Josh

    2011-01-01

    If you think algebra has to be boring, confusing and unrelated to anything in the real world, think again! Written in a humorous, conversational style, this book gently nudges students toward success in pre-algebra and Algebra I. With its engaging question/answer format and helpful practice problems, glossary and index, it is ideal for homeschoolers, tutors and students striving for classroom excellence. It features funky icons and lively cartoons by award-winning Santa Fe artist Sally BlakemoreThe Algebra Survival Guide is the winner of a Paretns' Choice award, and it meets the Standards 2000

  2. Right ventricular dysfunction affects survival after surgical left ventricular restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-4.87, P right ventricular systolic dysfunction is independently associated with increased mortality in patients with ischemic heart failure undergoing surgical left

  3. Twisted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition promotes progression of surviving bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT-dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Li, Lei; Zhang, Dong; Wu, Kaijie; Chen, Yule; Zeng, Jin; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin

    2011-01-01

    Human cancer cells maintain telomeres to protect cells from senescence through telomerase activity (TA) or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in different cell types. Moreover, cellular senescence can be bypassed by Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during cancer progression in diverse solid tumors. However, it has not been elucidated the characteristics of telomere maintenance and progression ability after long-term culture in bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT dysfunction. In this study, by using a dominant negative mutant human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) vector to inhibit TA in bladder cancer T24 cells, we observed the appearance of long phenotype of telomere length and the ALT-associated PML body (APB) complex after the 27(th) passage, indicating the occurrence of ALT-like pathway in surviving T24/DN868A cells with telomerase inhibition. Meanwhile, telomerase inhibition resulted in significant EMT as shown by change in cellular morphology concomitant with variation of EMT markers. Consistently, the surviving T24/DN868A cells showed increased progression ability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found Twist was activated to mediate EMT in surviving T24/DN868A samples. Taken together, our findings indicate that bladder cancer T24 cells may undergo the telomerase-to-ALT-like conversion and promote cancer progression at advanced stages through promoting EMT, thus providing novel possible insight into the mechanism of resistance to telomerase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  4. Rosiglitazone suppresses cyclosporin-induced chronic transplant dysfunction and prolongs survival of rat cardiac allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Yan; Yuan, Zhengwei; Tian, Lina; Dallman, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul W; Tam, Paul K H; Lamb, Jonathan R

    2007-06-27

    The lack of effective treatment for chronic transplant dysfunction restricts the long-term survival of solid organ allografts. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands can suppress vascular inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rosiglitazone on chronic transplant dysfunction in a rat cardiac transplant model. Inbred male Fisher 344 (F344, RT1lvl) and Lewis (LEW, RT1(1)) rats were subjected to heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation according to standard procedures. Cyclosporine A was administered intraperitoneally to cover acute rejection, and rosiglitazone was administered orally by gavage daily from 3 days before the operation to the end of experiments. Rosiglitazone significantly prolonged the survival of cardiac allografts in rats (F344 to LEW) that had received a 10-day course of cyclosporin A compared to treatment with immunosuppressant alone. Analysis of allografts at 120 days posttransplantation showed that rosiglitazone reduced the inflammatory cell infiltrate in both the vessels and graft parenchyma as were neointimal formation, vascular occlusion, and fibrosis. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta and related proteins was less abundant after cyclosporin A/rosiglitazone treatment. The findings reported here demonstrate that rosiglitazone given under the cover of short-term treatment with cyclosporin A prolongs cardiac allograft survival and reduces the severity of chronic transplant dysfunction. This may be mediated in part through the downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta and related proteins. The combined effects of rosiglitazone and immunosuppressive drugs are potentially beneficial to patients receiving organ transplants.

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts triggers an adaptive cell survival program that requires AMPK-alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distelmaier, F.; Valsecchi, F.; Liemburg-Apers, D.; Lebiedzinska, M.; Rodenburg, R.; Heil, S.; Keijer, J.; Fransen, J.; Imamura, H.; Danhauser, K.; Seibt, A.; Viollet, B.; Gellerich, F.; Smeitink, J.; Wieckowski, M.; Willems, P.; Koopman, W.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of complex I (CI) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) features prominently in human pathology. Cell models of ETC dysfunction display adaptive survival responses that still are poorly understood but of relevance for therapy development. Here we comprehensively examined

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts triggers an adaptive cell survival program that requires AMPK-α

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Distelmaier (Felix); F. Valsecchi (Federica); D.C. Liemburg-Apers (Dania C.); M. Lebiedzinska (Magdalena); R.J.T. Rodenburg (Richard); S.G. Heil (Sandra); J. Keijer (Jaap); J.A.M. Fransen (Jack); H. Imamura (Hiromi); K. Danhauser (Katharina); A. Seibt (Annette); B. Viollet (Benoit); F.N. Gellerich (Frank); J.A.M. Smeitink (Jan); M.R. Wieckowski (Mariusz R.); P.H.G.M. Willems (Peter H.G.M.); W.J.H. Koopman (W. J H)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDysfunction of complex I (CI) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) features prominently in human pathology. Cell models of ETC dysfunction display adaptive survival responses that still are poorly understood but of relevance for therapy development. Here we comprehensively

  7. Does "conversion chemotherapy" really improve survival in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with liver-limited disease?

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    Kataoka, K; Kanazawa, A; Iwamoto, S; Kato, T; Nakajima, A; Arimoto, A

    2014-04-01

    The clinical benefits of conversion chemotherapy followed by liver resection for initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases are still controversial. The criteria for unresectability vary from one team to another. To clarify this issue, we retrospectively assessed the survival and characteristics of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with liver-limited disease (LLD) who underwent conversion therapy. Our criteria for resectability depended on the size of the remnant liver volume (>30 %) and expected function after removal of all metastases. Between December 2007 and September 2011, a total of 115 patients were diagnosed as having mCRC with LLD and received chemotherapy. Among them, 47 had tumors that were initially diagnosed as resectable. They underwent hepatic resection after chemotherapy (resected group). Of the 67 tumors were initially diagnosed as unresectable, 12 became resectable after chemotherapy (conversion group), leaving 55 tumors that remained unresectable after chemotherapy (unresected group). The median follow-up was 25.2 months. Hepatic resection was more invasive in the conversion group than in the resected group. Median disease-free survival was significantly higher in the resected group than in the conversion group (p = 0.013). Overall survival (OS) was also higher in the resected group, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.36). However, OS was significantly higher in the conversion group than in the unresected group (p = 0.034). Multivariate analysis of the resected and conversion groups showed that OS was significantly negatively influenced by abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen levels at surgery (p = 0.037) and a hospital stay >30 days (p = 0.009). Our results showed that conversion chemotherapy could contribute to longer OS in mCRC patients with LLD.

  8. Off-Pump Conversion: In-hospital Mortality and Long-Term Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, Mark; Oo, Aung; Poullis, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Background  There is an ongoing debate on the benefits and risks of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The fate of patients who start with their procedure being an off-pump one and then have to undergo conversion to an on-pump procedure is debated with regard to in-hospital mortality and unknown with regard to long-term survival. We investigated the in-hospital mortality and long-term survival of patients who underwent conversion from off- to on-pump surgery. Methods  We performed a multivariate and propensity analysis on in-hospital mortality and long-term survival of postisolated CABG patients in a single institution having 15,704 patients of which 5,353 who underwent off-pump CABG were analyzed. Results  In-hospital mortality was 2.15% for the study cohort, and 73 (1.4%) off-pump cases were converted. Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients undergoing conversion had a significantly increased in-hospital mortality ( p  pump by a team of surgeons and anesthetists who are dedicated off-pump specialists does not have an impact on in-hospital mortality or long-term survival. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Diastolic myocardial dysfunction does not affect survival in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Papatheodoridis, George; Pouriki, Sophia; Chrysohoou, Christina; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pectasides, Dimitrios

    2012-11-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DDF) has been considered as a component of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The clinical significance of DDF in cirrhotics has not been clarified. We prospectively evaluated the echocardiographic-Doppler, tissue-Doppler (TDI) findings of left ventricular function and survival in cirrhotics with or without DDF. Seventy-six cirrhotics without endogenous heart disease were included. DDF was diagnosed by mitral inflow Doppler parameters and diastolic myocardial velocities. Assessments of demographics, liver dysfunction, laboratory, echocardiographic systolic/diastolic indices, TDI of mitral annular motion and M-mode echocardiography were recorded. Patients were followed-up for a median of 25 months (15-40). DDF was diagnosed in 51 (67%) patients. Patients with compared with those without DDF had significantly older age and higher pulse rate as well as more frequently severe ascites, greater aortic root diameter and interventricular septal thickness. There was no difference in systolic myocardial function between two groups. Patients with DDF had a trend for worse survival (long rank, P = 0.094). A multivariate analysis showed that age, MELD and sodium but no DDF were predictive of death. DDF is prevalent in advanced cirrhosis and is associated with severe ascites. Systolic myocardial function and mortality do not seem to be strongly affected by the presence of DDF. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  10. Successful Fontan conversion combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy for a case of failing Fontan circulation with ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Daiji; Asagai, Seiji; Ishihara, Kazuaki; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    Although Fontan conversion combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy appears to be an effective surgical solution for the management of failing Fontan circulation with refractory atrial arrhythmia and cardiac dysfunction due to dyssynchronous ventricular wall motion, limited data are available on the mid- to long-term results of this treatment. We report our successful experience with Fontan conversion combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy in a male patient with failing Fontan circulation who showed favourable outcomes 5 years after the operation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Belatacept conversion in African American kidney transplant recipients with severe renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S Snyder

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Conversion from calcineurin inhibitor–based maintenance immunosuppression to belatacept in kidney transplant recipients has been demonstrated to improve renal function while maintaining efficacy against rejection. However, conversion studies to date have excluded patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 35 mL/min/1.73 m2. Methods: We describe two patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 who underwent conversion from maintenance calcineurin inhibitor to belatacept. Results: Both patients experienced improvement in renal function following conversion. Conclusions: These results suggest that patients with more severe degrees of allograft impairment may benefit from conversion of maintenance calcineurin inhibitor to belatacept-based immunosuppression. Larger, randomized studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of such an approach.

  12. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

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    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  13. The impact of autonomic dysfunction on survival in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Stubendorff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Autonomic dysfunction is a well-known feature in neurodegenerative dementias, especially common in α-synucleinopathies like dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia. The most common symptoms are orthostatic hypotension, incontinence and constipation, but its relevance in clinical practice is poorly understood. There are no earlier studies addressing the influence of autonomic dysfunction on clinical course and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the three most common features of autonomic dysfunction and analyze how it affects survival. METHODS: Thirty patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia were included in this prospective, longitudinal follow-up study. Presence of incontinence and constipation was recorded at baseline. Blood pressure was measured at baseline, after 3 months and after 6 months according to standardized procedures, with 5 measurements during 10 minutes after rising. Orthostatic hypotension was defined using consensus definitions and persistent orthostatic hypotension was defined as 5 or more measurements with orthostatic hypotension. Difference in survival was analyzed 36 months after baseline. RESULTS: There was a high frequency of persistent orthostatic blood pressure (50%, constipation (30% and incontinence (30%. Patients with persistent orthostatic hypotension had a significantly shorter survival compared to those with no or non-persistent orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 4.47, p = 0.034. Patients with constipation and/or urinary incontinence, in addition to persistent orthostatic hypotension, had a poorer prognosis compared to those with isolated persistent orthostatic hypotension or no orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 6.370, p = 0.041. DISCUSSION: According to our findings, the identification of autonomic dysfunction seems to be of great importance in clinical practice, not only to

  14. Improved survival of TNF-deficient mice during the zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, T.J.H.; Hendriks, T.; Verhofstad, A.A.J.; Kullberg, B.J.; Goris, R.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the course of the zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in the absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a murine model. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-lymphotoxin-a knockout (TNF/LT-/-) mice (n = 36) and wild-type (TNF/LT+/+) mice (n =

  15. Activation of myocardial phosphoinositide-3-kinase p110α ameliorates cardiac dysfunction and improves survival in polymicrobial sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfu Li

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt dependent signaling has been shown to improve outcome in sepsis/septic shock. There is also ample evidence that PI3K/Akt dependent signaling plays a crucial role in maintaining normal cardiac function. We hypothesized that PI3K/Akt signaling may ameliorate septic shock by attenuating sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac function and survival were evaluated in transgenic mice with cardiac myocyte specific expression of constitutively active PI3K isoform, p110α (caPI3K Tg. caPI3K Tg and wild type (WT mice were subjected to cecal ligation/puncture (CLP induced sepsis. Wild type CLP mice showed dramatic cardiac dysfunction at 6 hrs. Septic cardiomyopathy was significantly attenuated in caPI3K CLP mice. The time to 100% mortality was 46 hrs in WT CLP mice. In contrast, 80% of the caPI3K mice survived at 46 hrs after CLP (p30 days (p<0.01. Cardiac caPI3K expression prevented expression of an inflammatory phenotype in CLP sepsis. Organ neutrophil infiltration and lung apoptosis were also effectively inhibited by cardiac PI3k p110α expression. Cardiac high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 translocation was also inhibited by caPI3K p110α expression. We conclude that cardiac specific activation of PI3k/Akt dependent signaling can significantly modify the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. Our data also indicate that myocardial function/dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and that maintenance of cardiac function during sepsis is essential. Finally, these data suggest that modulation of the PI3K/p110α signaling pathway may be beneficial in the prevention and/or management of septic cardiomyopathy and septic shock.

  16. Apelin Compared With Dobutamine Exerts Cardioprotection and Extends Survival in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction.

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    Chagnon, Frederic; Coquerel, David; Salvail, Dany; Marsault, Eric; Dumaine, Robert; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Sarret, Philippe; Lesur, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Dobutamine is the currently recommended β-adrenergic inotropic drug for supporting sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction when cardiac output index remains low after preload correction. Better and safer therapies are nonetheless mandatory because responsiveness to dobutamine is limited with numerous side effects. Apelin-13 is a powerful inotropic candidate that could be considered as an alternative noncatecholaminergic support in the setting of inflammatory cardiovascular dysfunction. Interventional controlled experimental animal study. Tertiary care university-based research institute. One hundred ninety-eight adult male rats. Using a rat model of "systemic inflammation-induced cardiac dysfunction" induced by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection (10 mg/kg), hemodynamic efficacy, cardioprotection, and biomechanics were assessed under IV osmotic pump infusions of apelin-13 (0.25 μg/kg/min) or dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg/min). In this model and in both in vivo and ex vivo studies, apelin-13 compared with dobutamine provoked distinctive effects on cardiac function: 1) optimized cardiac energy-dependent workload with improved cardiac index and lower vascular resistance, 2) upgraded hearts' apelinergic responsiveness, and 3) consecutive downstream advantages, including increased urine output, enhanced plasma volume, reduced weight loss, and substantially improved overall outcomes. In vitro studies confirmed that these apelin-13-driven processes encompassed a significant and rapid reduction in systemic cytokine release with dampening of myocardial inflammation, injury, and apoptosis and resolution of associated molecular pathways. In this inflammatory cardiovascular dysfunction, apelin-13 infusion delivers distinct and optimized hemodynamic support (including positive fluid balance), along with cardioprotective effects, modulation of circulatory inflammation and extended survival.

  17. Interleukin-7 ameliorates immune dysfunction and improves survival in a 2-hit model of fungal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsinger, Jacqueline; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Morre, Michel; Prakash, Priya S; Caldwell, Charles C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2012-08-15

    Secondary hospital-acquired fungal infections are common in critically-ill patients and mortality remains high despite antimicrobial therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent immunotherapeutic agent that improves host immunity and has shown efficacy in bacterial and viral models of infection. This study examined the ability of IL-7, which is currently in multiple clinical trials (including hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), to improve survival in a clinically relevant 2-hit model of fungal sepsis. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce peritonitis. Four days later, surviving mice had intravenous injection with Candida albicans. Following Candida infection, mice were treated with IL-7 or saline control. The effect of IL-7 on host immunity and survival was recorded. IL-7 ameliorated the loss of immune effector cells and increased lymphocyte functions, including activation, proliferation, expression of adhesion molecules, and interferon-γ production. These beneficial effects of IL-7 were associated with an increase in global immunity as reflected by an enhanced delayed type hypersensitivity response and a 1.7-fold improvement in survival. The present findings showing that IL-7 improves survival in fungal sepsis, together with its previously reported efficacy in bacterial and viral infectious models, further supports its use as a novel immunotherapeutic in sepsis.

  18. Incremental shuttle walk test distance and autonomic dysfunction predict survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Catherine G; Hurdman, Judith A; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Smith, Ian A; Austin, Matthew; Armstrong, Iain J; Hamilton, Neil; Charalampopoulos, Athanasios; Sabroe, Ian; Swift, Andrew J; Rothman, Alexander M; Wild, Jim M; Lawrie, Allan; Waterhouse, Judith C; Kiely, David G

    2017-08-01

    To ensure effective monitoring of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a simple, reliable assessment of exercise capacity applicable over a range of disease severity is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) to correlate with disease severity, measure sensitivity to change, and predict survival in PAH. We enrolled 418 treatment-naïve patients with PAH with baseline ISWT within 3 months of cardiac catheterization. Clinical validity and prognostic value of ISWT distance were assessed at baseline and 1 year. ISWT distance was found to correlate at baseline with World Health Organization functional class, Borg score, and hemodynamics without a ceiling effect (all p Change in ISWT distance also predicted survival (p = 0.04). Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) parameters reflecting autonomic response to exercise (highest HR, change in HR, HR recovery at 1 minute >18 beats/min, highest SBP, change in SBP, and 3-minute SBP ratio) were significant predictors of survival (all p < 0.05). In patients with PAH, the ISWT is simple to perform, allows assessment of maximal exercise capacity, is sensitive to treatment effect, predicts outcome, and has no ceiling effect. Also, measures of autonomic function made post-exercise predict survival in PAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Interleukin-7 Ameliorates Immune Dysfunction and Improves Survival in a 2-Hit Model of Fungal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Unsinger, Jacqueline; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Morre, Michel; Prakash, Priya S.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Secondary hospital-acquired fungal infections are common in critically-ill patients and mortality remains high despite antimicrobial therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent immunotherapeutic agent that improves host immunity and has shown efficacy in bacterial and viral models of infection. This study examined the ability of IL-7, which is currently in multiple clinical trials (including hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), to improve survival in a clinically relevant 2-...

  20. Frontline Science: HMGB1 induces neutrophil dysfunction in experimental sepsis and in patients who survive septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Murielle; Tadié, Jean-Marc; Uhel, Fabrice; Gacouin, Arnaud; Piau, Caroline; Bone, Nathaniel; Le Tulzo, Yves; Abraham, Edward; Tarte, Karin; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis is accompanied by the initial activation of proinflammatory pathways and long-lasting immunosuppression that appears to contribute to late-occurring mortality. Although high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in many aspects of inflammation, its role in sepsis-induced immune suppression remains unclear. In this study, we examined HMGB1's contribution to neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity dysfunction and associated neutrophil-dependent bacterial clearance in mice subjected to sepsis and in patients who survive septic shock. Using a murine model of polymicrobial septic peritonitis, we demonstrated that treatment with anti-HMGB1 Ab significantly diminished sepsis-induced dysfunction of neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity. In a subsequent set of experiments, we found that blocking HMGB1 preserved the ability of neutrophils from patients recovering from septic shock to activate NADPH oxidase. Taken together, our data suggest that HMGB1 accumulation in the late phase of sepsis plays a specific role in the development of postsepsis immunosuppression and specifically affects neutrophil-dependent antibacterial defense mechanisms. Thus, blocking HMGB1 may be a promising therapeutic intervention to diminish the adverse effects of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Echocardiographic parameters and survival in Chagas heart disease with severe systolic dysfunction.

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    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Arruda, Ana Lúcia Martins; Hotta, Viviane Tiemi; Furtado, Rogério Gomes; Rassi, Danilo Teixeira; Rassi, Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Echocardiography provides important information on the cardiac evaluation of patients with heart failure. The identification of echocardiographic parameters in severe Chagas heart disease would help implement treatment and assess prognosis. To correlate echocardiographic parameters with the endpoint cardiovascular mortality in patients with ejection fraction Cardiopatias) - Chagas heart disease arm. The following parameters were collected: left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters and volumes; ejection fraction; left atrial diameter; left atrial volume; indexed left atrial volume; systolic pulmonary artery pressure; integral of the aortic flow velocity; myocardial performance index; rate of increase of left ventricular pressure; isovolumic relaxation time; E, A, Em, Am and Sm wave velocities; E wave deceleration time; E/A and E/Em ratios; and mitral regurgitation. In the mean 24.18-month follow-up, 27 patients died. The mean ejection fraction was 26.6 ± 5.34%. In the multivariate analysis, the parameters ejection fraction (HR = 1.114; p = 0.3704), indexed left atrial volume (HR = 1.033; p 70.71 mL/m2 were associated with a significant increase in mortality (log rank p < 0.0001). The indexed left atrial volume was the only independent predictor of mortality in this population of Chagasic patients with severe systolic dysfunction.

  2. Impact of Early Low-Grade Proteinuria and Allograft Dysfunction on Survival in Expanded Criteria Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients.

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    López, V; Cabello, M; Ruíz-Esteban, P; Sola, E; Gutiérrez, C; Jironda, C; Burgos, D; González-Molina, M; Hernández, D

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between low-grade proteinuria and worse graft survival, but this has not been fully studied in expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess whether the combination of early low-grade proteinuria (proteinuria (300 mg/d) and median creatinine (Cr; 1.7 mg/dL; interquartile range, 1.4-2.1 mg/dL) at the third month post-transplantation: Group A (Cr proteinuria proteinuria ≥300 mg/24 h; n = 38), Group C (Cr ≥1.7 mg/dL and proteinuria proteinuria ≥300 mg/24 h; n = 55). Death-censored graft survival was significantly lower in Group D compared with the rest (P proteinuria and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as associated with graft failure (hazard rate [HR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-5.97; P = .03). The early association of low-grade proteinuria and allograft dysfunction represents an important risk factor for graft loss in ECD kidney transplant recipients. Strategies to optimize renal function could improve the outcome in this specific population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Transplantation in Liver Transplant Candidates With Renal Dysfunction: Importance of Creatinine Levels, Dialysis, and Organ Quality in Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Tanriover, Bekir; MacConmara, Malcolm P.; Parekh, Justin; Arce, Cristina; Zhang, Song; Gao, Ang; Mufti, Arjmand; Levea, Swee-Ling; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Ayvaci, Mehmet U.S.; Venketash K. Ariyamuthu; Hwang, Christine; Mohan, Sumit; Mete, Mutlu; Vazquez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    The survival benefit from simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK) over liver transplant alone (LTA) in recipients with moderate renal dysfunction is not well understood. Moreover, the impact of deceased donor organ quality in SLK survival has not been well described in the literature. Methods: The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was studied for adult recipients receiving LTA (N = 2700) or SLK (N = 1361) with moderate renal insufficiency between 2003 and 2013. The study...

  4. Echocardiographic Parameters and Survival in Chagas Heart Disease with Severe Systolic Dysfunction

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    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo, E-mail: dani.rassi@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Medicina e Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos [Instituto do Coração da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arruda, Ana Lúcia Martins [Instituto de Radiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hotta, Viviane Tiemi [Instituto do Coração da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furtado, Rogério Gomes; Rassi, Danilo Teixeira; Rassi, Salvador [Faculdade de Medicina e Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Echocardiography provides important information on the cardiac evaluation of patients with heart failure. The identification of echocardiographic parameters in severe Chagas heart disease would help implement treatment and assess prognosis. To correlate echocardiographic parameters with the endpoint cardiovascular mortality in patients with ejection fraction < 35%. Study with retrospective analysis of pre-specified echocardiographic parameters prospectively collected from 60 patients included in the Multicenter Randomized Trial of Cell Therapy in Patients with Heart Diseases (Estudo Multicêntrico Randomizado de Terapia Celular em Cardiopatias) - Chagas heart disease arm. The following parameters were collected: left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters and volumes; ejection fraction; left atrial diameter; left atrial volume; indexed left atrial volume; systolic pulmonary artery pressure; integral of the aortic flow velocity; myocardial performance index; rate of increase of left ventricular pressure; isovolumic relaxation time; E, A, Em, Am and Sm wave velocities; E wave deceleration time; E/A and E/Em ratios; and mitral regurgitation. In the mean 24.18-month follow-up, 27 patients died. The mean ejection fraction was 26.6 ± 5.34%. In the multivariate analysis, the parameters ejection fraction (HR = 1.114; p = 0.3704), indexed left atrial volume (HR = 1.033; p < 0.0001) and E/Em ratio (HR = 0.95; p = 0.1261) were excluded. The indexed left atrial volume was an independent predictor in relation to the endpoint, and values > 70.71 mL/m{sup 2} were associated with a significant increase in mortality (log rank p < 0.0001). The indexed left atrial volume was the only independent predictor of mortality in this population of Chagasic patients with severe systolic dysfunction.

  5. Morphometric evaluation of nitric oxide synthase isoforms and their cytokine regulators predict pulmonary dysfunction and survival in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Parra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because histopathological changes in the lungs of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc are consistent with alveolar and vessel cell damage, we presume that this interaction can be characterized by analyzing the expression of proteins regulating nitric oxide (NO and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 synthesis. To validate the importance of alveolar-vascular interactions and to explore the quantitative relationship between these factors and other clinical data, we studied these markers in 23 cases of SSc nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (SSc-NSIP. We used immunohistochemistry and morphometry to evaluate the amount of cells in alveolar septa and vessels staining for NO synthase (NOS and PAI-1, and the outcomes of our study were cellular and fibrotic NSIP, pulmonary function tests, and survival time until death. General linear model analysis demonstrated that staining for septal inducible NOS (iNOS related significantly to staining of septal cells for interleukin (IL-4 and to septal IL-13. In univariate analysis, higher levels of septal and vascular cells staining for iNOS were associated with a smaller percentage of septal and vascular cells expressing fibroblast growth factor and myofibroblast proliferation, respectively. Multivariate Cox model analysis demonstrated that, after controlling for SSc-NSIP histological patterns, just three variables were significantly associated with survival time: septal iNOS (P=0.04, septal IL-13 (P=0.03, and septal basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; P=0.02. Augmented NOS, IL-13, and bFGF in SSc-NSIP histological patterns suggest a possible functional role for iNOS in SSc. In addition, the extent of iNOS, PAI-1, and IL-4 staining in alveolar septa and vessels provides a possible independent diagnostic measure for the degree of pulmonary dysfunction and fibrosis with an impact on the survival of patients with SSc.

  6. N-acetylcysteine impairs survival of luteal cells through mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhrke, Berthold; Xu, Jinxian; Weitzel, Joachim M; Krüger, Burkhard; Goldammer, Tom; Viergutz, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known as an antioxidant and used for mucus viscosity reduction. However, this drug prevents or induces cell death depending on the cell type. The response of steroidogenic luteal cells to NAC is unknown. Our data shows that NAC can behave as an antioxidant or prooxidant in dependency on the concentration and mitochondrial energization. NAC elevated the flowcytometric-measured portion of hypodiploid (dying) cells. This rise was completely abolished by aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of topoisomerase II. NAC increased the secretion of nitric oxide and cellular nitrotyrosine. An image analysis indicated that cells pretreated with NAC and loaded with DHR showed a fluorescent structure probably elicited by the oxidative product of DHR, rhodamine 123 that sequesters mitochondrially. Pretreating luteal cells with NAC or adding NAC directly to mitochondrial fractions followed by assessing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential difference (Deltapsi) by the JC-1 technique demonstrated a marked decrease in Deltapsi. A protonophore restored Deltapsi and rotenone (an inhibitor of respiratory chain complex I) inhibited mitochondrial recovering. Thus, in steroidogenic luteal cells from healthy mature corpus luteum, NAC impairs cellular survival by interfering with mitochondrial metabolism. The protonophore-induced recovering of NAC-provoked decrease in Deltapsi indicates that an ATP synthase-favored route of H(+) re-entry to the matrix is essentially switched off by NAC while other respiratory chain complexes remain intact. These data may be important for therapeutic timing of treatments with NAC. (c) 2010 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  7. The long-term survival of stage IV gastric cancer patients with conversion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Tanahashi, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Takao; Matsuhashi, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Ohdan, Hideki

    2017-06-14

    A retrospective study was performed to clarify the role of conversion therapy (surgery with a prospect of R0 resection performed in initially unresectable metastatic cancer that responded to the chemotherapy) in stage IV gastric cancer (GC). We treated 259 stage IV GC patients with systemic chemotherapy at Gifu and Hiroshima University Hospitals between 2001-2013. Of these, 84 patients who were subsequently treated by surgery were classified into four categories according to our previously published classification of stage IV GC, and short- and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Surgery was performed in 84 patients, of which 7 were performed following the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, whereas the other 77 that excluded neoadjuvant chemotherapy cases were considered the conversion therapy. The postoperative mortality and morbidity were comparable with those reported clinical trials. The MSTs of the patients with/without surgery for each category were 28.3/5.8 months for category 1, 30.5/11.0 months for category 2, 31.0/18.5 months for category 3 and 24.7/10.0 months for category 4. The MST of the R0 resected patients (41.3 months) was far better than that of the R1-2 resected patients (21.2 months). The MSTs of the patients with R0/R1-2 resection were 56.2/16.3 months for category 2, 33.3/29.6 months for category 3 and 40.7/17.8 months for category 4. There were long-term survivors who underwent conversion therapy for stage IV GC. Adequate selection of stage IV GC patients for conversion therapy may be an important role for the surgical oncologist in the new era.

  8. Effects of dietary biotin and avidin on growth, survival, feed conversion, biotin status and gene expression of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yossa, Rodrigue; Sarker, Pallab K; Karanth, Santhosh; Ekker, Marc; Vandenberg, Grant W

    2011-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary avidin on growth, survival, food conversion, biotin status and gene expression of zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton-Buchanan) juveniles (average wet mass 0.178 g) fed 7 purified diets for 12 weeks. Experimental diets were formulated to provide 0×, 1×, 15×, 30×, 60× and 120× excess avidin versus biotin kg(-1) diet, on a molar basis; a control diet contained neither supplemental biotin nor avidin. Fish fed the control diet had the lowest percentage weight gain and the highest mortality, while the highest percentage weight gain and the lowest mortality was observed with the 0× diet (Pdietary avidin (r=0.876; Pdietary biotin requirement level will cause biotin deficiency signs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  10. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  11. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids, were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  12. Basic survival needs and access to medicines--coming to grips with TRIPS: conversion + calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puymbroeck, Rudolf V

    2010-01-01

    "Access to medicines" is a broad concept. After a review of three authoritative frameworks that help to identify its constitutive components, this essay summarizes the actual situation on the ground in low- and middle-income countries on the basis of recent empirical work. An analysis of survey data from 36 countries concluded that developing countries should promote generic medicines as a key policy option for improving access to medicines. Taking an international perspective to that recommendation, this essay reviews the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and, particularly, how this agreement has been applied in practice. As shown by the experience of Thailand, Brazil, and the Philippines, in order to deal effectively with international pressures for an excessive application of the TRIPS Agreement, some sort of conversion experience appears to be required, which then leads to a switch from a private enterprise, supply-driven approach to a public health vision that insists on universal and affordable access. But moral conviction is not sufficient. In order to muster and sustain the political will to face down international forces, civil society and government offices must be able and ready to show the costs and other adverse consequences of the TRIPS-based model for medicines. This calculation needs to reach beyond the health sector and calls for new alliances, nationally as well as internationally. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  14. Expanding the yeast prion world: Active prion conversion of non-glutamine/asparagine-rich Mod5 for cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Genjiro; Tanaka, Motomasa

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian and fungal prion proteins form self-perpetuating β-sheet-rich fibrillar aggregates called amyloid. Prion inheritance is based on propagation of the regularly oriented amyloid structures of the prion proteins. All yeast prion proteins identified thus far contain aggregation-prone glutamine/asparagine (Gln/Asn)-rich domains, although the mammalian prion protein and fungal prion protein HET-s do not contain such sequences. In order to fill this gap, we searched for novel yeast prion proteins lacking Gln/Asn-rich domains via a genome-wide screen based on cross-seeding between two heterologous proteins and identified Mod5, a yeast tRNA isopentenyltransferase, as a novel non-Gln/Asn-rich yeast prion protein. Mod5 formed self-propagating amyloid fibers in vitro and the introduction of Mod5 amyloids into non-prion yeast induced dominantly and cytoplasmically heritable prion state [MOD (+) ], which harbors aggregates of endogenous Mod5. [MOD (+) ] yeast showed an increased level of membrane lipid ergosterol and acquired resistance to antifungal agents. Importantly, enhanced de novo formation of [MOD (+) ] was observed when non-prion yeast was grown under selective pressures from antifungal drugs. Our findings expand the family of yeast prions to non-Gln/Asn-rich proteins and reveal the acquisition of a fitness advantage for cell survival through active prion conversion.

  15. Noxious electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor and vagina induces transient voiding dysfunction in a rabbit survival model of pelvic floor dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberfuhl, Amy D; Spettel, Sara; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M; Dubin, Andrew H; De, Elise J B

    2015-12-01

    Existing data supports a relationship between pelvic floor dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms. We developed a survival model of pelvic floor dysfunction in the rabbit and evaluated cystometric (CMG), electromyographic (EMG) and ambulatory voiding behavior. Twelve female adult virgin rabbits were housed in metabolic cages to record voiding and defecation. Anesthetized CMG/EMG was performed before and after treatment animals (n=9) received bilateral tetanizing needle stimulation to the pubococcygeous (PC) muscle and controls (n=3) sham needle placement. After 7 days all animals were subjected to tetanizing transvaginal stimulation and CMG/EMG. After 5 days a final CMG/EMG was performed. Of rabbits that underwent needle stimulation 7 of 9 (78%) demonstrated dysfunctional CMG micturition contractions versus 6 of 12 (50%) after transvaginal stimulation. Needle stimulation of the PC musculature resulted in significant changes in: basal CMG pressure, precontraction pressure change, contraction pressure, interval between contractions and postvoid residual; with time to 3rd contraction increased from 38 to 53 minutes (p=0.008 vs. prestimulation). Vaginal noxious stimulation resulted in significant changes in: basal CMG pressure and interval between contractions; with time to 3rd contraction increased from 37 to 46 minutes (p=0.008 vs. prestimulation). Changes in cage parameters were primarily seen after direct needle stimulation. In a majority of animals, tetanizing electrical stimulation of the rabbit pelvic floor resulted in voiding changes suggestive of pelvic floor dysfunction as characterized by a larger bladder capacity, longer interval between contractions and prolonged contraction duration.

  16. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases, focusing on conversion hepatectomy and long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Toru; Miyamoto, Yuji; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Imai, Katsunori; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Chikamoto, Akira; Watanabe, Masayuki; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Eight years have passed since the introduction of chemotherapy (chemo) and targeted therapy regimens for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). This study aimed to clarify the effectiveness of chemo and targeted therapy in facilitating conversion hepatectomy and improving long-term survival in Japanese patients with CRLM. A total of 199 patients with CRLM were treated between May 2005 and August 2012. Initial therapies for these patients included straightforward hepatic resection (n = 48; 24 %), induction chemotherapy (n = 148; 74 %), and radiofrequency ablation (n = 3; 2 %). In 56 of 137 patients (40.1 %) with initially unresectable CRLM, 7.5 courses of chemo and targeted therapy downsized and converted tumors to resectable tumors. The 5-year cumulative overall survival (OS) rate and the median survival time were significantly higher for the resectable CRLM than for the unresectable CRLM (54.6 vs. 5.3 % and 77.3 vs. 21.3 months, respectively; P conversion hepatectomy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.19; P therapy (HR 0.46; P therapy (OR 6.1; P conversion hepatectomy. A chemo and targeted therapy can facilitate conversion hepatectomy and allow for an excellent prognosis in patients with initially unresectable CRLM.

  18. Relationship between age/gender-induced survival changes and the magnitude of inflammatory activation and organ dysfunction in post-traumatic sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Drechsler

    Full Text Available Age/gender may likely influence the course of septic complications after trauma. We aimed to characterize the influence of age/gender on the response of circulating cytokines, cells and organ function in post-traumatic sepsis. We additionally tested whether post-traumatic responses alone can accurately predict outcomes in subsequent post-traumatic sepsis. A mouse 2-hit model of trauma/hemorrhage (TH, 1(st hit and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, 2(nd hit was employed. 3, 15 and 20 month (m old female (♀ and male (♂ CD-1 mice underwent sublethal TH followed by CLP 2 days later. Blood was sampled daily until day 6 post-TH and survival was followed for 16 days. To compare general response patterns among groups, we calculated two scores: the inflammatory response (including KC, MIP-1α, TNFα, MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-1β,-5,-6,-10 and the organ dysfunction score (Urea, ALT, AST and LDH. Moreover, mice were retrospectively divided into survivors (SUR and dying (DIE based on post-CLP outcome. In general, females survived better than males and their survival did not correspond to any specific estrus cycle phase. Pre-CLP phase: the post-TH inflammatory score was weakest in 3 m♂ but there were no changes among remaining groups (similar lack of differences in the organ dysfunction score. TH induced a 40% increase of IFNγ, MIP-1α and IL-5 in 15 m♂ SUR (vs. DIE but predictive accuracy for post-CLP outcomes was moderate. Post-CLP phase: while stable in males, inflammatory response score in 15 m and 20 m females decreased with age at day 1 and 2 post-CLP. SUR vs. DIE differences in inflammatory and organ dysfunction score were evident but their magnitude was comparable across age/gender. Nearly identical activation of the humoral inflammatory and organ function compartments, both across groups and according to sepsis severity, suggests that they are not directly responsible for the age/gender-dependent disparity in TH-CLP survival in the studied young

  19. Early propranolol treatment induces lung heme-oxygenase-1, attenuates metabolic dysfunction, and improves survival following experimental sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pharmacological agents that block beta-adrenergic receptors have been associated with improved outcome in burn injury. It has been hypothesized that injuries leading to a hypermetabolic state, such as septic shock, may also benefit from beta-blockade; however, outcome data in experimental models have been contradictory. Thus, we investigated the effect of beta-blockade with propranolol on survival, hemodynamics, lung heat shock protein (HSP) expression, metabolism and inflammatory markers in a rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats receiving either repeated doses (30 minutes pre-CLP and every 8 hours for 24 hours postoperatively) of propranolol or control (normal saline), underwent CLP and were monitored for survival. Additionally, lung and blood samples were collected at 6 and 24 hours for analysis. Animals also underwent monitoring to evaluate global hemodynamics. Results Seven days following CLP, propranolol improved survival versus control (P propranolol-treated rats were approximately 23% lower than control rats (P propranolol led to a significant increase in lung hemeoxygenase-1 expression, a key cellular protective heat shock protein (HSP) in the lung. Other lung HSP expression was unchanged. Conclusions These results suggest that propranolol treatment may decrease mortality during sepsis potentially via a combination of improving metabolism, suppressing aspects of the inflammatory response and enhancing tissue protection. PMID:24020447

  20. EFFECT IMBALANCE AQUEOUS BODY FLUIDS, AND RENAL DYSFUNCTION, CARDIOVASCULAR SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS AFTER AN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME, MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Levitskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analysis imbalance aqueous body fluids on the prognosis of cardiovascular events in the late period after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS and myocardial revascularization based on indicators of renal function.Materials and methods. The study included 120 patients with ACS, including unstable angina was diagnosed in 68 patients, 52 patients — acute myocardial infarction. All patients underwent myocardial revascularization. To register the presence of albuminuria in the range of 30-300 mg/l, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR. It makes calculations indicators aqueous body fluids — the total volume of water (TVW, the total fluid, intracellular fluid (IF, extracellular fluid. The endpoint of the study was the presence of cardiovascular complications within 6 months after ACS.Results. It is found that the presence and magnitude of albuminuria was significantly increase the risk of the end point of the study. In patients with GFR less than 60 mL/min/1,73m2 studied the risk is higher by 17.1%, compared with patients with a GFR above this limit. Analysis of the distribution of the water body fluids showed a significant increase in the average TVW and IF. Through statistical analysis of survival found an increased risk of cardiovascular complications in the late period after ACS in patients who have an increase IF on the stage of development of coronary catastrophe.Conclusion. The study demonstrated the predictive value to stratify cardiovascular disease risk, not only the presence of albuminuria, but its level and value of GFR less than 60 mL/min/1,73m2. Redistribution of aqueous body fluids in the form of increased IF is a marker of adverse cardiovascular events in the late period after ACS. These data indicate the need for a comprehensive and integrated analysis of existing pathogenetic changes occurring in ACS, as well as the status of the patients premorbid factor for improving risk stratification of cardiovascular

  1. What's in a Name?FRAMING:Martin-Bradshaw DYSfunctionality = Siegel ``Buzzwordism,Bandwagonism&Sloganeering For: Fun, Profit,Survival,Ego": From SOC to FLT Proof to High-Tc to Spintronics to Giant-Magnetoresistance: Ethics??? SHMETHICS!!! Rampant Sociolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward

    2008-03-01

    Buzzwordism,Bandwagonism,Sloganeering for:Fun,Profit,Survival, Ego=ethics DYSunctionality: Digits log-law: Siegel INVERSION: bosons=digits; Excluded d=0? P(0)=oo V P(1)Fourier-transform=AE]: 1971Voice,p.40(8/21/78):1978<1988!!!A la Brian Martin-John Bradshaw addictions 12-step recovery programs[Healing SHAME That BINDS YOU]: One is only as SICK as one's SECRETS! Ethics? SHMETHICS! RAMPANT ethical DYSfunctionality!!!

  2. China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Bennett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forests Program (CCFP is the world’s largest afforestation-based Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES program, having retired and afforested over 24 million ha involving 32 million rural households. Prior research has primarily focused on the CCFP’s rural welfare impacts, with few studies on program-induced environmental improvements, particularly at the household level. In this study, data from a 2010 survey covering 2808 rural households from across China was analyzed using an interval regression model to explain household-reported survival rates of trees planted on program-enrolled cropland. In addition to household-level factors, we explore the influence of local conditions and institutional configurations by exploiting the wide diversity of contexts covered by the data set. We find that households with more available labor and more forestry experience manage trees better, but that higher opportunity costs for both land and labor have the opposite effect. We also find that the local implementation regime- e.g., the degree of prior consultation with participants and regular monitoring - has a strong positive effect on reported survivorship. We suggest that the level of subsidy support to participating households will be key to survivorship of trees in planted CCFP forests for some time to come.

  3. Improving Hospital Survival and Reducing Brain Dysfunction at Seven California Community Hospitals: Implementing PAD Guidelines Via the ABCDEF Bundle in 6,064 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Daly, Mary Ann; Phillips, Gary; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-02-01

    To track compliance by an interprofessional team with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Choice of drugs, Delirium monitoring and management, Early mobility, and Family engagement (ABCDEF) bundle in implementing the Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines. The aim was to study the association between ABCDEF bundle compliance and outcomes including hospital survival and delirium-free and coma-free days in community hospitals. A prospective cohort quality improvement initiative involving ICU patients. Seven community hospitals within California's Sutter Health System. Ventilated and nonventilated general medical and surgical ICU patients enrolled between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. Total and partial bundle compliance were measured daily. Random effects regression was used to determine the association between ABCDEF bundle compliance accounting for total compliance (all or none) or for partial compliance ("dose" or number of bundle elements used) and outcomes of hospital survival and delirium-free and coma-free days, after adjusting for age, severity of illness, and presence of mechanical ventilation. Of 6,064 patients, a total of 586 (9.7%) died before hospital discharge. For every 10% increase in total bundle compliance, patients had a 7% higher odds of hospital survival (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11; p coma with both total bundle compliance (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; p = 0.004) and partial bundle compliance (incident rate ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.22; p Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines. Higher bundle compliance was independently associated with improved survival and more days free of delirium and coma after adjusting for age, severity of illness, and presence of mechanical ventilation.

  4. Influence of age on the prognostic importance of left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure on long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Ottesen, M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the importance of congestive heart failure and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction (AIM) on long-term mortality in different age groups. A total of 7,001 consecutive enzyme-confirmed AMIs (6,676 patients) were screened...... index independent of age, we performed Cox proportional-hazard models in 4 different age strata ( 75 years). Patients in these strata had 1-year mortality rates of 5%, 11%, 21%, and 32%, respectively. Three-year mortality rates were 11%, 20%, 34......%, and 55%, respectively. The risk ratios (and 95% confidence limits) associated with congestive heart failure in the same 4 age strata were 1.9 (1.3 to 2.9), 2.8 (2.1 to 3.7), 1.8 (1.5 to 2.2) and 1.8 (1.5 to 2.2), respectively. The risk ratios associated with decreasing wall motion index were 6.5 (3...

  5. Association of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony with survival benefit from revascularization: a study of gated positron emission tomography in patients with ischemic LV dysfunction and narrow QRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlJaroudi, Wael [Imaging Institute, Heart and Vascular, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Alraies, M.C. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Hospital Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hachamovitch, Rory; Jaber, Wael A.; Brunken, Richard; Cerqueira, Manuel D.; Marwick, Thomas [Imaging Institute, Heart and Vascular, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-10-15

    LV mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) is a risk marker in narrow QRS cardiomyopathy, but its association with treatment outcome is not well defined. We determined the incremental prognostic value of LVMD in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and assessed its interaction with scar, myocardium in jeopardy and subsequent revascularization. Stress and rest {sup 82}Rb gated PET were performed in 486 consecutive patients (66 {+-} 11 years of age, 82 % men, LV ejection fraction 26 {+-} 6 %) with ischemic cardiomyopathy and QRS <120 ms. LVMD was determined as the standard deviation (SD) of the regional time to minimum volume on phase analysis of the gated PET scan. A propensity score was determined to adjust for nonrandomized referral after imaging to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In a Cox proportional hazards model used to determine the association between measures of LVMD and survival time, CABG was included as a time-dependent covariate and the use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) after imaging was modeled as a stratification factor. Over 1.9 {+-} 1.4 years, 96 patients (20 %) underwent CABG and 108 (22 %) died. LVMD was a predictor of mortality (HR 1.16. 95 % CI 1.03;1.30, per 10 increase in phase SD, p = 0.02) after adjusting for baseline covariates, prior ICD use, the use of postimaging CABG, and other imaging data. There was a significant interaction between phase SD and CABG. Nested Cox models showed that LVMD carried prognostic information incremental to clinical variables, ejection fraction and CABG. LVMD is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and may identify patients with a differential survival benefit from CABG versus medical therapy. (orig.)

  6. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of things can interfere with sexual feelings and cause or worsen erectile dysfunction. These include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Stress Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication or other concerns ...

  7. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/men/erectile-dysfunction.html. Accessed Nov. ... medicine and a synthesis of the main available therapies. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2012;38:1. Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). ...

  8. Orgasmic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dysfunction is when a woman either cannot reach orgasm, or has trouble reaching orgasm when she is sexually excited. When sex is ... to 15% of women have never had an orgasm. Surveys suggest that up to one half of ...

  9. Erectile dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuliano, F; Droupy, S

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most commonly studied sexual disorder. ED is defined by a consistent or recurrent inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for sexual activity...

  10. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rigid. Medications The oral medications for erectile dysfunction, sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra), relax the muscles ... to begin working; the erection helping effects of sildenafil and vardenafil last for about 8 hours and ...

  11. Erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafi, Faysal A.; Jenkins, Lawrence; Albersen, Maarten; Corona, Giovanni; Isidori, Andrea M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Maggi, Mario; Nelson, Christian J.; Parish, Sharon; Salonia, Andrea; Tan, Ronny; Mulhall, John P.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a multidimensional but common male sexual dysfunction that involves an alteration in any of the components of the erectile response, including organic, relational and psychological. Roles for nonendocrine (neurogenic, vasculogenic and iatrogenic) and endocrine pathways have been proposed. Owing to its strong association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment may be warranted in men with symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Minimally invasive interventions to relieve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction include lifestyle modifications, oral drugs, injected vasodilator agents and vacuum erection devices. Surgical therapies are reserved for the subset of patients who have contraindications to these nonsurgical interventions, those who experience adverse effects from (or are refractory to) medical therapy and those who also have penile fibrosis or penile vascular insufficiency. Erectile dysfunction can have deleterious effects on a man’s quality of life; most patients have symptoms of depression and anxiety related to sexual performance. These symptoms, in turn, affect his partner’s sexual experience and the couple’s quality of life. This Primer highlights numerous aspects of erectile dysfunction, summarizes new treatment targets and ongoing preclinical studies that evaluate new pharmacotherapies, and covers the topic of regenerative medicine, which represents the future of sexual medicine. PMID:27188339

  12. Murine Cerebral Malaria Is Associated with a Vasospasm-Like Microcirculatory Dysfunction, and Survival upon Rescue Treatment Is Markedly Increased by Nimodipine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Zanini, Graziela M.; Meays, Diana; Frangos, John A.; Carvalho, Leonardo J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries. Using intravital microscopy to assess the pial microvasculature through a closed cranial window in the murine model of CM by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, we show that murine CM is associated with marked decreases (mean: 60%) of pial arteriolar blood flow attributable to vasoconstriction and decreased blood velocity. Leukocyte sequestration further decreased perfusion by narrowing luminal diameters in the affected vessels and blocking capillaries. Remarkably, vascular collapse at various degrees was observed in 44% of mice with CM, which also presented more severe vasoconstriction. Coadministration of artemether and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker used to treat postsubarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm, to mice presenting CM markedly increased survival compared with artemether plus vehicle only. Administration of nimodipine induced vasodilation and increased pial blood flow. We conclude that vasoconstriction and vascular collapse play a role in murine CM pathogenesis and nimodipine holds potential as adjunctive therapy for CM. PMID:20110412

  13. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  14. Laryngeal Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    The larynx is one of the most highly innervated organs in humans and serves a number of vitally important, complex, and highly evolved biological functions. On a day-to-day basis, the larynx functions autonomously, addressing several roles including airway protection, swallowing, and phonation....... In some situations the larynx appears to adopt a functional state that could be considered maladaptive or "dysfunctional." This laryngeal dysfunction can underpin and account for a number of respiratory symptoms that otherwise appear incongruous with a clinical disease state and/or contribute...

  15. Erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Mohit; Goldstein, Irwin

    2011-06-29

    Erectile dysfunction may affect 30% to 50% of men aged 40 to 70 years, with age, smoking, and obesity being the main risk factors, although 20% of cases have psychological causes. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? What are the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes, with cardiovascular disease, with spinal cord injury, and with prostate cancer or undergoing prostatectomy? What are the effects of drug treatments other than phosphodiesterase inhibitors in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? What are the effects of devices, psychological/behavioural treatments, and alternative treatments in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 81 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: alprostadil (intracavernosal, intraurethral, topical), cognitive behavioural therapy, ginseng, papaverine, papaverine plus phentolamine (bimix), papaverine plus phentolamine plus alprostadil (trimix), penile prostheses, phosphodiesterase inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil), psychosexual counselling, vacuum devices, and yohimbine.

  16. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Respiratory diseases and muscle dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Casadevall, Carme; Pascual, Sergi; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2012-02-01

    Many respiratory diseases lead to impaired function of skeletal muscles, influencing quality of life and patient survival. Dysfunction of both respiratory and limb muscles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been studied in depth, and seems to be caused by the complex interaction of general (inflammation, impaired gas exchange, malnutrition, comorbidity, drugs) and local factors (changes in respiratory mechanics and muscle activity, and molecular events). Some of these factors are also present in cystic fibrosis and asthma. In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, repeated exposure to hypoxia and the absence of reparative rest are believed to be the main causes of muscle dysfunction. Deconditioning appears to be crucial for the functional impairment observed in scoliosis. Finally, cachexia seems to be the main mechanism of muscle dysfunction in advanced lung cancer. A multidimensional therapeutic approach is recommended, including pulmonary rehabilitation, an adequate level of physical activity, ventilatory support and nutritional interventions.

  18. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  19. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  20. Conversion to monotherapy with luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone agonist or orchiectomy after reaching PSA nadir following maximal androgen blockade is able to prolong progression-free survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Gyeong Eun; Ahn, Hanjong

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated androgen deprivation methods to determine the approach that most improves the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Patients had received continuous maximal androgen blockade (MAB) or monotherapy [luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist or orchiectomy] following the reaching of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) nadir. The medical records of 293 patients who received MAB following a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Following attainment of the PSA nadir and treatment with MAB, patients were maintained on continuous MAB (group CMAB) or converted to monotherapy (group MONO). Disease progression, defined as progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer, was evaluated and compared between the treatment modalities. PFS was compared between patients who received CMAB vs. MONO using 2:1 (102:53) propensity score matching; the basic clinicopathological characteristics (age, Gleason score, PSA and extent of bone metastasis) were similar between the groups. Disease progression was observed in 70.9% of all patients, with a median treatment period of 22.7 months. The median PFS time was 19.5 months in the CMAB group and 28.8 months in the MONO group (P=0.008). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that PFS was significantly associated with the type of maintenance androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; log rank bone metastasis were independent predictors of prolonged PFS. In this propensity score matched-analysis, conversion to monotherapy with a LHRH agonist or orchiectomy following attainment of the PSA nadir with initial MAB, prolonged the PFS, suggesting that monotherapy maintenance following initial MAB may benefit patients by reducing side effects without decreasing treatment efficacy.

  1. A single institutional experience of conversion of non-tunneled to tunneled hemodialysis catheters: a comparison to de novo placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sunil Kumar; Ciacci, Joseph; Kirsch, Matthias; Ebersole, John D

    2013-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of conversion of non-tunneled to tunneled hemodialysis catheters with de novo placement of tunneled catheters and to determine the effect of time to conversion of non-tunneled to tunneled catheters on the incidence of complications. A retrospective data analyses was performed on 1,154 patients who had de novo placement of tunneled hemodialysis catheters (control group) and 254 patients who underwent conversion of non-tunneled to tunneled catheters (study group). The outcomes including technical complications, infection, and catheter dysfunction were compared between the two groups. The technical success rate was 100 % in both the groups with no complications recorded at the time of procedure or within 24 h of insertion. The most common complication encountered in both the groups was catheter dysfunction (15.6 % in controls and 18.1 % in study). Infection rates/100 catheter days for the control and study groups were 0.17 and 0.19, respectively. Infection-free survival was not statistically different between the two groups. The time spent with non-tunneled catheter prior to conversion did not significantly alter the rates of catheter dysfunction and infection in the study group. The efficacy and safety of conversion of non-tunneled to tunneled hemodialysis catheters are similar to de novo placement with no difference in the rates of technical success, catheter dysfunction, or infection. However, the exchange of non-tunneled to tunneled catheter can help in preservation of veins for future vascular access, which is of vital importance in patients with chronic renal disease.

  2. Lack of awareness of erectile dysfunction in many men with risk factors for erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee Michelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men with erectile dysfunction often have concurrent medical conditions. Conversely, men with these conditions may also have underlying erectile dysfunction. The prevalence of unrecognized erectile dysfunction in men with comorbidities commonly associated with erectile dysfunction was determined in men invited to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sildenafil citrate. Methods Men ≥30 years old presenting with ≥1 erectile dysfunction risk factor (controlled hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes, depression, lower urinary tract symptoms, obesity [body mass index ≥30 kg/m2] or waist circumference ≥40 inches, and not previously diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were evaluated. The screening question, "Do you have erectile dysfunction?," with responses of "no," "yes," and "unsure," and the Erectile Function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF were administered. Results Of 1084 men screened, 1053 answered the screening question and also had IIEF-EF scores. IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction occurred in 71% (744/1053, of whom 54% (399/744 had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction. Of 139 answering "yes," 526 answering "unsure," and 388 answering "no," 96%, 90%, and 36%, respectively, had some degree of erectile dysfunction. The mean±SD (range number of risk factors was 2.9 ± 1.7 (3-8 in the "yes" group, 3.2 ± 1.7 (3-9 in the "unsure" group, and 2.6 ± 1.5 (2-8 in the "no" group. Conclusion Although awareness of having erectile dysfunction was low, most men with risk factors had IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction should be suspected and assessed in men with risk factors, regardless of their apparent level of awareness of erectile dysfunction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00343200.

  3. Does conversion and prevention of atrial fibrillation enhance survival in patients with left ventricular dysfunction? Evidence from the Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality ON Dofetilide/(DIAMOND) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Brendorp, Bente; Elming, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    treatment) was associated with a significant reduction in mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.64; P therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk ratio versus placebo for either all-cause (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.89; P

  4. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  5. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  6. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  7. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  8. Converse Piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectricity results from a coupling between responses to mechanical and electric perturbations and leads to changes in the polarization due to strain or stress or, alternatively, the occurrence of strain as a function of an applied external, electrostatic field (i.e., converse piezoelectricity). Theoretical studies of those properties for extended systems require accordingly that their dipole moment or polarization can be calculated. However, whereas the definition of the operator for the dipole moment for any finite system is trivial, it is only within the last 2 decades that the expressions for the equivalent operator in the independent-particle approximation for the infinite and periodic system have been presented. Here, we demonstrate that the so called branch dependence of the polarization for the infinite, periodic system is related to physical observables in contrast to what often is assumed. This is related to the finding that converse piezoelectric properties depend both on the surfaces of the samples of interest even for samples with size well above the thermodynamic limit. However, we shall demonstrate that these properties can be calculated without explicitly taking the surfaces into account. Both the foundations and results for real system shall be presented.

  9. [Higher Brain Dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    The technical term "higher brain dysfunction" is used widely in Japan. However, it is not always clear what "higher" means. The author thinks that the term "higher" is understood as being associated with a meaning. In this article, the differences between higher brain dysfunctions and elementary brain dysfunctions are discussed from the point of view of lesion localization and the consistency of symptoms. The psychiatric approach is indispensable for the assessment of higher brain dysfunction. A simple test for mild Alzheimer-type dementia is also introduced.

  10. [Conversion therapy for synchronous colorectal liver metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Hajime; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Harue; Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki; Koyama, Motoi; Murata, Akihiko; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2013-11-01

    Conversion therapy, a treatment strategy that facilitates the conversion of unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) to resectable CLRM after chemotherapy, has been reported to be effective. We assessed the applicability of treatment strategies for conversion therapy in 93 patients with synchronous CRLM encountered at our department. Of the 93 patients, 12 underwent conversion therapy and there was no significant difference in the clinicopathological factors of CRLM. The first-line regimen for 67% of the 12 patients who underwent conversion therapy was multidrug therapy with oxaliplatin and the number of courses administered ranged from 3 to 24. The 5-year survival rate of patients who underwent conversion therapy was 46%,and there was no significant difference when compared with the 5-year survival rate of patients who underwent hepatectomy for resectable CRLM. In order to improve the survival rate of patients with synchronous CRLM, it is important that more patients undergo conversion therapy with effective chemotherapy. Moreover, we believe that it is necessary to assess the appropriate balance in treatment between chemotherapy and hepatectomy in the future.

  11. Intracoronary artery transplantation of cardiomyoblast-like cells from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improve left ventricular dysfunction and survival in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, Hanayuki [The Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Department of Somatic Stem Cell Therapy and Health Policy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Saga, Ayami; Soeda, Mayumi [Department of Somatic Stem Cell Therapy and Health Policy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki [Department of Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Daimon, Takashi [Division of Biostatistics, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Ichinose, Akihiro [Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuyama, Akifumi, E-mail: akifumi-matsuyama@umin.ac.jp [The Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); RIKEN Program for Drug Discovery and Medical Technology Platforms, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We administered human CLCs in a swine model of MI via intracoronary artery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histological studies demonstrated engraftment of hCLCs into the scarred myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Echocardiography showed rescue of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted swine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of hCLCs is an effective therapeutics for cardiac regeneration. -- Abstract: Transplantation of human cardiomyoblast-like cells (hCLCs) from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improved left ventricular function and survival of rats with myocardial infarction. Here we examined the effect of intracoronary artery transplantation of human CLCs in a swine model of chronic heart failure. Twenty-four pigs underwent balloon-occlusion of the first diagonal branch followed by reperfusion, with a second balloon-occlusion of the left ascending coronary artery 1 week later followed by reperfusion. Four weeks after the second occlusion/reperfusion, 17 of the 18 surviving animals with severe chronic MI (ejection fraction <35% by echocardiography) were immunosuppressed then randomly assigned to receive either intracoronary artery transplantation of hCLCs hADMPCs or placebo lactic Ringer's solution with heparin. Intracoronary artery transplantation was followed by the distribution of DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardial milieu. Echocardiography at post-transplant days 4 and 8 weeks showed rescue and maintenance of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted group, but not in the control animals, indicating myocardial functional recovery by hCLCs intracoronary transplantation. At 8 week post-transplantation, 7 of 8 hCLCs transplanted animals were still alive compared with only 1 of the 5 control (p = 0.0147). Histological studies at week 12 post-transplantation demonstrated engraftment of the pre DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardium and their expression of

  12. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  14. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiese, Signe Skovgaard; Halgreen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Development of esophageal varices, ascites, and hepatic nephropathy is among the major complications of cirrhosis. The presence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, which includes a left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD), seems to deteriorate the course of the disease and the prognosis. Increased...

  15. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Rockey, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver-kidney transplantation is advised. Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes.

  16. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  17. Voiding dysfunction - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a child who is toilet trained the sudden onset of daytime wetting with frequency or urgency is alarming to the parents. Initially this subject was subdivided into a number of descriptive clinical conditions which led to a lot of confusion in recognition and management. Subsequently, the term elimination dysfunction was coined by Stephen Koff to emphasise the association between recurrent urinary infection, wetting, constipation and bladder overactivity. From a urodynamic point of view, in voiding dysfunction, there is either detrusor overactivity during bladder filling or dyssynergic action between the detrusor and the external sphincter during voiding. Identifying a given condition as a ′filling phase dysfunction′ or ′voiding phase dysfunction′ helps to provide appropriate therapy. Objective clinical criteria should be used to define voiding dysfunction. These include bladder wall thickening, large capacity bladder and infrequent voiding, bladder trabeculation and spinning top deformity of the urethra and a clinically demonstrated Vincent′s curtsy. The recognition and treatment of constipation is central to the adequate treatment of voiding dysfunction. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimuation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, biofeedback with uroflow EMG to correct dyssynergic voiding, and behavioral therapy all serve to correct voiding dysfunction in its early stages. In established neurogenic bladder disease the use of Botulinum Toxin A injections into the detrusor or the external sphincter may help in restoring continence especially in those refractory to drug therapy. However in those children in whom the upper tracts are threatened, augmentation of the bladder may still be needed.

  18. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  19. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  20. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  1. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  2. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  3. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  4. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Anni, H.; Dráber, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 216-227 ISSN 1071-9091 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gliomas * mitochondrial dysfunction * microtubule proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2013

  6. High-sugar intake does not exacerbate metabolic abnormalities or cardiac dysfunction in genetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C

    2012-05-01

    A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  8. What Is a Dysfunctional School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a school is dysfunctional depends largely on how dysfunctionality in schools is defined and measured. Dysfunctionality, as any construct, is subject to definition and interpretation, and it is thus always marked by perspectivism. But regardless of the definition games occasionally played by academics, some form of reality takes…

  9. Sexual dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Várkonyi; Kempler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to summarize the etiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and possible treatment options of sexual dysfunction in diabetic patients of both sexes. Details of dysfunction in diabetic women are less conclusive than in men due to the lack of standardized evaluation of sexual function in women. Male sexual dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes, including abnormalities of orgasmic/ejaculatory function and desire/libido in addition to penile erection. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among diabetic men varies from 35% to 75%. Diabetes-induced ED has a multifactorial etiology including metabolic, neurologic, vascular, hormonal, and psychological components. ED should be regarded as the first sign of cardiovascular disease because it can be present before development of symptomatic coronary artery disease, as larger coronary vessels better tolerate the same amount of plaque compared to smaller penile arteries. The diagnosis of ED is based on validated questionnaires and determination of functional and organic abnormalities. First-, second- and third-line therapy may be applied. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor treatment from the first-line options leads to smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and enhancement in blood flow, resulting in erection during sexual stimulus. The use of PDE-5 inhibitors in the presence of oral nitrates is strictly contraindicated in diabetic men, as in nondiabetic subjects. All PDE-5 inhibitors have been evaluated for ED in diabetic patients with convincing efficacy data. Second-line therapy includes intracavernosal, trans- or intraurethral administration of vasoactive drugs or application of a vacuum device. Third-line therapies are the implantation of penile prosthesis and penile revascularization.

  10. Solar thermal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the fundamentals of the conversion of solar energy into mechanical work (or electricity via generators) is given. Both past and present work on several conversion concepts are discussed. Solar collectors, storage systems, energy transport, and various types of engines are examined. Ongoing work on novel concepts of collectors, energy storage and thermal energy conversion are outlined and projections for the future are described. Energy costs for various options are predicted and margins and limitations are discussed.

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  13. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  14. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  15. Beyond Content of Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2017-02-01

    Social interaction is pivotal to the formation of social relationships and groups. Much is known about the importance of interaction content (e.g., the transfer of information). The present review concentrates on the influence of the act of conversing on the emergence of a sense of solidarity, more or less independently of the content. Micro-characteristics of the conversation (e.g., brief silences, smooth turn-taking) can profoundly influence the emergence and the regulation of relationships and of solidarity. We suggest that this might be because the form of a conversation is experienced as an expression of the social structures within the group. Because of its dynamic nature, moreover, the form of conversation provides group members with a continuous gauge of the group's structural features (e.g., its hierarchy, social norms, and shared reality). Therefore, minor changes in the form and flow of group conversation can have considerable consequences for the regulation of social structure.

  16. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  17. Aging and Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri Tirado, Laura C; Ferrer, Julio E; Herrera, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been identified as the most common sexual problem that affects mainly men older than 40 years. According to this, there is a strong evidence linking ED with a number of medical conditions and related risk factors that had been described in the literature, yet there is limited information about the specific mechanism involved in the establishment of ED among healthy older men. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and mainly focus on the basic physiologic and vascular alterations and morphologic changes related to aging and its related risk factors, summarizing the main and the latest findings in basic research of tissue remodeling process involved in ED pathophysiology. Data from the pertinent literature were examined to inform our conclusions. This article defines the morphologic and physiologic mechanisms involved in the process of aging, which play a key role in the development of sexual dysfunction. ED has been considered as a nonlife-threatening condition, but the recognition of its multiple comorbid conditions, the importance of aging process over the male sexual performance among them its relation with vascular and nitric oxide content alteration, as well as penile morphologic changes, and the fact that it is a widespread under-reported disease, have established the need of an early diagnosis and treatment of this common sexual problem within the general male population. In this case, morphologic and physiologic mechanisms that are involved in the aging process play a key role in the development of sexual dysfunction in the absence of any other clinical or medical condition. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Conversion therapy of advanced gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangdong; Mao, Zonglei

    2017-10-25

    There are 30% to 40% of advanced gastric cancer patients who lose the opportunity of curative surgery at initial diagnosis, so chemotherapy is recommended as the main treatment modality, however, the overall prognosis is poor. Recently, a number of phase II( studies show an enormously ideal potential of conversion therapy in these patients. Conversion therapy uses rational chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy and so on combined with MDT assessment to translate initial unresectable case to resectable one, which obviously prolongs survival time and improves quality of life. In this review, we address the indications, development and our experiences of conversion therapy in advanced GC, which looks forward to providing the reference to clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Reversible myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Aguayo de Hoyos, Eduardo; Ruiz-Navarro, Silvia; Díaz-Castellanos, Miguel Angel; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Gómez-Jiménez, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Escobar, Sergio; Moreno, Rafael Melgares; Fierro-Rosón, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Myocardial stunning frequently has been described in patients with an acute coronary syndrome. Recently, it has also been described in critically ill patients without ischaemic heart disease. It is possible that the most severe form of any syndrome, leading to cardio-respiratory arrest, may cause myocardial stunning. Myocardial stunning appears to have been demonstrated in experimental studies, though this phenomenon has not been sufficiently studied in human models. The aim of the present work has been to study and describe the possible development of myocardial dysfunction in patients resuscitated after cardio-respiratory arrest, in the absence of acute or previous coronary artery disease. Descriptive study of a case series. The intensive care unit (ICU) of a provincial hospital. The study period was from April 1999 to June 2001. All patients admitted to the ICU with critical, non-coronary artery pathology, with no past history of cardiac disease, and those who were resuscitated after cardio-respiratory arrest, were included in the study. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and disturbances of segmental contractility. This study was carried out within the first 24h after admission, during the first week, during the second or third week, after 1 month, and between 3 and 6 months. Twenty-nine patients with a median age of 65 years (range 24--76) were included in the study. Twelve patients died. Twenty patients developed myocardial dysfunction; the initial LVEF in these patients was 0.28 (0.12--0.51), showing improvement over time in the patients who survived. All of these patients presented disturbances of segmental contractility which also became normal over time. After successful CPR, reversible myocardial dysfunction, consisting of systolic myocardial dysfunction and disturbances of segmental contractility, may occur.

  20. Prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in conversion therapy for colorectal liver-limited metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Beppu, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Naomi; Higashi, Takaaki; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Baba, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prognostic value of Ki-67 expression in conversion therapy for colorectal liver-confined metastases. We enrolled a total of 96 patients including 54 patients who received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapy and curative hepatectomy for initially unresectable metastases (conversion group) and 42 patients with initially resectable liver metastases (straight hepatectomy group). Ki-67 expression was examined in 96 resected specimens but excluded the 2 specimens that revealed no residual cancer cells in conversion group. Conversion therapy leads to greater survival that is equivalent to that straight hepatectomy group. In conversion group, high Ki-67 expression (> 30%) levels were detectable in 33 patients (64%) after chemotherapy prior to conversion therapy. High Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival and worse overall survival (P conversion therapy. Interestingly, even in the patients with RECIST PR (n = 32), high Ki-67 expression was significantly shorter disease-free survival compared to low Ki-67 expression (P conversion group, there was no significant difference in disease free survival and overall survival between low (n = 14, 33%) and high (n = 28, 67%) Ki-67 expressions in patients with straight hepatectomy (P = 0.14 and 0.74, respectively). Residual Ki-67 expression is a useful biomarker for worse prognostic outcomes after conversion therapy. High Ki-67 expression may be a biomarker of micrometastases containing aggressive cancer cells.

  1. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  2. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  3. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  4. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs......, read posts from the MPs and discuss politics with them and other citizens via the posts made by the MPs....

  5. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  6. Vesicoureteral reflux and bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Lee, Yong Seung; Im, Young Jae; Han, Sang Won

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between vesicoureteral reflux and bladder dysfunction is inseparable and has long been emphasized. However, the primary concern of all physicians treating patients with vesicoureteral reflux is the prevention of renal scarring and eventual deterioration of renal function. Bladder dysfunction, urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux are the three important factors which are closely related to each other and contribute to the formation of renal scar. Especially, there is ongoing discussion regarding the role of bladder dysfunction in the prognosis of both medically and surgically treated vesicoureteral reflux. The effect of bladder dysfunction on VUR is mostly via inadequate sphincter relaxation during infancy which is closer to immature bladder dyscoordination rather than true dysfunction. But after toilet training, functional obstruction caused by voluntary sphincter constriction during voiding is responsible through elevation in bladder pressure, thus distorting the architecture of bladder and ureterovesical junction. Reports suggest that voiding phase abnormalities in lower urinary tract dysfunction contributes to lower spontaneous resolution rate of VUR. However, filling phase abnormalities such as involuntary detrusor contraction can also cause VUR even in the absence of dysfunctional voiding. With regards to the effect of bladder dysfunction on treatment, meta-analysis reveals that the cure rate of VUR following endoscopic treatment is less in children with bladder bowel dysfunction but there is no difference for open surgery. The pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction associated with UTI can be explained by the 'milk-back' of contaminated urine back into the bladder and significant residual urine resulting from functional outlet obstruction. In addition, involuntary detrusor contraction can decrease perfusion of the bladder mucosa thus decreasing mucosal immunity and creating a condition prone to UTI. In terms of renal scarring

  7. Photochemical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batschelet, William H.; George, Arnold

    1986-01-01

    Describes procedures for two demonstrations: (1) photochemical energy conversion using ferric oxalate actinometry and (2) liquification of gases using Freon 114. Safety precautions are given for both demonstrations, as are procedures and material specifications. (JM)

  8. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  9. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  10. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  11. Investigation of erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D V; Halls, J; Patel, U

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents a common and debilitating condition with a wide range of organic and non-organic causes. Physical aetiologies can be divided into disorders affecting arterial inflow, the venous occlusion mechanism or the penile structure itself. Various imaging modalities can be utilised to investigate the physical causes of ED, but penile Doppler sonography (PDS) is the most informative technique, indicated in those patients with ED who do not respond to oral pharmacological agents (e.g. phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). This review will examine the anatomical and physiological basis of penile erection, the method for performing PDS and features of specific causes of ED, and will also consider the alternative imaging modalities available. PMID:23118101

  12. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagraves, R T

    2000-05-01

    The association of depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) has been firmly established, but it may be difficult to distinguish between cause and effect--whether ED causes the depression or the depression causes ED--in an individual patient. In most patients who have major depression, successful reversal of the depressive syndrome results in a return of erectile capacity. In other patients--those who suffer from minor depression--restoration of erectile capacity can lead to an improvement in mood. In either case, knowing how to diagnose depression in ED patients is important, not only because depressed patients are more likely to drop out of treatment for ED, but also because untreated depression can be life-threatening.

  13. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  14. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  15. Cycling and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Šibli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For many years medical studies have implicated bicycle riding is causing erectile dysfunction (ED in association with higher perineal pressure. This review focuses upon epidemiological studies assesing the impact of cycling on ED, pathogenesis of ED in cyclists  as well as on research considering changes of perineal pressure, hemodynamics, and nerve conduction when cycling. Investigestors were also interested in different saddle sizes, materials and geometry and also in the impact of saddle and riders position on changes to the perineum. Research on female cyclists is very limited but indicates similar genitourinary disorders as in male cyclists. We also review  research on preventative and therapeutic options regarding bicycle riding and ED.

  16. Endothelins & erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Robert; Sullivan, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common and a significant contributor to poor quality of life and psychosocial morbidity in men. Normal erectile function requires effective co-ordination between a number of complex neural pathways. Penile tumescence occurs in response to rapid arterial inflow to the corpora cavernosa with simultaneous venous outflow restriction due to expansion of the lacunar spaces. This process is under both central and local neuromediation. Endothelins are potent vasoconstrictor peptides that cause strong, slowly developing but sustained contraction of trabecular smooth muscles cells of the corpora cavernosa. Multiple mechanisms of action are proposed, including transmembrane calcium flux, mobilisation of inositol triphosphate sensitive intracellular calcium stores and calcium sensitisation through the Rho-Rho kinase pathway. The exact role of endothelins in the pathogenesis of ED currently remains unclear. Elevated endothelin-1 levels are found in patients with diabetes mellitus and this alone may be sufficient to cause ED. However, this is not borne out in clinical studies. The resultant elevated intracellular calcium may, however, modulate gene expression sufficiently to cause smooth muscle proliferation. Alternatively, alterations in endothelin receptor sensitivity in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension may enhance vasoconstrictor processes. Currently there is contradictory evidence for the role of endothelin receptor antagonists in ED. Animals studies suggest they inhibit corporal vasoconstriction, improve erectile function and protect against diabetes-induced smooth muscle apoptosis. However, the results of clinical studies in ED have been less promising. Uncertainty regarding the exact role of endothelin in penile erection hampers progress in this area. It is possible that the endothelin system may only be relevant to ED in certain conditions where global endothelial dysfunction exists (e.g. diabetes mellitus, systemic sclerosis) and

  17. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  18. Thyroid dysfunction in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-09

    Sep 9, 1997 ... hyperthyroidism and 7 of hypothyroidism. Subclinical disease was diagnosed in 40 subjects. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this population was. 11.2%. In 22 (3.4%) this had previously been recognised, while in 50 (7.8%) the dysfunction was newly diagnosed by the current survey.

  19. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies...... that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. RESULTS: A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry...... with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder to 3.1% in years 1-2, 1.0% in years 2-5 and 0.8% in years 5-10. A total of eight risk factors were evaluated comprising gender, age at onset of unipolar disorder, number of depressive episodes, treatment resistance to antidepressants, family history of bipolar disorder...

  20. Experimental treatments for mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection. Sepsis, which can lead to severe sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, is an important cause of mortality. Pathogenesis is extremely complex. In recent years, cell hypoxia caused by mitochondrial dysfunction has become a hot research field. Sepsis damages the structure and function of mitochondria, conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction aggravated sepsis. The treatment of sepsis lacks effective specific drugs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a narrative review of the current experimental treatment for mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis. The search was conducted in PubMed databases and Web of Science databases from 1950 to January 2014. A total of 1,090 references were retrieved by the search, of which 121 researches met all the inclusion criteria were included. Articles on the relationship between sepsis and mitochondria, and drugs used for mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis were reviewed retrospectively. The drugs were divided into four categories: (1 Drug related to mitochondrial matrix and respiratory chain, (2 drugs of mitochondrial antioxidant and free radical scavengers, (3 drugs related to mitochondrial membrane stability, (4 hormone therapy for septic mitochondria. In animal experiments, many drugs show good results. However, clinical research lacks. In future studies, the urgent need is to develop promising drugs in clinical trials.

  1. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle...... in oncology practice. Significant progress has been made over the last decade in the field of exercise oncology, indicating that exercise training constitutes a potent modulator of skeletal muscle function in patients with cancer. CONCLUSION: There are clear associations between muscle dysfunction...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...

  2. Respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsney, K M; Forsyth, D

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory dysfunction has been associated with Parkinson's disease since it was first described in 1817. The respiratory symptoms observed in Parkinson's disease patients vary greatly. Most patients remain asymptomatic, whereas others present with acute shortness of breath and even stridor. In August 2016, an electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. Results were screened and studies reporting on respiratory dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease were included. Respiratory dysfunction is due to a combination of factors including restrictive changes, upper airway obstruction, abnormal ventilatory drive and response to medications. Much debate surrounds the mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, its prevalence and the effect of levodopa on respiration. It is clear from this review that larger studies, comparing patients of similar disease duration and severity using the same pulmonary function parameters, are required to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying respiratory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

  3. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  4. Laser energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  5. Relationship between CYP 2D6 metabolic status and sexual dysfunction in paroxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourková, Alexandra; Hadasová, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the incidence of sexual dysfunction in 30 patients subjected to long-term treatment by paroxetine in dependence on the P 450 CYP 2D6 isoenzyme metabolic status. Measured on the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX; McGahuey, Delgado, & Gelenberg, 1999), the incidence of sexual dysfunction in patients converted to CYP 2D6 poor metabolizers was markedly higher compared with patients who had no history of such conversion, a difference that reached the level of statistical significance. Our article discusses the incidence of sexual dysfunction in connection with reduced CYP 2D6 capacity.

  6. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  7. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...... gradually evolved into second-person inquiry. We argue that enacting second-person reflective conversations renders alternative strategies for handling uncertainties through articulation of the tacit assumptions within particular empirical situations. Finally, we argue that reflective conversations should...... a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  8. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  9. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  10. Disease, dysfunction, and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2014-08-01

    Theorists analyzing the concept of disease on the basis of the notion of dysfunction consider disease to be dysfunction requiring. More specifically, dysfunction-requiring theories of disease claim that for an individual to be diseased certain biological facts about it must be the case. Disease is not wholly a matter of evaluative attitudes. In this paper, I consider the dysfunction-requiring component of Wakefield's hybrid account of disease in light of the artifactual organisms envisioned by current research in synthetic biology. In particular, I argue that the possibility of artifactual organisms and the case of oncomice and other bred or genetically modified strains of organism constitute a significant objection to Wakefield's etiological account of the dysfunction requirement. I then develop a new alternative understanding of the dysfunction requirement that builds on the organizational theory of function. I conclude that my suggestion is superior to Wakefield's theory because it (a) can accommodate both artifactual and naturally evolved organisms, (b) avoids the possibility of there being a conflict between what an organismic part is supposed to do and the health of the organism, and (c) provides a nonarbitrary and practical way of determining whether dysfunction occurs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Hypothalamic dysfunction in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande-Lee, Simone; Velloso, Licio A

    2012-08-01

    Obesity, defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair life quality, is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. The control of energy balance in animals and humans is performed by the central nervous system (CNS) by means of neuroendocrine connections, in which circulating peripheral hormones, such as leptin and insulin, provide signals to specialized neurons of the hypothalamus reflecting body fat stores, and induce appropriate responses to maintain the stability of these stores. The majority of obesity cases are associated with central resistance to both leptin and insulin actions. In experimental animals, high-fat diets can induce an inflammatory process in the hypothalamus, which impairs leptin and insulin intracellular signaling pathways, and results in hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure and, ultimately, obesity. Recent evidence obtained from neuroimaging studies and assessment of inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid of obese subjects suggests that similar alterations may be also present in humans. In this review, we briefly present the mechanisms involved with the loss of homeostatic control of energy balance in animal models of obesity, and the current evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction in obese humans.

  13. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...... singular points nor closed orbits. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with dynamical systems with multiple singular elements. Hereafter, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorems and highlight the differences between our results and previous work by a number...

  14. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  15. Hydrogen Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-27

    Schoeppei, R.J. and Gray, C.L., "The Hydrogen Engine in P^srectl^e", Proceedings 7th international Energy Conversion Encrineering C^ference.: San Dxego...Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, Sept. 19/^, pp. 1349-1354. 10. Hausz, W., Leeth, G., and Meyer, C., "Eco-Energy", ibid, pp. 1316-1322. II...75114, . 24. ^schütz, R.H., "Hydrogen Burning Engine Experience", presented at Symposium, see Ref. 8. 25. A. Presto filipo (Pnblio Service’Electric S

  16. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    the following referred to as UDI) effort was launched in 2008 as an attempt to improve prison life by inviting inmates to participate in organizational development together with staff. The effort has improved prisons by decreasing tension between inmates and guards and by creating more meaningful jobs...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  17. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  18. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  19. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  20. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  1. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  2. Delusions v. conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, I. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Russian defense conversion is a gloomy story, punctuated by only a few isolated successes. Overall industrial production in the first quarter of 1994 fell 27.4 percent below 1993 levels. Additionally the defense industry has been afflicted by the government`s failure to pay its debts to the industry, which, in the first quarter of 1994 grew from 2.1 trillion to 4.7 trillion rubles. Some members of government realize that the overmilitarized economy is burdensome and wasteful, and that post-Cold Ware reality necessitates a rapid reorientation to civilian purposes. Defense conversion has been called the first and foremost element in Russian economic reform. A converted defense industry must manufacture high-priority equipment in oil, gas, telecommunications, and space ventures. Russian economists estimate that modernization and conversion of the military-industrial comples will cost from $150 billion to $300 billion, which, Russia does not have. The lamentable state of Russia`s defense conversion projects reflects the disarray of the overall economy. The government can turn the defense industry into an asset, both the task will require time, patience, money and innovation.

  3. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  4. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  5. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  6. Physics of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Krischer, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Covers the physical basis of the most important energy conversion processes used for energy supply. Provides the fundamentals and a scientific understanding of the physics behind thermal power plants, solar cells and power plants, batteries and fuels cells as well as energy storage devices.

  7. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  8. Adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular levels of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant adenosine largely depend on an astrocyte-based adenosine cycle, comprised of ATP release, rapid degradation of ATP into adenosine, and metabolic reuptake of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporters and phosphorylation by adenosine kinase (ADK). Changes in ADK expression and activity therefore rapidly translate into changes of extracellular adenosine, which exerts its potent anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects by activation of pre- and postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Increases in ADK increase neuronal excitability, whereas decreases in ADK render the brain resistant to seizures and injury. Importantly, ADK was found to be overexpressed and associated with astrogliosis and spontaneous seizures in rodent models of epilepsy, as well as in human specimen resected from patients with hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. Several lines of evidence indicate that overexpression of astroglial ADK and adenosine deficiency are pathological hallmarks of the epileptic brain. Consequently, adenosine augmentation therapies constitute a powerful approach for seizure prevention, which is effective in models of epilepsy that are resistant to conventional antiepileptic drugs. The adenosine kinase hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy undergoes a biphasic response: An acute surge of adenosine that can be triggered by any type of injury might contribute to the development of astrogliosis via adenosine receptor –dependent and –independent mechanisms. Astrogliosis in turn is associated with overexpression of ADK, which was shown to be sufficient to trigger spontaneous recurrent electrographic seizures. Thus, ADK emerges as a promising target for the prediction and prevention of epilepsy. PMID:22700220

  9. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  10. Causes of sexual dysfunction (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.

  11. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence ...

  12. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  13. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  14. Prostatic Disease and Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common prostatic diseases. Furthermore, the incidence of prostate cancer has recently shown a rapid increase, even in Korea. Pain caused by prostatitis may induce sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disturbance. And BPH itself, or treatments for BPH, may affect sexual function. In addition, with increased detection of localized prostate cancer, surgical treatments and radiation therapy have also increased, a...

  15. Prognostic impact of isolated right ventricular dysfunction in sepsis and septic shock: an 8-year historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Kumar, Mukesh; Pandompatam, Govind; Sakhuja, Ankit; Kashyap, Rahul; Kashani, Kianoush; Gajic, Ognjen; Geske, Jeffrey B; Jentzer, Jacob C

    2017-09-07

    Echocardiographic myocardial dysfunction is reported commonly in sepsis and septic shock, but there are limited data on sepsis-related right ventricular dysfunction. This study sought to evaluate the association of right ventricular dysfunction with clinical outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Historical cohort study of adult patients admitted to all intensive care units at the Mayo Clinic from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2014 for severe sepsis and septic shock, who had an echocardiogram performed within 72 h of admission. Patients with prior heart failure, cor-pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension and valvular disease were excluded. Right ventricular dysfunction was defined by the American Society of Echocardiography criteria. Outcomes included 1-year survival, in-hospital mortality and length of stay. Right ventricular dysfunction was present in 214 (55%) of 388 patients who met the inclusion criteria-isolated right ventricular dysfunction was seen in 100 (47%) and combined right and left ventricular dysfunction in 114 (53%). The baseline characteristics were similar between cohorts except for the higher mechanical ventilation use in patients with isolated right ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiographic findings demonstrated lower right ventricular and tricuspid valve velocities in patients with right ventricular dysfunction and lower left ventricular ejection fraction and increased mitral E/e' ratios in patients with combined right and left ventricular dysfunction. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, illness severity, septic shock and use of mechanical ventilation, isolated right ventricular dysfunction was independently associated with worse 1-year survival-hazard ratio 1.6 [95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1; p = 0.002) in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Isolated right ventricular dysfunction is seen commonly in sepsis and septic shock and is associated with worse long-term survival.

  16. Implications of metric conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laros, R K

    1980-11-01

    The international scientific community is rapidly achieving conversion to the metric system, and the Système International (SI system) has been chosen for use by health scientists. Because the United States remains 1 of only 4 countries not now using part or all of the SI system, there is now a systematic effort toward rapid conversion. Although most of the SI system is not controversial, several SI units are highly so. Examples include joules instead of calories, pascals instead of millimeters of mercury, and moles per liter instead of milligrams per 100 milliliters. Obstetrician-gynecologists need to be familiar with the SI units and to voice their feelings about the various controversial units. There are decisions still to be made, and the time for discussion and advice is now.

  17. Movement coordination during conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Latif

    Full Text Available Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers.

  18. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  19. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  20. Les conversions de cens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche entamée sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, la réflexion s’est dirigée vers la question de la conversion, c’est-à-dire du passage d’une forme à une autre dans la mesure des valeurs (argent contre nature, objets dont l’usage se transforme en s’échangeant, conversions monétaires. Un cycle de trois rencontres est prévu afin de débrouiller une question complexe qui devrait permettre au groupe d’éclairer la question de la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge. La...

  1. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  2. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  3. Towards sustainable conversation: Developing environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards sustainable conversation: Developing environmental education processes. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education ... paper highlights the importance of seeing environmental education as a process and considers the value of conversation and storytelling in environmental education processes.

  4. Prostatic disease and sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2011-06-01

    Prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common prostatic diseases. Furthermore, the incidence of prostate cancer has recently shown a rapid increase, even in Korea. Pain caused by prostatitis may induce sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disturbance. And BPH itself, or treatments for BPH, may affect sexual function. In addition, with increased detection of localized prostate cancer, surgical treatments and radiation therapy have also increased, and the treatments may cause sexual dysfunction. Aging is also an important factor in the deterioration of the quality of life of men. Deterioration of quality of life caused by prostate diseases may be affected not only by the prostate diseases themselves but also by the sexual dysfunction caused by the prostate diseases secondarily. Thus, consideration of these points at the time of treatment of prostate disease is required. Therapies suitable to each condition should be selected with an understanding of the close association of prostate diseases and associated sexual dysfunction with the quality of life of males.

  5. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  6. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  7. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  8. Anatomy of pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, Marlene M

    2009-09-01

    Normal physiologic function of the pelvic organs depends on the anatomic integrity and proper interaction among the pelvic structures, the pelvic floor support components, and the nervous system. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes urinary and anal incontinence; pelvic organ prolapse; and sexual, voiding, and defecatory dysfunction. Understanding the anatomy and proper interaction among the support components is essential to diagnose and treat pelvic floor dysfunction. The primary aim of this article is to provide an updated review of pelvic support anatomy with clinical correlations. In addition, surgical spaces of interest to the gynecologic surgeon and the course of the pelvic ureter are described. Several concepts reviewed in this article are derived and modified from a previous review of pelvic support anatomy.

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Keane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive, neurodegenerative condition that has increasingly been linked with mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of the electron transport chain. This inhibition leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of cellular energy levels, which can consequently cause cellular damage and death mediated by oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. A number of genes that have been shown to have links with inherited forms of PD encode mitochondrial proteins or proteins implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the central involvement of mitochondria in PD. This involvement is corroborated by reports that environmental toxins that inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain have been shown to be associated with PD. This paper aims to illustrate the considerable body of evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction with neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of PD patients and to highlight the important need for further research in this area.

  10. Sexual dysfunctions in psoriatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder with a worldwide occurrence characterized by well-defined infiltrated erythematous papules and plaques, covered by silvery white or yellowish scales. It is a physically, socially and emotionally invalidating disorder that affects 1-2% of the population. Sexual health is an important part of general health and sexual dysfunctions can negatively affect self-esteem, confidence, interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI and the Impact of Psoriasis on Quality of Life (IPSO questionnaire are all questionnaires used to assess the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and each has one question regarding sexual dysfunction. Several scales were also designed to particularly assess sexual satisfaction in men and women. The aim of this paper is to perform an overview of the existing studies on sexual dysfunction in psoriatic patients.

  11. Autonomic Dysfunctions in Parkinsonian Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Bae

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions are common in the patients with parkinsonian disorders. Because clinical features of autonomic dysfunctions are diverse, the comprehensive evaluation is essential for the appropriate management. For the appreciation of autonomic dysfunctions and the identification of differences, patients with degenerative parkinsonisms are evaluated using structured questionnaire for autonomic dysfunction (ADQ. Methods: Total 259 patients, including 192 patients with [idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD, age 64.6 ± 9.6 years], 37 with [multiple system atrophy (MSA, 62.8 ± 9.1], 9 with [dementia with Lewy body (DLB, 73.9 ± 4.3], and 21 with [progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 69.4 ± 9.6]. The ADQ was structured for evaluation of the presence of symptoms and its severity due to autonomic dysfunction, covering gastrointestinal, urinary, sexual, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory domains. Patients were also evaluated for the orthostatic hypotension. Results: Although dementia with Lewy body (DLB patients were oldest and duration of disease was longest in IPD, total ADQ scores of MSA and PSP (23.9 ± 12.6 and 21.1 ± 7.8 were significantly increased than that of IPD (15.1 ± 10.6. Urinary and cardiovascular symptom scores of MSA and gastrointestinal symptom score of PSP were significantly worse than those of IPD. The ratio of patient with orthostatic hypotension in IPD was 31.2% and not differed between groups (35.1% in MSA, 33.3% in DLB and 33.3% in PSP. But the systolic blood pressure dropped drastically after standing in patients with MSA and DLB than in patients with IPD and PSP. Conclusions: Patients with degenerative parkinsonism showed widespread symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions. The severity of those symptoms in patients with PSP were comparing to that of MSA patients and worse than that of IPD.

  12. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  13. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were....... The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  17. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We present a simple, passive and static setup for broadband frequency conversion. By using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings, we obtain the spectral angular dispersion to match the second harmonic generation phasematching angles in a nonlinear BiBO crystal. We are able...... to frequency double a single-frequency diode laser, tunable in the 1020-1090 nm range, with almost equal efficiency for all wavelengths. In the experimental setup, the width of the phasematch was increased with a factor of 50. The method can easily be extended to other wavelength ranges and nonlinear crystals...

  18. Conversing Cooperatively: Using "Mini-Conversations" to Develop Conversational Knowledge and Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Interpersonal communication, relational communication, language and social interaction, professional communication, interviewing practices. Objectives: This single class activity enables students to understand the theoretical foundations of conversation and to develop their conversational skills by talking in dyads with classmates. Upon…

  19. GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ziganshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to highlight the current concepts of gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. The data available in Russian and foreign literature on the gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed. Functional digestive diseases are common in pediatric practice; however, their etiopathogenesis has not been adequately explored today. According to the literature, impaired cellular energy metabolism may underlie gastrointestinal motility disorders in cyclic vomiting syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, gastric stasis, chronic diarrhea, constipation, intestinal pseudoobstruction, malabsorption syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as diseases of the liver and pancreas.

  20. Lysosomal dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Tomala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent data advocate for the implication of lysosomes in the development of programmed cell death. Lysosomal dysfunction decreased the efficiency of autophagosome/lysosome fusion that leads to vacuolation of cells. Autophagic vacuoles containing damaged organelles and altered proteins are hallmarks in most neurodegenerative disorders. These aggregates consequently disrupt cellular homeostasis causing neuronal cell death due apoptosis or necrosis. Moreover calpain mediated or mutation inducted lysosomal rupture result in release of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytoplasm and inducing neuronal cell death. In this review we emphasize the pathophysiological mechanism connecting disrupting autophagy – lysosomal pathway and lysosomal dysfunction in neuronal cell death called lysosomal cell death.

  1. Energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  2. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  3. Dysfunctional problem-based learning curricula: resolving the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim William K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based learning (PBL has become the most significant innovation in medical education of the past 40 years. In contrast to exam-centered, lecture-based conventional curricula, PBL is a comprehensive curricular strategy that fosters student-centred learning and the skills desired in physicians. The rapid spread of PBL has produced many variants. One of the most common is 'hybrid PBL' where conventional teaching methods are implemented alongside PBL. This paper contends that the mixing of these two opposing educational philosophies can undermine PBL and nullify its positive benefits. Schools using hybrid PBL and lacking medical education expertise may end up with a dysfunctional curriculum worse off than the traditional approach. Discussion For hybrid PBL schools with a dysfunctional curriculum, standard PBL is a cost-feasible option that confers the benefits of the PBL approach. This paper describes the signs of a dysfunctional PBL curriculum to aid hybrid PBL schools in recognising curricular breakdown. Next it discusses alternative curricular strategies and costs associated with PBL. It then details the four critical factors for successful conversion to standard PBL: dealing with staff resistance, understanding the role of lectures, adequate time for preparation and support from the administrative leadership. Summary Hybrid PBL curricula without oversight by staff with medical education expertise can degenerate into dysfunctional curricula inferior even to the traditional approach from which PBL emerged. Such schools should inspect their curriculum periodically for signs of dysfunction to enable timely corrective action. A decision to convert fully to standard PBL is cost feasible but will require time, expertise and commitment which is only sustainable with supportive leadership.

  4. Dysfunctional problem-based learning curricula: resolving the problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Problem-based learning (PBL) has become the most significant innovation in medical education of the past 40 years. In contrast to exam-centered, lecture-based conventional curricula, PBL is a comprehensive curricular strategy that fosters student-centred learning and the skills desired in physicians. The rapid spread of PBL has produced many variants. One of the most common is 'hybrid PBL' where conventional teaching methods are implemented alongside PBL. This paper contends that the mixing of these two opposing educational philosophies can undermine PBL and nullify its positive benefits. Schools using hybrid PBL and lacking medical education expertise may end up with a dysfunctional curriculum worse off than the traditional approach. Discussion For hybrid PBL schools with a dysfunctional curriculum, standard PBL is a cost-feasible option that confers the benefits of the PBL approach. This paper describes the signs of a dysfunctional PBL curriculum to aid hybrid PBL schools in recognising curricular breakdown. Next it discusses alternative curricular strategies and costs associated with PBL. It then details the four critical factors for successful conversion to standard PBL: dealing with staff resistance, understanding the role of lectures, adequate time for preparation and support from the administrative leadership. Summary Hybrid PBL curricula without oversight by staff with medical education expertise can degenerate into dysfunctional curricula inferior even to the traditional approach from which PBL emerged. Such schools should inspect their curriculum periodically for signs of dysfunction to enable timely corrective action. A decision to convert fully to standard PBL is cost feasible but will require time, expertise and commitment which is only sustainable with supportive leadership. PMID:23009729

  5. Mice with Pulmonary Fibrosis Driven by Telomere Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Povedano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a degenerative disease of the lungs with an average survival post-diagnosis of 2–3 years. New therapeutic targets and treatments are necessary. Mutations in components of the telomere-maintenance enzyme telomerase or in proteins important for telomere protection are found in both familial and sporadic IPF cases. However, the lack of mouse models that faithfully recapitulate the human disease has hampered new advances. Here, we generate two independent mouse models that develop IPF owing to either critically short telomeres (telomerase-deficient mice or severe telomere dysfunction in the absence of telomere shortening (mice with Trf1 deletion in type II alveolar cells. We show that both mouse models develop pulmonary fibrosis through induction of telomere damage, thus providing proof of principle of the causal role of DNA damage stemming from dysfunctional telomeres in IPF development and identifying telomeres as promising targets for new treatments.

  6. Efecto de reducir la frecuencia de alimentación en la supervivencia, crecimiento, conversión y conducta alimenticia en juveniles de salmón del Atlántico Salmo salar (Linnaeus, 1758: experiencia a nivel productivo Effect of reducing the feeding frequency on the survival, growth, conversion, and feeding behavior of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus, 1758: an experience at the productive level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, la mayoría de las empresas de cultivo de salmones en la fase parr alimentan a los peces con 24 raciones/día; por otra parte, el alimento en el estómago de los peces, puede permanecer cerca de 4 a 5 h. Este trabajo evalúa en base a procedimientos y protocolos productivos, la disminución en la frecuencia de raciones de alimento y su efecto en la supervivencia, crecimiento, conversión y conducta de alimentación de los peces. Se trabajó en condiciones normales de producción comercial, con aproximadamente 1.200.000 peces de 0,17 g durante cuatro meses. Hubo dos tratamientos, el control con 24 raciones/día y el ensayo, que al inicio de la experiencia se entrego 12 raciones/día y al finalizar la experiencia se proporcionó 4 raciones/día. Se emplearon cinco estanques de 18 m³ para cada tratamiento. La disminución en la frecuencia de alimentación, no afectó la supervivencia de Salmo salar, se obtuvo mayor crecimiento en los peces del ensayo, con mejor conversión de alimento, se logró reducción de alimento depositado en el fondo de los estanques y se visualizó mejor apetito en los peces.In Chile, most salmon-farming companies feed fish in the parr phase 24 rations/day. However, food can remain in fish stomachs for around four or five hours. Using productive procedures and protocols, this study evaluates less frequent food rations and how they affect the survival, growth, conversion, and feeding behavior of the fish. The study was conducted over four months under normal commercial production conditions, using approximately 1,200,000 fish of 0.17 g each. There were two treatments: the control, which received 24 rations/day, and the assay, which received 12 rations/day at the onset of the study and 4 rations/day at the end of this. Five tanks, each 18 m³, were used for each treatment. The lower feeding frequency did not affect the survival of Salmo salar. The fish in the assay obtained greater growth and had better food

  7. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  8. Markers of primary graft dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for diagnosing transplant rejection, or a condition associated with transplant rejection, such as, primary graft dysfunction in a subject, to antigen probe arrays for performing such a diagnosis, and to antigen probe sets for generating such arrays....

  9. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  10. Current Concepts in Ejaculatory Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Jeffrey P; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G

    2006-01-01

    Although erectile dysfunction has recently become the most well-known aspect of male sexual dysfunction, the most prevalent male sexual disorders are ejaculatory dysfunctions. Ejaculatory disorders are divided into 4 categories: premature ejaculation (PE), delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anejaculation/anorgasmia. Pharmacologic treatment for certain ejaculatory disorders exists, for example the off-label use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for PE. Unfortunately, the other ejaculatory disorders are less studied and not as well understood. This review revisits the physiology of the normal ejaculatory response, specifically explores the mechanisms of anejaculation, and presents emerging data. The neurophysiology of the ejaculatory reflex is complex, making classification of the role of individual neurotransmitters extremely difficult. However, recent research has elucidated more about the role of serotonin and dopamine at the central level in the physiology of both arousal and orgasm. Other recent studies that look at differing pharmacokinetic profiles and binding affinities of the α1-antagonists serve as an indication of the centrally mediated role of ejaculation and orgasm. As our understanding of the interaction between central and peripheral modulations and regulation of the process of ejaculation increases, the probability of developing centrally acting pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of sexual dysfunction approaches reality. PMID:17215997

  11. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  12. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Brennan, Mike T.; Leeuw, Irma M. Verdonck-de; Gibson, Rachel J.; Eilers, June G.; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P.; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P.; Rouleau, Tanya S.; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C.; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  13. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  14. Conversations About Responsible Nanoresearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølberg, Kamilla Lein; Strand, Roger

    2011-04-01

    There is currently a strong focus on responsible research in relation to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This study presents a series of conversations with nanoresearchers, with the 'European Commission recommendation on a code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research' (EC-CoC) as its point of departure. Six types of reactions to the document are developed, illustrating the diversity existing within the scientific community in responses towards this kind of new approaches to governance. Three broad notions of responsible nanoresearch are presented. The article concludes by arguing that while the suggestion put forward in the EC-CoC brings the concept of responsible nanoresearch a long way, one crucial element is to be wanted, namely responsible nanoresearch as increased awareness of moral choices.

  15. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  16. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  17. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  18. Polysemy in Design Review Conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi V.; Taura, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of polysemy, defined as the quality of having multiple meanings, in design review conversations. It examines the polysemy, particularly of nouns, involved in a dataset of design review conversations with reference to design ideas. The purpose is to determine whether polysemy is related to successful development of design ideas and more creative design outcomes. The results show that the polysemy of nouns involved in the conversations of the finally developed, succ...

  19. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  20. Erectile dysfunction among men attending surgical outpatients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erectile dysfunction is becoming a public health issue with high incidences reported in community studies. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcome of treatment in men with erectile dysfunction in a tertiary center in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. Methods: Data of men with erectile dysfunction was ...

  1. Graphic Conversation #1, #2, #3

    OpenAIRE

    Harkins, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Exhibited at New Views 2: conversations and dialogues in graphic design: an international symposium defining graphic design for the future. London: College of Communication / Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne Museum

  2. The CNS and bladder dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert; Griffiths, Derek J.

    2012-01-01

    The brain's role in the development and maintenance of bladder control is critical, although its precise role in patient-reported complaints such as urgency and urine leakage is unknown. Functional brain imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of brain activity during the micturition cycle, showing multiple neuronal circuits involved as parts of a ‘brain-bladder control network.’ Yet, new advances need to be made in order to incorporate this knowledge into existing models of neuroanatomy and of clinical syndromes of bladder dysfunction and related clinical practice. This short article explains why and how brain imaging methods are poised to achieve that goal and decode the role of the brain in widely prevalent clinical conditions related to bladder dysfunction. PMID:23091564

  3. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to examine cognitive status, short – term memory, delayed recall and the retention of visual information in diabetics with polyneuropathy and to establish the impacts of some risk factors on cognitive performance.Contingent and methods: We assessed 47 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy, using the Mini Mental State Examination, 10 words test, the Benton visual retention test and the Hamilton scale.Results: Global cognitive dysfunction, decline in verbal memory and visual retention and tendency for depressive mood were observed. We found statistically significant interaction of ageing, sex, severity of pain, duration and late onset of diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive functioning. Therapy association on cognition was not found.Conclusions: Our study confirms the hypothesis of global cognitive dysfunction, associated with diabetic polyneuropathy. The interactions of sex and pain severity require further study. We arise a hypothesis of asymmetrical brain injury in diabetics.

  4. Microvascular Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T. Michael; Faraci, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of vascular risk factors on cognitive function has garnered much interest in recent years. The appropriate distribution of oxygen, glucose and other nutrients by the cerebral vasculature is critical for proper cognitive performance. The cerebral microvasculature is a key site of vascular resistance and a preferential target for small vessel disease. While deleterious effects of vascular risk factors on microvascular function are known, the contribution of this dysfunction to cognitive deficits is less clear. In this review, we summarize current evidence for microvascular dysfunction in brain. We highlight effects of select vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes and hyperhomocysteinemia) on the pial and parenchymal circulation. Lastly, we discuss potential links between microvascular disease and cognitive function, highlighting current gaps in our understanding. PMID:26988697

  5. Oral health and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence strongly supports the fact that periodontal disease is a major risk factor for various systemic diseases namely cardio-vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, etc. Recently, investigators focussed on exploring the link between chronic periodontitis (CP and erectile dysfunction (ED by contributing to the endothelial dysfunction. Both the diseases share common risk factors. Various studies conducted in different parts of the world in recent years reported the evidence linking this relationship as well as improvement in ED with periodontal treatment. Systemic exposure to the periodontal pathogen and periodontal infection-induced systemic inflammation was thought to associate with these conditions. The objective of this review was to highlight the evidence of the link between CP and ED and the importance of oral health in preventing the systemic conditions.

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  7. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  8. Postprostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the current era of the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, erectile dysfunction (ED) represents an important issue, with up to 68% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) complaining of postoperative erectile function (EF) impairment. In this context, it is crucial to comprehensively consider all factors possibly associated with the prevention of post-RP ED throughout the entire clinical management of PCa patien...

  9. Ambulatory anaesthesia and cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars S; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    , sleep deprivation, unfamiliar surroundings, and medication errors. Enhanced recovery programmes (fast-track regimens) may allow earlier discharge which is probably beneficial for the elderly. Frailty is becoming an increasingly important concept that needs to be clinically considered in elderly patients...... anaesthesia in the outpatient setting. Cognitive complications such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are less frequent in ambulatory surgery than with hospitalization. SUMMARY: The elderly are especially susceptible to adverse effects of the hospital environment such as immobilisation...

  10. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  12. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-07-07

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required.

  13. Erectile dysfunction and amatorial cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Giovanni Maria; Contalbi, Gianfranco; Ciociola, E; Mihalca, Radu

    2008-09-01

    Today cycling is considered a useful form of exercise for reducing cardiovascular risk, but it may also represent a risk factor for erectile dysfunction and perineal-genital paresthesia. These disorders are attributed to the local reduction of oxygen in the perineal-genital area, secondary to the perineal compression. Numerous studies have been carried out measuring the penile oxygen pressure or penile blood flow by echo-colour-Doppler: a reduced inflow of blood and oxygen to the cavernous tissue was demonstrated. The attention of the specialist is therefore concentrated on the compression of the perineum on the bicycle saddle and how to reduce this through the position of the cyclist on the bicycle (i.e. height and tilt of the saddle), the different shapes of saddle available (i.e. noseless, grooved, wide, etc.) and the padding materials of the saddle. In order to reduce perineal compression, the posterior part of the saddle should be as wide as the distance between the two ischiatic tuberosities. In addition, the saddle should be studied on the basis of the biotype of the cyclist: ectomorphic, mesomorphic or endomorphic. However, in the genesis of the erectile dysfunction of the cyclist, apart from the above-mentioned factors, an "individual predisposition to developing erectile dysfunction" linked to the perineal-genital anatomy (i.e. type of insertion of the perineum into the root of the penis, number of layers of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum) cannot be excluded.

  14. GPU color space conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  15. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  16. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Aging Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Den Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction may increase steadily during the aging process in women. Pelvic floor dysfunction may be associated with dysfunctions of micturition, defecation, prolapse, and sex. The natural history and mechanism of pelvic floor dysfunction in aged women are not well understood or explored. In this article, we review the effect of age on the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction and on the structural and functional changes of the lower urinary tract, anorectum and pelvic floor. Altogether, the aging process has a negative impact on either the function or structure of the lower urinary tract, anorectum and pelvic floor in women.

  17. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  18. Cosmopolitanism - Conversation with Stuart Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Forty minute conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner, filmed and edited by Haim Bresheeth. Synopsis by Sarah Harrison. Conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner on the theme of Cosmopolitanism (to be shown at the Association of Social Anthropologists Silver Jubilee conference in 2006), in March 2006

  19. Conversing Life: An Autoethnographic Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelson, Christopher N.; Burton, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography is a constructed account of a co-exploration into the nature and effects of a longitudinal dyadic conversation process from a relational constructionist perspective. The conversations, between me as participant autoethnographer and a co-participant, aimed at maximising personal learning for both. Through co-created contexts of…

  20. Wavelength conversion devices and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian; Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke

    1996-01-01

    wavelengths in an easy way and preferably without opto-electronic conversion. Here, we will first briefly look at advantages of employing optical wavelength converters in WDM networks and next review the optical wavelength conversion devices with emphasis on recent developments....

  1. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  2. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    hydro-to-electric power system, which is being strongly recognized as a unique and unconventional renewable energy solution, is the marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion technology [8]. Hydrokinetic (In Stream, or water current) energy conversion implies the utilization of the kinetic energy of rivers, streams, tidal ...

  3. Speech Acts and Conversational Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Michael L.

    This book unites speech act theory and conversation analysis to advance a theory of conversational competence, called the Dynamic Speech Act Theory (DSAT). In contrast to traditional speech act theory that focuses almost exclusively on intuitive assessments of isolated, constructed examples, this theory is predicated on the assumption that speech…

  4. dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flow diminishes. Decreased coronary blood flow results in myocardial ischaemia, tissue infarction, mitral insufficiency and dilated ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Approximately 10–15% of ... placed at the level of T12 on the patient's back lateral to the vertebrae to ... cardiopulmonary bypass and achieve haemodynamic stability.

  5. Obesity-induced lymphatic dysfunction is reversible with weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Matthew D; Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; García Nores, Gabriela D; Savetsky, Ira L; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Gardenier, Jason C; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-12-01

    Obesity induces lymphatic leakiness, decreases initial lymphatic vessel density, impairs collecting vessel pumping and decreases transport of macromolecules. Obesity results in perilymphatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and accumulation of T cells and macrophages. Deleterious effects of obesity on the lymphatic system correlate with weight gain. Weight loss restores lymphatic function in obese animals and decreases perilymphatic iNOS and inflammatory cell accumulation. Although clinical and experimental studies have shown that obesity results in lymphatic dysfunction, it remains unknown whether these changes are permanent or reversible with weight loss. In the current study, we used a mouse model of diet-induced obesity to identify putative cellular mechanisms of obesity-induced lymphatic dysfunction, determine whether there is a correlation between these deleterious effects and increasing weight gain, and finally examine whether lymphatic dysfunction is reversible with diet-induced weight loss. We report that obesity is negatively correlated with cutaneous lymphatic collecting vessel pumping rate (r = -0.9812, P weight gain and accumulation of perilymphatic inflammatory cells (r = 0.9872, P Weight loss resulting from conversion to a normal chow diet for 8 weeks resulted in more than a 25% decrease in body weight and normalized cutaneous lymphatic collecting vessel pumping rate, lymphatic vessel density, lymphatic leakiness, and lymphatic macromolecule clearance (all P weight loss markedly decreased perilymphatic inflammation and iNOS expression. Taken together, our findings show that obesity is linearly correlated with lymphatic dysfunction, perilymphatic inflammation and iNOS expression, and that weight loss via dietary modification effectively reverses these deleterious effects. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  6. Antipsychotics and Sexual Dysfunction: Sexual Dysfunction - Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying sexual experience is an essential part of a healthy and enjoyable life for most people. Antipsychotic drugs are among the various factors that affect optimal sexual functioning. Both conventional and novel antipsychotics are associated with significant sexual side effects. This review has presented various studies comparing different antipsychotic drugs. Dopamine antagonism, increased serum prolactin, serotonergic, adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are all proposed to be the mechanisms for sexual dysfunction. Drug treatment for this has not given satisfactory long-term results. Knowledge of the receptor pharmacology of an individual antipsychotic will help to determine whether it is more or less likely to cause sexual side effects and its management.

  7. High Triglycerides Predicts Arteriogenic Erectile Dysfunction and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Subjects With Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Cipriani, Sarah; Rastrelli, Giulia; Sforza, Alessandra; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The atherogenic role of triglycerides (TG) remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to analyze the contribution of TG in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to verify the value of elevated TG in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). An unselected series of 3,990 men attending our outpatient clinic for sexual dysfunction was retrospectively studied. A subset of this sample (n = 1,687) was enrolled in a longitudinal study. Several clinical, biochemical, and instrumental (penile color Doppler ultrasound; PCDU) factors were evaluated. Among the patients studied, after adjustment for confounders, higher TG levels were associated with arteriogenic ED and a higher risk of clinical and biochemical hypogonadism. Conversely, no association between TG and other sexual dysfunctions was observed. When pathological PCDU parameters-including flaccid acceleration (<1.17 m/sec(2)) or dynamic peak systolic velocity (PSV <35 cm/sec)-were considered, the negative association between impaired penile flow and higher TG levels was confirmed, even when subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or those with diabetes were excluded from the analysis (OR = 6.343 [1.243;32.362], P = .026 and 3.576 [1.104;11.578]; P = .34 for impaired acceleration and PSV, respectively). Similarly, when the same adjusted models were applied, TG levels were associated with a higher risk of hypogonadism, independently of the definition criteria (OR = 2.892 [1.643;5.410], P < .0001 and 4.853 [1.965;11.990]; P = .001 for total T <12 and 8 nM, respectively). In the longitudinal study, after adjusting for confounders, elevated TG levels (upper quartile: 162-1686 mg/dL) were independently associated with a higher incidence of MACE (HR = 2.469 [1.019;5.981]; P = .045), when compared to the rest of the sample. Our data suggest an association between elevated TG and arteriogenic ED and its cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification. Whether the use of TG lowering drugs

  8. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  9. Differences of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction in ventricular fibrillation versus asphyxiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cai-Jun; Li, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jun; Yin, Qin; Hang, Chen-Chen

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to characterize postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction in 2 porcine models of cardiac arrest (CA): ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VFCA) and asphyxiation cardiac arrest (ACA). Thirty-two pigs were randomized into 2 groups. The VFCA group (n = 16) were subject to programed electrical stimulation, and the ACA group (n = 16) underwent endotracheal tube clamping to induce CA. Once induced, CA remained untreated for 8 minutes. Two minutes after initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation was attempted until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved or animals died. Return of spontaneous circulation was 100% successful in VFCA and 50% successful in ACA. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration in VFCA was about half as short as in ACA. The survival time of VFCA was significantly longer than that of ACA. Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest had better mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and left ventricular ± dp/dt(max) after ROSC than ACA. Echocardiography revealed significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction in ACA than in VFCA. Myocardial perfusion imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography demonstrated that myocardial injuries after ACA were more severe and widespread than after VFCA. Under a transmission electron microscope, the overall heart morphologic structure and the mitochondrial crista structure were less severely injured in the VFCA group than in the ACA group. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cardiomyocytes was higher in ACA than in VFCA. Compared with VFCA, ACA causes more severe cardiac dysfunction associated with less successful resuscitation and shorter survival time. © 2013.

  10. ECHO parameters of diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, A; Khojeini, Ev; Larson, Df

    2008-09-01

    Most patients with cardiac disease have diastolic dysfunction which is characterized by impaired diastolic filling and/or abnormal diastolic relaxation. The trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) used routinely during open-heart surgical procedures has exceptional resolution that may permit the identification and grading of diastolic dysfunction. The goal of this study was to determine which echocardiography (ECHO) parameters can best describe diastolic dysfunction due to myocardial remodeling and fibrosis. Baseline transthoracic ECHO was performed on 3-month-old C57BL/6J female mice followed by administration of isoproterenol (2 microg/g/d) for 6 days. On day 7, transthoracic ECHO was performed to determine the change of left ventricular (LV) inflow parameters due to isoproterenol-mediated cardiac remodeling. The mid-LV region was stained with picrosirius red to quantify myocardial fibrosis and demonstrated a 5-fold increase in cardiac fibrosis (p = 0.002). LV mass was increased by 36% (p = 0.0016). Mitral valve flow Doppler peak velocities E and A were measured from a 4-chamber view. The E/A ratio did not change, but the E deceleration time, velocity time integral of the E-A complex (E-A VTI), E/E-A VTI ratio, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), and diastolic time all significantly increased. The corresponding tissue Doppler parameter, Ea/Aa ratio, decreased by 25% (p = 0.035). The left atrial dimension and the ECHO index of left atrial pressure (E/Ea) significantly increased (p < 0.02). These data suggest that, with a long-axis and a 4-chamber view, the clinician can adequately determine diastolic function in the open-heart surgical patient.

  11. Pseudotumor Cerebri and Glymphatic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luciano de Souza Bezerra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to virtually all organ systems of the body, the central nervous system was until recently believed to be devoid of a lymphatic system. The demonstration of a complex system of paravascular channels formed by the endfeet of astroglial cells ultimately draining into the venous sinuses has radically changed this idea. The system is subsidized by the recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF through the brain parenchyma along paravascular spaces (PVSs and by exchanges with the interstitial fluid (IF. Aquaporin-4 channels are the chief transporters of water through these compartments. This article hypothesizes that glymphatic dysfunction is a major pathogenetic mechanism underpinning idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. The rationale for the hypothesis springs from MRI studies, which have shown many signs related to IIH without evidence of overproduction of CSF. We propose that diffuse retention of IF is a direct consequence of an imbalance of glymphatic flow. This imbalance, in turn, may result from an augmented flow from the arterial PVS into the IF, by impaired outflow of the IF into the paravenous spaces, or both. Our hypothesis is supported by the facts that (i visual loss, one of the main complications of IIH, is secondary to the impaired drainage of the optic nerve, a nerve richly surrounded by water channels and with a long extracranial course in its meningeal sheath; (ii there is a high association between IIH and obesity, a condition related to paravascular inflammation and lymphatic disturbance, and (iii glymphatic dysfunction has been related to the deposition of β-amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude that the concept of glymphatic dysfunction provides a new perspective for understanding the pathophysiology of IIH; it may likewise entice the development of novel therapeutic approaches aiming at enhancing the flow between the CSF, the glymphatic system, and the dural sinuses.

  12. Dementia risk in renal dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Ileana; van Boxtel, Martin P.J.; Verhey, Frans R.J.; Irving, Kate; Brayne, Carol; Kivipelto, Miia; Starr, John M.; Yaffe, Kristine; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Köhler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Renal dysfunction has been linked with increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia, but studies are conflicting. For that reason, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize the best available evidence on the prospective association between potential markers of renal dysfunction and development of cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for potential publications until August 1, 2016. Studies were eligible if they fulfilled the following criteria: population-based study, prospective design, ≥100 participants, aged ≥45 years, ≥1 year follow-up, and cognition/dementia outcomes. Where appropriate, random effects meta-analyses were conducted yielding pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Twenty-two out of 8,494 abstracts fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Sufficient evidence was found for albuminuria, mixed results for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), insufficient support for cystatin C, and tentative evidence for serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. Meta-analyses of 5 studies representing 27,805 persons showed a 35% increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in those with albuminuria (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06–1.73, p = 0.015), whereas eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed no significant association (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.99–1.65, p = 0.063). No meta-analyses could be done for serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, or cystatin C. Conclusions: The overall evidence for an association between renal dysfunction and cognitive impairment or dementia is modest. Evidence suggests that albuminuria is associated with higher odds of developing cognitive impairment or dementia. PMID:27974647

  13. Drug addiction and sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaazaa, Adham; Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany

    2013-09-01

    This article attempts to review the most current and the well-established facts concerning drug addiction and sexual dysfunction. Surprisingly, even though alcohol is prevalent in many societies with many myths surrounding its sexual-enhancing effects, current scientific research cannot provide a solid conclusion on its effect on sexual function. Unfortunately, the same concept applies to tobacco smoking; however, most of the current knowledge tends to support the notion that it, indeed, can negatively affect sexual function. Similar ambiguities also prevail with substances of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilariño Jorge O

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endothelium is a thin monocelular layer that covers all the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues. It is not an inactive organ, quite the opposite. It works as a receptor-efector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the correct substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. The endothelium regulating homeostasis by controlling the production of prothrombotic and antithrombotic components, and fibrynolitics and antifibrynolitics. Also intervenes in cell proliferation and migration, in leukocyte adhesion and activation and in immunological and inflammatory processes. Cardiovascular risk factors cause oxidative stress that alters the endothelial cells capacity and leads to the so called endothelial "dysfunction" reducing its capacity to maintain homeostasis and leads to the development of pathological inflammatory processes and vascular disease. There are different techniques to evaluate the endothelium functional capacity, that depend on the amount of NO produced and the vasodilatation effect. The percentage of vasodilatation with respect to the basal value represents the endothelial functional capacity. Taking into account that shear stress is one of the most important stimulants for the synthesis and release of NO, the non-invasive technique most often used is the transient flow-modulate "endothelium-dependent" post-ischemic vasodilatation, performed on conductance arteries such as the brachial, radial or femoral arteries. This vasodilatation is compared with the

  15. Ageing with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-01-01

    at 18% in 1996 and 19% in 2015. During the 19-year period, there had been no significant change in the methods for bowel care, but 22 (20%) had undergone surgery for bowel dysfunction, including 11 (10%) who had some form of stoma. Conclusion: Self-assessed severity of constipation increased but quality...... of life remained stable in a cohort of people with SCI followed prospectively for 19 years. Methods for bowel care remained surprisingly stable but a large proportion had undergone stoma surgery....

  16. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  17. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  18. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  19. Metric Conversion: Remedy or Rip-Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, John P.

    1975-01-01

    Opinions on metric conversion from seven large industrial organizations reflect inadequate evidence predicating conversion, no compelling need for conversion, opposition to hard conversion, lack of information about the financial and social costs of conversion, and feelings that metrics as the sole language of measurement will be regressive.…

  20. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induces vascular dysfunction in obese OLETF rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Penghao [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Xie, Qihai [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Jiading District Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wei, Tong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yichen [Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen100@shsmu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: wlshen@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-04

    Objective: Obesity-induced vascular dysfunction is related to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Recent studies indicate that NLRP3, a multiprotein complex formed by NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members, is a key component mediating internal sterile inflammation, but the role in obesity-related vascular dysfunction is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigate whether NLRP3 activation is involved in vascular inflammation in obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats (OLETF). Methods and results: Male OLETF with their control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats (LETO) were studied at 3 and 12 months of age. Aortic relaxation in response to acetylcholine decreased gradually with age in both strains, with early and persistent endothelium dysfunction in obese OLETF compared with age-matched LETO controls. These changes are associated with parallel changes of aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) content, macrophage accumulation and intimal thickening. NLRP3 increased in OLETF rats compared to LETO. Consistent with inflammasome activation, the conversion of procaspase-1 to cleaved and activated forms as well as IL-1β markedly increased in OLETF rats. Additionally, we observed increased expression of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) and decreased fusion-relative protein optic atropy-1(OPA1). Altered mitochondrial dynamics was associated with elevated oxidative stress level in OLETF aortas. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that obesity seems to accelerate endothelial dysfunction in OLETFs via the activation of NLRP3 and mitochondrial dysfunction. - Highlights: • NLRP3 is involved in obesity-induced vascular dysfunction. • Impaired mitochondrial dynamics may have been linked to mitochondrial defect and inflammasome activation. • Obesity seems to accelerate vascular dysfunction via NLRP3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Efficacy of propranolol treatment in thyroid dysfunction associated with severe infantile hepatic hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergine, Gianluca; Marsciani, Alberto; Pedini, Annalisa; Brocchi, Silvia; Marsciani, Martino; Desiderio, Elena; Bertelli, Sara; Vecchi, Vico

    2012-01-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioma can be associated to consumptive hypothyroidism due to overexpression of type 3 deiodinase in the endothelium of vascular tumor, which catalyzes the conversion of T4 to reverse T3 (rT3) and of T3 to T2, both of which are biologically inactive. Here, we report an infant with a massive biopsy-proven infantile hepatic hemangioma who developed thyroid dysfunction without a typical biochemical profile consistent with severe consumptive hypothyroidism, despite the large tumor burden. Our patient was treated with propranolol that rapidly resolved both hepatic hemangioma and thyroid dysfunction. We propose propranolol as a first-line therapy of thyroid dysfunction associated with infantile hepatic hemangioma, in order to avoid interference with neurological development caused by hypothyroidism in the first months of life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Cardio-oncology Related to Heart Failure: Pediatric Considerations for Cardiac Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Felker, Kirsten; Border, William L; Hong, Borah J; Chow, Eric J

    2017-04-01

    Although tremendous advances in pediatric cancer treatment have improved the survival of many children, these patients remain at increased risk of early morbidity and mortality with cardiovascular disease as a leading cause of death. Heightened awareness in providers with increased surveillance and improvement in cardiovascular imaging modalities have led to earlier detection of cardiac dysfunction, but the outcomes remain poor once this has dysfunction developed. A great deal of work remains to be done to refine screening and identify high-risk patients more precisely, and to develop more evidence-based strategies for effective primary and secondary cardioprotection and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular drugs and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Branka M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a disorder, which basically can have organic nature, psychological or mixed. ED is not a rarity, and data on its prevalence vary, depending on the areas in which the survey was conducted, followed by a period of research and the definition of the disorder. Most of the men associate ED problem with using drugs, especially cardiac. Even though there is some truth in it, mainly the real causes of ED are not well known even to professionals. Contemporary studies of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease, have shown the clear link between erectile dysfunction and coronary heart disease, wherein ED first manifests. While, ED precedes the onset of symptoms of coronary heart disease and show to the patient and the physician a clear signal of the direction for conducting diagnostic tests and further treatment in the interest of the health of patients. Endocrine, and neurological disorders, as well as bad habits in addition to the cardiac and kidney disease, lead to ED. It is known also, that the use of cardiac medicines may contribute to ED occurrence. Better knowledge of adverse reactions to medicines, a better understanding of the nature of the disease and the implementation of necessary diagnostic procedures, with a good choice of medication, contribute to solving problems related to ED. If all mentioned do not help, there is the possibility of using new drugs to correct ED.

  4. [Male sexual dysfunctions and homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuillet, P; Cour, F; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    The homosexuality, which expresses itself through a varied and complex behavior that those whom are shared by the heterosexual majority, is not that a simple sexual behavior, obvious or not, but a whole set of attitudes, affects, preferences, values, lifestyle which concern profoundly the individual, as the heterosexuality. A review of the literature using PubMed database has been performed to select 38 articles. Among sexual difficulties met by the gays, erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire are the more frequent. Concerning the ejaculation disorders observed in the gay population, premature ejaculation is rather rare in comparison with heterosexual men; however delayed ejaculation or anejaculation are more frequent. Painful sexual disorders in particular anodyspareunia are also reported. Sexual disorder management must follows the classic rules but it is necessary to be aware how to approach the specific questions affecting the homosexual persons. Still the homosexual person has to find a competent therapist, "opened" to the sexual problem of the homosexuals, with the aim of a care privileging the efficiency to efficacy in the respect for the truth of the homosexual person. The homosexuality is the only one of the "unusual" sexual conducts to possibly concern the daily medical practice due to is prevalence. The management of sexual dysfunctions must privilege the "meeting" in a quest of sense in front of any sexual symptom, whatever the individual sexual orientation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  6. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. PMID:28459142

  7. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glu......Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin...... of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion...... present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D....

  8. Response and outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rita Ilhão; Cunha, Pedro Silva; Rio, Pedro; da Silva, Manuel Nogueira; Branco, Luísa Moura; Galrinho, Ana; Feliciano, Joana; Soares, Rui; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; Oliveira, Mário Martins

    2018-02-19

    Renal dysfunction is often associated with chronic heart failure, leading to increased morbi-mortality. However, data regarding these patients after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is sparse. We sought to evaluate response and long-term mortality in patients with heart failure and renal dysfunction and assess renal improvement after CRT. We analyzed 178 consecutive patients who underwent successful CRT device implantation (age 64 ± 11 years; 69% male; 92% in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ≥ III; 34% with ischemic cardiomyopathy). Echocardiographic response was defined as ≥ 15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic diameter and clinical response as a sustained improvement of at least one NYHA functional class. Renal dysfunction was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Renal dysfunction was present in 34.7%. Renal dysfunction was not an independent predictor of echocardiographic response (OR 1.109, 95% CI 0.713-1.725, p 0.646) nor clinical response (OR 1.003; 95% CI 0.997-1.010; p 0.324). During follow-up (mean 55.2 ± 32 months), patients with eGFR < 60mL/min/1.73 m 2 had higher overall mortality (HR 4.902, 95% CI 1.118-21.482, p 0.035). However, clinical response in patients with renal dysfunction was independently associated with better long-term survival (HR 0.236, 95% CI 0.073-0.767, p 0.016). Renal function was significantly improved in patients who respond to CRT (ΔeGFR + 5.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 at baseline vs. follow-up, p 0.049), while this was not evident in nonresponders. Improvements in eGFR of at least 10 mL/min/1.73 m 2 were associated with improved survival in renal dysfunction patients (log-rank p 0.036). Renal dysfunction was associated with higher long-term mortality in CRT patients, though, it did not influence echocardiographic nor functional response. Despite worse overall prognosis, renal dysfunction patients who are responders showed long-term survival benefit

  9. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  10. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  11. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  12. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  13. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  14. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  15. Conversion Tables For PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín VÍTEČEK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the mutual conversion of the controller adjustable parameters for six different transfer function forms of the PID controllers. These considered forms are the most frequent used in the technical experience.

  16. Energy Conversion in Laser Propulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of energy conversion in laser propulsion is reported and compared to experimental studies of a laboratory scale propulsion device that absorbs laser energy and converts that energy to propellant kinetic energy...

  17. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T van den Heever

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine sulphate infusion, magnesium sulphate, and clonidine. She also received adrenaline and phenylephrine infusions as needed for hypotension. We then discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options of autonomic dysfunction.

  18. Role of Lipotoxicity in Endothelial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong-a; Montagnani, Monica; Chandrasekran, Sruti; Quon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Lipotoxicity, caused in large part by overnutrition, directly leads to endothelial dysfunction. Excess lipids in both the circulation and at the tissue level contribute to endothelial dysfunction that underlies much of the pathophysiology of both metabolic disease, including obesity and diabetes and their CV complications. Direct lipotoxic effects on other organs as well as secondary insults from endothelial dysfunction synergize to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle interve...

  19. Sexual dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raisi

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: High prevalence of sexual dysfunction in OCD women and significant correlation between male sexual dysfunction and OCD (r= -481.0 between total score of OCI-R with erectile dysfunction and r= -458.0 between total score of OCI-R and sexual satisfaction could confirm a relation between OCD and sexual disorders. So, evaluation of sexual function in all patients with OCD is recommended.

  20. Developing Interventions for Cancer-Related Cognitive Dysfunction in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Nicole J.; Whelen, Megan J.; Lange, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. PMID:25080574

  1. Paradoxical therapy in conversion reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Ataoglu, Ahmet; Ozcetin, Adnan; Icmeli, Celalettin; Ozbulut, Omer

    2003-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour such as performing compulsive ritual or wanting a conversion attack. In this study, the subjects were selected by the emergency unit psychiatrist from patients who were admitted to the emergency unit with pseudoseizure. The diagnoses was based on DSM-IV criteria. Paradoxical intention was applied to half of the 30 patients with conversion disorders; the other half were treated with diaz...

  2. Cardiovascular dysfunction in infants with neonatal encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Armstrong, Katey

    2012-04-01

    Severe perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy occurs in approximately 1-2\\/1000 live births and is an important cause of cerebral palsy and associated neurological disabilities in children. Multiorgan dysfunction commonly occurs as part of the asphyxial episode, with cardiovascular dysfunction occurring in up to a third of infants. This narrative paper attempts to review the literature on the importance of early recognition of cardiac dysfunction using echocardiography and biomarkers such as troponin and brain type natriuretic peptide. These tools may allow accurate assessment of cardiac dysfunction and guide therapy to improve outcome.

  3. Imaging for evaluation of erectile dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Penile erection is a complex phenomenon that includes coordinated intraaction of the nervous, arterial, venous, and sinusoidal systems. A defect in any of these systems may result in erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is defined as the consistent inability to generate or maintain an erection of sufficient rigidity for sexual intercourse. Although the introduction of sildenafil citrate made the information from imaging studies less critical in the management of the patients with erectile dysfunction, still the imaging studies such as Doppler US, penile arteriography, and cavemosonetry/cavemosography remain the major modalities in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

  4. Dysfunctional gaze processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berchio

    2017-01-01

    The present study provides neurophysiological evidence for abnormal gaze processing in BP and suggests dysfunctional processing of direct eye contact as a prominent characteristic of bipolar disorder.

  5. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  6. Learning-Disabled Children as Conversational Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mavis

    1983-01-01

    Research is reviewed on conversational competence in learning disabled (LD) children. LD children are viewed as eager to fulfill conversational responsibilities while compensating for linguistic inadequacies. Findings emphasize the importance of teaching conversational skills. (CL)

  7. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  8. The Wavelength Conversion in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bahleda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we deal with a problem of wavelength conversion in WDM networks and with the wavelength conversion impact on throughput of network. The throughput of networks is determined in terms of blocking probability. The optical networks can be built without wavelength conversion or with full or limited wavelength conversion. Different traffic models are designed for different types of wavelength conversions, which describe performance of wavelength conversion. I describe some results of these models.

  9. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators improve survival after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with severely impaired left ventricular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasque Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Patients with severe left ventricular (LV dysfunction have a poor long term survival despite complete surgical revascularization. Recent data suggests that the use of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD improves survival in patients with severe LV dysfunction. We compared the survival impact of ICD implantation in patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent CABG. Methods Between January 1996 and August 2004, 305 patients with LV ejection fraction (EF ≤25% had CABG surgery at our institution. Demographics of patients who had received an ICD (ICD+ in the post -operative period was compared to those without ICD (ICD-. Survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the entire group, 35 (11.5% patients received an ICD with a median of 2 (+/-2 years after CABG. Indication for ICD implantation was clinical evidence of non sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT. There were no differences between the 2 groups with respect to age, gender, NYHA classification, number of bypasses, or other co-morbidities. Survival at 1, 3 and 5 years was 88%, 79%, and 67% for the ICD- group compared to 94%, 89% and 83% for the ICD+ group, respectively (figure, p Conclusion Implantation of ICD after CABG confers improved short and long term survival benefit to patients with severe LV dysfunction. Prophylactic ICD implantation in the setting of severe LV dysfunction and CABG surgery should be considered.

  10. Impact of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery and pacemaker therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Iwata, Yusuke; Matsumura, Goki; Konuma, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    In the long-term period after Fontan operation, atrial arrhythmia was one of the important factors to decide the postoperative quality of life. We reviewed the impact of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery and pacemaker therapy. Thirty-eight patients underwent Fontan conversion using extracardiac conduit from 1992, and 22 patients with atrial arrhythmia underwent maze procedure simultaneously using cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation and epicardial DDD pacemaker implantation and 16 patients had regular 'sinus' rhythm before Fontan conversion. Mean follow-up period was 52 months. Pre- and postoperative clinical course were analyzed. Average weight, age at Fontan conversion, and years after first Fontan operation were 49.0 kg, 25.8 years old, 14.7 years, respectively. Nineteen percent of patients were in New York Heart Association class I (NYHA I), and 74% of patients were in NYHA II, and 7% were in NYHA III, respectively. Except three early deaths, actual survival rate at 1 year and 5 years were 80% and 64%, respectively. In survivors, 80% of the patients obtained regular heart rhythm including artificial pacemaker rhythm, although only 43% of the patients had regular 'sinus' rhythm before the Fontan conversion. Postoperative average cardiothoracic ratio and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were 50% and 94%, and 74% of patients were in NYHA I and 26% were in NYHA II, respectively, after Fontan conversion. Mid-term results of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery and pacemaker therapy were acceptable. Restoration of regular rhythm might improve the postoperative NYHA status and the activity of the daily life. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorino MI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Ida Maiorino,1 Giuseppe Bellastella,1 Katherine Esposito2 1Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Geriatric Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries. It has been associated with sexual dysfunction, both in males and in females. Diabetes is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, as a threefold increased risk of erectile dysfunction was documented in diabetic men, as compared with nondiabetic men. Among women, evidence regarding the association between diabetes and sexual dysfunction are less conclusive, although most studies have reported a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in diabetic women as compared with nondiabetic women. Female sexual function appears to be more related to social and psychological components than to the physiological consequence of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, which is a main determinant of vascular and microvascular diabetic complications, may participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of sexual dysfunction in diabetes. Moreover, diabetic people may present several clinical conditions, including hypertension, overweight and obesity, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, which are themselves risk factors for sexual dysfunction, both in men and in women. The adoption of healthy lifestyles may reduce insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress – all of which are desirable achievements in diabetic patients. Improved well-being may further contribute to reduce and prevent sexual dysfunction in both sexes. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetes complications, erectile dysfunction, female sexual dysfunction, lifestyle changes

  12. Inside the Spiral of Dysfunction: The Personal Consequences of Working for a Dysfunctional Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; Rose, Kevin; Bergman, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional leaders suffocate others with coercive power and ego, are unpredictable, and often lack self-awareness about their dysfunction. Dysfunctional leaders are incredibly difficult to work with and can cause a series of cascading personal consequences for employees who work with them. This Perspectives in Human Resource Development essay…

  13. Right ventricular dysfunction in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: Prognostic value and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Clement; Selton-Suty, Christine; Huttin, Olivier; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Aliot, Etienne; Juillière, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is an important predictor of impaired prognosis in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. To determine the prognostic role of RV dysfunction, independent of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. A total of 136 consecutive patients (73% men; mean age 59.0±13.2 years) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (LV ejection fraction ≤ 45%) were enrolled retrospectively. Thirty-four patients (25%, group 1) presented with RV dysfunction, defined as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ≤ 15 mm; 102 patients (group 2) had preserved RV function. Mean LV ejection fraction was 27.5±8.7%. Mean TAPSE was 18.6±5.4 mm (15-21.8 mm). Multivariable predictors of RV dysfunction were LV outflow tract time-velocity integral (odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-0.9; P=0.003) and E-wave deceleration time ≤ 145 ms (odds ratio 4.1, 95% CI 1.3-12.8; P=0.017). Major adverse cardiac event-free survival rates at 1 and 2 years were 64% and 55%, respectively, in group 1 and 87% and 79%, respectively, in group 2 (P=0.002). Both by multivariable analysis and after stratification using a propensity score, RV dysfunction emerged as an independent predictor for major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.6; P=0.009), along with right atrium area and age. In idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, RV dysfunction with TAPSE ≤ 15 mm offers additional prognostic information, independent of the extent of LV dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel porcine model of early left ventricular dysfunction for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nadim Malik, Kelly A Farrell, Sarah B Withers, Elizabeth J Wright, Cathy M HoltInstitute for Cardiovascular Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United KingdomBackground: The early stages of left ventricular (LV dysfunction account for a much larger proportion of the population with heart disease than that with clinical heart failure. However, LV dysfunction is more difficult to diagnose than established heart failure, and because of this it is not usually treated. Research on LV dysfunction is commonly conducted in small animal models in which the cardiac pathophysiology is dissimilar to that in humans, thereby restricting translation. This study aimed to use a novel pig model of mild to moderate early ischemic LV dysfunction to assess the effects of such dysfunction in the myocardium.Methods: Multiple areas of controlled microinfarcts were created via microembolization using embolization beads, with invasive hemodynamic and transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of LV function. Four weeks after intervention, the hearts were explanted for determination of the infarcted surface area and analysis of calcium regulatory proteins.Results: In vivo hemodynamic measurements confirmed a >25% decrease in LV dP/dt (maximum and minimum with creation of microinfarcts compared with baseline, whilst echocardiography showed mild to moderate LV dysfunction. Perioperative mortality was 10%–15%. In surviving pigs, morphometry at 4 weeks confirmed that up to 20% of the total LV surface area contained microinfarcts. Western blot analysis showed alterations in levels of the calcium regulatory proteins, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase and sodium-calcium exchange, in infarcted areas, compared with normal LV tissue from the same animals.Conclusion: These results demonstrate the usefulness of this model for investigation of the precise molecular and cellular changes associated with early mild to moderate LV dysfunction from ischemic injury, and its

  15. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  16. Psychopathy: cognitive and neural dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Blair, R. James

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is a developmental disorder marked by emotional deficits and an increased risk for antisocial behavior. It is not equivalent to the diagnosis Antisocial Personality Disorder, which concentrates only on the increased risk for antisocial behavior and not a specific cause—ie, the reduced empathy and guilt that constitutes the emotional deficit. The current review considers data from adults with psychopathy with respect to the main cognitive accounts of the disorder that stress either a primary attention deficit or a primary emotion deficit. In addition, the current review considers data regarding the neurobiology of this disorder. Dysfunction within the amygdala's role in reinforcement learning and the role of ventromedial frontal cortex in the representation of reinforcement value is stressed. Data is also presented indicating potential difficulties within parts of temporal and posterior cingulate cortex. Suggestions are made with respect to why these deficits lead to the development of the disorder. PMID:24174892

  17. Animal models of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehlata V Gajbhiye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have contributed to a great extent to understanding and advancement in the field of sexual medicine. Many current medical and surgical therapies in sexual medicine have been tried based on these animal models. Extensive literature search revealed that the compiled information is limited. In this review, we describe various experimental models of erectile dysfunction (ED encompassing their procedures, variables of assessment, advantages and disadvantages. The search strategy consisted of review of PubMed based articles. We included original research work and certain review articles available in PubMed database. The search terms used were "ED and experimental models," "ED and nervous stimulation," "ED and cavernous nerve stimulation," "ED and central stimulation," "ED and diabetes mellitus," "ED and ageing," "ED and hypercholesteremia," "ED and Peyronie′s disease," "radiation induced ED," "telemetric recording," "ED and mating test" and "ED and non-contact erection test."

  18. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-05-08

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will ( 1 ) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, ( 2 ) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and ( 3 ) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Mechanisms of ectopic gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, P J

    2010-11-29

    Gene conversion (conversion), the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells, the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template) information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favor the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  20. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  1. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  2. Thyroid dysfunction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Perminova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the rate and structure of thyroid diseases in infertile women and to asses their reproductive system depending upon the thyroid pathology. Subjects and methods. The study was based on the results of screening of T status of 496 women with infertility (main group and 80 fertile women (control group. Traditional methods of diagnosis of infertility were used along with special methods of investigation including assessment of function and structure of T (TTH, fT4, fT3, AT-TPO, AT-rTTH, ultrasound examination of T, thin-niddle aspirational biopsy, scintigraphy of T. A complex evaluation of the reproductive system status in infertile women was done depending on the type of T pathology. Results. Infertile women were found to suffer from thyroid dysfunction 3.8 times as more often as fertile ones (48% and 12.5%, p <0.05. Its structure included mainly AT-TPO carrier phenomenon in combination with ultrasound markers of thyroid autoimmunity (24%, hypothyroidism following thyroid autoimmunity (9.4% demonstrating itself as clinical (0.8%, subclinical (8.6%, and euthyroid (7.8% goiters. The portion of women with infertility and hyperthyroidism was small (0.6%. An association of thyroid autoimmunity with idiopathic infertility, endometriosis, endocrine infertility was found. Conclusion. It is necessary to perform a screening assessment of the function and structure of T in infertile women within diagnostic search for the reasons of infertility and in-time correction of the revealed thyroid dysfunction.

  3. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  4. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  5. Myocardial dysfunction in pediatric septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Shashi; Killinger, James S; Gonzalez, Jennifer A; Lopez, Leo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and significance of myocardial dysfunction in children with septic shock. Thirty patients with septic shock were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography within 24 hours of admission to a pediatric critical care unit. Transthoracic echocardiography evaluation included left ventricular (LV) size and function, mitral valve inflow velocities in early and late diastole, mitral valve annular velocities in systole and early and late diastole, and LV myocardial performance index. LV systolic dysfunction was defined as an ejection fraction or shortening fraction z-score 2. Secondary outcomes included troponin I concentration, acute kidney injury, and 28-day mechanical ventilation-free duration. Mortality for the 30 patients (mean age, 9.5 ± 7 years) was 7%. The prevalence of LV systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction was 53% (16 of 30). Eleven patients (37%) had systolic dysfunction, 10 (33%) had diastolic dysfunction, and 5 (17%) had both. Systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction was significantly associated with troponin I level (P = .007) and acute kidney injury (P = .02), but not with ventilation-free duration (P = .12). Kaplan-Meier analyses for pediatric critical care unit and hospital length of stay identified no differences between patients with and those without myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial dysfunction occurs frequently in children with septic shock but might not affect hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexual dysfunction is common in patients receiving psychotropic medications and may reduce their quality of life and medication adherence with resultant negative impact on treatment outcomes. Objectives: In this study, we described the various types of sexual dysfunction among psychiatric outpatients ...

  7. Peri-operative cognitive dysfunction and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2016-01-01

    factors, the predominant one being age. Ignorance of the causes for postoperative cognitive dysfunction contributes to the difficulty of conducting interventional studies. Postoperative cognitive disorders are associated with increased mortality and permanent disability. Peri-operative interventions can...... reduce the rate of delirium in the elderly, but in spite of promising findings in animal experiments, no intervention reduces postoperative cognitive dysfunction in humans....

  8. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  9. Psychosocial dysfunction among adolescents who abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Substance abuse has been associated with psychosocial dysfunction from previous reports; however, the prevalence and pattern of such morbidity is unknown in our environment. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of psychosocial dysfunction among adolescents who ...

  10. Erectile Dysfunction Among Men Attending Surgical Outpatients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-05

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in Nigerian men. Int J Impot Res. 2003;15 Suppl 1:S15‑8. 19. Heidelbaugh JJ. Management of erectile dysfunction. Am Fam. Physician 2010;81:305‑12. [Downloaded free from http://www.nigerianjsurg.com on Tuesday, April 05, 2016, IP: 41.132.79.253

  11. Symptoms of Nerve Dysfunction After Hip Arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippmann, Christian; Thorborg, Kristian; Kraemer, Otto

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the rate, pattern, and severity of symptoms of nerve dysfunction after hip arthroscopy (HA) by reviewing prospectively collected data. The secondary purpose was to study whether symptoms of nerve dysfunction were related to traction time. ...

  12. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  13. Conversation level syntax similarity metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghrati, Reihane; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Garten, Justin; Dehghani, Morteza

    2017-07-11

    The syntax and semantics of human language can illuminate many individual psychological differences and important dimensions of social interaction. Accordingly, psychological and psycholinguistic research has begun incorporating sophisticated representations of semantic content to better understand the connection between word choice and psychological processes. In this work we introduce ConversAtion level Syntax SImilarity Metric (CASSIM), a novel method for calculating conversation-level syntax similarity. CASSIM estimates the syntax similarity between conversations by automatically generating syntactical representations of the sentences in conversation, estimating the structural differences between them, and calculating an optimized estimate of the conversation-level syntax similarity. After introducing and explaining this method, we report results from two method validation experiments (Study 1) and conduct a series of analyses with CASSIM to investigate syntax accommodation in social media discourse (Study 2). We run the same experiments using two well-known existing syntactic metrics, LSM and Coh-Metrix, and compare their results to CASSIM. Overall, our results indicate that CASSIM is able to reliably measure syntax similarity and to provide robust evidence of syntax accommodation within social media discourse.

  14. Erectile dysfunction and central obesity: an Italian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health.

  15. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

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    Marilisa Molinaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV dysfunction, and heart failure (HF. The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure.

  16. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases wit...... liver disease. A description is given of its aetiology and the typical circulatory dysfunction with characteristic hyperdynamic and hyporeactive circulation and heart failure, and the most important tests of the autonomic nervous system.......Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  17. Nanomedicines for dysfunctional macrophage-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Ghosh, Shobha; Yang, Hu

    2017-02-10

    Macrophages play vital functions in host inflammatory reaction, tissue repair, homeostasis and immunity. Dysfunctional macrophages have significant pathophysiological impacts on diseases such as cancer, inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease), metabolic diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity) and major infections like human immunodeficiency virus infection. In view of this common etiology in these diseases, targeting the recruitment, activation and regulation of dysfunctional macrophages represents a promising therapeutic strategy. With the advancement of nanotechnology, development of nanomedicines to efficiently target dysfunctional macrophages can strengthen the effectiveness of therapeutics and improve clinical outcomes. This review discusses the specific roles of dysfunctional macrophages in various diseases and summarizes the latest advances in nanomedicine-based therapeutics and theranostics for treating diseases associated with dysfunctional macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Topologically Protected Complete Polarization Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Xiao, Meng; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-10-01

    We consider the process of conversion between linear polarizations as light is reflected from a photonic crystal slab. We observe that, over a wide range of frequencies, complete polarization conversion can be found at isolated wave vectors. Moreover, such an effect is topological: the complex reflection coefficients have a nonzero winding number in the wave vector space. We also show that bound states in continuum in this system have their wave vectors lying on the critical coupling curve that defines the condition for complete polarization conversion. Our work points to the use of topological photonics concepts for the control of polarization, and suggests the exploration of topological properties of scattering matrices as a route towards creating robust optical devices.

  19. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  20. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperglycaemia-induced coronary microvascular dysfunction: Protective role of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mandar S; Williams, David; Horlock, Duncan; Samarasinghe, Thilini; Andrews, Karen L; Jefferis, Ann-Maree; Berger, Philip J; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P; Kaye, David M

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular complications are now recognized to play a major role in diabetic complications, and understanding the mechanisms is critical. Endothelial dysfunction occurs early in the course of the development of complications; the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction may occur in a diabetic rat heart and may act as a source of the oxidative stress. However, the role of endothelial cell-specific mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic vascular complications is poorly studied. Here, we studied the role of diabetes-induced abnormal endothelial mitochondrial function and the resultant endothelial dysfunction. Understanding the role of endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic vasculature is critical in order to develop new therapies. We demonstrate that hyperglycaemia leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in microvascular endothelial cells, and that mitochondrial inhibition induces endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that resveratrol acts as a protective agent; resveratrol-mediated mitochondrial protection may be used to prevent long-term diabetic cardiovascular complications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Review of betavoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1993-01-01

    Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.

  2. Post-implantation mortality of in vitro produced embryos is associated with DNA methyltransferase 1 dysfunction in sheep placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Grazyna Ewa; D'Agostino, Antonella; Toschi, Paola; Fidanza, Antonella; Zacchini, Federica; Czernik, Marta; Monaco, Federica; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-02-01

    Is DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) dysfunction involved in epigenetic deregulation of placentae from embryos obtained by assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs)? DNMT1 expression in growing placentae of in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is compromised and associated with pregnancy loss. DNMT1 maintains the methylation profile of genes during cell division. The methylation status of genes involved in placenta development is altered in embryos obtained in vitro. Disturbances in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during placentogenesis could be involved in the frequent developmental arrest and loss of IVP embryos. Forty sheep were naturally mated (Group 1, CTR). IVP blastocysts (2-4 per ewe) were surgically transferred to the remaining 46 recipient sheep 6 days after oestrus (Group 2). Twenty-one recipients from Group 1 and 27 recipients from Group 2 were allowed to deliver in order to compare embryo survival in both groups at term (150 days). From the remaining recipients (n = 38), fetuses and placentae of both groups were recovered by paramedian laparotomy at Days 20, 22, 24, 26 and 28 of gestation. Immediately after collection, early placental tissues (chorion-allantois) were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and DNMT1 expression and activity was evaluated. mRNA levels (for DNMT1, HDAC2, PCNA, DMAP1, MEST, IGF2, CDKN1C, H19) and the methylation status of H19 were also analyzed. Furthermore, embryo size and survival rate were measured. Our study shows that DNMT1 expression was reduced in early placentae from sheep IVP embryos. This reduction was associated with growth arrest and subsequent death of the sheep embryos. Conversely, normal levels of DNMT1 and its cofactors were observed in placentae from IVP embryos that survived this developmental bottleneck. Although DNA methylation machinery was severely compromised in IVP placentae only up to Day 24, the low DNMT1 enzymatic activity that persisted after this stage in IVP placentae was not lethal for the

  3. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  4. Dysfunctional assumptions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dominic; Wright, Kim; Smith, Neil

    2004-04-01

    Despite the initial encouraging outcome in developing CBT for bipolar affective disorder [Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2002 (in press); Psychol. Med. 31 (2001) 459-467], very little is known about whether there are any differences in dysfunctional attitudes between unipolar and bipolar patients. Both the behavioural activation system theory [J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 67 (1994) 488-498; Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Guilford Press, New York, 1996; Psychol. Bull. 117 (1995) 434-449] and the cognitive model for bipolar affective disorder [Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: A Therapist's Guide to Concepts, Methods and Practise, Wiley, New York, 1999] postulate high goal striving as a risk factor for bipolar disorder. However, the existing subscales in the dysfunctional attitude scale (DAS) were derived from patients and relatives of patients suffering from unipolar depression, patients with a mixed psychiatric diagnosis or normal controls. None of the existing subscales reflects high goal striving beliefs. Using a sample of bipolar patients may yield different factors. A total of 143 bipolar 1 patients filled in the short version of DAS 24. Principal component analysis was carried out to derive factors. The scores of these factors were compared with those of 109 unipolar patients to investigate if these factors distinguish bipolar patients from unipolar patients. Three factors were derived: factor 1 'Goal-attainment' accounted for 25.0% of the total variance. Factor 2 'Dependency' accounted for 11.0% of the total variance. Factor 3 'Achievement' accounted for 8.2% of the total variance. However, factor 1 appeared to consist of items that made a coherent theoretical construct. No significant differences were found when the validation sample was compared with 109 patients suffering from unipolar depression in any of the three factors. When subjects who were likely to be in a major depressive episode were excluded, the scores of bipolar patients (n=49) were

  5. Erectile Dysfunction Herbs: A Natural Treatment for ED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erectile dysfunction: A natural treatment for ED? Some herbs claim to help erectile dysfunction. Find out the ... You've likely seen advertisements for erectile dysfunction herbs or supplements to "increase your sexual performance." Could ...

  6. Duration of Thyroid Dysfunction Correlates with All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laulund, Anne Sofie; Nybo, Mads; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The association between thyroid dysfunction and mortality is controversial. Moreover, the impact of duration of thyroid dysfunction is unclarified. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between biochemically assessed thyroid function as well as dysfunction duration...

  7. Revascularization among patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunadian, Vijayalakshmi; Zaman, Azfar; Qiu, Weiliang

    2011-07-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the standard of care for the management of patients with severe three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the optimal strategy for management of patients with CAD and severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction [ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%] is not clear. A meta-analysis of observational studies was performed to determine the operative mortality and long-term (5-year actuarial survival) outcomes among patients with severe LV dysfunction undergoing CABG. A systematic computerized literature search was performed and observational studies consisting of patients undergoing isolated CABG for CAD and severe LV dysfunction were included. Studies that did not report operative mortality, long-term (≥1 year) survival data, or pre-operative EF and multiple studies from the same group were excluded. In total, 4119 patients from 26 observational clinical studies were included. The estimated mean age was 63.9 years and 82.4% of patients were men. The mean (estimate) pre-operative EF was 24.7% (95% CI 22.5-27.0%). The operative mortality among patients (26 studies, n= 3621) who underwent on-pump CABG was 5.4%, n= 189 (95% CI 4.5-6.4%). The 5-year actuarial survival among patients (13 studies, n= 1980) who underwent on-pump CABG was 73.4%, n= 1483 (95% CI 68.7-77.7%). Patients who underwent off-pump CABG (7 studies, n= 498) tended to have reduced operative mortality of 4.4%, n= 20 (95% CI 2.8-6.4%). The mean (estimate) post-operative EF was 35.19% (95% CI 31.95-38.43%). The present meta-analysis demonstrates that based on data from available observational clinical studies, CABG can be performed with acceptable operative mortality and 5-year actuarial survival in patients with severe LV dysfunction.

  8. Myocardial Dysfunction and Shock after Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C.; Chonde, Meshe D.; Dezfulian, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Postarrest myocardial dysfunction includes the development of low cardiac output or ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction after cardiac arrest. Impaired left ventricular systolic function is reported in nearly two-thirds of patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Hypotension and shock requiring vasopressor support are similarly common after cardiac arrest. Whereas shock requiring vasopressor support is consistently associated with an adverse outcome after cardiac arrest, the association between myocardial dysfunction and outcomes is less clear. Myocardial dysfunction and shock after cardiac arrest develop as the result of preexisting cardiac pathology with multiple superimposed insults from resuscitation. The pathophysiology involves cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiovascular toxicity from excessive levels of inflammatory cytokine activation and catecholamines, among other contributing factors. Similar mechanisms occur in myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass, in sepsis, and in stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamic stabilization after resuscitation from cardiac arrest involves restoration of preload, vasopressors to support arterial pressure, and inotropic support if needed to reverse the effects of myocardial dysfunction and improve systemic perfusion. Further research is needed to define the role of postarrest myocardial dysfunction on cardiac arrest outcomes and identify therapeutic strategies. PMID:26421284

  9. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked.

  10. Psychosocial interventions for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, T; Soares, B G O; Nasselo, A G

    2007-07-18

    Normal sexual function is a biopsychosocial process and relies on the coordination of psychological, endocrine, vascular, and neurological factors. Recent data show that psychological factors are involved in a substantial number of cases of erectile dysfunction (ED) alone or in combination with organic causes. However, in contrast to the advances in somatic research of erectile dysfunction, scientific literature shows contradictory reports on the results of psychotherapy for the treatment of ED. To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for the treatment of ED compared to oral drugs, local injection, vacuum devices and other psychosocial interventions, that may include any psycho-educative methods and psychotherapy, or both, of any kind. The following databases were searched to identify randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials: MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), EMBASE (1980 to 2007), psycINFO (1974 to 2007), LILACS (1980 to 2007), DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS (2007) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2007). Besides this electronic search cross checking the references of all identified trials, contact with the first author of all included trials was performed in order to obtain data on other published or unpublished trials. Handsearch of the International Journal of Impotence Research and Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy since its first issue and contact with scientific societies for ED completed the search strategy. All relevant randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions for ED. Authors of the review independently selected trials found with the search strategy, extracted data, assessed trial quality, and analysed results. For categorical outcomes the pooled relative risks (RR) were calculated, and for continuous outcomes mean differences between interventions were calculated as well. Statistical heterogeneity was addressed. Nine randomised (Banner 2000; Baum 2000; Goldman 1990

  11. The anatomy of group dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David F

    2014-04-01

    The dysfunction of the radiology group has 2 components: (1) the thinking component-the governance structure of the radiology group; how we manage the group; and (2) the structural component-the group's business model and its conflict with the partner's personal business model. Of the 2 components, governance is more important. Governance must be structured on classic, immutable business management principles. The structural component, the business model, is not immutable. In fact, it must continually change in response to the marketplace. Changes in the business model should occur only if demanded or permitted by the marketplace; instituting changes for other reasons, including personal interests or deficient knowledge of the deciders, is fundamentally contrary to the long-term interests of the group and its owners. First, we must learn basic business management concepts to appreciate the function and necessity of standard business models and standard business governance. Peter Drucker's The Effective Executive is an excellent primer on the subjects of standard business practices and the importance of a functional, authorized, and fully accountable chief executive officer. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurostimulation for Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Worsøe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD. It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS, peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI. Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD.

  13. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E; Brennan, Mike T; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Gibson, Rachel J; Eilers, June G; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P; Rouleau, Tanya S; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K L

    2012-03-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools, prevalence, complications, and impact on quality of life in patients with a variety of different cancers, particularly in those treated with curative chemoradiation for head and neck cancer. The literature search was limited to the English language and included both MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. The search focused on papers reporting dysphagia as a side effect of cancer and cancer therapy. We identified relevant literature through the primary literature search and by articles identified in references. A wide range of assessment tools for dysphagia was identified. Dysphagia is related to a number of factors such as direct impact of the tumor, cancer resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and to newer therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Concomitant oral complications such as xerostomia may exacerbate subjective dysphagia. Most literature focuses on head and neck cancer, but dysphagia is also common in other types of cancer. Swallowing impairment is a clinically relevant acute and long-term complication in patients with a wide variety of cancers. More prospective studies on the course of dysphagia and impact on quality of life from baseline to long-term follow-up after various treatment modalities, including targeted therapies, are needed.

  14. Sleep apnoea and metabolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Bonsignore

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a highly prevalent condition often associated with central obesity. In the past few years, several studies have analysed the potential independent contribution of OSA to the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities, including type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. New perspectives in OSA patient care have been opened by the promotion of lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise programmes that could improve both OSA and the metabolic profile. The rich clinical literature on this subject, together with the growing amount of data on pathophysiological mechanisms provided by animal studies using the chronic intermittent hypoxia model, urged the organising Committee of the Sleep and Breathing meeting to organise a session on sleep apnoea and metabolic dysfunction, in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. This review summarises the state-of-the-art lectures presented in the session, more specifically the relationship between OSA and diabetes, the role of OSA in the metabolic consequences of obesity, and the effects of lifestyle interventions on nocturnal respiratory disturbances and the metabolic profile in OSA patients.

  15. Polyphenols in preventing endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Biegańska-Hensoldt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of mortality in developed countries is atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Consumption of food rich in natural antioxidants including polyphenols significantly improves endothelial cells functions.Polyphenols have a beneficial effect on the human body and play an important part in protecting the cardiovascular system. Polyphenols present in food have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antiproliferative properties. Catechins cause an increase in the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and increased production of nitric oxide (NO and decrease in blood pressure. Catechins also reduce platelet adhesion, lower the concentration of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. Resveratrol inhibits NADPH oxidase expression, increases the expression of eNOS and NO production as well as decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and also lowers the concentration of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules – sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in blood. Quercetin reduces the blood level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, reduces the concentration of C-reactive protein and F2-isoprostane level. Curcumin has antagonistic activity to homocysteine. Curcumin increases the expression of eNOS and reduces oxidative DNA damage in rat cardiomyocytes. Numerous attempts are taken for improving the bioavailability of polyphenols in order to increase their use in the body.

  16. Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mortazavi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS is one of the most important causes of the orofacial pain. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate 40 related variables in this regard. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine patients with MPDS were evaluated in this study. Different factors including age, gender, occupation, marital status, sensitivity of masticatory muscles, maximum opening of the mouth, deviation, deflection, involvement of temporomandibular joint, habit, parafunction, malocclusion, neck pain, headache, earache and history of jaw involvement, etc were analyzed in this  evaluation. Results: In our study, 39 patients (32 females and 7 males, 20-40 years old, with the average age of 35 ± 13.32 years were studied. 51% were housewives and 74.4% were married. The most common involvements were Clicking (74.4%, pain in temporomandibular joint (54%, headache (46.2%, earache (41%, neck-pain (35.9%, trouble in the mouth opening (71.8%, malocclusion Class I (74.4%, cross bite and deep bite (25%, clenching (64.1% and involvement of masseter and lateral pterygoid muscle (84%. Conclusion: Since MPDS consists of variable symptoms, it might be very difficult to provide any definite diagnosis and treatment. Therefore the more the specialists extend their knowledge and information about this disorder, the more they will make the best decision in this regard.

  17. Erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Gorsane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common problem seen among patients on hemodialysis (HD, but it is still a taboo subject in our country. The attention given to this sexual problem remained low, and the prevalence of ED among these patients has not been well characterized. We carried out this study in order to determine the prevalence and severity of ED in HD patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in our HD unit in March 2013. ED was evaluated using the International Index Erection Function. Thirty patients with a mean age of 49.1 years were eligible for this study. The main causes of chronic kidney disease were hypertension (62.5% and diabetes (41.6%. The prevalence of ED was 80%, including 33.3% severe ED. Plasma levels of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH, follicule-stimulating hormone were in the standards except for one patient who had an elevated level of LH. Prolactin was elevated in four cases. ED was present in 8.4% of patients before the discovery of renal failure and in 91.6% of patients at the beginning of dialysis. For 19 patients (79.1%, the ED had increased during the dialysis sessions. A significant number of our HD patients presented with ED of varying degrees. Nephrologists should pay attention to the problem of ED in order to improve the quality of their life.

  18. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  19. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  20. Education for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  1. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  2. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  3. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  4. Content Themes in Marital Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillars, Alan L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that prominent themes in the conversations of spouses are metacommunication about relationships. Compares content themes of different marital types (traditional, separate, and independent) and more or less satisfied spouses. Finds marital satisfaction tends to be positively associated with communal and impersonal themes and negatively…

  5. Offshore wind energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilar, L. A.; Stiller, P. H.; Anacona, D. F.

    The paper summarizes the findings of a comprehensive assessment of off-shore wind energy conversion systems. Eight generic types of support platforms are discussed, and their conceptual designs are given. Attention is given to the economics of such systems, emphasizing the busbar energy cost measures. Onshore energy costs are developed in terms of controlling environmental parameters, distance from shore and equipment type.

  6. Caring, conversing, and realizing values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Bert; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Martin, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Language serves many functions for humans, but three of the most important are coordination, learning, and friendship. All of those functions were well served by the conversations from which this special issue emerged, a conference, ‘‘Grounding language in perception and (inter) action’’, held at...

  7. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  8. Paradoxical therapy in conversion reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataoglu, Ahmet; Ozcetin, Adnan; Icmeli, Celalettin; Ozbulut, Omer

    2003-08-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour such as performing compulsive ritual or wanting a conversion attack. In this study, the subjects were selected by the emergency unit psychiatrist from patients who were admitted to the emergency unit with pseudoseizure. The diagnoses was based on DSM-IV criteria. Paradoxical intention was applied to half of the 30 patients with conversion disorders; the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the paradoxical intention versus diazepam. In both groups the differences of the anxiety scores at the beginning of the study were found to be insignificant (z=1.08, p=0.28). Of the 15 patients who completed paradoxical intention treatment, 14 (93.3%) responded favorably to paradoxical intention. On the other hand of 15 patients who completed diazepam therapy, 9 (60%) responded well to therapy and 6 patients carried on their conversion symptoms at the end of 6 weeks. Paradoxical intention-treated patients appeared to have greater improvements in anxiety scores (z=2.43, pparadoxical intention can be effective in the treatment of conversion disorder.

  9. A System for Retrospective Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Hank

    1984-01-01

    The Apple-based MITINET system uses several forms of technology (Library of Congress MARC file in microfiche, microcomputers, COM vendor) to produce library database and COM catalog. Cost for MITINET software is based on number of branches or buildings performing conversion, and varies from $250 to $85 per building or branch. (EJS)

  10. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  11. Spin conversion on the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yoshichika; Shiraishi, Masashi; Oiwa, Akira; Saitoh, Eiji; Murakami, Shuichi

    2017-09-01

    Spins can act as mediators to interconvert electricity, light, sound, vibration and heat. Here, we give an overview of the recent advances in different sub-disciplines of spintronics that can be associated with the developing field of spin conversion, and discuss future prospects.

  12. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate other useable forms of energy. In the last few years various research and development efforts have been made to bring out this technology from the proof of concept stage and to demonstrate its ...

  13. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    -based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...

  14. [Autonomic dysfunction in children with traumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N; Febrer, A; Meléndez, M

    Autonomic dysfunction syndrome following traumatic brain injury is a situation involving adrenergic hyperactivity produced by the lack of control over the autonomous nervous system at a central level. The difficulties involved in its therapeutic management make it even more important. We report the cases of a boy and a girl aged 6 and 12 years, respectively, who had suffered a severe traumatic brain injury with important brain damage that included diencephalic and mesencephalic compromise and areas of diffuse axonal injury. From the acute phase onwards, they presented episodes of hypertension, tachycardia, excessive sweating and spasticity in the form of attacks that initially led to a differential diagnosis between sepsis, opiate and/or benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and epilepsy. The length of time spent in coma was very long and the attacks went on throughout the awakening phase almost until the moment they were discharged from hospital, despite trying different treatments. In our cases, orally administered baclofen and midazolam seemed to be the most effective. Autonomic dysfunction is difficult to manage. There are no standardised treatments and speculation continues with regard to its true promoter. We might think that the central injury is the cause of the process and that the autonomic dysfunction increases the secondary lesion and contributes to the functional worsening. If we take into account that the survival rate of the children is high despite the severity of the injuries and although the dysautonomia can be self-limiting with time, we believe that its treatment is essential if the ultimate aim is to minimise the sequelae.

  15. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction: Evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeffrey L

    2009-10-01

    Separation of the nasal and oral cavities by dynamic closure of the velo-pharyngeal port is necessary for normal speech and swallowing. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) may either follow repair of a cleft palate or be independent of clefting. While the diagnosis of VPD is made by audiologic perceptual evaluation of speech, identification of the mechanism of the dysfunction requires instrumental visualization of the velo-pharyngeal port during specific speech tasks. Matching the specific intervention for management of VPD with the type of dysfunction, i.e. differential management for differential diagnosis, maximizes the result while minimizing the morbidity of the intervention.

  16. ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND RENAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Belyalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ischemic heart disease (IHD with comorbid kidney dysfunction has more severe course and worse prognosis, regardless of the chosen therapeutic strategy for the treatment of coronary disease. Traits of diagnosis and treatment of IHD in patients with renal dysfunction, including end-stage kidney disease, are discussed. The analysis of the studies showed increasing difficulties in the diagnosis of IHD, and decrease in the effectiveness of drug and invasive treatment.Results of large randomized and observational studies can help to treat patients with IHD and comorbid renal dysfunction more effectively and safe. 

  17. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction: Evaluation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsh Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Separation of the nasal and oral cavities by dynamic closure of the velo-pharyngeal port is necessary for normal speech and swallowing. Velo-pharyngeal dysfunction (VPD may either follow repair of a cleft palate or be independent of clefting. While the diagnosis of VPD is made by audiologic perceptual evaluation of speech, identification of the mechanism of the dysfunction requires instrumental visualization of the velo-pharyngeal port during specific speech tasks. Matching the specific intervention for management of VPD with the type of dysfunction, i.e. differential management for differential diagnosis, maximizes the result while minimizing the morbidity of the intervention.

  18. Etiology and Management of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar Muthugaduru Shivarudrappa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is the impairment or disruption of any of the three phases of normal sexual functioning, including loss of libido, impairment of physiological arousal and loss, delay or alteration of orgasm. Each one of these can be affected by an orchestra of factors like senility, medical and surgical illnesses, medications and drugs of abuse. Non-pharmacological therapy is the main stay in the treatment of sexual dysfunction and drugs are used as adjuncts for a quicker and better result. Management in many of the cases depends on the primary cause. Here is a review of the major etiological factors of sexual dysfunction and its management

  19. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient.

  20. Right and left heart dysfunction predict mortality in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Michael Y; Grönlund, Christer; Tossavainen, Erik; Söderberg, Stefan; Gonzalez, Manuel; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-01-01

    In pulmonary hypertension (PH), the right heart dysfunction is a strong predictor of adverse clinical outcome, while the role of the left heart is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of mortality in precapillary PH including measures of both right and left heart function. We studied 34 patients (mean age 64 ± 13, range 31-82 years, 24 females) with precapillary PH, all of whom underwent detailed Doppler echocardiographic examination of the right and left heart function using conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Patients were followed up for up to 8 years (mean 4·2 ± 1·9 years). At follow-up, 16 patients survived. Left ventricular (LV) filling time (P = 0·007), pulmonary artery acceleration time (P = 0·009), right atrial pressure (RAP) (P0·65) and carried the highest risk for mortality (Pright heart dysfunction including atrial structure and function disturbances. While an interaction pattern is observed, it needs to be confirmed in a larger cohort. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Astrocyte dysfunction triggers neurodegeneration in a lysosomal storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Malta, Chiara; Fryer, John D; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2012-08-28

    The role of astrocytes in neurodegenerative processes is increasingly appreciated. Here we investigated the contribution of astrocytes to neurodegeneration in multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a severe lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1) gene. Using Cre/Lox mouse models, we found that astrocyte-specific deletion of Sumf1 in vivo induced severe lysosomal storage and autophagy dysfunction with consequential cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic substrates. Lysosomal storage in astrocytes was sufficient to induce degeneration of cortical neurons in vivo. Furthermore, in an ex vivo coculture assay, we observed that Sumf1(-/-) astrocytes failed to support the survival and function of wild-type cortical neurons, suggesting a non-cell autonomous mechanism for neurodegeneration. Compared with the astrocyte-specific deletion of Sumf1, the concomitant removal of Sumf1 in both neurons and glia in vivo induced a widespread neuronal loss and robust neuroinflammation. Finally, behavioral analysis of mice with astrocyte-specific deletion of Sumf1 compared with mice with Sumf1 deletion in both astrocytes and neurons allowed us to link a subset of neurological manifestations of MSD to astrocyte dysfunction. This study indicates that astrocytes are integral components of the neuropathology in MSD and that modulation of astrocyte function may impact disease course.

  2. Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Hypertension and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia; López-Farré, Antonio; Manucha, Walter; Ferder, León

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria are essential for the maintenance of normal physiological function of tissue cells. Mitochondria are subject to dynamic processes in order to establish a control system related to survival or cell death and adaptation to changes in the metabolic environment of cells. Mitochondrial dynamics includes fusion and fission processes, biogenesis, and mitophagy. Modifications of mitochondrial dynamics in organs involved in energy metabolism such as the pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue could be of relevance for the development of insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial dynamics and the factors involved in its regulation are also critical for neuronal development, survival, and function. Modifications in mitochondrial dynamics in either agouti-related peptide (AgRP) or pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), circuits which regulates feeding behavior, are related to changes of food intake, energy balance, and obesity development. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been considered as a crucial point in the pathogenesis of hypertension among obese individuals and it also plays a key role in cardiac remodeling. Hypertension-related cardiac hypertrophy is associated with changes in metabolic substrate utilization, dysfunction of the electron transport chain, and ATP synthesis. Alterations in both mitochondrial dynamics and ROS production have been associated with endothelial dysfunction, development of hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. Finally, it might be postulated that alterations of mitochondrial dynamics in white adipose tissue could contribute to the development and maintenance of hypertension in obesity situations through leptin overproduction. Leptin, together with insulin, will induce activation of sympathetic nervous system with consequences at renal, vascular, and cardiac levels, driving to sodium retention, hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, both leptin and insulin will

  3. Total laryngectomy for a dysfunctional larynx after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Eleonoor A R; Timmermans, Adriana J; Zuur, Charlotte L; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Paul de Boer, Jan; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the functional outcomes after total laryngectomy (TLE) for a dysfunctional larynx in patients with head and neck cancer that is in complete remission after (chemo)radiotherapy. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary comprehensive cancer center. The study included 25 patients from a cohort of 217 consecutive patients with TLE who were treated between January 2000 and July 2010. The inclusion criteria for this subgroup analysis were complete remission and functional problems for which TLE was considered to be the only resolution. Quality of life assessment was carried out using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life C30 and Head and Neck Module 35 questionnaires and an additional study-specific questionnaire covering functional aspects, such as swallowing and dyspnea, in more detail. Total laryngectomy. Morbidity, mortality, and functional outcomes. RESULTS The indication for TLE was chronic aspiration with or without recurrent pneumonia (n = 15 [60%]), debilitating dyspnea (n = 8 [32%]), and persistent profuse hemorrhage (radiation ulcer) (n = 2 [8%]). After TLE, 14 of the 25 patients (56%) had 20 major postoperative complications, including 11 pharyngocutaneous fistulas, requiring additional treatment. Tube feeding and recurrent pneumonia incidence had decreased from 80% and 28% to 29% and 0%, respectively, 2 years after surgery. Prosthetic voice rehabilitation was possible in 19 patients (76%). Two years after surgery, 10 of 14 patients (71%) still reported TLE-related pulmonary problems despite the consistent use of a heat and moisture exchanger. The 5-year overall survival rate was 35%. Total laryngectomy for a dysfunctional larynx tends to have a high complication rate. However, in this study, the initial functional problems (aspiration, recurrent pneumonia, and dyspnea) did not recur. Tube feeding was significantly reduced, and the quality of life of the surviving patients appeared to be reasonable.

  4. Comparative effectiveness of 30 % trisodium citrate and heparin lock solution in preventing infection and dysfunction of hemodialysis catheters: a randomized controlled trial (CITRIM trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Barcellos, Franklin; Pereira Nunes, Bruno; Jorge Valle, Luciana; Lopes, Thiago; Orlando, Bianca; Scherer, Cintia; Nunes, Marcia; Araújo Duarte, Gabriela; Böhlke, Maristela

    2017-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are the only option when hemodialysis is needed for patients without definitive vascular access. However, CVC is associated with complications, such as infection, thrombosis, and dysfunction, leading to higher mortality and expenditures. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 30 % trisodium citrate (TSC30 %) with heparin as CVC lock solutions in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. Randomized, double-blind controlled trial comparing the event-free survival of non-tunneled CVC locked with heparin or TSC30 % in adult hemodialysis patients. The study included 464 catheters, 233 in heparin group, and 231 in TSC30 % group. The CRBSI-free survival of TSC30 % group was significantly shorter than that of heparin group. When stratified by insertion site, heparin was better than TSC30 % only in subclavian CVC. The dysfunction-free survival was not different between groups in the main analysis, but there is also a shorter survival among subclavian CVC locked with TSC30 % in stratified analysis. There was no difference on CRBSI-free or dysfunction-free survival between jugular vein CVC locked with heparin or 30 % citrate. However, subclavian CVC locked with 30 % citrate presented shorter event-free survival. This difference may be related to anatomical and positional effects, CVC design, and hydraulic aspects of the lock solution. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02563041.

  5. Postprostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the current era of the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, erectile dysfunction (ED) represents an important issue, with up to 68% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) complaining of postoperative erectile function (EF) impairment. In this context, it is crucial to comprehensively consider all factors possibly associated with the prevention of post-RP ED throughout the entire clinical management of PCa patients. A careful assessment of both oncological and functional baseline characteristics should be carried out for each patient preoperatively. Baseline EF, together with age and the overall burden of comorbidities, has been strongly associated with the chance of post-RP EF recovery. With this goal in mind, internationally validated psychometric instruments are preferable for ensuring proper baseline EF evaluations, and questionnaires should be administered at the proper time before surgery. Careful preoperative counselling is also required, both to respect the patient's wishes and to avoid false expectations regarding eventual recovery of baseline EF. The advent of robotic surgery has led to improvements in the knowledge of prostate surgical anatomy, as reflected by the formal redefinition of nerve-sparing techniques. Overall, comparative studies have shown significantly better EF outcomes for robotic RP than for open techniques, although data from prospective trials have not always been consistent. Preclinical data and several prospective randomized trials have demonstrated the value of treating patients with oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) after surgery, with the concomitant potential benefit of early re-oxygenation of the erectile tissue, which appears to be crucial for avoiding the eventual penile structural changes that are associated with postoperative neuropraxia and ultimately result in severe ED. For patients who do not properly respond to PDE5is, proper

  6. AF-6 Protects Against Dopaminergic Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Drosophila Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline H. Basil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Afadin 6 (AF-6 is an F-actin binding multidomain-containing scaffolding protein that is known for its function in cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, besides this well documented role, we recently found that AF-6 is a Parkin-interacting protein that augments Parkin/PINK1-mediated mitophagy. Notably, mutations in Parkin and PINK1 are causative of recessively inherited forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD and aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis is thought to underlie PD pathogenesis. Given the novel role of AF-6 in mitochondrial quality control (QC, we hypothesized that AF-6 overexpression may be beneficial to PD. Using the Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, we demonstrate in this study that transgenic overexpression of human AF-6 in parkin and also pink1 null flies rescues their mitochondrial pathology and associated locomotion deficit, which results in their improved survival over time. Similarly, AF-6 overexpression also ameliorates the pathological phenotypes in flies expressing the Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2 G2019S mutant, a mutation that is associated with dominantly-inherited PD cases in humans. Conversely, when endogenous AF-6 expression is silenced, it aggravates the disease phenotypes of LRRK2 mutant flies. Aside from these genetic models, we also found that AF-6 overexpression is protective against the loss of dopaminergic neurons in flies treated with rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor commonly used to generate animal models of PD. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AF-6 protects against dopaminergic dysfunction and mitochondrial abnormalities in multiple Drosophila models of PD, and suggest the therapeutic value of AF-6-related pathways in mitigating PD pathogenesis.

  7. Animal models of brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynyuk, A. E.; van Spronsen, F. J.; Van der Zee, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder that results in significant brain dysfunction if untreated. Although phenylalanine restricted diets instituted at birth have clearly improved PKU outcomes, neuropsychological deficits and neurological changes still represent substantial problems. The

  8. Hyperemesis gravidarum and placental dysfunction disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, Heleen M; Savitri, Ary I; Browne, Joyce L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413640671; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071889256; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about the consequence of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) on pregnancy outcomes is still inconclusive. In this study, we evaluated if occurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with placental dysfunction disorders and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was

  9. [Urological dysfunction after sexual abuse and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, H J; Neubauer, H

    2004-03-01

    Criminal statistics say that 300,000 children are sexually abused in the Federal Republic of Germany every year: 70-75% are abused by their own fathers or another psychological parent. Most victims are girls aged 7-12 years. Sexual abuse during childhood can lead to severe psychosomatic dysfunctions both in children and adults. Possible long-term results are depression, anxiety, emotional and cognitive problems, personal dysfunction, eating and sleeping disorders, alcohol or drug abuse, relationship problems, social maladaptation, and somatizations. Many urological dysfunctions without organic findings can be caused by sexual abuse. Among others, chronic pelvic pain (CPPS), enuresis, incontinence, and sexual dysfunction can occur. When children or adults see the urologist because of their symptoms there is always the danger of reproducing the abusive event by invasive diagnostic methods.Sometimes harming themselves the patients bring this situation about unconsciously. With the following article we want to heighten the awareness among urologists.

  10. Udenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Min Chul; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often perceived by both patients and sexual partners as a serious problem that can jeopardize quality of life, psychosocial or emotional well-being, and the partnership in the long term...

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  12. Olfactory dysfunction in Iranian diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mehdizadeh Seraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory dysfunction is a known complication of diabetes and, despite its importance in the quality of life, is usually neglected due to its gradual progression. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence and severity of olfactory dysfunction in diabetics and its association with microangiopathic complications of the disease (neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Excluding the confounding factors, a case-control study of 60 eligible subjects, divided into a group of 30 diabetic patients and a group of 30 control subjects was performed. We used "absorbent perfumer's paper strips" method to test the olfactory threshold. In our study, 60% of diabetics were found to have some degree of olfactory dysfunction and a significant difference (P<0.01 between the olfactory threshold of the case and control groups was observed. There were no significant associations between the olfactory dysfunction and age, sex, treatment duration and microangiopathic complications.

  13. Erectile Dysfunction: A Sign of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause erectile dysfunction. Alcohol Use. Drinking too much alcohol can cause heart disease and might contribute to other causes of heart disease, such as high blood pressure or abnormal cholesterol. Alcohol also impairs erections. High blood pressure. Over time, ...

  14. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy

    2016-01-01

    with the executive skills domain only (r =-0.3, p=0.05). LIMITATIONS: A modest sample size. CONCLUSIONS: The SCIP-D and COBRA are valid measures of objective and subjective cognitive impairment, respectively, and should ideally be implemented together in the screening for cognitive dysfunction in UD.......BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...... to screen for cognitive dysfunction in UD, and their associations with socio-occupational capacity. METHOD: Participants (n=53) with UD in partial or full remission and healthy control persons (n=103) were assessed with two new screening instruments, the Danish translations of the Screen for Cognitive...

  15. Study of pulmonary dysfunctions in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. Helmy

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Liver cirrhosis is associated with unique pulmonary complications. The early identification of pulmonary dysfunctions in cirrhotic patients is crucial as it affects the prognosis and guides the future management by speeding up orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT recommendations.

  16. Erectile dysfunction in the cardiovascular patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Jackson, Graham; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Montorsi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is common in the patient with cardiovascular disease. It is an important component of the quality of life and it also confers an independent risk for future cardiovascular events...

  17. Erectile Dysfunction: Viagra and Other Oral Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erectile dysfunction: Viagra and other oral medications By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral medications are often the first line of treatment for ... medications work well and cause few side effects. Sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn), tadalafil (Cialis) and avanafil ( ...

  18. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  19. Autophagy to Survive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzeyyen Izmirli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is the catabolic mechanism that involves cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components through the actions of lysosomes. It helps to keep the cells alive in such cases like oxidative stress, lack of nutrients and growth factors providing recycling of intracellular molecules. However, it works as a part of metabolism regulation, morphogenesis, cell differentiation, senescence, cell death and immune system. As a result of impairment of this mechanism, pathological situations arise including cancer, neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Consequently, researches about autophagy mechanism are important for the development of novel diagnosis, follow-up and treatment modalities in health problems. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 411-419

  20. Towards an analysis of dysfunctional grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaudeau-McKenna, B

    2005-01-01

    This article applies Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) to the study of language dysfunction. It demonstrates the potential that Systemic Functional analysis can offer to one aspect of the analysis of language dysfunction--the failure to realise complexes of clauses. For the purpose of analysis, new concepts and new measures have been created. The newly defined concepts and measures are illustrated in the discourse data of normally developing children and adolescents with brain injury.

  1. The role of dysfunctional HDL in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Mohamad; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Van Lenten, Brian J; Anantharamaiah, G M; Fogelman, Alan M

    2009-04-01

    This review focuses on HDL function in modulating LDL oxidation and LDL-induced inflammation. Dysfunctional HDL has been identified in animal models and humans with chronic inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. The loss of antiinflammatory function correlated with a loss of function in reverse cholesterol transport. In animal models and perhaps in humans, dysfunctional HDL can be improved by apoA-I mimetic peptides that bind oxidized lipids with high affinity.

  2. The role of dysfunctional HDL in atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Navab, Mohamad; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on HDL function in modulating LDL oxidation and LDL-induced inflammation. Dysfunctional HDL has been identified in animal models and humans with chronic inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. The loss of antiinflammatory function correlated with a loss of function in reverse cholesterol transport. In animal models and perhaps in humans, dysfunctional HDL can be improved by apoA-I mimetic peptides that bind oxidized lipids with high affinity.

  3. [Endothelial dysfunction in pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, A G; Oparin, A A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that in patients with ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) there is a close correlation between the severity of the lesion of gastroduodenal protective mucous barrier and that of endothelial dysfunction manifesting in elevated level of endothelin-1, serum levels of TBK-active products, inhibition of blood flow and narrowing of the celiac trunk. The correlation becomes stronger with expanding contamination of gastroduodenal mucosa with HP. Thus, HP may participate in breaking the protective mucous barrier in endothelial dysfunction.

  4. Trichotillomania In A Patient With Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswathi Krishna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichotillomania is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by pulling out one's own hair, which results in an obvious loss of hair. Hair pulling was first described in Henri Allopeau in 1889. The term "trichotillomania" comes from the Greek words "thrix" - hair, "tillein" - to pull and "Mania" madness or frenzy. 30 year old man presented with complaints of hairpulling behavior and associated erectile dysfunction. His hairpulling behavior improved on treating his sexual dysfunction.

  5. Cognitive dysfunction and hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Antonio; Piras, Maria Rita; Deplano, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a distinct form of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In fact, the majority of HCV-positive patients, irrespective of the grading of liver fibrosis, display alterations of verbal learning, attention, executive function, and memory when they are evaluated by suitable neuropsychological tests. Similarities between the cognitive dysfunction of HCV patients and MHE of patients with different etiologies are uncl...

  6. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  7. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  8. Cracking the survival code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  9. Artillery Survivability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  10. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lysosomal Storage Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Mario; Cotán, David; Villanueva-Paz, Marina; de Lavera, Isabel; Álvarez-Córdoba, Mónica; Luzón-Hidalgo, Raquel; Suárez-Rivero, Juan M; Tiscornia, Gustavo; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel

    2016-10-11

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) describe a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from the absence or loss of function of lysosomal hydrolases or transporters, resulting in the progressive accumulation of undigested material in lysosomes. The accumulation of substances affects the function of lysosomes and other organelles, resulting in secondary alterations such as impairment of autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis. LSDs frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS), where neuronal dysfunction or loss results in progressive neurodegeneration and premature death. Many LSDs exhibit signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, which include mitochondrial morphological changes, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), diminished ATP production and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, reduced autophagic flux may lead to the persistence of dysfunctional mitochondria. Gaucher disease (GD), the LSD with the highest prevalence, is caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene that results in defective and insufficient activity of the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Decreased catalytic activity and/or instability of GCase leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph) in the lysosomes of macrophage cells and visceral organs. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to occur in numerous cellular and mouse models of GD. The aim of this manuscript is to review the current knowledge and implications of mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs.

  11. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario de la Mata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs describe a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from the absence or loss of function of lysosomal hydrolases or transporters, resulting in the progressive accumulation of undigested material in lysosomes. The accumulation of substances affects the function of lysosomes and other organelles, resulting in secondary alterations such as impairment of autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis. LSDs frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS, where neuronal dysfunction or loss results in progressive neurodegeneration and premature death. Many LSDs exhibit signs of mitochondrial dysfunction, which include mitochondrial morphological changes, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, diminished ATP production and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, reduced autophagic flux may lead to the persistence of dysfunctional mitochondria. Gaucher disease (GD, the LSD with the highest prevalence, is caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene that results in defective and insufficient activity of the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Decreased catalytic activity and/or instability of GCase leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph in the lysosomes of macrophage cells and visceral organs. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to occur in numerous cellular and mouse models of GD. The aim of this manuscript is to review the current knowledge and implications of mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs.

  12. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  13. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  14. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  15. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  16. Social conversation and its relationship to sleep behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Sleep health is compromised during the college years; college students have shortened sleep duration and often keep inconsistent sleep schedules. One strong predictor that has been identified in previous research on college student sleep is dysfunctional beliefs like worry and perceived lack of control. Less understood are the contributing factors to these dysfunctional beliefs. This paper draws on a social science perspective to examine how college students talk about sleep and how these conversations relate to beliefs and intentions to sleep. In a 2-step mixed-methods design, this study explores conversations among college students about sleep and how these conversations relate to sleep-related cognitions and behaviors (n=301). College students report frequently talking about sleep-damaging topics (staying up late, daytime sleepiness), and this discussion is associated with lower cognitive beliefs about behavioral control and lower intention to sleep. Regression results show a negative relationship between sleep behaviors and sleep-damaging conversations (β=-0.41; Psleep patterns was strongly associated with sleep behavior (β=0.46; Psleep-damaging talk and behavior. Implications for sleep education and promotion efforts on college campuses are offered. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  18. Materials for thermoelectric energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field of thermoelectric energy conversion is reviewed from both a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The basic theory is introduced and the thermodynamic and solid state views are compared. An overview of the development of thermoelectric materials is presented with particular emphasis being placed on the most recent developments in high-temperature semiconductors. A number of possible device applications are discussed and the successful use and suitability of these devices for space power is manifest.

  19. Turbines For Optomechanical Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John

    1996-01-01

    Class of proposed optomechanical energy-conversion machines exploit multiple reflections from precise, high-reflectivity mirrors, some of which fixed to turbinelike rotors that spin at high speeds. Basic idea to increase frequencies of photons (and thus energy of light) by repeated Doppler-shifting reflections from moving mirrors. Gain in optical energy in such reflection proportional to speed of mirror, while loss function of imperfections of mirror.

  20. Fashion Conversation Data on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yu-I; Kwon, Sejeong; Cha, Meeyoung; Joo, Jungseock

    2017-01-01

    The fashion industry is establishing its presence on a number of visual-centric social media like Instagram. This creates an interesting clash as fashion brands that have traditionally practiced highly creative and editorialized image marketing now have to engage with people on the platform that epitomizes impromptu, realtime conversation. What kinds of fashion images do brands and individuals share and what are the types of visual features that attract likes and comments? In this research, w...

  1. Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Jiang, Zhongyi; Wang, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shaohua; Han, Pingping; Yang, Chen

    2015-10-07

    With the continuous increase in fossil fuels consumption and the rapid growth of atmospheric CO2 concentration, the harmonious state between human and nature faces severe challenges. Exploring green and sustainable energy resources and devising efficient methods for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization are urgently required. Converting CO2 into fuels/chemicals/materials as an indispensable element for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization may offer a win-win strategy to both decrease the CO2 concentration and achieve the efficient exploitation of carbon resources. Among the current major methods (including chemical, photochemical, electrochemical and enzymatic methods), the enzymatic method, which is inspired by the CO2 metabolic process in cells, offers a green and potent alternative for efficient CO2 conversion due to its superior stereo-specificity and region/chemo-selectivity. Thus, in this tutorial review, we firstly provide a brief background about enzymatic conversion for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization. Next, we depict six major routes of the CO2 metabolic process in cells, which are taken as the inspiration source for the construction of enzymatic systems in vitro. Next, we focus on the state-of-the-art routes for the catalytic conversion of CO2 by a single enzyme system and by a multienzyme system. Some emerging approaches and materials utilized for constructing single-enzyme/multienzyme systems to enhance the catalytic activity/stability will be highlighted. Finally, a summary about the current advances and the future perspectives of the enzymatic conversion of CO2 will be presented.

  2. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  3. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. SCOFIELD

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4= were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and faujasite.

  4. The effect of crowding density on growth, food conversion ratio and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average percentage survival was above 98.5% across all treatments. Thus, the highest density tested (50 kg m–3 at 33 kg (m3 water flow h–1)–1) did not have a negative effect on growth or food conversion ratio. Keywords: density indices, intensive aquaculture. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2011, 36(2): 155–158 ...

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic control of butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junicke, H.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2015-01-01

    Many anaerobic conversions proceed close to thermodynamic equilibrium and the microbial groups involved need to share their low energy budget to survive at the thermodynamic boundary of life. This study aimed to investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic control mechanisms of the electron transfer

  6. CX3CR1-dependent renal macrophage survival promotes Candida control and host survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Fischer, Brett G.; Plantinga, Theo S.; Johnson, Melissa D.; Jaeger, Martin; Green, Nathaniel M.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Mikelis, Constantinos; Wan, Wuzhou; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Lim, Jean K.; Rivollier, Aymeric; Yang, John C.; Laird, Greg M.; Wheeler, Robert T.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Perfect, John R.; Gao, Ji-Liang; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G.; Murphy, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Candida albicans infection causes high morbidity and mortality and is associated with neutropenia; however, the roles of other innate immune cells in pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, we found that resident macrophages accumulated in the kidney, the main target organ of infection, and formed direct contacts with the fungus in vivo mainly within the first few hours after infection. Macrophage accumulation and contact with Candida were both markedly reduced in mice lacking chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which was found almost exclusively on resident macrophages in uninfected kidneys. Infected Cx3cr1–/– mice uniformly succumbed to Candida-induced renal failure, but exhibited clearance of the fungus in all other organs tested. Renal macrophage deficiency in infected Cx3cr1–/– mice was due to reduced macrophage survival, not impaired proliferation, trafficking, or differentiation. In humans, the dysfunctional CX3CR1 allele CX3CR1-M280 was associated with increased risk of systemic candidiasis. Together, these data indicate that CX3CR1-mediated renal resident macrophage survival is a critical innate mechanism of early fungal control that influences host survival in systemic candidiasis. PMID:24177428

  7. Prevalence, Severity, and Impact of Renal Dysfunction in Acute Liver Failure on the US Liver Transplant Waiting List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H; Magder, Laurence S; Weir, Matthew R; Rockey, Don C; Mindikoglu, Ayse L

    2016-01-01

    Although renal dysfunction is a known complication of acute liver failure (ALF), its frequency, severity, and impact among patients with ALF on the US liver transplant list are not well defined. Organ Procurement and Transplantation data for ALF patients listed as status 1/1A from 2002 to 2012 were analyzed. The frequency and severity of renal dysfunction at the time of listing [the latter was categorized in 5 stages using estimated GFR (eGFR) according to Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine 2009 equation] were determined and the association between renal dysfunction and waiting list mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There were a total of 2280 adult patients with ALF, including 56 % with renal dysfunction (defined as eGFR renal dysfunction was among those with ALF caused by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, fatty liver disease of pregnancy, heat stroke/hyperthermia, hepatitis A virus, and drug-induced liver injury due to acetaminophen APAP, phenytoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides. Despite the fact that 69 % (468/674) of patients with APAP-induced ALF listed as status 1/1A had renal dysfunction, only 0.9 % underwent simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Six-week survival probabilities in patients with ALF on the liver transplant waiting list were 71, 59, 56, 59, and 42 % with renal dysfunction stages of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for age, etiology of ALF, INR, total bilirubin, and region, the relative risk of death increased progressively as eGFR declined (P renal dysfunction was common (overall prevalence of 56 %). Most importantly, severe renal dysfunction was associated with significantly increased mortality.

  8. Total thyroidectomy in patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomisti, Luca; Materazzi, Gabriele; Bartalena, Luigi; Rossi, Giuseppe; Marchello, Angelica; Moretti, Manuela; De Napoli, Luigi; Mariotti, Rita; Miccoli, Paolo; Martino, Enio; Bogazzi, Fausto

    2012-10-01

    Patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction have a high mortality rate. Usually, medical therapy is the first choice for AIT patients, whereas the role of the thyroidectomy is unsettled. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a total thyroidectomy on cardiac function and survival of AIT patients with severe LV systolic dysfunction. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted at a tertiary university center. All AIT patients (n=24; nine patients with type 1 AIT, 15 patients with type 2 AIT) referred to the Department of Endocrinology and submitted to a total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgery, both at the University of Pisa, during the years 1997-2010. The intervention was a total thyroidectomy. LV ejection fraction (EF) after the thyroidectomy and survival in December 2011 were measured. All enrolled patients had previously undergone to medical treatment for AIT, as appropriate, without achieving euthyroidism. Patients with moderate to severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF50%, group 3, n=10). Two months after thyroidectomy, under levothyroxine replacement therapy, LVEF improved in patients with LV systolic dysfunction, particularly in those of group 1, in whom it increased from 28.2±7.2 to 38.3±6% (P=0.007). On the contrary, LVEF did not significantly change in group 3 (from 57.1±3.0 to 59.8±6.6%, P=0.242). The mean follow-up was 67±42 months. No death occurred during and 2 months after surgery. One death occurred in one patient of group 1, 30 months after the thyroidectomy, due to acute myocardial infarction. No patient had relevant complications of thyroidectomy. Total thyroidectomy, by rapidly restoring euthyroidism, may improve cardiac function and reduce the risk of mortality in AIT patients with severe LV dysfunction.

  9. The Complexity of Survival: Asylum Seekers, Resilience and Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Gitte; Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard

    A growing number of asylum seekers with Muslim background choose to get baptized as Christians while their application is being treated. The practice of conversion among asylum seekers from the Middle-East is charged with critique and suspicion from government authorities and the general public....... The then Danish Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs, Bertel Haarder, has suggested that pastors should refrain from baptizing migrants who are in the process of apply-ing for asylum. The Minister’s advice is problematic for a number of reasons: above all, be-cause the advice appears to reduce conversion...... to a simple instrument to obtain asylum. In this article, we show how his recommendation ignores the complexity of motives involved in the change of religious affiliation. By our adjustment of Bourdieu’s theory of social capital, we demonstrate how conversion is also a way of existential survival...

  10. Outcome of Prolonged Ventricular Fibrillation and CPR in a Rat Model of Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshao Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic left ventricular (LV dysfunction are assumed to have a lower chance of successful CPR and lower likelihood of ultimate survival. However, these assumptions have rarely been documented. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF and CPR in a rat model of chronic LV dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to (1 chronic LV dysfunction: animals underwent left coronary artery ligation; and (2 sham control. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac performance before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Four weeks after surgical intervention, 8 min of VF was induced and defibrillation was delivered after 8 min of CPR. LV dilation and low ejection fraction were observed 4 weeks after coronary ligation. With optimal chest compressions, coronary perfusion pressure values during CPR were well maintained and indistinguishable between groups. There were no differences in resuscitability and numbers of shock required for successful resuscitation between groups. Despite the significantly decreased cardiac index in LV dysfunction animals before induction of VF, no differences in cardiac index were observed between groups following resuscitation, which was associated with the insignificant difference in postresuscitation survival. In conclusion, the outcomes of CPR were not compromised by the preexisting chronic LV dysfunction.

  11. Conversion to sirolimus therapy in kidney transplant recipients with new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Tallarita, Tiziano; Corona, Daniela; Sinagra, Nunziata; Giaquinta, Alessia; Zerbo, Domenico; Guerrieri, Carmela; D'Assoro, Antonino; Cimino, Sebastiano; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2013-01-01

    New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) may complicate 2-50% of kidney transplantation, and it is associated with reduced graft and patient survivals. In this retrospective study, we applied a conversion protocol to sirolimus in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients with NODAT. Among 344 kidney transplant recipients, 29 patients developed a NODAT (6.6%) and continued with a reduced dose of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) (8 patients, Group A) or were converted to sirolimus (SIR) (21 patients, Group B). NODAT resolved in 37.5% and in 80% patients in Group A and Group B, respectively. In Group A, patient and graft survivals were 100% and 75%, respectively, not significantly different from Group B (83.4% and 68%, resp., P = 0.847). Graft function improved after conversion to sirolimus therapy: serum creatinine was 1.8 ± 0.7 mg/dL at the time of conversion and 1.6 ± 0.4 mg/dL five years after conversion to sirolimus therapy (P conversion and 1.65 ± 0.6 mg/dL at five-year followup (P = 0.732). This study demonstrated that the conversion from CNI to SIR in patients could improve significantly the metabolic parameters of patients with NODAT, without increasing the risk of acute graft rejection.

  12. Energy Conversion: A Comparison of Fix- and Self-Referenced Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of fix-referenced and self-referenced wave energy converters and a comparison of their corresponding wave energy conversion capacities from real seas. For conducting the comparisons, two popular wave energy converters, point absorber and oscillating water column, and their power conversion capacities in the fixed-referenced and self-referenced forms have been numerically studied and compared. In the numerical models, the device’s power extractions from seas are maximized using the correspondingly optimized power take-offs in different sea states, thus their power conversion capacities can be calculated and compared. From the comparisons and analyses, it is shown that the energy conversion capacities of the self-referenced devices can be significantly increased if the motions of the device itself can be utilized for wave energy conversion; and the self-referenced devices can be possibly designed to be compliant in long waves, which could be a very beneficial factor for device survivability in the extreme wave conditions (normally long waves. In this regards, the self-referenced WECs (wave energy converters may be better options in terms of wave energy conversion from the targeted waves in seas (frequently the most occurred, and in terms of the device survivability, especially in the extreme waves when compared to the fix-referenced counterparts.

  13. Special Issue: Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Innan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. Several decades later than the discovery of crossing over, gene conversion was first recognized in fungi when non-Mendelian allelic distortion was observed. Gene conversion occurs when a double-strand break is repaired by using homologous sequences in the genome. In meiosis, there is a strong preference to use the orthologous region (allelic gene conversion, which causes non-Mendelian allelic distortion, but paralogous or duplicated regions can also be used for the repair (inter-locus gene conversion, also referred to as non-allelic and ectopic gene conversion. The focus of this special issue is the latter, interlocus gene conversion; the rate is lower than allelic gene conversion but it has more impact on phenotype because more drastic changes in DNA sequence are involved.

  14. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  15. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  16. A clinicopathological study of dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Katuwal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a form of abnormal uterine bleeding when there is absence of organic disease of the genital tract. The objective of this study was to find out the clinical and pathological aspect of women presenting with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted over a period of one year from April 14th 2010 to April 13th 2011 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Department of Pathology, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. A complete history, clinical examination, pelvic scan, hormonal status if required and endometrial biopsy were done to diagnose dysfunctional uterine bleeding.Results: A total of 120 cases were included. The age of the patients diagnosed dysfunctional uterine bleeding were ranging from 24 -63 years. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding was most common in the age group 40-44 yrs (30% followed by 45-49 yrs (27.5%. Menorrhagia (41.7% was the most common presenting sign. Majority histopathology of endometrium revealed anovulatory pattern (61.7% followed by ovulatory (38.3%. Of the cases with an anovulatory pattern 48.6% was proliferative endometrium, 33.8% disordered proliferative endometrium, 6.8%atrophic, 5.4% weakly proliferative and 2.7% each of simple hyperplasia without atypia and complex hyperplasia with atypia. All cases with ovulatory pattern showed secretory endometrium.Conclusion: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding was the most common in the perimenopausal age group and chiefly in the form of an anovulatory endometrium. . Histopathological evaluation of endometrium helps exclude the local causes and establishes the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, its types, and clinical correlation to histopathological findings and finally helps to determine the mode of management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11500 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 635-638

  17. Wavelength Conversion by using Multiple Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Christian; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2002-01-01

    We explain how wavelength conversion can be achieved by using multiple fibres, and show that multiple fibres reduce blocking probability in dynamic all-optical networks, whereby the need for conversion in all-optical networks will be limited......We explain how wavelength conversion can be achieved by using multiple fibres, and show that multiple fibres reduce blocking probability in dynamic all-optical networks, whereby the need for conversion in all-optical networks will be limited...

  18. Clinical Safety and Efficacy of Nilotinib or Dasatinib in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and Pre-Existing Liver and/or Renal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Koji; Lahoti, Amit; Jabbour, Elias; Jain, Preetesh; Pierce, Sherry; Borthakur, Gautam; Daver, Naval; Kadia, Tapan; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of front-line nilotinib and dasatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-CP) with pre-existing liver and/or renal dysfunction are unknown. We analyzed the adverse event rates, response rates, and survival rates of 215 patients with CML-CP with or without renal and/or liver dysfunction who had been treated with front-line nilotinib (n = 108) or dasatinib (n = 107). The overall median follow-up period was 49 months. At baseline, 6 dasatinib-treated patients (6%) had mild renal dysfunction and 13 (12%) had mild liver dysfunction. Also, 8 nilotinib-treated patients (7%) had mild renal dysfunction, 1 (1%) moderate renal dysfunction, and 9 (8%) mild liver dysfunction. No significant differences were found in the rate of complete cytogenetic response, major molecular response, or molecular response by a 4.5 log reduction on the international scale between the organ function cohorts. Dasatinib- or nilotinib-treated patients with baseline renal dysfunction had a greater incidence of transient reversible acute kidney injury (P = .011 and P < .001), and nilotinib-treated patients with renal dysfunction had a greater incidence of bleeding (P < .001). Patients with CML-CP and mild to moderate renal or liver dysfunction can be safely treated with front-line dasatinib or nilotinib and can achieve response rates similar to those of patients with CML-CP without organ dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  20. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  1. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  2. Reading comprehension interaction – a conversation analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose is to use current methods of conversation analysis to analyse a typical interaction in order to understand how the use of conversational techniques support reading comprehension. It explores how communicative activity plays out in terms of conversational features such as sequence organisation, response ...

  3. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  4. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  5. Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Parasympathetic versus sympathetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori; Sugi, Toshihiko; Mikami, Tadashi; Shouda, Sakae [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction often causes lethal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. {sup 123}I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) can evaluate cardiac sympathetic dysfunction, and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can reflect cardiac parasympathetic activity. We examined whether cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction assessed by HRV may correlate with sympathetic dysfunction assessed by MIBG in diabetic patients. In 24-hour electrocardiography, we analyzed 4 HRV parameters: high-frequency power (HF), HF in the early morning (EMHF), rMSSD and pNN50. MIBG planar images and SPECT were obtained 15 minutes (early) and 150 minutes (late) after injection and the heart washout rate was calculated. The defect score in 9 left ventricular regions was scored on a 4 point scale (0=normal - 3=severe defect). In 20 selected diabetic patients without congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and renal failure, parasympathetic HRV parameters had a negative correlation with the sum of defect scores (DS) in the late images (R=-0.47 to -0.59, p<0.05) and some parameters had a negative correlation with the washout rate (R=-0.50 to -0.55, p<0.05). In a total of 64 diabetic patients also, these parameters had a negative correlation with late DS (R=-0.28 to -0.35, p<0.05) and early DS (R=-0.27 to -0.32, p<0.05). The progress of diabetic cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction may parallel the sympathetic one. (author)

  6. Sex therapy for female sexual dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. Results Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Conclusion There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes. PMID:24066697

  7. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....

  8. Nitrite therapy improves survival postexposure to chlorine gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Oh, Joo-Yeun; Steele, Chad; Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to relatively high levels of chlorine (Cl2) gas can occur in mass-casualty scenarios associated with accidental or intentional release. Recent studies have shown a significant postexposure injury phase to the airways, pulmonary, and systemic vasculatures mediated in part by oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysfunction in endogenous nitric oxide homeostasis pathways. However, there is a need for therapeutics that are amenable to rapid and easy administration in the field and that display efficacy toward toxicity after chlorine exposure. In this study, we tested whether nitric oxide repletion using nitrite, by intramuscular injection after Cl2 exposure, could prevent Cl2 gas toxicity. C57bl/6 male mice were exposed to 600 parts per million Cl2 gas for 45 min, and 24-h survival was determined with or without postexposure intramuscular nitrite injection. A single injection of nitrite (10 mg/kg) administered either 30 or 60 min postexposure significantly improved 24-h survival (from ∼20% to 50%). Survival was associated with decreased neutrophil accumulation in the airways. Rendering mice neutropenic before Cl2 exposure improved survival and resulted in loss of nitrite-dependent survival protection. Interestingly, female mice were more sensitive to Cl2-induced toxicity compared with males and were also less responsive to postexposure nitrite therapy. These data provide evidence for efficacy and define therapeutic parameters for a single intramuscular injection of nitrite as a therapeutic after Cl2 gas exposure that is amenable to administration in mass-casualty scenarios. PMID:25326579

  9. Nitrite therapy improves survival postexposure to chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Oh, Joo-Yeun; Steele, Chad; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to relatively high levels of chlorine (Cl₂) gas can occur in mass-casualty scenarios associated with accidental or intentional release. Recent studies have shown a significant postexposure injury phase to the airways, pulmonary, and systemic vasculatures mediated in part by oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysfunction in endogenous nitric oxide homeostasis pathways. However, there is a need for therapeutics that are amenable to rapid and easy administration in the field and that display efficacy toward toxicity after chlorine exposure. In this study, we tested whether nitric oxide repletion using nitrite, by intramuscular injection after Cl₂ exposure, could prevent Cl₂ gas toxicity. C57bl/6 male mice were exposed to 600 parts per million Cl₂ gas for 45 min, and 24-h survival was determined with or without postexposure intramuscular nitrite injection. A single injection of nitrite (10 mg/kg) administered either 30 or 60 min postexposure significantly improved 24-h survival (from ∼20% to 50%). Survival was associated with decreased neutrophil accumulation in the airways. Rendering mice neutropenic before Cl₂ exposure improved survival and resulted in loss of nitrite-dependent survival protection. Interestingly, female mice were more sensitive to Cl₂-induced toxicity compared with males and were also less responsive to postexposure nitrite therapy. These data provide evidence for efficacy and define therapeutic parameters for a single intramuscular injection of nitrite as a therapeutic after Cl₂ gas exposure that is amenable to administration in mass-casualty scenarios. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Prognostication of Survival Outcomes in Patients Diagnosed with Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamutdinov, Damir; Stock, Eileen M; Dandashi, Jad A; Vasquez, Eliana A; Mao, Ying; Dayawansa, Samantha; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Erxi; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Huang, Jason H

    2017-09-23

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain tumor with dismal survival. This study aims to examine the prognostic value of primary tumor sites and race on survival outcomes. Patient data obtained from the Scott and White Hospital Brain Tumor Registry (1976-2013) were stratified according to sex, age, race, primary tumor site, vital status, and survival. Of the 645 patients, 580 (89.9%) were diagnosed with GBM not otherwise specified (GBM NOS), 57 (8.8%) with GBM, and 8 (1.2%) with giant-cell GBM. Most were male (53.5%), aged 50 years or older (78.7%). The white population had the highest GBM prevalence (87.1%) and the lowest overall survival versus all other race groups (6.6% vs. 30.1%; P < 0.01). The black population had a relatively low prevalence of GBM (5.9%) and the greatest overall survival versus all others (47.4% vs. 7.3%; P < 0.01). Primary tumor sites located in the temporal (25.8% vs. 20.2%; P = 0.03), occipital (8.1% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.05), and parietal lobes (24.2% vs. 20.8%; P = 0.05) had a greater occurrence in surviving individuals. The overall survival for men versus women was (62.9% vs. 37.1%; P = 0.12). Black racial background and temporal, occipital, or parietal primary tumor sites are suggestive of positive survival outcomes. Conversely, white racial background with primary tumor sites in the brain overlapping and NOS areas seem to be associated with negative outcomes and decreased survival. Thus, racial background and primary tumor site may be useful prognostic factors in patients with GBM. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  12. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  14. Psychological and Interpersonal Dimensions of Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan

    2016-04-01

    Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems

  15. Triple vs. dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction and renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Hwan; Suh, Sang Heon; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Sim, Doo Sun; Bae, Eun Hui; Lim, Sang Yup; Ma, Seong Kwon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Soo Wan

    2012-01-01

     The question as to whether triple antiplatelet therapy is superior to dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and renal dysfunction, who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is unresolved.  As part of the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR), 2,288 AMI patients with renal dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate aspirin plus clopidogrel; n=1,587) or triple (aspirin plus clopidogrel and cilostazol; n=701) antiplatelet therapy. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 1 month and 1 year were compared between these 2 groups. On comparison with the dual therapy group, the triple therapy group had a similar incidence of major bleeding events but a significantly lower incidence of in-hospital mortality. The MACE rate at 1 month was significantly higher for the dual therapy group than for the triple therapy group (16.3% vs. 11.1%, P<0.05), and this difference was mainly attributed to death rather than repeat PCI (12.9% vs. 9.1%, P<0.05). The MACE rate at 1 year and the MACE-free survival time, however, did not differ between the groups.  In AMI patients with renal dysfunction, triple antiplatelet therapy has a favorable in-hospital and short-term MACE impact, but it does not have an impact on the 1-year MACE-free survival.

  16. Outcomes of infants undergoing superior cavopulmonary connection in the presence of ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Matthew J; Elias, Matthew D; Cohen, Meryl S; Quartermain, Michael D

    2012-04-01

    Outcomes in patients with ventricular dysfunction undergoing superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) are not well known. We reviewed records of patients undergoing SCPC at our center from December 2005 to October 2009 and studied those whose pre-SCPC echocardiograms demonstrated at least moderate systemic ventricular dysfunction. Of the 213 patients undergoing SCPC, 19 (9%) met inclusion criteria. Diagnoses were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (n = 18) and rightward unbalanced atrioventricular canal with pulmonary stenosis (n = 1). In those surviving >2 months after SCPC, ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography 4.9 (range 3.5 to 9.7) months after SCPC and was improved in ten of 17 (59%), unchanged in six of 17 (35%), and worsened in one of 17 (16%) patients. After SCPC, three patients died, and one underwent heart transplant 21.9 months after SCPC. Transplant-free survival was attained by 15 of 19 (79%) patients during follow-up of 33.0 months (range 10.8 to 51.4). Fontan completion was performed on six survivors on reaching an appropriate age. Ventricular dysfunction before SCPC is not uncommon and occurs primarily in patients with a morphologic right ventricle. Ventricular performance improves in the majority of patients after SCPC, and midterm outcomes are comparable with previous reports, suggesting that these patients remain candidates for staged palliation.

  17. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  18. [Primary and secondary prevention of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H; Popken, G

    2011-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction has an incidence of up to 75% in men aged 80, thus making primary prevention really important. Aetiologically multiple reasons are responsible for erectile dysfunction; therefore, recommendations for primary prevention contain different parts. The first one is to maintain a healthy arterial system and prevent atherosclerosis. Besides that diabetes, neurogenic disturbances or mental distress should be avoided. Physical activity, balanced nutrition, nonsmoking, unsaturated fatty acids and moderate alcohol consumption are preventive. Regular erections cause oxygenation of the cavernous body and prevent fibrosis which could lead to an insufficient occlusion of the cavernous veins. If the patient already suffers from coronary heart disease or diabetes, blood pressure, pulse, blood lipids and blood sugar should be as normal as possible. Erectile dysfunction might be the primary symptom of coronary heart disease; therefore, consideration should be given to a cardiac examination in the diagnostic setting.

  19. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Female Sexual Dysfunctions and Urogynecological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emillio Sacco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.

  1. Taxonomy of segmental myocardial systolic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Adam K.; Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Cleland, John G.

    2017-01-01

    The terms used to describe different states of myocardial health and disease are poorly defined. Imprecision and inconsistency in nomenclature can lead to difficulty in interpreting and applying trial outcomes to clinical practice. In particular, the terms ‘viable’ and ‘hibernating’ are commonly applied interchangeably and incorrectly to myocardium that exhibits chronic contractile dysfunction in patients with ischaemic heart disease. The range of inherent differences amongst imaging modalities used to define myocardial health and disease add further challenges to consistent definitions. The results of several large trials have led to renewed discussion about the classification of dysfunctional myocardial segments. This article aims to describe the diverse myocardial pathologies that may affect the myocardium in ischaemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, and how they may be assessed with non-invasive imaging techniques in order to provide a taxonomy of myocardial dysfunction. PMID:27147609

  2. Pain related sexual dysfunction after inguinal herniorrhaphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Møhl, Bo; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    To determine the incidence of pain related sexual dysfunction 1 year after inguinal herniorrhaphy and to assess the impact pain has on sexual function. In contrast to the well-described about 10% risk of chronic wound related pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy, chronic genital pain, dysejaculation......, and sexual dysfunction have only been described sporadically. The aim was therefore to describe these symptoms in a questionnaire study. A nationwide detailed questionnaire study in September 2004 of pain related sexual dysfunction in all men aged 18-40 years undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy between October...... 2002 and June 2003 (n=1015) based upon the nationwide Danish Hernia Database collaboration. The response rate was 68.4%. Combined frequent and moderate or severe pain from the previous hernia site during activity was reported by 187 patients (18.4%). Pain during sexual activity was reported by 224...

  3. Evaluation of Endothelial Dysfunction In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todiras, Mihail; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells play a major role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. Impairment of physiological properties of the endothelium, such as the promotion of vasodilation and anti-aggregation, leads to a condition called endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is an important early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has been shown to have prognostic value in predicting vascular events including stroke and myocardial infarction.Endothelial-dependent vasodilation is one of the most widely used methods for assessment of endothelial function in rodents. It includes pharmacological stimulation (for example by acetylcholine) of endothelial release of NO and other vasoactive compounds in comparison with vascular response to endothelium-independent dilators such as sodium nitroprusside. However, usually this technique is performed in anesthetized animals. Here we describe a method which allows evaluation of endothelial dysfunction in conscious, freely moving mice and rats.

  4. DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN FROM DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bateva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of my research in the paper are the children from dysfunctional families, primarily their delinquent behavior, education and moral, actually, who takes care of them and who undertakes the family roles and whether this care is sufficient for building these personalities.This research approaches towards the study of the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. It examines to what extent the educational level of parents, the material condition, the health condition, the leisure time, the average monthly income of the family, the available permanent goods, the educational resources, the social communications within the very family, all affect the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. 

  5. Menstrual dysfunction in swimmers: a distinct entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, N W; Warren, M P

    1995-09-01

    Menstrual dysfunction is common among athletes with very low body mass, such as long distance runners and dancers, and is usually associated with hypothalamic dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the menstrual status of swimmers, in whom exercise is nonweight bearing and thinness is, thus, not essential. Questionnaires recording the menstrual history of 69 young competitive swimmers (aged 16.4 +/- 0.5) were compared to those of 279 age-matched controls. Age of menarche (M) was significantly (P runners. We, therefore, suggest a different mechanism for reproductive dysfunction in swimmers that is associated not with hypoestrogenism, but, rather, with mild hyperandrogenism. A distinction among the various types of athletic amenorrhea should be made based on hormonal profiles with attention to their weight and somatotype.

  6. Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E Cerf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are inherently complex with their interrelation for triggering the pathogenesis of diabetes also somewhat undefined. Both pathogenic states induce hyperglycemia and therefore increase insulin demand. Beta cell dysfunction results from inadequate glucose sensing to stimulate insulin secretion therefore elevated glucose concentrations prevail. Persistently elevated glucose concentrations above the physiological range result in the manifestation of hyperglycemia. With systemic insulin resistance, insulin signaling within glucose recipient tissues is defective therefore hyperglycemia perseveres. Beta cell dysfunction supersedes insulin resistance in inducing diabetes. Both pathological states influence each other and presumably synergistically exacerbate diabetes. Preserving beta cell function and insulin signaling in beta cells and insulin signaling in the glucose recipient tissues will maintain glucose homeostasis.

  7. Laparoscopic correction of peritoneal catheter dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Gholamhossein; Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed; Tavassoli, Alireza

    2008-10-01

    To present our experiences with laparoscopic repair of peritoneal catheter dysfunction Total of 24 patients with peritoneal catheter malfunction were considered for two-port laparoscopic manipulation. Two patients with unsuccessful result in the first trial and 3 patients with successful peritoneal dialysis results were reoperated because of catheter dysfunction. The success rates at the first and second manipulation was 79% and 80%. The most frequent cause of catheters dysfunction was migration of catheters out of the true pelvis. During the follow up, 8 patients were referred for renal transplantation, 8 underwent hemodialysis and 5 continued with normal catheter function. The mean longevity of the catheters after laparoscopic correction was 42 months. One year longevity rate as measured as 79%. Laparoscopy is the procedure of choice even in recurrent cases, for correction of malfunctioning continuous ambulatory peritoneal catheters, because this procedure is the only technique that can detects pathologic causes of catheters malfunction and can resolve those problems at the same time.

  8. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  9. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  10. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  11. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  12. Religious Conversion, Models and Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Boz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This papers examines the experiences of converts to Islam among Australian women in the milieu of polemic views and debates such as ‘Islam versus the west', which is most visible in the image of the ‘eastern' ‘oppressed' Muslim woman. Employing the experiences of Australian Muslim women converts in Melbourne, issues concerning identity politics, and the individuals and social dimensions of conversion are investigated. While there is an array of literature about Muslim women from various disciplines including anthropology, sociology, politics, cultural studies and gender studies, among others, this paper takes an interdisciplinary approach to examine debates that have based their discussion on the image of the Muslim woman. Marco debates concerning issues such as multiculturalism, integration, Islam and the West debates including the ‘clash of civilizations' have been largely centred on the image of the Muslim women. The debate concerning the inherent conflict between Islam and West intensified after 11th of September 2001 with the terrorist attacks in the United States and the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2002. It is during this critical period I interviewed Muslim converts in order to gain first-hand insight into their experiences as Muslims. This paper employs primary data collected during this historical period to examine issues regarding broader issues of identity politics, religious conversion as well as the everyday life experiences of female converts to Islam.

  13. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  14. Astrophysicists’ Conversational Connections on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D.; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists’ activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions. PMID:25153196

  15. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  16. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  17. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Olfactory Dysfunction in Nasal Bone Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sug Won; Park, Beom; Lee, Tae Geun; Kim, Ji Ye

    2017-06-01

    All nasal bone fractures have the potential for worsening of olfactory function. However, few studies have studied the olfactory outcomes following reduction of nasal bone fractures. This study evaluates posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction in patients with nasal bone fracture before and after closed reduction. A prospective study was conducted for all patients presenting with nasal bone fracture (n=97). Each patient consenting to the study underwent the Korean version of Sniffin' Sticks test (KVSS II) before operation and at 6 month after closed reduction. The nasal fractures were divided according to the nasal bone fracture classification by Haug and Prather (Types I-IV). The olfactory scores were compared across fracture types and between preoperative and postoperative settings. Olfactory dysfunction was frequent after nasal fracture (45/97, 46.4%). Our olfactory assessment using the KVSS II test revealed that fracture reduction was not associated with improvements in the mean test score in Type I or Type II fractures. More specifically, the mean posttraumatic Threshold, discrimination and identification score decreased from 28.8 points prior to operation to 23.1 point at 6 months for Type II fracture with septal fracture. Our study has revealed two alarming trends regarding post-nasal fracture olfactory dysfunction. First, our study demonstrated that almost half (46.4%) of nasal fracture patients experience posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction. Second, closed reduction of these fractures does not lead to improvements olfaction at 6 months, which suggest that olfactory dysfunction is probably due to factors other than the fracture itself. The association should be further explored between injuries that lead to nasal fracture and the mechanism behind posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction.

  19. Potential biomarker panel for predicting organ dysfunction and acute coagulopathy in a polytrauma porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Chiat; Lai, Yi Yang; Tan, Mui Hong; Tan, Chuen Seng; Wu, Jian; Zeng, Lewis Zheng Jie; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and patients who survived the initial insult are susceptible to an overwhelming inflammatory dysfunction that will lead to acute coagulopathy of trauma (ACOT) and subsequently multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome-related scoring systems, although they measure organ dysfunction, present clinical markers, and single-cytokine estimates are unable to predict accurately the events of MODS in the clinical setting to aid risk stratification. In this study, a pig model comprising the lethal triad of trauma was used to determine prognostic patterns of early circulating trauma markers so as to predict the development of MODS and ACOT. We measured early expression of several biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated protein, high-mobility group box 1, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, and D-dimers) and clinical parameters for various organ injuries and abnormalities (creatinine, creatine kinase myocardial band, aspartate aminotransferase, and maximum clot firmness) at later time points. The strength of association between the early expression of several biomarkers to the development of MODS and ACOT in polytraumatized pigs was tested using the Spearman correlation coefficient. These biomarkers were found useful to predict the onset of renal, cardiac, hepatic, and hemostatic abnormalities. The findings show that these biomarkers could help to identify, guide, and streamline damage control surgery and earlier intervention to reverse the detrimental outcomes of MODS and ACOT.

  20. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacological approaches to coronary microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Giacinta; Huqi, Alda; Morrone, Doralisa; Capozza, Paola; Todiere, Giancarlo; Marzilli, Mario

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades coronary microvascular dysfunction has been increasingly identified as a relevant contributor to several cardiovascular conditions. Indeed, coronary microvascular abnormalities have been recognized in patients suffering acute myocardial infarction, chronic stable angina and cardiomyopathies, and also in patients with hypertension, obesity and diabetes. In this review, we will examine pathophysiological information needed to understand pharmacological approaches to coronary microvascular dysfunction in these different clinical contexts. Well-established drugs and new pharmacological agents, including those for which only preclinical data are available, will be covered in detail. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures are unclear and clinical trials are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with hip, nonspine, spine, or any fractures. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The databases of MEDLINE...... and EMBASE (inception to March 26, 2015) were searched without language restrictions for prospective cohort studies with thyroid function data and subsequent fractures. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual participant data were obtained from 13 prospective cohorts in the United States, Europe, Australia, and Japan....... Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH

  3. Liver dysfunction and anti-thyroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae A Papachristos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioamides have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for over 50 years. Liver dysfunction is a rare but important side effect associated with their use. Recently, cases of liver failure associated with propylthiouracil have prompted the Federal Drug Administration to issue a Boxed Warning to the label of propylthiouracil regarding its risk of potentially fatal liver injury and acute liver failure in adults and children. Herein, we present a case to underline the importance of recognising the similar potential for severe hepatic dysfunction with the use of other thioamides.

  4. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in Friedreich Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stüwe Sven H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction due to respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in pathogenesis of Friedreich ataxia. Friedreich ataxia affects the nervous system, heart and pancreas. Methods We assessed hepatic mitochondrial function by 13C-methionine-breath-test in 16 Friedreich ataxia patients and matched healthy controls. Results Patients exhaled significantly smaller amounts of 13CO2 over 90 minutes. Maximal exhaled percentage dose of 13CO2 recovery was reduced compared to controls. Conclusions 13C-methionine-breath-test indicates subclinical hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in Friedreich ataxia but did not correlate with GAA repeat lengths, disease duration or disease severity.

  5. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  6. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  7. Obesity in cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V

    2012-08-21

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

  8. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  10. The impact of duration of organ dysfunction on the outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio G. R. Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of the duration of organ dysfunction on the outcome of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from hospital charts of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to a mixed intensive care unit from November 2003 to February 2004. The duration of organ dysfunction prior to diagnosis was correlated with mortality. Results were considered significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were enrolled. Mean age was 55.6 ± 20.7 years, mean APACHE II score was 20.6 ± 6.9, and mean SOFA score was 7.9 ± 3.7. Thirty-six patients (64.3% had septic shock. The mean duration of organ dysfunction was 1.9 ± 1.9 days. Within the univariate analysis, the variables correlated with hospital mortality were: age (p=0.015, APACHE II (p=0.008, onset outside the intensive care unit (p=0.05, blood glucose control (p=0.05 and duration of organ dysfunction (p=0.0004. In the multivariate analysis, only a duration of organ dysfunction persisting longer than 48 hours correlated with mortality (p=0.004, OR: 8.73 (2.37-32.14, whereas the APACHE II score remained only a slightly significant factor (p=0.049, OR: 1.11 (1.00-1.23. Patients who received therapeutic interventions within the first 48 hours after the onset of organ dysfunction exhibited lower mortality (32.1% vs. 82.1%, p=0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the diagnosis of organ dysfunction is not being made in a timely manner. The time elapsed between the onset of organ dysfunction and initiation of therapeutic intervention can be quite long, and this represents an important determinant of survival in cases of severe sepsis and septic shock.

  11. Melatonin and mitochondrial dysfunction in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Pagano, Eleonora S; Scacchi Bernasconi, Pablo A; Reynoso, Roxana; Scacchi, Pablo

    2013-02-01

    Cell death and survival are critical events for neurodegeneration, mitochondria being increasingly seen as important determinants of both. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a major causative factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Increased free radical generation, enhanced mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity and NO production, and disrupted electron transport system and mitochondrial permeability transition, have all been involved in impaired mitochondrial function. Melatonin, the major secretory product of the pineal gland, is an antioxidant and an effective protector of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Both in vitro and in vivo, melatonin was effective to prevent oxidative stress/nitrosative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction seen in experimental models of AD, PD and HD. These effects are seen at doses 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those required to affect sleep and circadian rhythms, both conspicuous targets of melatonin action. Melatonin is selectively taken up by mitochondria, a function not shared by other antioxidants. A limited number of clinical studies indicate that melatonin can improve sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in PD and AD patients. More recently, attention has been focused on the development of potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects which were employed in clinical trials in sleep-disturbed or depressed patients in doses considerably higher than those employed for melatonin. In view that the relative potencies of the analogs are higher than that of the natural compound, clinical trials employing melatonin in the range of 50-100mg/day are needed to assess its therapeutic validity in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  13. Metabolic Gene Remodeling and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Failing Right Ventricular Hypertrophy due to Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arroyo, Jose; Mizuno, Shiro; Szczepanek, Karol; Van Tassell, Benjamin; Natarajan, Ramesh; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Drake, Jennifer I.; Farkas, Laszlo; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Bigbee, John; Abbate, Antonio; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Bogaard, Harm J.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is the most frequent cause of death in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Whereas abnormal energy substrate utilization has been implicated in the development of chronic left heart failure, data describing such metabolic remodeling in RVD remain incomplete. Thus, we sought to characterize metabolic gene expression changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in functional and dysfunctional RV hypertrophy. Methods and Results Two different rat models of RV hypertrophy were studied. The model of RVD (SU5416/hypoxia) exhibited a significantly decreased gene expression of PPAR-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), PPAR-α and ERR-α. The expression of multiple PCG-1α target genes required for fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was similarly decreased. Decreased PGC-1α expression was also associated with a net loss of mitochondrial protein and oxidative capacity. Reduced mitochondrial number was associated with a downregulation of TFAM and other genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis. Electron microscopy demonstrated that in RVD tissue, mitochondria had abnormal shape and size. Lastly, respirometric analysis demonstrated that mitochondria isolated from RVD-tissue had a significantly reduced ADP-stimulated (state 3) rate for complex I. Conversely, functional RV hypertrophy in the pulmonary artery banding (PAB) model showed normal expression of PGC-1α, whereas the expression of FAO genes was either preserved or unregulated. Moreover, PAB-RV tissue exhibited preserved TFAM expression and mitochondrial respiration despite elevated RV pressure-overload. Conclusions Right ventricular dysfunction, but not functional RV hypertrophy in rats, demonstrates a gene expression profile compatible with a multilevel impairment of fatty acid metabolism and significant mitochondrial dysfunction, partially independent of chronic pressure-overload. PMID:23152488

  14. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  15. Electrodynamic tethers for energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    Conductive tethers have been proposed as a new method for converting orbital mechanical energy into electrical power for use on-board a satellite (generator mode) or conversely (motor mode) as a method of providing electric propulsion using electrical energy from the satellite. The operating characteristics of such systems are functionally dependent on orbit altitude and inclination. Effects of these relationships are examined to determine acceptable regions of application. To identify system design considerations, a specific set of system performance goals and requirements are selected. The case selected is for a 25 kW auxiliary power system for use on Space Station. Appropriate system design considerations are developed, and the resulting system is described.

  16. Power conversion apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  17. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  18. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  19. Explaining dysfunctional effects of lexicographical communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Explaining Dysfunctional Effects of Lexicographical Communication. 61 part of the aim.El propositions relate directly to the observability and measur- ability of aim.El. They can be taken from education theory, for instance Bloom's revised taxonomy of educational objectives (cf. Anderson and Krathwohl. 2001).21. It is now ...

  20. Spotlight on olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Violante M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayela Rodríguez-Violante,1,2 Natalia Ospina-García,1,2 Christian Pérez-Lohman,1,2 Amin Cervantes-Arriaga1,2 1Movement Disorders Clinic, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Clinical Neurodegenerative Research Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Olfactory dysfunction is frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD. A correlation between olfactory dysfunction and the pathophysiological process of the disease has been confirmed. On the other hand, olfaction disturbances are also prevalent in other neurodegenerative diseases, and may be related to other factors such as gender, age, smoking, and trauma. Clinically, hyposmia is commonly assessed by smell identification testing. Good diagnostic accuracy has been widely reported, but differences in sensitivity and specificity due to sociocultural factors have also been reported. Since hyposmia may be present before the onset of motor symptoms, it has the potential to serve as a biomarker for the identification of subjects at risk of developing PD. Several studies have been conducted to assess the utility of smell testing as an isolated or combined biomarker for this end. Finally, severe olfactory dysfunction has been associated with faster disease progression and higher risk of cognitive decline in patients with PD. Olfactory dysfunction assessment in PD will continue to be relevant in research and clinical practice. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, olfaction, smell identification test, biomarker 

  1. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Alessandra Plácido Lima; Campos, Ana Aurélia Salles; Dias, Antonio Roberto Cardoso; Amed, Abes Mahmed; De Souza, Eduardo; Camano, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among teenagers and adult women during pregnancy using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). A cohort study was conducted with 271 healthy pregnant women presenting a stable relationship with their partners. These women contributed to the survey since the laboratory diagnosis of their present pregnancy. Anonymous questionnaires evaluated aspects of sexual activity and female sexual function. This last item was assessed through the FSFI questionnaire. The women sexual function showed a similar pattern during the first and second trimesters; however, it presented a significantly clear decrease in the third trimester. There was a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains when comparing the second and third trimesters. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant teenagers was rated 40.8% in the first trimester, 31.2% in the second and 63.2% in the third. For pregnant adults, the dysfunction was rated, respectively, 46.6%, 34.2% and 73.3%. The sexual function is affected during pregnancy with a significant decrease in all FSFI domains in the third trimester considering both pregnant teenagers and adults. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester in both age groups; however, teenagers presented better sexual function ratings.

  2. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive erectile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although prevalence rates of ED and depression increase with age, they may be co-morbid in age groups other than the elderly. However, sexual dysfunction is a common side-effect of antidepressant treatment, and may also explain the relationship between depression and ED. Serotonin re- uptake inhibitors (SRIs) ...

  3. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  4. Dimensions of working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukrop, R.; Matuschek, E.; Ruhrmann, S.; Brockhaus, A.; Tendolkar, I.; Bertsch, A.; Klosterkötter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying structure of eight working memory tests used to assess prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia research [Letter-Number Span (LNS), Digit-Symbol Test (DST), Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B), Delayed Response Task (DRT) for spatial working memory,

  5. Hyperemesis gravidarum and placental dysfunction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudijs, Heleen M; Savitri, Ary I; Browne, Joyce L; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-11-25

    Evidence about the consequence of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) on pregnancy outcomes is still inconclusive. In this study, we evaluated if occurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with placental dysfunction disorders and neonatal outcomes. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a maternal and child health primary care referral center, Budi Kemuliaan Hospital and its branch, in Jakarta, Indonesia. 2252 pregnant women visiting the hospital for regular antenatal care visits from July 2012 until October 2014 were included at their first clinic visit. For women without, with mild and with severe hyperemesis, placental dysfunction disorders (gestational hypertension, preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth, miscarriage), neonatal outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), Apgar score at 5 min, gestational age at delivery) and placental outcomes (placental weight and placental-weight-to-birth-weight ratio (PW/BW ratio)) were studied. Compared to newborns of women without hyperemesis, newborns of women with severe hyperemesis had a 172 g lower birth weight in adjusted analysis (95%CI -333.26; -10.18; p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant effects on placental dysfunction disorders or other neonatal outcome measures. The results of our study suggest that hyperemesis gravidarum does not seem to induce placental dysfunction disorders, but does, if severe lead to lower birth weight.

  6. Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Bindslev, TT; Pedersen, S M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction can be diagnosed bedside by comparing the simultaneous changes in...

  7. Erectile dysfunction | Smith | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a medical term that describes the inability to achieve and/or maintain an erect penis adequate for sexual function. This condition is one of the most common sexual problems for men and increases with age, but it's not a natural part of ageing. Approximately one half of men aged 40 years and ...

  8. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary

  9. Explaining dysfunctional effects of lexicographical communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    atically and formally analysed to identify functional, non-functional and dysfunctional effects of lexicographical communication. ... of noise at soccer matches]. In a comment during question and discussion time .... the effect of the communication process, when the user applies the meaning of the lexicographic message to the ...

  10. Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birke Bartosch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C is characterized by metabolic disorders and a microenvironment in the liver dominated by oxidative stress, inflammation and regeneration processes that lead in the long term to hepatocellular carcinoma. Many lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunctions, including modification of metabolic fluxes, generation and elimination of oxidative stress, Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis, play a central role in these processes. However, how these dysfunctions are induced by the virus and whether they play a role in disease progression and neoplastic transformation remains to be determined. Most in vitro studies performed so far have shown that several of the hepatitis C virus (HCV proteins localize to mitochondria, but the consequences of these interactions on mitochondrial functions remain contradictory, probably due to the use of artificial expression and replication systems. In vivo studies are hampered by the fact that innate and adaptive immune responses will overlay mitochondrial dysfunctions induced directly in the hepatocyte by HCV. Thus, the molecular aspects underlying HCV-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions and their roles in viral replication and the associated pathology need yet to be confirmed in the context of productively replicating virus and physiologically relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems.

  11. Left atrial myxoma with biventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Monish S; Shad, Sujay; Maheshwari, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of left atrial myxoma with severe ventricular dysfunction without any obstructive coronary artery disease, as presented in our case, is very rare. It may be due to undiagnosed concomitant dilated cardiomyopathy or unknown cardiodepressant effect of myxoma which warrants further research. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opiates. In 1972, Rie and Wilson[25] reported the successful use of morphine to control autonomic dysfunction in a case of tetanus. It does not appear to act as a peripheral α-adrenergic antagonist but rather attenuates sympathetic efferent discharge within the central nervous system. Buchanan et al.[26] reported in 1979 ...

  13. Endothelial dysfunction after non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, E S; Fonnes, S; Gögenur, I

    2015-01-01

    was to systematically review the literature to evaluate the association between non-cardiac surgery and non-invasive markers of endothelial function. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Endothelial dysfunction was described only...

  14. Women's health implications of ovulatory dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, NMP

    2016-01-01

    The association between ovulatory dysfunction and the occurrence of future CVD events remains largely unsettled.The association between PCOS and cardiometabolic abnormalities (e.g. obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance) has indeed been clearly established, and was reaffirmed in the current

  15. Melatonin in Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatramanujam Srinivasan; D Warren Spence; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Brown, Gregory M.; Cardinali, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered one of the major causative factors in the aging process, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), septic shock, and neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Increased free radical generation, enhanced mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity, enhanced NO production, decreased respiratory complex activity, impaired electron transport system, and opening of mitochondrial per...

  16. Lysyl oxidase and adipose tissue dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastel, Emilie; Price, Emily; Sjöholm, Kajsa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an enzyme crucial for collagen fibre crosslinking and thus for fibrosis development. Fibrosis is characterised by a surplus of collagen fibre accumulation and is amongst others also a feature of obesity-associated dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) which...

  17. Sexual dysfunction in Nigerian stroke survivors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: This survey reports sexual dysfunction in Nigerian stroke survivors, and determines the influence of socio- ... Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale and post-stroke sexual function ..... Medical. Aspects of Human Sexuality 1979; 13: 16-30. 25.

  18. Family Roles, Alcoholism, and Family Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Karola M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines family roles in college undergraduates (N=748). Comparing role identification found no differences between children of alcoholics (ACOA) and non-ACOAs. Differences were found in participants from dysfunctional families. Results suggest a need for clinicians to re-think the use of role conceptualization in therapeutic work with ACOAs, with…

  19. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis M. Steyers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α, reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein, autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population.

  20. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... quality of life and medication adherence with resultant negative impact on treatment outcomes. Objectives: In this study, we described the various types of sexual dysfunction among psychiatric outpatients receiving psychotropic ..... role reversal within a relationship, bringing about feelings of inadequacy in ...

  1. Neuromuscular dysfunction associated with delayed weaning from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yehia Khalil

    2012-03-21

    Mar 21, 2012 ... Neuromuscular dysfunction associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory failure. Yehia Khalil a. , Emad El Din Mustafa a. , Ahmed Youssef a. ,. Mohamed Hassan Imam b,. *, Amni Fathy El Behiry a a Department of Chest, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, ...

  2. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dot, Irene; Pérez-Teran, Purificación; Samper, Manuel-Andrés; Masclans, Joan-Ramon

    2017-03-01

    Muscle involvement is found in most critical patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diaphragmatic muscle alteration, initially included in this category, has been differentiated in recent years, and a specific type of muscular dysfunction has been shown to occur in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. We found this muscle dysfunction to appear in this subgroup of patients shortly after the start of mechanical ventilation, observing it to be mainly associated with certain control modes, and also with sepsis and/or multi-organ failure. Although the specific etiology of process is unknown, the muscle presents oxidative stress and mitochondrial changes. These cause changes in protein turnover, resulting in atrophy and impaired contractility, and leading to impaired functionality. The term 'ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction' was first coined by Vassilakopoulos et al. in 2004, and this phenomenon, along with injury cause by over-distention of the lung and barotrauma, represents a challenge in the daily life of ventilated patients. Diaphragmatic dysfunction affects prognosis by delaying extubation, prolonging hospital stay, and impairing the quality of life of these patients in the years following hospital discharge. Ultrasound, a non-invasive technique that is readily available in most ICUs, could be used to diagnose this condition promptly, thus preventing delays in starting rehabilitation and positively influencing prognosis in these patients. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive dysfunction and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, Antonio; Piras, Maria Rita; Deplano, Angelo

    2015-05-08

    Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a distinct form of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In fact, the majority of HCV-positive patients, irrespective of the grading of liver fibrosis, display alterations of verbal learning, attention, executive function, and memory when they are evaluated by suitable neuropsychological tests. Similarities between the cognitive dysfunction of HCV patients and MHE of patients with different etiologies are unclear. It is also unknown how the metabolic alterations of advanced liver diseases interact with the HCV-induced cognitive dysfunction, and whether these alterations are reversed by antiviral therapies. HCV replication in the brain may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. HCV-related brain dysfunction may be associated with white matter neuronal loss, alterations of association tracts and perfusion. It is unclear to what extent, in patients with cirrhosis, HCV triggers an irreversible neurodegenerative brain damage. New insights on this issue will be provided by longitudinal studies using the protocols established by the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition for cognitive disorders. The domains to be evaluated are complex attention; executive functions; learning and memory; perceptual motor functions; social cognition. These evaluations should be associated with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for major cognitive disorders including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance perfusion, and functional MRI. Also, the characteristics of portal hypertension, including the extent of liver blood flow and the type of portal shunts, should be evaluated.

  4. Effect of Common Visual Dysfunctions on Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Brian P.

    1985-01-01

    Six common visual dysfunctions are briefly explained and their relationships to reading noted: (1) ametropia, refractive error; (2) inaccurate saccades, the small jumping eye movements used in reading; (3) inefficient binocularity/fusion; (4) insufficient convergence/divergence; (5) heterophoria, imbalance in extra-ocular muscles; and (6)…

  5. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  6. Sexual dysfunction during primiparous and multiparous women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal sexual functioning comprises of sexual activity together with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problem. Delivery has different effects on body organs, especially, on genitalia the disorder of which can cause sexual dysfunctions. In this study, an attempt is made to compare postpartum ...

  7. Kidney dysfunction after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersting, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a widely accepted approach for malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic diseases. Unfortunately complications can occur because of the treatment, leading to treatment-related mortality. We studied kidney dysfunction after allogeneic SCT in 2 cohorts of

  8. Olfactory dysfunction in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.J.; Zhao, N.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, D.Q.; Wang, J.; Qin, W.; Zhang, N.N.N.; Wood, K.; Liu, Y.; Yu, C.S.; Shi, F.D.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Few data were available for the understanding of olfactory function in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of olfactory dysfunction and characterize olfactory structures, using MRI, in patients with NMOSDs. Olfactory function was

  9. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hassa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  10. Normalizing dysfunctional purine metabolism accelerates diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Andrew L; Lalezarzadeh, Frank D; Soares, Marc A; Saadeh, Pierre B; Ceradini, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic patients exhibit dysfunction of the normal wound healing process, leading to local ischemia by vascular occlusive disease as well as sustained increases in the proinflammatory cytokines and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Of the many sources of ROS, the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) has been linked to overproduction of ROS in diabetic environment, and studies have shown that treatment with XO inhibitors decreases XO overactivity and XO-generated ROS. This study evaluates the role of XO in the diabetic wound and the impact of specifically inhibiting its activity on wound healing. Treatment of diabetic wounds with siXDH (xanthine dehydrogenase siRNA) decreased XDH mRNA expression by 51.6%, XO activity by 35.9%, ROS levels by 78.1%, pathologic wound burden by 31.5%, and accelerated wound healing by 7 days (23.3%). Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that increased XO activity in wild-type wound may be due to XDH to XO conversion and/or XO phosphorylation, but not to gene transcription, whereas increased XO activity in diabetic wounds may also be from gene transcription. These results suggest that XO may be responsible for large proportion of elevated oxidative stress in the diabetic wound environment and that normalizing the metabolic activity of XO using targeted delivery of siXDH may decrease overproduction of ROS and accelerate wound healing in diabetic patients. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Normalizing dysfunctional purine metabolism accelerates diabetic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Andrew L.; Lalezarzadeh, Frank D.; Soares, Marc A.; Saadeh, Pierre B.; Ceradini, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic patients exhibit dysfunction of the normal wound healing process, leading to local ischemia by vascular occlusive disease as well as sustained increases in the proinflammatory cytokines and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Of the many sources of ROS, the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) has been linked to overproduction of ROS in diabetic environment, and studies have shown that treatment with XO inhibitors decreases XO overactivity and XO-generated ROS. This study evaluates the role of XO in the diabetic wound and the impact of specifically inhibiting its activity on wound healing. Treatment of diabetic wounds with siXDH (xanthine dehydrogenase siRNA) decreased XDH mRNA expression by 51.6%, XO activity by 35.9%, ROS levels by 78.1%, pathologic wound burden by 31.5%, and accelerated wound healing by 7 days (23.3%). Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that increased XO activity in wild-type wound may be due to XDH to XO conversion and/or XO phosphorylation, but not to gene transcription, whereas increased XO activity in diabetic wounds may also be from gene transcription. These results suggest that XO may be responsible for large proportion of elevated oxidative stress in the diabetic wound environment and that normalizing the metabolic activity of XO using targeted delivery of siXDH may decrease overproduction of ROS and accelerate wound healing in diabetic patients. PMID:25571764

  12. Loss of MeCP2 Causes Urological Dysfunction and Contributes to Death by Kidney Failure in Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Ward

    Full Text Available Rett Syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized.

  13. Loss of MeCP2 Causes Urological Dysfunction and Contributes to Death by Kidney Failure in Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher S; Huang, Teng-Wei; Herrera, José A; Samaco, Rodney C; Pitcher, Meagan R; Herron, Alan; Skinner, Steven A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Glaze, Daniel G; Percy, Alan K; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized.

  14. Early liver allograft dysfunction: risk factors, clinical course and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. G. Moysyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early liver allograft dysfunction (EAD is associated with a high incidence of graft loss and patient mortality in the first 6 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT.The aim of this retrospective single-center study is to identify the risk factors of EAD and to compare the short- and long-term results in EAD and non-EAD groups.Materials and methods. The results of 213 consecutive deceased donor liver transplantations performed between December 2004 and February 2015 were included in the analysis. Indications for OLT were non-viral liver cirrhosis in 52% of cases, viral hepatitis C or B in 34 %, hepatocellular carcinoma in 8 %; retransplantations were performed in 6% of cases due to previous liver graft dysfunction. EAD was defined by Olthoff criteria (Olthoff et al., 2010.Results. Overall incidence of EAD was 41.3%, including 5.6% of primary non-function grafts (PNF, i.e. irreversible EAD. No significant differences between EAD and non-EAD groups were seen either among donors in their age, gender, cause of death, bilirubin, plasma sodium level, aminotransferases aktivity, or among the recipients in their age, gender, body mass index, MELD. Retransplantation, donor time on mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit for more than 2 days, highrisk donor category, transplant surgery duration more than 9.5 hours, and cold ischemia time (CIT > 8 hours were independent significant risk factors of EAD in a multivariate model. A 42-day mortality rates were 18.2% in EAD group (mostly due to PNF without urgent retransplantanion in 9.1%, and 0% in non-EAD group. Long-term results in EAD group were also significantly poorer: 1-, 5-, and 10-year graft survival rates were 74%, 68%, and 64%, respectively, versus 96%, 90%, and 83% in non-EAD group, Log-rank p = 0.0001.Conclusion. EAD significantly (≈ 20% decreases the short-term graft and patient survival rates. Meanwhile, a reversible EAD has no impact on long-term results

  15. Intra-uterine exposure to dual fetal programming sequences among surviving co-twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Ibrahimou, Boubakari; Dagne, Getachew A

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of fetal programming following in utero demise of a co-twin are poorly understood. The authors examined fetal programming using a unique application of the change-point analysis method, and identified two types of fetal programming that occurred when a viable twin sibling died in utero, while the co-twin survived. In one type, the initial twin fetal programming trajectory was maintained while in a subset of surviving co-twins a "switch" from a twin to a singleton fetal program (dual fetal programming exposure) was observed. The results suggest that the timing in utero of conversion from a twin to a singleton programming pattern occurred slightly earlier among opposite-sex than in same-sex surviving co-twins. For the conversion from a twin to a singleton program to happen, the surviving co-twin must have attained a "critical mass" when the twin sibling died. Whereas, for same-sex surviving co-twins the critical mass for conversion was the 80th percentile of gestational-age specific birth weight, opposite-sex surviving co-twins converted at a lower critical mass (70th percentile). These novel findings warrant further study to confirm the new hithertofore unknown phenomenon of dual fetal programming sequence, and to determine the implications in terms of subsequent morbidity or mortality during infancy, childhood and adult life.

  16. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  17. Pulmonary dysfunction in obese early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Supriyatno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Obesity leads to various complications, including pulmonary dysfunction. Studies on pulmonary function of obese children are limited and the results are controversial. This study was aimed to determine proportion of pulmonary dysfunction on early adolescents with obesity and to evaluate correlation between obesity degree with pulmonary dysfunction degree.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Indonesia, from November 2007 to December 2008. Subjects were 10 to 12 year-old adolescents with obesity. Subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT to assess FEV1/FVC, FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25.Results 110 subjects fulfilled study criteria, 83 (75.5% were male and 27 (24.5% were female with median BMI 26.7 (22.6-54.7 kg/m2; 92 subjects (83.6% were superobese. History of asthma and allergic rhinitis were found in 32 (29.1% and 46 (41.8% subjects, respectively. 64 (58.2% subjects had abnormal PFT results consisting of restrictive type in 28 (25.5% subjects, obstructive in 3 (2.7%, and combined type in 33 (30%. Mean FEV1, FVC, V50, and V25 values were below normal, while mean FEV1/FVC ratio was normal. There was no statistically significant correlation between BMI and PFT parameters. No significant correlation was found between degree of obesity and the severity of pulmonary dysfunction.Conclusions Pulmonary dysfunction occurs in 58.2% obese early adolescents. The most common abnormality was combined type (30%, followed by restrictive (25.5%, and obstructive type (2.7%. There was no correlation between BMI and pulmonary function test parameters. (Med J Indones 2010;19:179-84Key words: early adolescents, obesity, pulmonary function test

  18. [The therapy of masticatory organ dysfunctions (CMD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Géza; Pácz, Miklós; Kiss, Péter

    2013-12-01

    The authors have been dealing with disorders of the masticatory organ (CMD) for several decades and they published their experience and summarized findings that they have gained from over 2,000 cases. They gave a summary of masticatory organ dysfunction diagnostics in 3rd issue of Fogorvosi Szemle in 2011. In their current paper they discuss the treatment of masticatory organ dysfunctions (CMD) according to the logic of diagnostic algorythm and they present it to the practising dentist. They would like to emphasize that it is not allowed to indicate any treatment especially an irreversible one, without a diagnosis. The cause of the disease can very often be identified or specified after the symptom relieving treatment. After summarizing the general treatment principles depending on the functional condition of the masticatory organ, they give a detailed explanation of systematic functional therapy, i.e., symptomatic treatment or medical treatment, physiotherapy, occlusal splint therapy and the definitive treatment that follows (such as occlusal adjustment, prosthetic rehabilitation, orthodontics and surgical intervention). They classify the occlusal instruments (splint), which are often misinterpreted or not used in the proper way in practice (and bibliography), according to indications. They outline some orthodontic anomalies in connection with the masticatory organ: on the one hand when the patient who undergoes an orthodontic treatment has a latent or manifest masticatory organ dysfunction (CMD), on the other hand when the dysfunction appears during the orthodontic treatment. Among the definitive treatment principles they emphasize the gnathological aspects of prosthetic rehabilitation. They draw attention to the maintenance therapy of patients suffering from masticatory organ dysfunction.

  19. [Predictors of Family Dysfunction among Adolescent Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bustamante, Edna Margarita; Castillo-Ávila, Irma; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2013-03-01

    Determination of family dysfunction predictors in adolescent students of Cartagena, Colombia. A cross-sectional analytical research was conducted by means of a probabilistic sample per conglomerate of high-school students. Participation of students between 13 and 17 years was requested. Family dysfunction was identified through the family APGAR scale. Predictors were adjusted by binary logistic regression. A total of 1,730 students agreed to participate, mean age was 14.7 years (SD=1.2), and 52.7% were girls. The family APGAR scale showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.78. A group of 896 students (51.8%) reported family dysfunction. Predictors of family dysfunction were: clinically significant depressive symptoms (OR=3.61; IC 95%: 2.31-5.63), low religiosity (OR=1.73; CI 95%: 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, CI 95% 1.71-2.09) (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.41-2.13), non-nuclear family (OR=1.71, 95%: CI 1.41-2.09), consumption of any illegal substance in their lives (OR=1.67, CI 95%: 1.15-2.13), residents of depressed neighborhoods (OR = 1.49; CI 95%: 1.19-1.87), and poor academic performance (OR=1.43; CI 95%: 1.15-1.76). Clinically significant depressive symptoms, low religiosity and non-nuclear family are the main predictors of family dysfunction among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. The association is possibly bidirectional. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary Incontinence and Associated Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duralde, Erin R; Rowen, Tami S

    2017-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and sexual dysfunction are common conditions often undiagnosed and untreated in women and are associated with decreased quality of life. To evaluate the relation between UI and female sexual dysfunction (FSD), considering incontinence type and the psychosocial and physiologic aspects of sexual function. PubMed search of terms related to UI and FSD from 1979 to 2016 generated 603 published references, of which 26 were included. Nine additional studies came from bibliographic review. Rates and types of sexual dysfunction. In cross-sectional and case-control studies, UI was associated with increased rates and severity of FSD. Coital UI occurred in 24% to 66% of women with UI. Impaired body image, fear of coital UI, avoidance of sex, and complete abstinence were more common in women with UI. Deficits in desire, lubrication, satisfaction, and increased pain were found across numerous studies. Mixed UI was associated with more FSD than urgency UI and stress UI. Multiple studies suggest urgent UI is more bothersome than stress UI. Coital UI was associated with a urodynamic diagnosis other than genuine stress incontinence in 25% to 50%. Leakage at penetration was associated with stress UI; leakage at orgasm was associated more often with detrusor overactivity. Women's UI is associated with increased rates of sexual dysfunction, suggesting concurrent screening is warranted. Clarifying timing of coital leakage would facilitate targeted treatment. Standardization of FSD measurements could better elucidate the relation between UI and FSD. Duralde ER, Rowen TS. Urinary Incontinence and Associated Female Sexual Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2017;5:470-485. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.