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  1. Avaliacao de projeto de promocao da saude para adolescentes

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    Jovino Oliveira Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar programa de promoção de atividade física e de escolhas alimentares entre adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 911 adolescentes de 13 a 18 anos de idade, de escolas públicas de Goiânia, GO, em 2010. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: intervenção (escolas participantes do Projeto Viver Saudável e controle. Foram considerados como atividade física: deslocamento, aulas de educação física na escola, atividade física fora da escola e no lazer. Foram definidos como ativos aqueles que acumularam 300 ou mais minutos por semana. Quanto às escolhas alimentares, foi classificado como adequado o consumo de alimentos protetores em cinco ou mais dias da semana. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas com teste de Qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos adolescentes foi identificada como inativos ou insuficientemente ativos, com 65,7% no grupo intervenção e 65,2% no grupo controle, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos e com prevalência maior entre o sexo feminino. Pouco mais da metade dos adolescentes consumiam alimentos protetores da saúde em cinco ou mais dias da semana, sendo 56,6% e 50,4%, respectivamente, nos grupos intervenção e controle (p = 0,373. CONCLUSÕES: A ausência de diferenças quanto a escolhas alimentares e prática de atividade física entre os grupos intervenção e controle indica que o projeto Viver Saudável precisa ser reavaliado visando melhorar a efetividade no cumprimento dos seus objetivos.

  2. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA), Brasil

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    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao; Cristiano Soares de Moura; Danielle Souto de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA), visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medsc...

  3. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

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    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  4. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA, Brasil

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    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA, visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medscape e Micromedex(r. Verificou-se ainda a frequência de polifarmácia e associação desta com a ocorrência de interações medicamentosas. Os resultados mostraram frequência de 48,9% de interações medicamentosas, 74,9% delas de gravidade moderada ou maior, e 8,6% de prescrições em polifarmácia que, em teste qui-quadrado, mostrou associação positiva com ocorrência de interações medicamentosas potenciais (p < 0,001. As prescrições oriundas da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA apresentaram uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas, porém faz-se necessária a análise de outros fatores de risco para ocorrência destas nesse nível de atenção à saúde.

  5. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

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    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  6. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

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    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  7. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

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    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  8. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

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    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  9. AIDS related thoracic lymphoma: evaluation by computed tomography; Linfoma toracico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

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    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia

    2000-02-01

    The authors reviewed five cases of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related lymphoma to describe the thoracic findings on computed tomography. The patients were followed at Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro and Hospital da Lagoa, from November, 1989 to March 1998. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data from these patients were quiet variable and pulmonary nodules and masses, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and thoracic wall masses were observed. AIDS related lymphomas involving the chest are pleomorphic and most commonly extranodal. (author)

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

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    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  11. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  12. Evaluation of the repeatability of dosimetric parameters of a linear accelerator beam; Avaliacao da repetibilidade de parametros dosimetricos do feixe de um acelerador linear

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    Morelli, Humberto A.S.; Oliveira, Harley F. de; Silva, Maelson do N.; Pavoni, Juliana F., E-mail: h.morelli@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the repeatability of symmetry and flatness of the photon beam of 6 MV linear accelerator Oncor Impression, Siemens, from the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP. In total they were collected 102 measures, weekly, through two-dimensional detector of ionization chambers, Matrixx Evolution, IBA Dosimetry, connected to a computer with software OmniProI'mrt. The isocenter of the linear accelerator was placed in the center of the sensitive volume of the detector with solid water plates above and below these. Data were collected with 100 UM, with field size 10 x 10 cm². The flatness and symmetry values were calculated by the software used. The first measurement of this work was used as reference, the others were compared with it, taking into account the values of permissible variation for these parameters. The minimum, maximum and average value were analyzed. The literature indicates that the flatness and symmetry values should not vary by more than 2 and 3%, respectively. The results of this work show that the values of these parameters for the linear accelerator study are within the permissible variations in protocols and are therefore able to appropriate clinical use. (author)

  13. Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment; Avaliacao da eficacia de chas caseiros de plantas medicinais utilizados no tratamento da diarreia infantil

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    Pinto, Magda Moreira; Silva, Maria Jose de Sousa Ferreira da [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out using the neutron activation analysis and the TRIGA MARK I reactor, the IPR-R1, in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. System precision assessment ExacTrac 6D® BrainLab of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP; Avaliacao da precisao do sistema Exactrac 6D® BrainLab do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maistro, Carlos E.B., E-mail: carloseduardo.bravinmaistro@gmail.com [Programa de Residencia Multiprofissional em Fisica Medica, Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nakandakari, Marcos V.N.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Sales, Camila P. de; Rodrigues, Laura N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia. Hospital das Clinicas

    2015-08-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the precision of ExacTrac 6D® Brainlab system, installed at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, in frameless radiosurgery treatments. Four sets of tests were performed for different purposes in order to assess the following parameters: the accuracy of location through infrared system; evaluation of the reproducibility of fusion algorithm; evaluation of the X-ray system; and the end-to-end test with the goal of assess the overall accuracy of the system. It was found that the infrared system showed a maximum deviation of 0.5 mm in terms of positioning and the X-ray system showed a precision of 0.15 mm and 0.6°. The reproducibility of fusion algorithms provided a maximum deviation in position which was less than 0.5 mm and 0.5° and the quantitative analysis of the results for end-to-end test showed an overall accuracy of the system better than 0.8 mm. (author)

  15. The sea, the ship, the batle: survival of forms in 'Antologia da memória poética da Guerra Colonial'

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    Lisa Carvalho Vasconcellos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The book Antologia da memória poética da guerra colonial was published in 2011 by Roberto Vecchi and Margarida Calafate Ribeiro. As a poetry anthology, its purpose was to collect and give meaning to the poetical ma­terial that was created and inspired by the wars that have taken place in 1962-74 between Portugal and it´s old colonies. Among the many themes and problems proposed by the poems compiled in the volume, the review and the reclaim of the ancient Portuguese literary tradition is the one that interest us. In Antologia da memória poética da guerra colonial, the old lite­rary forms – the Galician-Portuguese love lyric, the navigation chronicles, The Lusiads’, the historical figures and heroic myths – are revisited in a creative and imaginative way. Our hypothesis is that the presence of archaic and traditional elements in the Antologia indicates a form of survival (Na­chleben of past forms and tensions (cf. Aby Warburg, they are the traces of a literary tradition that renews itself from the same points (the sea, the conquer, the lost and the destruction.

  16. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

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    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  17. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

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    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  18. 'High throughput': new technique to evaluation of biocides for biofouling control in oil fields; 'High throughput': nova tecnologia para avaliacao da eficacia de biocidas no controle de biofilme na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Bei [DOW, IL(United States); Yang, Jeff [DOW, Shangai (China); Bertheas, Ute [DOW, Horgen (Switzerland); Takahashi, Debora F. [DOW, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The wide metabolism diversifications and versatile surviving mechanisms lead to the broad existence of microorganisms in oil fields. Water flooding in secondary production can encourage microbial growth and biofilm build-up. Microbial contamination in oil field can cause many problems including microbiologically induced corrosion, oil and gas souring, deposition of iron sulfide, degradation of polymer additives, and plugging oil and gas pipelines and water purification systems. In general, biocides are needed both topside and down hole to control problematic microorganisms. In this study, a high throughput test method was developed that enables a more realistic determination of biocides efficacy against anaerobic microorganisms commonly found in oil field environments. Using this method, a thorough comparison of several commonly used biocides products in oil field for their efficacy against oil field anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolates was executed. This study showed that for each individual application, it is important to screen biocides and their combinations against microorganisms cultured from the field. Since biocides vary in their mode of action, this study also demonstrated the critical importance of utilizing the high throughput method for determining the best and most customized solution for each application. (author)

  19. Reliability assessment of permanent downhole monitoring systems (PDG/TPT) in Marlim Field; Avaliacao da confiabilidade de sistemas de monitoramento permanente de fundo de pocos (PDG/TPT) no Campo de Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frota, Helder Mamede; Destro, Wagner [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work is related to the reliability engineering, specifically, to the analysis of data lifetime and to the failure modeling of Permanent Downhole Gauge monitoring systems (PDG/TPT) in Marlim field, Campos Basin. These systems are composed of pressure and temperature sensors installed in oil wells and connected, by umbilicals, to their production platforms. The raising of the main failure causes in these systems, in 12-year operation, served as the basis to describe their driving parameters, foreseeing their behavior for the following years, considering the reliability theory of systems. It was obtained the pattern of the operations and extracted the wanted information: types and failure modeling, systems survival time and the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). This methodology permits the comparison among the components performance from several manufacturers. The results can be used in economical analysis, in oil field management, in maintenance prediction and in reliability studies. The area of failure modeling in association with these systems lifetime is the focus of this study. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the radiotherapy and/or therapeutical associations in prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen (PSA); Avaliacao da radioterapia e/ou associacoes terapeuticas em cancer de prostata atraves do antigeno prostatico especifico (PSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Isabel Cristina Rossiter de Araujo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]|[FUNED - Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Imunoquimica; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [FUNED - Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Imunoquimica

    2002-07-01

    Novel statistics show that prostate cancer is the third mortality neoplasia type in man and reaches the first level after 75 years old. The disease appears without signal at initial stages of the prostate cancer, period at which it will be easily treated. The development of the prostate carcinoma in patients depends on the tumor histological degree, stage of the disease at the diagnostic time, tumoral mass, patient age and patient general health. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the tumor marker used to premature disease detection, stagement and patient monitoring after treatment. Distinct therapies or in association have been established, together with a premature diagnosis, to increase the patient survival, achieving the best health quality and disease heal. The applied gland dose and its profile are distinct between brachytherapy and teletherapy.The present paper describes several therapies applied to control the prostate tumors, standing radioactive implants (I{sup 125} ) and conventional radiotherapy. The goal of this paper is to show the different PSA levels resulting after radiation therapy, look upon tumor biology aspects, isodose profiles and serum PSA levels. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the potential application of 2-acetylpyridine N4- phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis; Avaliacao da potencial aplicacao de derivados de 2-acetilpiridina N-4 fenil tiossemicarbazonas em terapia e diagnostico oncologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide range of antineoplastic agents available, resistance of some types of cancer and toxicity to normal cells have been identified as the main causes of treatment failure and death. The lack of early and precise diagnosis is also responsible for reducing survival of cancer patients. In this context, the development of substances with low toxicity and therapeutic potential and/or diagnosis purpose, is the major tool in an attempt to increase the survival of patients and assure the safety and efficacy of treatment. Thiosemicarbazones (TSC) are a class of synthetic compounds that have several biological activities, including antitumor. Although several studies have shown the great potential of TSC as therapeutic and / or diagnostic agents, different chemical modifications performed on this class of molecules indicate new possibilities for applications and still require further studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential applicability of 2-acetylpyridine N-4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis. The results showed that all 13 TSC tested were cytotoxic to breast and glioblastoma tumor cell lines, presenting higher in vitro antitumor activity than etoposide, an antineoplastic and inhibitor of topoisomerase II frequently used for cancer therapy. The TSC that have halogen or nitro on ortho position showed higher antitumor activity in vitro than their isomers with halogen or nitro on meta or para position of the phenyl group. H2Ac4oFPh and H2Ac4oClPh compounds showed the highest antitumor activity among all tested compounds, with IC{sub 50} in nanomolar order. These TSC induced cell death by apoptosis and oxidative stress was responsible, at least in part, for this type of cell death. The 5 mg.kg{sup -1} H2Ac4oFPh dose, administered s.c., for 4 consecutive days, did not induce important toxicity; however, the same treatment protocol was not effective for tumor growth reduction in an animal model of brain

  2. Technetium-99m labeling and fibronectin binding ability of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Marcacao de Corynebacterium diphtheriae com Tecnecio-99m e avaliacao da capacidade de ligacao a fibronectina de plasma humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.S.; Nagao, P.E.; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Pereira, G.A.; Napoleao, F.; Andrade, A.F.B.; Hirata Junior, R.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2004-04-15

    The use of radionuclides has permitted advances in areas of clinical and scientific knowledge. Several molecules and cells have been labelled with Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). The stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) has a significant influence on the labeling and stability of {sup 99m}Tc radiotracers. The frequent risk of diphtheria epidemics has intensified interest in the virulence factors of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Although studies have looked at potential adhesins including haemagglutinins and exposed sugar residues, the molecular basis of mechanisms of adherence remains unclear. Adherence of pathogens to mammalian tissues may be mediated by fibronectin (FN) found in body fluids, matrix of connective tissues, and cell surfaces. In the present study we evaluated the binding ability to human plasma FN by {sup 99m}Tc labeled-C.diphtheriae. Due to adverse effects of stannous ions, microorganisms were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays. Data showed a dose dependent susceptibility to SnCl{sub 2} bactericidal effects. Cell filamentation was observed for concentrations of SnCl{sub 2} > 110 {mu}g/ml. Adherence levels of {sup 99m}Tc labelled 241strain to coverslips coated with 20 {mu}g/ml FN were higher (P = 0.0037) than coated with bovine serum albumin. FN binding by the sucrose fermenting 241 C. diphtheriae strain (8.9% + 2.6) was significantly lower (P=0.0139) than Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (34.1% {+-} 1.2). Therefore, bacterial {sup 99m}Tc labeling represents an additional tool that may contribute to the comprehension of C. diphtheriae interactions with host receptors such as FN that act as biological organizers by holding bacterial cells in position and guiding their migration. (author)

  3. Floristic diversity and survival strategies of climbers in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A floristic survey of climbing species in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, state of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, was conducted to determine their survival strategies during unfavorable seasons. Forty-five angiosperm species belonging to 29 genera and 14 families were counted. Species richness was higher than that recorded in other Caatinga areas. The most representative families were Convolvulaceae (8, Fabaceae (6, Apocynaceae (5, and Dioscoreaceae (5. Most of the climbers (64.4% were herbaceous. Therophytes represented the dominant lifestyle (51.1% and represented the main dry-season escape strategy. Climbers are important biological groups that require more studies on their autoecological aspects and their role in ecological communities and should be considered in the establishment of biodiversity conservation strategies.

  4. Floristic diversity and survival strategies of climbers in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A floristic survey of climbing species in a Caatinga fragment in the municipality of Porto da Folha, state of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, was conducted to determine their survival strategies during unfavorable seasons. Forty-five angiosperm species belonging to 29 genera and 14 families were counted. Species richness was higher than that recorded in other Caatinga areas. The most representative families were Convolvulaceae (8, Fabaceae (6, Apocynaceae (5, and Dioscoreaceae (5. Most of the climbers (64.4% were herbaceous. Therophytes represented the dominant lifestyle (51.1% and represented the main dry-season escape strategy. Climbers are important biological groups that require more studies on their autoecological aspects and their role in ecological communities and should be considered in the establishment of biodiversity conservation strategies.

  5. An assessment of ninth round; Nona: uma avaliacao da rodada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assumpcao, Eduardo; Andrade, Leila; Fontana, Raphaela [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Accomplished on November, 27{sup th}, 2007, 271 exploratory blocks were offered in Round 9, distributed within 14 sectors, totalling an area of 73 thousand km{sup 2}. The following basins were included: Campos, Espirito Santo, Para- Maranhao, Parnaiba, Pernambuco-Paraiba, Potiguar, Santos, Reconcavo and Rio do Peixe. From the original lot of 67 companies qualified (31 Brazilian and 36 of foreign origin), 42 offered bids individually or in partnerships. 117 blocks were allocated to 24 winning operator companies. Other 12 enterprises won acreage as non-operator participants of joint bids. A record of R$ 2,1 billion were offered as signature bonuses along with 169.436 units of the so called minimum exploratory programs. These units may be converted to an estimated R$ 1,4 billion. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the results obtained in Round 9, analyzing collected data through three different perspectives of aggregate results: bidding companies, offered areas and exploratory models. (author)

  6. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market; Avaliacao da microbiota fungica e da presenca de micotoxinas em amostras de plantas medicinais irradiadas adquiridas no comercio varejista e atacadista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-07-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a {sup 60}Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  7. Advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Influence of preoperative radiation therapy on toxicity and long-term survival rates; Adenocarcinoma gastrico avancado. Analise da toxicidade e da influencia da radioterapia pre-operatoria nos indices de sobrevivencia a longo prazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malzoni, Carlos Eduardo

    1996-12-31

    The surgical treatment of gastric cancer has better long-term survival rates when performed in patients with early gastric cancer. Worse results are obtained in treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Most patients in west centers are treated in advanced stages. A great number of them go through a surgical treatment unable by itself to cure them. the frequent local recurrence caused by failure of the surgical treatment has been keeping poor survival rates in patients with advanced gastric cancer for decades. The desire of improving survival is the reason of the use of adjuvant therapies. This paper achieved the retrospective study of the influence of preoperative radiation therapy (2000 cGy) in long-term survival rates (120 months) of patients with advanced gastric cancer on stages IIIa, IIIb and IV. The possible injuries caused in the liver and kidney were observed also as well as first group was treated by surgical and radiation therapies and the second received surgical treatment only. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when sex, age, race, occurrence of other diseases, nutritional assessment, TNM stage, occurrence of obstruction or bleeding caused by tumor, surgical procedure and hepatic and renal function were considered. Survival rates and changes on hepatic and renal function were statistically compared. The results showed a statistic improvement on the long-term survival rates of stage IIIa patients treated by preoperative radiation therapy. No statistic difference was observed on hepatic or renal function between the groups. No adverse influence of radiation therapy method was detected by the used parameters. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when immediate surgical complications were considered. (author) 112 refs., 34 tabs.

  8. Advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Influence of preoperative radiation therapy on toxicity and long-term survival rates; Adenocarcinoma gastrico avancado. Analise da toxicidade e da influencia da radioterapia pre-operatoria nos indices de sobrevivencia a longo prazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malzoni, Carlos Eduardo

    1997-12-31

    The surgical treatment of gastric cancer has better long-term survival rates when performed in patients with early gastric cancer. Worse results are obtained in treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Most patients in west centers are treated in advanced stages. A great number of them go through a surgical treatment unable by itself to cure them. the frequent local recurrence caused by failure of the surgical treatment has been keeping poor survival rates in patients with advanced gastric cancer for decades. The desire of improving survival is the reason of the use of adjuvant therapies. This paper achieved the retrospective study of the influence of preoperative radiation therapy (2000 cGy) in long-term survival rates (120 months) of patients with advanced gastric cancer on stages IIIa, IIIb and IV. The possible injuries caused in the liver and kidney were observed also as well as first group was treated by surgical and radiation therapies and the second received surgical treatment only. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when sex, age, race, occurrence of other diseases, nutritional assessment, TNM stage, occurrence of obstruction or bleeding caused by tumor, surgical procedure and hepatic and renal function were considered. Survival rates and changes on hepatic and renal function were statistically compared. The results showed a statistic improvement on the long-term survival rates of stage IIIa patients treated by preoperative radiation therapy. No statistic difference was observed on hepatic or renal function between the groups. No adverse influence of radiation therapy method was detected by the used parameters. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when immediate surgical complications were considered. (author) 112 refs., 34 tabs.

  9. Augmented survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with the use of mobile phones for emergency communication under the DA-CPR protocol getting information from callers beside the victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tetsuo; Yamashita, Akira; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Wato, Yukihiro; Inaba, Hideo

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the impacts of emergency calls made using mobile phones on the quality of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) that were not witnessed by emergency medical service (EMS). In this prospective study, we collected data for 2530 DA-CPR-attempted medical emergency cases (517 using mobile phones and 2013 using landline phones) and 2980 non-EMS-witnessed OHCAs (600 using mobile phones and 2380 using landline phones). Time factors and quality of DA-CPR, backgrounds of callers and outcomes of OHCAs were compared between mobile and landline phone groups. Emergency calls are much more frequently placed beside the arrest victim in mobile phone group (52.7% vs. 17.2%). The positive predictive value and acceptance rate of DA-CPR in mobile phone group (84.7% and 80.6%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in landline group (79.2% and 70.9%). The proportion of good-quality bystander CPR in mobile phone group was significantly higher than that in landline group (53.5% vs. 45.0%). When analysed for all non-EMS-witnessed OHCAs, rates of 1-month survival and 1-year neurologically favourable survival in mobile phone group (7.8% and 3.5%, respectively) were higher than those in landline phone group (4.6% and 1.9%; pmobile phone calls were associated with increased 1-month survival in the subgroup of OHCAs receiving bystander CPR (adjusted odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.15-2.92). Emergency calls made using mobile phones are likely to augment the survival from OHCAs by improving DA-CPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perfil da incidência e da sobrevida de pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide oral em uma população brasileira Incidence and survival profile of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinei Roberto de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência do câncer bucal no Brasil é uma das mais altas do mundo. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o perfil, os fatores de risco e a sobrevida de pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma epidermóide oral entre 1982 e 2002 em uma população brasileira. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Idade, gênero, local da lesão, história pregressa, consumo de tabaco e bebidas alcoólicas, exposição actínica, traumatismo por prótese, recidivas, metástases e sobrevida foram obtidos dos prontuários. RESULTADOS: Dos 340 pacientes 84,4% eram homens e 15,6%, mulheres (5,4:1. As lesões linguais foram as mais freqüentes (27,9%. Vinte por cento dos pacientes relataram traumatismo por prótese e em 73,8% das lesões em lábio inferior foi relatada exposição actínica desprotegida. Não houve diferença entre as regiões anatômicas e o consumo de tabaco em relação a recidivas, metástases regionais e metástases à distância. O tempo médio de história pregressa foi de 13 meses, havendo diferença entre as regiões anatômicas. A sobrevida em cinco anos foi de 24%. A sobrevida dos pacientes com recidivas e/ou metástases variou conforme a idade analisada ( 60 anos, mas não houve diferença quanto à história pregressa e às regiões anatômicas. A discrepância homem/mulher encontrada foi alta, diminuindo conforme o aumento da idade. O consumo de tabaco e álcool é elevado nessa população, mas não influenciou as recidivas e as metástases da doença. Foi grande o tempo de evolução das lesões até a procura pelo serviço. CONCLUSÕES: Os baixos índices de sobrevida refletem a necessidade de uma maior atenção ao câncer bucal nessa população.BACKGROUND: The buccal cancer incidence in Brazil is one of the highest in the world. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate profile, risk factors and survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma between 1982 and 2002 in a Brazilian population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Age, gender, tumor site, previous clinical history

  11. Retrospective analysis of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: preliminary experience from ABC School of Medicine, Santo Andre, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Avaliacao retrospectiva do tratamento quimiorradioterapico concomitante em carcinoma epidermoide de cabeca e pescoco: experiencia preliminar da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba Junior, Antonio Freitas [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Oncologia Clinica; Giglio, Auro del [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Hematologia e Oncologia]. E-mail: sandrabr@netpoint.com.br; Philbert, Paula Lajolo; Kaliks, Rafael [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Ensino

    2005-07-01

    Background: concurrent chemoradiotherapy constitutes an option for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment. Although we found a high incidence of this tumor in our population, we do not have so far results reported for the Brazilian population. Methods: medical records from HNSCC patients who ere treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between January 2001 to June 2004 were systematically reviewed. Results: twenty-two HNSCC patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy. The median age was 56 years. The primary tumor site was located in the oropharynx in 11, the larynx in 9 and hypopharynx in 2 patients. Most of the patients (86%) presented with stage III or IV disease. 19 (86%) patients were treated with Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} D1-22-43, and 3 (14%) patients used Cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} weekly, concurrent with radiotherapy. Hematological and renal toxicity grade 3 or higher was seen in 58% and 10% patients, respectively. Eleven patients achieved a complete response and 8 a partial response. Median disease-free survival was 10 months and median overall survival was 25 months. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO; Avaliacao do efeito radiomodificador da propolis em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1) e em celulas tumorais de prostata (PC3), irradiadas com CO-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Geyza Spigoti

    2011-07-01

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 {mu}g/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400{mu}/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 G{gamma}. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the {alpha} coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 {mu}g/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data

  13. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  14. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  15. Evaluation of immunity and protection induced in experimental models by soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites irradiated by {sup 60}Co; Avaliacao da imunidade e protecao induzida em modelos experimentais por extrato soluvel de taquizoitos de Toxoplasma gondii irradiado por {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andrea da

    2013-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis affects 1/3 of the human population and only a vaccine for veterinary use. Gamma radiation alters the proteins making them more immunogenic by oxidation and better antigen presentation in the absence of adjuvants. Radiate soluble extract of RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii (AgTg), and evaluate its use as a vaccine in BALB/c. Doses below 500Gy not affected and destroyed 2000Gy doses above extract, whereas animals immunized with irradiated extract at 1000, 1500 and 2000Gy had more of specific IgG avidity , compared to native AgTg (p<0,05) . AgTg 1500GY the immunized animals had increased proliferation of splenocytes, phenotyped as CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and B-lymphocytes immunized animals compared to the native AgTg . Animals immunized by AgTg 1500GY after challenge with strain ME- 49 cystogenic showed lower number of brain cysts and greater survival after challenge with virulent RH. Ionizing radiation in extracts of T. gondii increases the immune response and immune memory in the absence of adjuvants. (author)

  16. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  17. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  18. Avaliacao da gestao ambiental dos hoteis de selva na Amazonia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Moraes, Adriana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of desvelar of that it forms the hoteleiros enterprises they manage its ambient action without causing great impacts in one of biggest ecosystems of the world, the Amazonian forest, was tried to know in this research the forms of ambient management of the located hotels of forest in the legal Amazônia. The norteadora question of the research was to know that type of ambient management is made by the hotels of selva?Foi used as instrument of collection of data the questionnaire, that if subdividiui in four great subjects to be searched. The first one was relative questions to the planning of the place, according to to the profile of the customer, third to the room and the relative questions architecture the building subject relative questions to the energy resources and infrastructure of the public services. As result of this analysis was concluded that two of three hotels searched are practising management ambient of form less impactante, since type of construction adopted until services offered to guests, or either shows objective that its hotel is coadjuvante for customer that visits this type of place, that stops it does not import luxury, comfort and amenities, more yes contact with the fauna and flora and way of life of the natives.

  19. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process;Avaliacao da qualidade do processo de irradiacao de hemocomponentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DDI/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  20. Radiological evaluation of the cranio vertebral junction; Avaliacao radiologica da transicao cranio-vertebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Silvia Marcal Benicio de; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Cabeca e Pescoco]. E-mail: sbm@uol.com.br; Schettini, Marianna Cunha; Lima, Sergio Santos [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mourao, Maria Lucia; Mendonca, Renato Adam [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Neuroradiologia

    2005-04-15

    The cranio vertebral junction (CVJ) comprises the occiput, atlas, their joints and ligaments. Besides conventional x-rays other imaging methods are need for the assessment of CVJ including high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provide specific parameters such as field of view, slice thickness and incremental movement of the patient. A dynamic study is also important to assess the stability of the cranio vertebral junction and the effect upon the bulbomedullary junction. The aim of this study is to review the techniques used in the evaluation of the CVJ, the semiological parameters, and the most frequent disorders affecting this region. We review the literature and present conventional x-ray, CT and MRI images from the didactic file of the Radiology service 'Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, of cases with normal anatomy and the main congenital and acquired disorders of the CVJ. In daily practice, CVJ disorders are diagnoses using CT and MRI scans of the head and cervical spine. It is essential to be familiar with these conditions in order to preform specific tests which will allow a detailed study of the CVJ, thus providing the basis for the treatment, whenever indicated. (author)

  1. Crystallinity evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate and polycaprolactone blends; Avaliacao da cristalinidade de blendas de polihidroxibutirato e policaprolactona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Maxwell P.; Rodrigues, Elton Jorge R.; Tavares, Maria Ines B., E-mail: maxdpc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2015-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, is a polymer obtained through bacterial or synthetic pathways. It has been used in the biomedical field as a matrix for drug delivery, medical implants and as scaffold material for tissue engineering. PHB has high structural organization, which makes it highly crystalline and brittle, making biodegradation difficult, reducing its employability. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties of PHB, blends with other polymers, biocompatible or not, are researched and produced. In this regard, blends of PHB and polycaprolactone, PCL, another biopolymer widely used in the biomedical industry, were obtained via solution casting and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Results have shown a dependence between PHB's crystallinity index and PCL quantity employed to obtain the blends.(author)

  2. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  3. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ce@cidbh.com.br; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia

    2005-10-15

    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)

  4. Magnetomotive colon elastography: preliminary assessment; Elastografia magnetomotriz da regiao do colon: avaliacao preliminar em phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, A. Colello, E-mail: alexandrecolellobruno@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Grillo, F.W.; Sampaio, D.R.T.; Carneiro, A.A.O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras

    2015-08-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide and early diagnosis reduces morbidity. The standard preventive exams methods are uncomfortable for the patient, invasive, and /or are ionizing. Here, we evaluate the potential of magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) as a new, minimally invasive CRC screening technique. We developed a hybrid transducer (comprised of an ultrasound probe and a magnetic coil system) to construct relative elastography maps in a paraffin phantom with isoechoic inclusions. The electromagnetic component of our system manipulated ferromagnetic fluid located inside of our synthetic colon, and the captured ultrasound images were used to produce relative elastography maps. The MMUS images reveal by otherwise invisible structures based on differences in stiffness. Ultrasound elastography (relative) images by MMUs technique complements usual preventive CRC exams, is minimally invasive, has relative low cost when compared with others image methods. Also is fast diagnose and more comfortable for patient which prevents withdrawal of the screening. (author)

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: varotti@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; others, and

    2014-05-15

    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the numerical solution of polymer flooding; Avaliacao da solucao numerica da injecao de polimeros em reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Vinicius Ligiero; Pires, Adolfo Puime; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel G. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods include injection of different fluids into reservoirs to improve oil displacement. The EOR methods may be classified into the following kinds: injection of chemical solutions, injection of solvents and thermal methods. The chemical fluids most commonly injected are polymers, surfactants, micellar solutions, etc. Displacement of oil by any of these fluids involves complex physico-chemical processes of interphase mass transfer, phase transitions and transport properties changes. These processes can be divided into two main categories: thermodynamical and hydrodynamical ones. They occur simultaneously during the displacement, and are coupled in the modern mathematical models of EOR. The model for one-dimensional displacement of oil by polymer solutions is analyzed in this paper. The Courant number is fixed, and we compare the results of different runs of a numerical simulator with the analytical solution of this problem. Each run corresponds to a different spatial discretization. (author)

  7. Efeito do corte da parte aérea na sobrevivência do marmeleiro (Croton Sonderianus Muell.Arg. Effects of the cutting of above ground parts on marmeleiro (Croton sonderianus Muell. Arg. survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianno Cavalcante de Carvalho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Caprinos, em Sobral, Ceará, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do corte da parte aérea em relação à altura da rebrota na sobrevivência, persistência e no vigor da rebrota do marmeleiro e produção subseqüente de fitomassa do estrato herbáceo. O corte das plantas foi realizado a 10,0 cm de altura, quando suas rebrotas alcançaram quatro diferentes alturas (25, 50, 75 e 100 cm. Os tratamentos de corte foram aplicados em parcelas de 5 m x 30 m. A avaliação da mortalidade das plantas foi realizada mediante a contagem de todas as plantas mortas e vivas dentro das parcelas experimentais. Os dados foram analisados por intermédio do teste não-paramétrico do qui-quadrado. Verificou-se que houve dependência entre a mortalidade das plantas e o corte das rebrotas e que todos os tratamentos foram diferentes entre si. O melhor resultado foi alcançado quando as rebrotas foram cortadas à altura média de 75 cm, diminuindo a densidade do marmeleiro em até 96%. A redução da densidade proporcionou aumentos significativos na produção de fitomassa herbácea, em relação à área não tratada.The research was conducted at the EMBRAPA - National Center for Goat Research, in Sobral, Ceara, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of cutting of the above ground parts in relation at regrowth height of marmeleiro on its survival, persistence, regrowth vigor and subsequent production of herbaceous understory phytomass. The plants were cut at 10.0 cm above ground, when the regrowth reached four different heights (25, 50, 75 and 100 cm. The cutting treatments were applied on plots of 5 m x 30 m. The evaluation of the mortality of the plants was accomplished by the count of the total number of dead and alive plants of the experimental plots. Data were analyzed by means of the chi-square nonparametric test. It was observed dependence between mortality of the plants and regrowth cutting, where all treatments were different

  8. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  9. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  10. Sobrevivendo ao estigma da gordura: um estudo socioantropológico sobre obesidade Surviving to the stigma of fat: a socio-anthropological study on obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Mattos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo a apreensão e interpretação de sentidos e significados que alunos obesos atribuem às práticas corporais de saúde realizadas no Projeto de Exercício Físico Adaptado para Obesos da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no sentido de compreender os motivos que levam esses alunos a procurarem e a permanecerem no Projeto de Extensão. Trata-se de um estudo de caso de natureza socioantropológica situado no campo da Saúde Coletiva, cuja estratégia metodológica foi a articulação entre observação etnográfica (participante, entrevistas informais e formais (gravadas. Concluímos que atividades coletivas de indivíduos que partilham um mesmo estigma podem resultar em efeitos positivos para o grupo, na medida em que o encontro com os pares permite que vivenciem experiências construtoras de valores coletivos e cordiais, produtores de sentidos para além do desejo de emagrecimento.The main purpose of this research project is to appreend and interpretate senses and meanings which obese students attribute to their body health practices in a Program of the University of State of Rio de Janeiro, the Physical Exercise Project Adapted to Obese (PEFAO. We intended to understand the motives that led these students not only to look for the Project, but more than this, to stay in it. Research activities consisted in a socio-anthropological analytical perspective of these motivations. Our methodological strategy articulated ethnographic observation, informal and formal interviews, as well as our own participation in the developing of practices. We may conclude that collective activities shared by subjects suffering the same stigma concerning the body can bring significant social effects to the subjects, as the meeting with their partners results in building cordial values and solidarity ties, far beyond the common desire of losing weight.

  11. Calculating the survival rate and estimated population density of gravid Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Determinação da taxa de sobrevivência e estimativa da densidade populacional de fêmeas grávidas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Population size and daily survival rates of disease vectors are important determinants of vectorial capacity. A mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted in a dengue endemic urban neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate population size, survival rate and vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti females using back-pack aspirators and gravid sticky traps (MosquiTRAP. Estimations of the gravid female population size were different when using data gathered from just the MosquiTRAP (3,505 individuals or aspirator (1,470. However Ae. aegypti survival rates and longevity were similar irrespective of the method of capture. Up to 26.3% of released females would be able to survive for more than 10 days, the length of time of the extrinsic incubation period. Vectorial capacity value ranged between 0.01567 and 0.4215 and the basic reproductive number (R0 was estimated to be between 0.0695 and 1.88.O tamanho populacional e a taxa de sobrevivência de vetores de doenças são importantes componentes da capacidade vetorial. Um experimento de marcação-soltura-recaptura foi conduzido numa área urbana endêmica de dengue no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estimar o tamanho populacional, taxa de sobrevivência diária e capacidade vetorial de fêmeas de Aedes aegypti; para tal, usaram-se aspirador costal e armadilha para fêmeas grávidas de Ae. aegypti (MosquiTRAP. Estimativas do tamanho populacional de fêmeas grávidas foram diferentes quando foram analisados dados coletados apenas na MosquiTRAP (3.505 indivíduos e aspiradores (1.470. Por outro lado, taxas de sobrevivência e longevidade de Ae. aegypti foram semelhantes independentemente do método de captura empregado. Até 26,3% das fêmeas seriam capazes de sobreviver mais do que dez dias, tempo equivalente à duração do período de incubação extrínseco. O cálculo da capacidade vetorial revelou valores entre 0,01567 e 0,4215, e o número básico de reprodução foi estimado entre 0,0695 e

  12. Modelos linear e não linear em análises genéticas para sobrevivência de crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês Linear and nonlinear models in genetic analyses of lamb survival in the Santa Inês hair sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Sousa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Registros de sobrevivência do nascimento ao desmame de 3846 crias de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram analisados por modelos de reprodutor linear e não linear (modelo de limiar, para estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. Os modelos usados para sobrevivência, analisada como característica da cria, incluíram os efeitos fixos de sexo, da combinação tipo de nascimento-criação da cria e da idade da ovelha ao parto, efeito da covariável peso da cria ao nascer e efeitos aleatórios de reprodutor, da classe rebanho-ano-estação e do resíduo. Componentes de variância para o modelo linear foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML e para o modelo não linear por uma aproximação da máxima verossimilhança marginal (MML, pelo programa CMMAT2. O coeficiente de herdabilidade (h² estimado pelo modelo de limiar foi de 0,29, e pelo modelo linear, 0,14. A correlação de ordem de Spearman entre as capacidades de transmissão dos reprodutores, com base nos dois modelos foi de 0,96. As estimativas de h² obtidas indicam a possibilidade de se obter, por seleção, ganho genético para sobrevivência.Records of 3,846 lambs survival from birth to weaning of Santa Inês hair sheep breed, were analyzed by linear and non linear sire models (threshold model to estimate variance components and heritability (h². The models that were used to analyze survival, considered in this study as a lamb trait, included the fixed effects of sex of the lamb, combination of type of birth-rearing of lamb, and age of ewe, birth weight of lamb as covariate, and random effects of sire, herd-year-season and residual. Variance components were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood (REML, in linear model and marginal maximum likelihood in threshold model through CMMAT2 program. Estimate of heritability (h² obtained by threshold model was 0.29 and by linear model was 0.14. Rank correlation of Spearman, between sire solutions

  13. Evaluation of the thermoluminescent detector answers of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti and micro LiF:Mg,Ti in photon clinical beams dosimetry using water simulator; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes de CaSO4:Dy, LiF:Mg,Ti e microLiF:Mg,Ti na dosimetria de feixes clinicos de fotons utilizando simulador de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana C.; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: lmatsushima@usp.b, E-mail: veneziani@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; Cruz, Jose C. da, E-mail: rsakuraba@einstein.b, E-mail: jccruz@einstein.b [Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE)

    2011-10-26

    This paper perform the comparative study of thermoluminescent answer of calcium sulfate dosemeter doped with dysprosium (DaSO{sub 4}:Dy) produced by the IPEN, Sao Paulo, with answer of lithium fluoride dosemeters doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg, Ti) in the dosimetry of clinical beams of photons (6 and 15 MV) by using water simulator object. Dose-answer curves were obtained for gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in the air and in conditions of electronic equilibrium (plate of PMMA), and clinical photons of CLINAC model 2100C accelerators of the two evaluated hospitals: Hospital das Clinicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Sao Paulo university and Hospital Albert Einstein. It was also evaluated the sensitivity and reproduction of the three dosemeters

  14. The oviducal protein, heat-shock 70-kDa protein 8, improves the long-term survival of ram spermatozoa during storage at 17°C in a commercial extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, R E; Fazeli, A; Watson, P F; Holt, W V

    2012-01-01

    Poor fertility rates are often observed when fresh ram semen stored in conventional extenders is used for cervical artificial insemination (AI). Heat-shock 70-kDa protein 8 (HSPA8), found within the oviduct, prolongs boar, ram and bull sperm survival at body temperatures in vitro. Here, we aimed to determine whether supplementing extenders (INRA-96 and RSD-1) with HSPA8 (4 µg mL⁻¹) would improve their performance in maintaining freshly collected ram sperm viability and sperm nuclear DNA integrity during storage over 48 h at 17°C. Sperm function was assessed at 1, 6, 24 and 48h and this experiment was repeated using 25 × 10⁶ and 800 × 10⁶ spermatozoa mL⁻¹. INRA96 supplemented with HSPA8 maintained sperm viability significantly better than INRA96 alone at both sperm concentrations. However, sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (DF) increased significantly during storage using the higher sperm concentration, irrespective of the extender and the protein treatment used. Increasing levels of sperm nuclear DF over time could explain why poor fertility rates are often observed following cervical AI using stored ram semen. However, further research is required to ascertain whether supplementing the commercially available INRA96 extender with HSPA8 will improve fertility rates following cervical AI using stored ram semen.

  15. Studies on survival, biological activities and behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata, the host snail of Schistosomiasis, submitted to increased hydrostatic pressure: a technique Estudos sobre a sobrevivência, atividades biológicas e comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário da esquistossomose, submetido a aumento da pressão hidrostática: uma técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jurberg

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available To study changes in survival, in biological activities and behavior of planorbids submitted to increased hydrostatic pressure, we developed a technique using two transparent chambers and a hydraulic piston. The apparatus permitted renewal of the liquid medium without substantial variations in pressure, thus eliminating excretion products and maintaining the desired O2 level and thereby permitting us to evaluate the effects of pressure independently of the occurrence of anoxia. Pressure was maintained without any contact of the liquid medium with compressed air, a situation which reproduced with relative fidelity what occurs in nature and assured the presence of the same amounts of gases in the two observation chambers (Control and Experimental. Biomphalaria glabrata was found to be able to survive at least 48 hours when submitted to 49.02 x 10**4 Pa (equivalent to a water depth of 48.8 m, continuing to day egg masses and showing few behavioral changes when compared with the control group.Para estudar mudanças na sobrevivência, atividades biológicas e comportamento de planorbídeos submetidos a aumento de pressão hidrostática, desenvolvemos uma técnica que utiliza duas câmaras transparentes e um pistão hidráulico. O aparelho permitiu a renovação do meio líquido sem variações substanciais na pressão, eliminando assim os produtos de excreção e mantendo o nível de O2 disseolvido desejado, e desse modo permitido-nos avaliar o efeito da pressão independente da ocorrência de anoxia. A pressão foi mantida sem nenhum contato do meio líquido com o ar comprimido, situação que produziu com relativa fidelildade o que ocorre na natureza, e assegurou a presença da mesma quantidade de gases nas duas câmaras de observação. Biomphalaria glabrata foi capaz de sobreviver pelo menos 48 horas quando submetida a 49,02 x 10 Pa (equivalente a 48 m de profundidade continuando a pôr massas ovíferas, e mostrando poucas modifica

  16. Evaluation of the crude oil viscosity variation in function of the demulsifiers addition; Avaliacao da variacao da viscosidade de oleo cru em funcao da adicao de desemulsificante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Jansen M.; Lucas, Elisabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; Neves, Guilherme B.M. [COMAB Especialidades Quimicas Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: tecnico@comabrio.com

    2003-07-01

    One way of improving well production is the addition of demulsifier already in the gas lift. This is due to the apparent viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions being higher than apparent viscosity of crude oil, which in turn is higher than the apparent viscosity of an water-in-oil dual phase admixture and is also higher than the apparent viscosity of an oil-in-water emulsion. However, there are some situations where, in order to obtain separate flows of oil and water phases, demulsifier should be added in specific amounts in order to promote the desired phase separation. In heavy oils water and oil phase separation may be hard to obtain, however, the right demulsifier amount may imply in a considerable decrease in petroleum viscosity even without the appearance of two phases, making the flow easier. This work has evaluated the viscosity of a heavy crude having API degree 14 and BSW 52%, as a function of the addition of different amounts of DEMTROL BR 67, manufactured by Dow Quimica/Comab, Brazil, as demulsifier. (author)

  17. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  19. Survival of Trypanosoma cruzi in sugar cane used to prepare juice Avaliação da sobrevida de Trypanosoma cruzi em cana de açúcar utilizada no preparo do caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana V.N. Cardoso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease can be transmitted to man by many different means, including contact with infected triatomine feces, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents, organ transplants, and congenital or oral routes. The latter mode has received considerable attention recently. In this assay, we evaluate the survival of Trypanosoma cruzi contaminating sugar cane used to prepare juice, as well as the viability and capacity for infection by the parasite after recovery. Thirty triatomines were contaminated with T. cruzi Y strain and 45 days later pieces of sugar cane were contaminated with the intestinal contents of the insects. The pieces were ground at different intervals after contamination (time = 0, 1, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours and the juice extracted and analyzed. Different methods were used to show T. cruzi in the juice: direct analysis, hematocrit tube centrifugation and QBC, and experimental inoculation in 47 female BALB/c mice (five control mice and seven mice for each interval examined (five inoculated orally and two intraperitoneally. Positive results were found using the direct analysis and QBC methods for juice prepared up to 12 hours after initial contamination. However, by the centrifugation technique, positivity was found only up to four hours after contamination of the sugar cane. Inoculated animals showed parasitemia during a 14 day observation period, demonstrating the high survival rate of T. cruzi in sugar cane.A doença de Chagas pode ser transmitida ao homem através de vários mecanismos: fezes de triatomíneo infectado; transfusão sangüínea; acidente em laboratório; transplante de órgão; vias congênita ou oral convindo salientar que esta última tem motivado ocorrências recentemente. Neste estudo procuramos avaliar a sobrevida de Trypanosoma cruzi presente em cana de açúcar contaminada com o parasita, utilizada no preparo do caldo e, também, a viabilidade e a capacidade de infecção do parasita depois de ser recuperado

  20. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  2. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  3. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jpmm0697@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  4. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: neideaparecidamariano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  5. Evaluation of kerma rate in radioactive waste disposal; Avaliacao da taxa de kerma em deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Rodolfo O.; Silva, Joao C.P.; Santos, Joao R. dos, E-mail: oliveira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcarlos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: regis@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the progression of kerma rate levels in the air due to the increase of collection, storing and storage of radioactive waste in the new building (after expansion) of the radioactive waste disposal (RWD) of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Brazil. This review is carried out every six months at IEN with thermoluminescent dosimeter lithium fluoride LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100H). Here are the average values of kerma rate for the period 2008- 2012. In this context, the methodology used for selection and choices of detectors used in dosimeters is presented. The detectors were chosen through homogeneity criteria of the pack, standardization factor and coefficient of variation (CV%). The monitoring points and the exposure time of the detectors are chosen considering various factors, including the rate of occupation and indoor and outdoor positions to RWD. These evaluations showed that the contribution of the new waste disposal in increasing kerma rate of IEN, has proved to be insignificant, that is, the presence of RWD does not contribute to increased environmental kerma rate in the region around this installation.

  6. Evaluation of radioiodinetherapy protocol for patients with Plummer disease; Avaliacao do protocolo da radioiodoterapia para pacientes com doenca de Plummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Keyla Mary Cavalheiro; Antonio Filho, Joao; Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: keylamcm@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The disease Plummer (DP) is generated by the thyroid cells that function autonomously, independent the rest of the organ parenchyma. The DP presents a prevalence of 1% to 9%, higher in regions with iodine deficiency, affecting six women for every man. The study was conducted at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) from {sup 99m}Tc data capture and mass existing in the thyroid records of 54 patients with PD who underwent radioiodine therapy with fixed activities 1110 megabecquerels (MBq) from 2004 to 2008. For capitation of {sup 99m}Tc from a group of 22 patients were used 5 ml syringes, measured by a Capintec CRC-7 model activimeter, having scintigraphy after 20 minutes and results in a region of interest. Mass evaluation was based on method of palpation of the thyroid, considering the mass standard. It is observed that 68.2% of patients received more activity than needed, 31.8% were less active, and none received activity in accordance with your needs. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) between the fixed activities and activities computed for all patients, according to Chi-square test for independence with 21 degrees of freedom. The cure rate of a group of 32 patients was 75% after one year of follow-up. It is suggested that the RIT is preceded by an assessment of the maximum percentage of uptake and thyroid mass.

  7. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  8. Cementing quality evaluation with ultrasonic logs in fiberglass casings; Avaliacao da qualidade do cimento em revestimentos de fibra de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wellington; Lazaro, Andre F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The sonic and ultrasonic profiles are used as the main tools in assessing the cementing quality between formation and casing in oil wells. This assessment is important, because, if there is a failure in the primary cementing, both the structural integrity and zone isolation will be compromised. The sonic profiles are based on the acoustic energy attenuation in casing, cement and formation, while the ultrasonic profiles are based on the resonance of the wave pulse within the media where they travel (casings, cement and formation). The attenuation and resonance are due to the difference in the way the wave travel within these media. The acoustic impedance is the quantification of this difference, determining the refraction and reflection between the environments, and wave attenuation as well. In steel casings, this difference is meaningful, allowing the captured signals (reflected pulses) to be interpreted as good adhesion between cement and casing, or a lack of adhesion at some interval. In fiber glass casings, the impedance contrast between glass and cement is small and not detectable with the CBL/VDL sensors. The CBL/VDL tools provide an inefficient assessment of the quality of the cementing. The ultrasonic profile does not have this problem, theoretically. The goal of this work is to demonstrate and recommend the ultrasonic tool as the main instrument to assess the cementation quality in fiber glass casings. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  11. Evaluation of integrity of radiation sources of nuclear gauges; Avaliacao da integridade de fontes radioativas de medidores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torohate, Wiclif Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear equipment meters are mainly used in the industry in quality control and process control. The principle of operation consists in a shielded radioactive source together with a radiation detector such that the radiation interacts with the material to be analyzed before reaching the detector, providing real time data. Can be as their fixed and mobile mobility, the unique properties of ionizing radiation are used in three basic modes, transmission, backscatter or dispersion or induced (reactive). With the advancement and technological modernization in the world, the demand for nuclear gauges becomes increasingly larger. Currently in Brazil there are about 465 process control plants and 21 portable systems and Mozambique about 45 facilities using nuclear gauges. This font registration is done through a process called source inventory that allows also to know the category of the source, the danger or risk to human health that the source offers. The handling of this equipment requires personnel, certified, skilled and well trained in radiation protection area in accordance with the requirements of the various CNEN Rules. Due to the presence of radioactive source and because these devices are used by workers risk because there external radiation. In this context, we made the smear test in two fixed meters from the IRD industry laboratory, which determines the integrity of the source package, mandatory item in periodic integrity testing of the radiation source of this type of device. A set of procedures is made for its implementation as an evaluation of the radiological risk by radiological survey. It was intended to contribute to the learning handling and safe use of these meters. (author)

  12. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-07-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  13. Influência do processamento da ração no desempenho e sobrevivência da tilápia do Nilo durante a reversão sexual Influence of diet processing form on performance and survival of Nile tilapia during sex revert phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Aquicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, objetivando avaliar rações com diferentes formas de processamento sobre o desempenho e sobrevivência de larvas de tilápia do Nilo durante a fase de reversão sexual. Foram utilizados 540 larvas distribuídos em 18 aquários de 54 L em um delineamento completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e seis repetições. O período experimental foi de 28 dias a uma temperatura média de 21,9 ± 0,1ºC de manhã e 22,7 ± 0,3ºC à tarde. Foi formulada uma ração (38,6% de proteína digestível e 3800 kcal/kg de energia digestível diferindo quanto à forma de processamento (farelada (RF, pastosa (RP e micropeletizada (RM. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 quanto ao peso final e a condição corporal, entretanto a biomassa final das larvas alimentadas com RF foi superior, em relação aos que receberam RP e RM. A sobrevivência das larvas que receberam RP e RF respectivamente, foram semelhantes e superiores àquelas alimentadas com RM. Portanto, conclui-se que utilizando-se a moagem dos ingredientes da ração em peneira de 0,5 mm, para larvas de tilápia do Nilo durante a reversão sexual, a forma farelada de ração é a mais adequada.This work was carried out at Aquicultura Laboratory of Maringá State University, to evaluate the different processing form of diets on Nile tilapia fry performance and survive, during sexual revert phase. Was utilized 540 fry distributed, on completely randomized design with three treatments and six replications, in eighteen 54 L aquarium and one aquarium with 30 Nile tilapia fry was considered an experimental unit. The experimental period was 28 days with average temperatures of 21.9 ± 0.1ºC in the morning and 22.7 ± 0.3ºC in the afternoon. The diet was formulated (38.6% of digestible protein and 3800 kcal/kg digestible energy differing only about processing form (crumble [MD], meal [ND] and pasty

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu{sup 2+}(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival; Avaliacao da genotoxicidade induzida pelo peroxido de hidrogenio na presenca dos quelantes de ions Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipiridil) e de ions Cu{sup 2+} (neocuproina), em Escherichia coli: envolvimento de mecanismos de reparo de DNA na sobrevivencia bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-07-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  15. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Índices bióticos para avaliação da qualidade ambiental em trechos do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil = Biotic indexes for the evaluation of environmental quality in stretches of the Correntoso river, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a estrutura da comunidade de insetos aquaticos, utilizando esta comunidade como indicadora da qualidade ambiental de um trecho do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Foram realizadas seis campanhas de coleta em diferentes periodos sazonais: vazante, seca e cheia. Os organismos foram coletados utilizando rede D com malha de 300 ƒÝm eesforco amostral de cinco lances de rede nas raizes dos bancos de macrofitas. Foram comparados tres ambientes (aberto, intermediario e fechado, por juncao dos dados obtidos de seis sitios de coleta. Foi analisada a riqueza, abundancia absoluta e relativa das familias de insetos amostrados e a avaliacao da qualidade da agua usando o indiceBMWP, indice BMWP-ASPT, indice IBF e indice de diversidade de Shannon-Wienner, com log2. Foram registradas 60 familias pertencentes a 12 ordens da Classe Insecta, totalizando 19.773 individuos coletados. Entre os indices aplicados, o indice BMWP foi o que melhor representou as condicoes do ambiente estudado.This work aimed to research the aquatic insect community structure using this community as a bioindicator of the environmental quality in a stretch of the Correntoso river, in Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Six collections were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using a 300 ƒÝm mesh D net sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, closed by adding the information from six collection sites. Family richness, absolute and relative abundance ofinsect samples and an evaluation of water quality were analyzed by using the BMWP index, BMWP-ASPT index, IBF index and Shannon diversity index, with log2. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta Class were recorded, totaling 19,773 individuals. Among the indexes applied, the BMWP index was the one that best

  17. Quality evaluation of Argentina onion irradiated, transported and stored; Avaliacao da qualidade da cebola argentina irradiada, transportada e armazenada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J M.M.; Domarco, R E; Spoto, M H.F.; Blumer, L [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Curzio, O A; Croci, C A [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1996-12-31

    Onion bulbs of the Valenciana Sintetica 14 variety from Argentina were irradiated with a dose of 60 Gy gamma rays at 30-40 days after harvest. Treated and control lots (40 bags of 20 Kg each) were send by road to Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and stored up to 180 days in a warehouse at 20-28{sup 0} C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 100%. Monthly quality control was done by physical and sensorial analysis. Radiation treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of marketable bulbs without affecting its sensorial properties. (author). 4 refs, 8 tabs.

  18. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  19. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems; Avaliacao da densidade pelo metodo da tomografia computadorizada de um planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, Alceu [Lavras Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic 1 fig.

  20. Assessing the quality of energy supplied by small renewable energy systems; Avaliacao da qualidade da energia fornecida por sistemas renovaveis isolados de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Pinho, Joao Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: galhardo@ufpa.br, E-mail: jtpinho@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper makes an analysis of the power quality supplied by small renewable energy systems with energy storage in a battery bank and its DC/AC conversion by an inverter. It is shown that the power quality supplied by stand-alone renewable systems depends on the used inverter, specially of its voltage waveform, the load supplied and the voltage level in the battery bank, which has a direct influence on the value of the rms output voltage of the inverter. For these analysis, measurements are presented for typical loads used in these systems as illumination, TV, refrigerator, etc., and combinations of these loads, supplied by different waveforms. (author)

  1. Study and evaluation of radiometry in photo therapeutic treatment of the neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia; Estudo e avaliacao da radiometria no tratamento fototerapico da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caly, Jose Pucci

    2009-07-01

    Phototherapy is a procedure established more than 50 years ago in the treatment of the newborn jaundice. However there is no a standard method to quantify the photo therapeutic dose in published clinical studies, hindering the comparison of previous studies on photo therapeutic effectiveness, as well as the establishment of safe and predictable doses. The photo therapeutic dose depends, among other factors, on the effective mean irradiance produced by the photo therapeutic unit. There are no standard procedures, however, neither to quantify the effective irradiance, nor to estimate the mean effective irradiance. As a consequence, large measurement variations in a same photo therapeutic unit are observed using different commercially available radiometers, as a consequence of the vast diversity of spectral responsivities of the instruments. An objective of this work was to adapt and to apply the bases of the wideband ultraviolet radiometry to quantify the available irradiance from photo therapeutic units, establishing procedures that allow us to compare measured irradiances from different sources, using radiometers presenting different spectral responsivities. Another objective was to characterize samples of photo therapeutic units commonly used, focusing the problem of the estimation of the effective mean irradiance from photo therapeutic units, proposing a method to estimate of the effective irradiance from focused sources. The experimental results allow us to conclude that it is not only necessary to standardize the photo therapeutic radiometry, but also the method of estimation of the effective mean irradiance. (author)

  2. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.co [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the increase of temperature during radiation, and probably followed by a new scraping and root polishing with conventional instruments in an attempt to obtain a smoother and more homogeneous root surface. (author)

  4. Technique applied in the evaluation of the UFCC reactor at Refinaria Alberto Pasqualini (REFAP), PETROBRAS; Tecnicas utilizadas na avaliacao do reator da UFCC da REFAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascaes, Ronesio da Silva [PETROBRAS (Brazil) Refinaria Alberto Pasqualini

    1994-01-01

    Main problems found in the maintenance of the Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) unity, searches of metal alteration properties, metallographic evaluations, failures and micro-structures alterations are presented. Micrographic analysis of the structural samples, the methodology to detect the failures and physical and chemical essays utilized in the inspection are also reported 13 refs., 64 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence; Avaliacao da testosterona no fluido intersticial testicular sob influencia da tiroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Lima Filho, Guilherme L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Nazare da Mata, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Formacao de Professores

    2000-07-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20{mu}g/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to {sup 125} I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  6. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of phytotoxic activity of {alpha}-Santonin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade fitotoxica de derivados da {alpha}-Santonina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Elson S.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Saliba, William A.; Arantes, Francisco F.P.; Demuner, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: elson@ufv.br; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2009-07-01

    Mixtures of {alpha}-Santonin and various solvents were irradiated by either high or low pressure mercury lamps. The photochemical reactions afforded lumisantonin (11) (76% in acetonitrile), (3 S,3a S,9{beta}S)-3,6,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydronafto[1,2-b]furan-2,7({eta}6,9{beta}{eta}) dione (12) (100% in acetonitrile), 10{alpha}-acetoxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}H{eta},6,11{alpha}a{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-oli= de (8) (26% in acetic acid), 10{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}a{eta},6,11{alpha}{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (10) (32%) and (E)-3-((3 S,3a S,7{alpha}S)-3-methyl-2-oxo-6-(propan-2-ylidene)hexahydrobenzofuran- 7 - (7{alpha}{eta})-ylidene)propanoic acid (9) (44%) (in water/ acetic acid 1:1, v/v). Lactone 12 was also prepared by irradiation of lumisantonin in diethyl ether. Lactones 8 and 10 were converted, respectively, into the 10 {alpha}-acetoxy-3{alpha}-hydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (13) (87%) and 3a,10a-dihydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olide (14) (75%) by sodium borohydride reduction. The effects of the compounds on the development of radicle of Sorghum bicolor and Cucumis sativus were evaluated. (author)

  8. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM format, the software {sup O}BJ{sub I}QJeduced{sup ,} version 3.0, was used. It was developed by the team of Prof.. Dr. Nicholas Marshall at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. The results were very promising, leaving opened the possibility of future work as the optimization of the correction factors and uncertainties for the dosimeters as well as the applicability of the test objects in evaluating the image quality of digital systems across the country. (author)

  9. Use of different simulators to quality evaluation of image quality in digital mammography; Utilizacao de diferentes simuladores na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leslie S.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: leslie@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Luis A.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com, E-mail: cea71@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the digital images were acquired with different exposure simulators to evaluate the quality of the image, noting the tumor mass detection, microcalcification fiber and representing regions of interest during mammography. The technical parameters of exposure depends on the thickness and composition of the breast, thus affecting the dose and image quality. The simulators were used: ACR, SBP 1054, BREAST PHANTOM CIRS and for evaluation of image quality, as well as measures kerma incident on the entrance surface (Ki) and calculating the mean glandular dose (MGD)

  10. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the increase of temperature during radiation, and probably followed by a new scraping and root polishing with conventional instruments in an attempt to obtain a smoother and more homogeneous root surface. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  12. Evaluation of gels obtained from acetylation of chitosan in heterogeneous medium; Avaliacao de geis obtidos a partir da acetilacao da quitosana em meio heterogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosangela Balaban; Silva, Dayse Luzia Pinheiro da; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: balaban@digi.com.br; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Quimica, Tecnologia Farmaceutica e de Alimentos; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Chitosan was acetylated during 2, 5 and 10 h and physical gels were obtained at different polymer concentrations in N,N-dimethylacetamide containing 5% of LiCl. Acetylation was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR, and degrees of acetylation in the range of 0.82-0.91 were determined by NMR. The O-acetylation degree (0.12-0.15) was exclusively determined by a volumetric method. Rheological studies showed that the storage modulus values were smaller for the more acetylated samples and increased with the temperature and the polymer concentration. All the gels presented storage modulus superior to loss modulus, evidencing more elastic than viscous characteristics. The results obtained in this work suggest a gelation process based on a balance between O and N-acetylation and intermolecular bonds. (author)

  13. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  14. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  15. Trabalho e sobrevivência - o mundo da vida sob ameaça: racionalidade ou irracionalidade? Work and survival - the world of life under menace: rationality or irrationality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria de Araújo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A condução da vida por uma racionalidade capitalista-instrumental é o tema aqui discutido sob o prisma de reconhecê-la em manifestações da vida, sem desconhecer o quanto afeta o chamado mundo do trabalho. A subjetividade comprometida do trabalhador nesse processo é um dos seus maiores efeitos. A construção do texto resgata as idéias weberianas sobre um processo racional-instrumental que absorve a vida moderna, apresentando, em seguida, o novo paradigma habermasiano da razão comunicativa como alternativa às conseqüências dessa lógica tipicamente capitalista. Ao analisar a invasão do mundo sistêmico sobre o mundo da vida e a continuidade desse processo, o artigo elabora uma reflexão sobre a racionalidade, colocando a indagação: nas condições da moderna produção flexível, marca das grandes e médias indústrias de caráter transnacional, está-se diante de uma racionalidade ou irracionalidade capitalista?The instrumental-capitalist rationality that occupies the world of life is here discussed in a labor’s point of view. The commitment of worker’s subjectivity is one of the biggest results of the technological, technical and scientific transformation occurred in the last century and it is disposed to the capitalist accumulation, moreover after the adoption of the flexible production method. The modern automotive industry assembled in Curitiba, since the beginning of the year 1990, is one of this transitions example. The intense social transformations of the last three decades in the world of work were provoked by the innovations in the labor and production organization area. The text begins with a discussion of Weber ideas about a rational-instrumental process that emerges in modernity, presents Habermas’s communicative paradigm proposition as an alternative to the consequences of this hegemonic logic. Analyzing the advancement of the systemic world over the world of life, this paper builds up a critic to the

  16. Improving survival in children with AIDS in Brazil: results of the second national study, 1999-2002 Ampliação da sobrevida em crianças com AIDS no Brasil: resultados do segundo estudo nacional de 1999 a 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to characterize survival in children with AIDS diagnosed in Brazil between 1999-2002, compared with the first national study (1983-1998. This national retrospective cohort study examined a representative sample of Brazilian children exposed to HIV from mother-to-child transmission and followed through 2007. The survival probability after 60 months was analyzed by sex, year of birth and death, clinical classification, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART and prophylaxis for opportunistic diseases. 920 children were included. The survival probability increased: comparing cases diagnosed before 1988 with those diagnosed from 2001-2002 it increased by 3.5-fold (from 25% to 86.3%. Use of ART, initial clinical classification, and final classification were significant (p Este estudo caracteriza a sobrevida em crianças com AIDS no Brasil entre 1999-2002, contextualizando com o primeiro estudo nacional (1983-1998. Trata-se de coorte histórica, com crianças expostas ao HIV por transmissão vertical e acompanhadas até 2007. A probabilidade de sobrevivência em 60 meses foi analisada segundo sexo, ano de nascimento e de óbito, classificação clínica, uso de terapia antirretroviral (TARV e de profilaxia para doenças oportunistas. No total, 920 crianças foram incluídas. A probabilidade de sobrevivência foi ampliada 3,5 vezes nos dois períodos avaliados, passando de 25% antes de 1988 para 86,3% no período de 2001-2002. Uso de TARV, classificação clínica inicial e atual/final foram preditores que influíram significativamente (p < 0,001 para a ampliação da sobrevida. Os resultados deste estudo indicam o sucesso da política brasileira para a abordagem das crianças infectadas com HIV. A melhora do estado clínico contribuiu para melhora da qualidade de vida, mas sinaliza-se para a necessidade de incorporação de práticas pautadas na integralidade do cuidado.

  17. Efeito dos vieses de sobrevivência nas prevalências da desnutrição em crianças no sexto ano de vida. Brasil ­ PNSN, 1989 Effects of survival bias on the prevalence of malnutrition in six-year-old children in Brazil, based on the National Survey on Health and Nutrition, 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete de Oliveira

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da criança mensurado por indicadores antropométricos é um instrumento importante na avaliação da condição nutricional das crianças e do estágio de desenvolvimento de uma sociedade. Este estudo usa o indicador estatura para idade, com ponto de corte em -2 Z para estimar a prevalência da desnutrição entre uma população em crianças com seis anos de idade incluída na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN. Baseando-se em estimativas relacionadas às taxas de mortalidade das crianças com menos de cinco anos cujas mortes poderiam ser atribuídas à desnutrição, a correção do viés de sobrevivência é feita usando a metodologia de Boerma. Esta correção torna-se mais evidenciada na população de baixa renda e menos desenvolvida. Comparando as áreas de menor e maior desenvolvimento no País (Nordeste e Sudeste respectivamente, observou-se que as taxas de prevalência da desnutrição no grupo das crianças de seis anos de idade não demonstram quaisquer alterações na região Sudeste, ao passo que na região Nordeste estas taxas sofrem um aumento de 26% para 34%, representando desta forma um aumento de 31% na taxa de desnutrição. Em números absolutos, esta taxa corresponde à adição de 90.100 crianças ao grupo de desnutridos.Child growth as measured by anthropometric indicators is an important tool for assessing children's nutritional status and society's developmental stage. This study uses the height-for-age indicator with the cutoff point at -2 Z to estimate prevalence of malnutrition in a population of six-year-old children included in the Brazilian National Survey on Health and Nutrition (PNSN. Prevalence variability was analyzed according to gender, trimestral age range, per capita family income, and region of residence. Based on estimates of mortality rates for children under five whose deaths could be ascribed to malnutrition, the survival bias correction was performed using the Boerma

  18. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  19. Fase menstrual na data da cirurgia para câncer de mama: resultados tardios e taxas de sobrevida assintomática Timing of surgery during menstrual cycle, late results and disease-free: survival rates in 130 patients with preast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Franco Montoro

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar se existem diferenças nas taxas de sobrevida para as portadoras de carcinoma de mama, em função da fase do ciclo menstrual vivida pela paciente na data da cirurgia. Pacientes e Métodos: pesquisa retrospectiva de 451 mulheres com câncer de mama, em pré-menopausa, das quais foram selecionados 130 casos com idade entre 26 e 52 anos e acompanhados em seguimento mínimo de 60 meses. Foram operadas 68 na fase folicular e 62 na fase lútea. Foram também analisados os dados referentes ao estádio clínico das neoplasias, ao eventual comprometimento axilar e às determinações quantitativas dos receptores hormonais de estrógenos e de progesterona. Resultados: o seguimento das 130 pacientes demonstrou que 64,6% tiveram sobrevida assintomática após cinco anos e 43% superaram os dez anos. Dividindo os casos em dois subgrupos, segundo o dia da cirurgia executada, as taxas de sobrevida foram diferentes, caindo para 58,8% aos cinco e 36,7% aos dez anos, quando operadas na fase folicular e subindo para 70,9% e 50%, aos 5 e 10 anos respectivamente, durante a fase lútea. Conclusões: neste estudo, as pacientes operadas durante a fase lútea mostraram taxas mais altas de sobrevida do que aquelas operadas na fase folicular. Todavia, os índices foram inferiores aos proporcionados pelos fatores prognósticos clássicos de estado axilar e diâmetro tumoral.Purpose: to offer new data for the conflicting reports which present different prognosis for patients with breast carcinoma, according to the timing of surgery in relation to the menstrual cycle. Patients and Methods: in a retrospective study on 451 premenopausal women with breast cancer, aged between 26 and 52 years, 130 cases were selected and followed for 60 months, at least. Sixty-eight were operated during the follicular phase and 62 in the luteal period, whose findings regarding clinical stages, axillary involvement and estrogen and progesterone hormonal receptor concentrations

  20. LUCRO, VALOR CONTABIL E DIVIDENDOS NA AVALIAcAO DO PATRIMÔNIO LIQUIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ohlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A contabilidade atribui uma importante função integrativa a demonstração das mutações do patrimônio liquido. A demonstração inclui os itens mais importantes do balanço o e da demonstração de resultado do exercício - o valor do patrimônio liquido e o lucro - e sua forma de apresentação exige que a alteração no valor do patrimônio liquido seja igual ao lucro menos os dividendos (líquidos das contribuições para aumento de capital. Referimo-nos a essa relação corno sendo a “relação de lucro limpo", pois, da forma como foi articulada, todas as alterações nos ativos e passivos que não estejam relacionadas com os dividendos devem passar pela demonstração de resultado do exercício. A teoria da contabilidade adota geralmente esse esquema sem relacioná-lo a perspectiva do usuário dos dados contábeis. Contudo, a idéia fundamental de que estoques (líquidos de valor são compatíveis com a criação c distribuição de valor levanta uma questão básica no contexto de avalia4ao do patrimônio liquido: e possível delinear urna teoria coesiva do valor de uma firma sustentada pela relação de lucro limpo, no intuito de se identificar um papel claro para cada uma das três variáveis, quais sejam: o lucro, o valor contábil do patrimônio liquido e os dividendos?

  1. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  2. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  3. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  4. Estudo da sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de mama atendidas no hospital da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Survival study of breast cancer patients treated at the hospital of the Federal University in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaelena Bragança de Moraes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo retrospectivo de base hospitalar foi descrever as condições de saúde e estimar a sobrevida de 252 pacientes, com diagnóstico prévio de câncer de mama, tratadas e acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Mastologia do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, no período de 1980 a 2000. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados o estimador de Kaplan-Meier e o modelo de Cox. A idade média das pacientes foi 54 anos, sendo que 73,4% apresentaram diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma ductal invasor, 63,9% não apresentaram comprometimento dos linfonodos regionais e 57,6% encontravam-se no estadiamento clínico II. Ao final do estudo, 64,7% das mulheres estavam vivas e sem câncer de mama, e 5,1% morreram por outra causa. A sobrevida estimada em 5 anos, foi de 87,7%, sendo os fatores prognósticos associados: tamanho do tumor (RR = 12,03; > 5cm, comprometimento (RR = 3,08; N1 e número de linfonodos ressecados (RR = 4,66; Nenhum, receptor de estrógeno (RR = 0,34 e c-erbB-2 (RR = 2,51. Com base nos achados deste estudo, destaca-se a importância de ações intensivas de orientação para implementar o rastreamento do câncer de mama, levando a diagnósticos em estádios precoces dessa neoplasia.This retrospective hospital-based study aimed to describe health conditions and to estimate the survival of 252 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and treated at the Mastology Outpatient Clinic at the University Hospital of the Federal University in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1980 to 2000. Analysis followed the Kaplan-Meier and Cox model. Mean age was 54, and 73.4% of the patients had a histological diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma, 63.9% showed no lymph node involvement, and 57.6% were clinical stage II. At the end of the study, 64.7% were alive and free of breast cancer and 5.1% had died of other causes. Five-year survival was 87.7% for all women, and prognostic factors associated

  5. Germinação de sementes e sobrevivência de plântulas de Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce Wood. em resposta ao alagamento, nas várzeas da Amazônia Central Seed germination and seedling survival of Himatanthus sucuuba(Spruce Wood., in response to flooding in the varzeas of the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Silva Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus sucuuba é uma espécie que coloniza as várzeas na Amazônia Central. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar as estratégias de adaptação da planta ao alagamento prolongado dessas áreas. Para tanto, foram acompanhados a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas, simulando as condições naturais de campo (seca e alagamento. A germinação foi realizada em dois substratos: areia+serragem (não-alagado, e em água (alagado. Durante 120 dias, as plântulas geradas foram submetidas a três tratamentos: controle (irrigação diária, submersão parcial (sistema radicular e submersão total. Foram analisadas as alterações na morfologia das plântulas, na anatomia das raízes e a atividade da enzima álcool desidrogenase (ADH, nos tempos: 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias. Foi constatado que a espécie apresenta elevada taxa de germinação e produção de plântulas, ambas acima de 80%, mesmo para sementes em água. Sob submersão parcial foram formadas lenticelas hipertrofiadas, raízes adventícias e aerênquima radicular. A atividade da ADH se manteve elevada até o 60º dia, com decréscimo após esse período. Plântulas sob submersão total perderam as folhas, não formaram raízes adventícias ou lenticelas, mas desenvolveram aerênquima. Estas plântulas apresentaram os maiores valores da ADH, que permaneceram altos até o término do experimento, indicando o desvio do metabolismo anaeróbico para produção de etanol como principal via para a manutenção da carga energética. Apesar de ter ocorrido a morte de algumas plântulas no tratamento de submersão total, o percentual de sobreviventes foi alto com 70% ao final dos 120 dias de duração do período experimental. Desta maneira, as plântulas de H. sucuuba modulam morfo-fisiologicamente a tolerância ao alagamento em função do tempo de exposição ao estresse e altura da coluna de água.Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree which colonizes the varzeas of Central

  6. Aplicação do escore MELD em pacientes submetidos a transplante de fígado: análise retrospectiva da sobrevida e dos fatores preditivos a curto e longo prazo The application of MELD score in patients submitted to liver transplantation: a retrospective analysis of survival and the predictive factors in the short and long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira Boin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Utiliza-se o escore MELD (Model End-Stage Liver Disease para o prognóstico da mortalidade em lista de espera para transplante de fígado e, em alguns estudos, para predição da sobrevida pós-operatória a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Verificar a aplicação do escore MELD como predição da sobrevida após o transplante. MÉTODOS: Por intermédio de dados coletados prospectivamente efetuou-se um estudo de coorte longitudinal retrospectivo em 232 pacientes. Excluíram-se os retransplantes, insuficiência hepática aguda, crianças e enxertos duplos ou reduzidos. Avaliaram-se os dados dos doadores: idade, sexo, peso, creatinina, bilirrubina, sódio, aspartato aminotransferase, antecedentes pessoais, causa da morte, presença de esteatose, número de critérios expandidos do doador e índice de risco do doador. Em relação aos receptores, analisaram-se as variáveis: sexo, idade, peso, doença hepática, pontos de Child-Turcotte-Pugh, escore MELD, depuração de creatinina, sódio, tempos de isquemia e de hospitalização, quantidade de hemoderivados transfundidos, presença e grau de disfunção do enxerto. A análise estatística foi efetuada usando-se a análise de regressão univariada e/ou múltipla, estatística 'c', teste exato de Fisher, método de Kaplan-Meier (teste log-rank para sobrevida, e análise de regressão de Cox para risco de óbito ajustado para as condições clínicas. RESULTADOS: O ponto de corte MELD para sobrevida foi 20 e de Child-Turcotte-Pugh foi 11,5. Para escore MELD maior ou igual a 20, os fatores preditivos de sobrevida foram: volume de sangue transfundido, disfunção do enxerto e o sódio do doador. Para os hiponatrêmicos os fatores preditivos de sobrevida foram: volume de sangue transfundido, disfunção do enxerto e sódio do doador. A sobrevida estimada para pacientes com escore MELD >25 foi menor ao final de 12 meses (68,86% vs 39,13%. A sobrevida estimada para os pacientes sem hiponatremia foi maior

  7. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  8. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  9. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  10. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  11. Evaluation of the fuel rod integrity in PWR reactors from the spectrometric analysis of the primary coolant; Avaliacao da integridade de varetas combustiveis em reatores PWR a partir da analise espectrometrica da agua do primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Iara Arraes

    1999-02-15

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the transport of fission products, from the fuel rod to the coolant of a PWR reactor. To achieve this purpose, several steps were followed. Firstly, it was presented a description of the fuel elements and the main mechanisms of fuel rod failure, indicating the most important nuclides and their transport mechanisms. Secondly, taking both the kinetic and diffusion models for the transport of fission products as a basis, a simple analytical and semi-empirical model was developed. This model was also based on theoretical considerations and measurements of coolant's activity, according to internationally adopted methodologies. Several factors are considered in the modelling procedures: intrinsic factors to the reactor itself, factors which depend on the reactor's operational mode, isotope characteristic factors, and factors which depend on the type of rod failure. The model was applied for different reactor's operational parameters in the presence of failed rods. The main conclusions drawn from the analysis of the model's output are relative to the variation on the coolant's water activity with the fuel burnup, the linear operation power and the primary purification rate and to the different behaviour of iodine and noble gases. The model was saturated from a certain failure size and showed to be unable to distinguish between a single big fail and many small ones. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the contribution of contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces in the measure of exposure rate of radioiodine therapy patients; Avaliacao da contribuicao da contaminacao de superficies do quarto terapeutico na medida da taxa de exposicao de pacientes de radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Rafael Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    The contamination of radiotherapy room surfaces is significant and the measures of patient exposure rate are held on the fourth dependencies, relevant questions are raised: the background radiation of the room stay high due to surface contamination, may interfere with the rate of patient exposure at the time of its release? The monitoring site is important to determine whether the patient will be released? The value of the deal activity and the clinical condition of the patient may increase the contamination, influencing the monitoring results? This paper aims to conduct a quantitative analysis of surface contamination of the contribution of therapeutic room at the time is monitored exposure rate from inpatient. Measurements were made regarding the hospitalization of 32 patients with different doses administered activity, age and of both genders. The measurements were performed in the therapeutic rooms at the hospital Brotherhood Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo. Exposure rate measurements were performed at the center of the room at 1 meter of the patient on the day of its release. After his release and prior to decontamination, measurements were performed at predetermined landmarks within the therapeutic room. The results revealed that on average background radiation, high due to surface contamination contributes only 2% of the patient dose rate. It can be considered that even with influence of contamination of surfaces, this is insignificant to determine if the patient may or may not be released. This study suggests that the site in which monitoring occurs exposure rate of the patient should not be decisive for liberation thereof. (author)

  13. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 on in vitro survival of caprine preantral follicles Efeito da proteína morfogenética óssea 7 (BMP-7 para a sobrevivência in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdevane R. Araújo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to verify the effect of different concentrations of BMP-7 in the in vitro survival and development of caprine preantral follicles. Fragments of caprine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured for 1 or 7 days in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ supplemented with different concentrations of BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 or 100ng/ml. Non-cultured fragments or those cultured for 1 or 7 days were processed for classical histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Parameters such as follicular survival, activation and growth were evaluated. The results showed that, after 1 or 7 days of culture, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly reduced in all treatments when compared with fresh control, except at 1ng/ml of BMP-7 for 1 day. In addition, the concentration of 10ng/ml of BMP-7 significantly increases follicular diameter from day 1 to 7 of culture. There was no influence of the other concentrations of BMP-7 regarding to the follicular and oocyte diameter. Ultrastructure studies confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days of culture in 1ng/ml BMP-7. In conclusion, small concentrations of BMP-7 can improve the survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles during in vitro culture.O presente trabalho foi conduzido de modo a se verificar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da BMP-7 no desenvolvimento in vitro de folículos pré-antrais caprinos. Fragmentos de tecido cortical ovariano caprino foram cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias em Minimum Essential Medium (MEM+ suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BMP-7 (1, 10, 50 ou 100ng/ml. Os fragmentos não cultivados ou aqueles cultivados por 1 ou 7 dias foram processados para histologia clássica e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM, sendo avaliados parâmetros morfológicos indicativos de viabilidade, ativação e crescimento. Os resultados mostraram que o percentual de folículos morfologicamente normais diminuiu significativamente em

  14. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  15. Evaluation of pollution effects in transmission lines located in industrial areas; Avaliacao dos efeitos da poluicao em linhas de transmissao situadas em regiao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanashiro, Arnaldo G.; Burani, Geraldo F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Nascimento, Iara R. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo SA, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work aims to determinate a correlation between the pollution levels and electric power transmission lines maintenance procedures in order to establish the necessary procedures for specific pollution levels. The methodology is presented. The results obtained in field tests and bench scale tests are presented and discussed. The so called pollution equivalent is determined for each site of the transmission line studied and maintenance procedures are established 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-07-01

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm{sup 2} field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire irradiated area. The optical microscope verified the early development of lesions in the 5 days group. After 10 days of irradiation it was already possible to see evidences of epidermal healing under the crust formed by the lesion. At 15 days after irradiation the tissue beneath the lesion had reconstructed epidermis. It was also observed the characteristics of tissue healing. It was also seen a significant polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. After 25 days at the higher doses the lesions remained, which did not occur at the lower dose, where the irradiated area of the animals were already completely healed. After 100 days of irradiation at 40Gy dose the wound was healed with the emergence of a well defined healed tissue. At the 60Gy dose, the lesion persisted in some animals, and in those that healing occurred the epidermis was a hypertrophied (acanthosis). It was visualized a tissue with their morphological aspect completely mis characterized, where it's possible to view a necrotic tissue. The results of the scanning electron microscopy analysis corroborate with the in optical microscopy findings, where it's possible to visualize the distortion of collagen fibers at the higher dosages. The results indicate that the used doses induced an important skin inflammatory process, activating the immune system. This fact leads to an increase in the expression of TGF beta1, one of the responsible for the increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) by various cell types, mainly fibroblasts in injured tissues. Besides the increased expression of ECM, the TGF beta1 also promotes the inhibition of the degradation processes of the same. The intense expression of cytokines in irradiated skin can trigger the fibrosis process; consequently, affect the homeostasis of this organ due to the accumulation of ECM. (author)

  17. Evaluation of dosimetric effects caused by the table top of therapy; Avaliacao dos efeitos dosimetricos causados pelo tampo da mesa de tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Andre Vinicius de; Alvares, Bruno; Fioravante, Gustavo Donisete; Silva, Diego da Cunha Silveira Alves da; Giglioli, Milena; Batista, Felipe Placido; Silva, Lais Bueno da; Radicchi, Lucas Augusto [Hospital de Cancer de Barretos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The attenuation and bolus effect for two tables top from different manufacturers were investigated for 6MV photons. The bolus effect of couch was compared with 0,5cm bolus (water equivalent). Maximum attenuation found in Exact Couch table was 6,9% and the minimum was 0,63%. The rail of Exact Couch, for beam in 180 deg, was observed attenuation of 13,61%. The same way that for attenuation, the surface dose was different for each region of couch Exact Couch and for different components of iBeam evo. The percentage of the dose in the depth of 1,8 mm was greater for table top of Exact Couch (66,2%). The extender of table iBeam evo offered increase dose of 38,3% and it table top of 51,9% in the same depth. The bolus increased surface dose in 61,1%. The results of this study showed that table tops when in contact with surface of the patient may significantly increase surface dose and beam attenuation. (author)

  18. Evaluation of quality of tomographs of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade dos tomografos do estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travassos, P.C.B.; Belem, V.R.; Magalhaes, L.A.; Almeida, C.E.A. de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    Computerized tomographs used in 56 institutions in the state of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated. Criteria of image quality and dosimetry were submitted. The results showed that some not performed optimize their protocols examinations or perform wrongly, which results in an increase in the dose received by patients, and an image in compromised quality. (author)

  19. Assessment of effect of chemical treatment to carnauba's fibers straw; Avaliacao do efeito de tratamento quimico as fibras da palha de carnauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, T.M.P. de; Carvalho, L.F.M.; Oliveira, R.R. de; Sousa, F.M.S. de; Sousa, R.C. de; Marques, J.R., E-mail: thaismarjore.pc@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (IFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite materials has been highlighted in the scientific field. However, its application in polymer matrices usually requires surface modifications. The objective of this work was to treat carnauba's straw fibers with NaOH 1 % and NaOH 5% solutions and measure the water absorption. We used the X-ray diffraction (XRD configuration “Bragg- Brentano) for verification of the crystalline phases and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify functional groups. The alkali treatment allowed the solubilization of the hemicellulose and lignin without causing changes to cellulose, as indicated by FTIR spectrophotometry and by the increase in crystallinity content. The samples showed the typical peaks of constituents of the fiber. The natural fiber showed an average water absorption of 256 %; fiber treated with NaOH 1%, 315 %; and treated with NaOH 5%, 405 %. Therefore, it is evident improvement in hydrophilicity, fundamental aspect in the interaction fiber / matrix. (author)

  20. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1996-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging pre- and postoperative evaluation of tetralogy of Fallot; Avaliacao pre e pos-operatoria da tetralogia de Fallot por ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, Renata Junqueira Moll; Simoes, Luiz Carlos [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia (INC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Cardiologia da Crianca e do Adolescente; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@bol.com.br; Bernardes, Paulo Manuel de Barros; Gonzaga, Maria Beatriz Albano Monzo [Rede Labs/D' Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Twenty patients aged 1 to 29 years were prospectively evaluated with black-blood and contrast-enhanced angiographic techniques, 11 with the classic form of tetralogy of Fallot and 9 with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. MRI studies provided adequate visualization of the aorta that was classified as dilated or not dilated, and definition of its position in all cases. The use of contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques provided excellent imaging of the main right and left pulmonary arteries. The results suggest that MRI, including contrast-enhanced angiography techniques, is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with tetralogy of Fallot before and after cardiac surgery since it provides important anatomical information that is not always obtained with echocardiography. MRI can be considered an alternative to cardiac catheterization, particularly in the evaluation of the pulmonary vascular anatomy. (author)

  2. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: epoliveira@aluno.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  3. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: triveno@ufmt.br; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  4. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dynamic system for the evaluation of CIM monitoring and control techniques; Sistema dinamico para avaliacao de tecnicas de monitoracao e controle da CIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Monica de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Ecossistemas]. E-mail: mpena@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Baptista, Walmar; Brito, Rosane Fernandes de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao]. E-mails: walmar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; rosanef@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Silva, Edilson Domingos da; Nascimento, Juliana Rangel do [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: edilson@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; julianarn@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Coutinho, Claudia M.L.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Celular e Molecular

    2002-03-01

    In general, the two main problems associated to the water injection system for secondary petroleum recovery are the corrosion control and the decrease in solid injection in the reservoir. Corrosion problems in injection water systems may have abiotic as well as biotic causes, and the occurrence of reservoir plugs can result from the injection of particles (suspended solids as well as corrosion products), bacteria and fouling formation. Due to the need to implement a methodology for the evaluation of abiotic and biotic corrosive processes, monitoring techniques and MIC control in a dynamic system, an apparatus was built that simulates the characteristics of a water injection system. The apparatus allows monitoring and control of the parameters that, when varied, may influence the performance of the quality of the injected water. The dynamic system was designed to simulate as precisely as possible the conditions that allow the SRB and heterotrophic bacteria to create fouling in a water injection system. This article discusses the dynamic system, analytical methods and some preliminary results. (author)

  6. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  7. Assessment pozzolanicity waste red ceramics produced in Valley Assu / RN; Avaliacao da atividade pozolanica dos residuos de ceramica vermelha produzidos no Vale do Assu / RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Rodolfo de Azevedo; Pereira, Arthur Ruan da Silva; Cabral, Kleber Cavalcanti; Nobrega, Andreza Kelly Costa, E-mail: rodolfo.palhares@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthurruan_rn@hotmail.com, E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br, E-mail: akcn123@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas

    2016-07-01

    It is known that both the cement industry as a ceramist contribute much to the generation of environmental impacts. Be the Co2 in the atmosphere, as well as the generation of excessive waste, reaching 20%. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential pozollanic of waste from the red ceramic industries Valley Assu / RN, in order that this material can be incorporated as alternative raw material in the manufacture of ecological and similar brick, replacing partially in its composition Portland cement. Thus contributing to reducing the environmental impact produced by both the ceramics industry, such as cement. To evaluate the efficiency of pozollanic material, it was made sample preparation and then the physico-chemical characterization. After performing tests, it was noticed that the material has the minimum requirements established in standard to be considered as pozollanic material. (author)

  8. Falling hammer use evaluation for hot deformation hardness testing; Avaliacao do uso de um martelo de queda, para a determinacao da resistencia a deformacao a quente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J.C.P.C.; Cauduro, Carlos R.; Schaeffer, Lirio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    This work performs a evaluation of the characteristics hot leaking of a 8620 stainless steel, deformed at 870 deg C. The tools associated with the measurements was described and a comparison between the theoretical values and the values experimentally obtained from the performed tests. 5 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: evaluation of patients with galactorrhea, amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia; Ressonancia magnetica da sela turca: avaliacao de pacientes com galactorreia, amenorreia e hiperprolactinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan

    1999-08-01

    We have selected 135 cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, 1991 to August, 1996, who had galactorrhea (G), amenorrhea(A), and hyperprolactinemia (H), isolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs. All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects. The micro adenoma predominated in groups 1 (GAH), 2 (GH), 3 (HA) and 5 (H), that is, in all groups whose patients had hyperprolactinemia. In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (author)

  10. Evaluation of occupational exposure during the exploration and physical processing of monazite; Avaliacao das exposicoes ocupacionais durante as etapas de exploracao e beneficiamento fisico da monazita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Joao Torres de

    2006-07-01

    In Brazil the most important concentrations of monazite sands occur in the beaches and sandbanks that extend throughout the coast, from the State of Rio Grande do Norte down to the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Nowadays, the most important Brazilian monazite concentrations - considered as being the fourth worldwide reservoir of rare-earth elements - are located at the north seacoast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, near Buena town. At this location the Brazilian Nuclear Industries - INB - manages an industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands. Among the elements present at the monazite sands there are the radioelements thorium and uranium, which make the monazite sand a radioactive mineral. Monazite is constituted basically of 62% in TR{sub 2}0{sub 3} (rare-earth oxides), 5,5% of thorium in Th0{sub 2} (thorium oxide) and 0,25% of uranium in U{sub 3}0{sub 8} (uranium oxide). The general objective of the present work was to estimate the occupational doses at the industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands located at Buena, at the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The occupational exposures occur mainly through the inhalation of airbone dust particles of mineraIs containing thorium and uranium, during the prospection and physical separation and concentration of monazite. To evaluate the impact of the occupational exposures during the physical separation and concentration of monazite, it was necessary to evaluate the effective equivalent doses due to thorium contamination of the air and the exposures due to the daughter radionuclides from the natural series of uranium and thorium. The results obtained at the present work showed that, although occupational doses are within the annual dose limits established by the Brazilian regulatory authority - CNEN - in some of the working places within the industrial complex the concentrations of radionuclides in air are above the maximum recommended levels. (author)

  11. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents; Sintese e avaliacao preliminar da atividade antibacteriana e antifungica de derivados N-acilidrazonicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Medicamentos; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches, E-mail: diogo.carvalho@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2012-07-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC{sub 50} values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 {mu}M), C. krusei (34 {mu}M) and C. tropicalis (17 {mu}M). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  12. Assessment of activity of nitrate-reducing bacterial souring control; Avaliacao da atividade de bacterias redutoras de nitrato no controle de acidificacao de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Kally A. de; Cammarota, Magali C.; Servulo, Eliana F.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The effect of nitrate addition in relation to NRB concentration was evaluated on biogenic H{sub 2}S generation in anaerobic microcosms with produced water. A 2{sup k} factorial experimental design was performed by using as response variables nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup =}) consumption and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and sulfide (H{sub 2}S) production and as independent variables the SRB and NRB (10{sup 1} - 10{sup 7} MPN/mL) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (127.5 - 727.5 mg/L) initial concentrations. Each condition was carried out under incubation at 30 deg C during 7, 14 and 28 days. The lowest sulfide production (0.4 - 0.8 mg/L) was achieved for 10{sup 4} MPN/mL of SRB and NRB and 427.5 mg/L nitrate. Also, a reduction of sulfide generation was obtained by nitrate addition when low SRB and NRB concentrations were established. In such condition, the produced sulfide is rather dependent of nitrate concentration. The increase of the NRB concentration has not resulted in the reduction of sulfide production, even when higher nitrate concentrations were used. (author)

  13. Assessment in dogs tympanic bulla, through virtual tomographic endoscopy; Avaliacao de bulas timpanicas em caes, por meio da endoscopia tomografica virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Sabino, Emanuelle Guidugli, E-mail: lucianacarandina@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Dogs usually have problems related to the auditory canal. For the diagnosis of these pathologies, it is necessary a physical examination and, in some cases radiographic examination and computed tomography. The tympanic bulla is not easily visualized radiographically, since there is many structures of the brain overlaying the image obtained. The computed tomography has been the technique of choice to assess this structure faithfully. A new alternative assessment of the tympanic bulla is tomographic virtual endoscopy, which allows an improvement of the image obtained through the virtual tomographic technique. This paper provides information on the use of computed tomography, and a new technique, tomographic virtual endoscopy, in order to make the improvement of these techniques, and prove the reliability of these changes in the diagnosis of ear canals of dogs. Therefore, we performed the computed tomography of the tympanic bulla on healthy animals, and later performed image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3D) mode for virtual endoscopy. (author)

  14. Photoluminescence evaluation of TiO{sub 2} synthesized by Pechini method; Avaliacao da fotoluminescencia do TiO{sub 2} sintetizado pelo metodo Pechini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, D.S.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Dantas, J.; Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: dagobertoufcg@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Viana, R.S.; Junior, S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. Quimica Fundamental; Torquato, R.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-07-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) stands out for use in various applications mainly due to its properties of thermal and chemical stability and its excellent optical properties. However, these properties are dependent on the type and phase morphology, which is related to the TiO{sub 2} processing method. Thus, this paper proposed to synthesize TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by polymeric precursor method with different polymorphs, and evaluate the influence of these phases in the photoluminescent properties. For this, the stoichiometric molar proportions of citric acid:metallic cations of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, textural analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), excitation and emission spectroscopy and determination of the band gap by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The presence of anatase and rutile was confirmed by XRD in different proportions for each sample. The agglomerate size increased with the citric acid/metal cations ratio as observed by SEM. Concerning photoluminescence, the maximum intensity in the emission spectrum occurred at the wavelength of 533 nm for the 3:1 sample and the maximum intensity in the excitation spectrum occurred for the 2:1 sample at the wavelength of 451 nm. (author)

  15. Radiographic and tomographic study of the elbow joint in dogs; Avaliacao morfologica e morfometrica da articulacao umerorradioulnar em caes atraves de exames radiograficos e por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendyk-Grunkraut, Alessandra; Martin, Claudia M.; Souza, Alexandre N.A.; Patricio, Geni Cristina F.; Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia M.; Fonseca-Pinto, Ana C.B.C., E-mail: anacarol@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMVZ/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2017-02-15

    Elbow dysplasia disease includes an united anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis of humeral trochlea, articular incongruity and degenerative joint disease. The aim of this study was to present detailed morphologic and morphometric aspects of the elbow joint in dog in clinical and correlate with radiographic and tomographic (CT) exam. Inter-observer variation for articular incongruity measurements by CT, comparative analysis in the radiographic exam, angle in ulnar notch and its comparative analysis between radiographic and tomographic agreement examination in 44 elbow of dogs with different ages were evaluated. The statistics analyses included the kappa coefficient and interclass correlation and Fischer's test and McNemar's test. It was evidenced that individual performance of each radiographic incidence had poor agreement with the tomographic exam, suggesting that the accomplishment of more than two radiograph views are needed. There was no agreement between the three evaluators in the ulnar notch angle at radiographic and tomographic exams. However, there was good/moderate agreement for articular incongruity measurement in the sagittal plane between evaluators. It was possible to conclude that none of the five radiographic incidences was better than the others for radiographic analysis because each incidence had a better identification of a particular elbow compartment; measurements at the tomographic exam to evaluate radioulnar incongruity had no reproductiveness in the frontal plane, but in sagittal plan had a good/moderate agreement between observers and the angle in ulnar notch presented no repeatability at radiographic exam and no reproductiveness at tomographic exam. (author)

  16. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites; Avaliacao da resistencia mecanica sob impacto de nanocompositos de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Rene A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeirosa, Vanessa da N., E-mail: rene@cct.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that they affect the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a regional bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD results showed that incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and obtaining exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior in relation to pure polyamide, in other words, lost of toughness. (author)

  17. Assessment and epidemiology of Chagas' disease in patients treated in Araguaina - Tocantins; Avaliacao e epidemiologia da cardiopatia chagasica em pacientes atendidos em Araguaina - Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Valeria Rita

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease (AD) was described by Carlos Chagas in 1909. It is caused by a parasite T. cruzi, transmitted by bugs, by blood transfusion, vertical and orally. The DC has two phases: acute and chronic. The evolution to the cardiac form occurs in about 30% of chronic cases and is the largest cause of mortality in chronic Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to Chagas' disease in patients of Tocantins, compared with other heart patients and asymptomatic from the standpoint of non-invasive exams using radiant energies such as echocardiography and ECG and RX. The descriptive study included 80 patients, 20 chronic form of Chagas disease, 20 indeterminate, 20 with other heart diseases, and 20 controls. There was a prevalence of 9.5% of chagasic patients treated in outpatient cardiology at Araguaina Tocantins, and 7.3% in chronic and 2.21% in the indeterminate. Of the chronic patients in the study 50% had mega esophagus and megacolon 4 (20%). Most patients had no family history of AD, nor was a smoker or drinker. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities found refer to driving. The evaluation of ICT, the chronic chagasic showed that increased by 40% of patients, 40% had esophageal changes and 20% of patients had megacolon s. The echocardiogram was abnormal in 42%). 27% of patients had EF below 55% changed. Changes in segmental contractility and Asynchrony septum were found in 80% of chronic Chagas disease. In 80% of the patients was observed diastolic dysfunction. The valvular changes occurred in 75%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 80% of patients with CCC, while the other heart had ECG changes. Arterial hypertension had an incidence of 45% in patients with CCC and 40% in FCI. The systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction was more prevalent in groups that had an abnormal ECG and arrhythmia. Observed that the group of chagasic decreased ejection fraction is correlated to a higher incidence of arrhythmias besides diastolic dysfunction and related increased atrio-left, ICT correlates with LV size and EF and LA. The abnormal ECG also are related to the dysfunction. (author)

  18. Assessment of natural radioactivity in wall paints of commercial use in Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em tintas de uso comercial no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Leandro Milhomens da

    2016-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in soils, rocks and construction materials, due to {sup 40}K and the natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, is the main contribution to external exposure in mankind. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K were determined for 50 white latex wall paints samples, commercialized in Brazil, namely 15 Economic quality samples, 15 Standard quality samples and 20 Premium quality samples and for a single titanium dioxide sample. The samples were tightly sealed and stored for a minimum period of 30 days, to reach the radioactive secular equilibrium from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series, then measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration was determined using the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi for {sup 232}Th. The {sup 4}'0K activity concentration was determined by its single transition of 1460.8 keV. Self attenuation correction factors of the samples whose densities are higher than 1.0 g.cm{sup -3}, were determined and used to make the necessary corrections. The radiological indices radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub in}) and external exposure risk index (H{sub ex}) and also the absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (D{sub ef}) were calculated from the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The activity concentration values for {sup 226}Ra ranged from under the minimum detectable activity to 38.7 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for {sup 232}Th from under the minimum detectable activity to 101.2 Bq.kg{sup -1} and for {sup 40}K from under the minimum detectable activity to 256 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Ra{sub eq} ranged from 1.41 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 203 Bq.kg{sup -1}, I{sub γ} ranged from 0.0047 to 0.720, H{sub in} from 0.0076 to 0.653 and H{sub ex} from 0.0038 to 0.549. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 0.170 nGy.h{sup -1} and 21.3 nGy.h{sup -1} and the annual effective dose ranged from 0.83 μSv and 104.2 μSv. The results show that the activity concentrations of the wall paints studied in this work are below the recommended limits by Hassan et al. for Ra{sub eq} (370 Bq.kg{sup -1}), by European Commission for I{sub γ} (limit of 2 for superficial materials) and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for H{sub in} and H{sub ex} (both with limit of 1), for all the 50 samples, assuring the safety of these wall paints with respect to radiological protection. (author)

  19. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  20. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em materiais utilizados em restauracoes dentarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio

    2009-07-01

    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  1. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications; Avaliacao da sintese das fases de cimento de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA{sub 2}, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  2. Sintering evaluation of spinel MA nanostructured obtained via synthesis of combustion in solution; Avaliacao da sinterizacao de espinelio MA nanoestruturado obtido via combustao em solucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitor, P.A.M.; Braganca, S.R.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: pedroaugusto89@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2016-07-01

    Specimens were shaped from powders of spinel MA (MgAl2O4) obtained via synthesis combustion in solution (SCS) from the trio chemical precursor aluminum nitrate, magnesium nitrate and sucrose in water, and then sintered at different temperatures between 1350 and 1650 ° C. Were evaluated the physical properties (density, porosity, water absorption and linear shrinkage), mechanical (flexural 4 points), and the microstructures (SEM) as a function of sintering temperature. The densification increased with growing the value of the sintering temperature, wherein the temperature to 1650 ° C had the highest flexural strength and higher elastic modulus: 51.33 (± 6.83) and 26.16 MPa (± 5.06) GPa respectively. The study confirmed the microstructure of the densification of the particles, confirming the purity and nature of nanometric powders obtained via the SCS. (author)

  3. Preliminary results of the evaluation of biomass use as energy sources; Resultados preliminares da avaliacao do uso de biomassas como fontes de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Ferreira, Leo da; Tourinho, Octavio A.F. [Instituto de Planejamento Economico e Social (IPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas

    1985-12-31

    This article discusses the preliminary results of the BIOMASSA model of IPEA with emphasis on three aspects: temporal and spatial crop mix patterns along the analysis horizon; evaluation of the social cost of alcohol fuel ; and the impact of alcohol production on the balance of payments. It concludes that the PROALCOOL increases domestic costs, but the impact on the balance of payments is positive and substantial. (author). 8 tabs

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of injection of polyacrylamide in different reservoir-rock samples; Avaliacao da eficiencia de injecao de poliacrilamida em diferentes amostras de rocha-reservatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Medeiros, Ana Catarina R. de; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Barcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Water soluble polymers have been used extensively in the petroleum recovery, due to their ability in increasing the viscosity of the injection water and to reduce water/oil mobility ratio and the water relative permeability in the reservoir. This reduction acts favorably as a secondary effect, and it reestablishes part of the pressure in the reservoir after the flow of the polymer, causing a correction of the injection profile in the wells through the restructuring of the resident fluids in the porous media. Nevertheless, some parameters influence the improve of this mechanism, such as petrophysics properties, chemical composition of the rock, adsorption, resistance factor and the residual resistance factor. Many paper in the area of polymers applied to the enhanced petroleum recovery indicate a high efficiency in the injection of different partially hydrolysed polyacrylamides, in different concentrations, or even in different injection conditions, as: temperature, flow, among others. In this work it was evaluated the behavior and efficiency of partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide flooding on outcrop cores from Botucatu, Rio Bonito, Clashach and Assu, using core flow tests and computer simulations. (author)

  5. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry; Caracterizacao e avaliacao do resisduo 'grits' da industria de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  6. Evaluation of bioactivity in vitro of endodontic calcium aluminate cement; Avaliacao da bioatividade in vitro de cimento endodontico a base de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, I.R.; Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L., E-mail: ivonero@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bioactivity is referred to as the capacity of a material to develop a stable bond with living tissue via the deposition of hydroxyapatite. Materials which exhibit this property can be used to repair diseased or damaged bone tissue and can be designed to remain in situ indefinitely. An indication of bioactivity can be obtained by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of a substrate in simulated body fluids (SBF) in vitro. Therefore, set samples of calcium aluminate endodontic cement were maintained in contact with SBF solutions (Kokubo and Rigo) and their surfaces were later evaluated by means of SEM, EDX and DRX. Measurements of pH and ionic conductivity were also carried out for SBF solutions in contact with set samples of endodontic cement. The ideal conditions of precipitation were obtained in SBF Rigo been observed a surface layer with spherical morphology characteristic of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite.(author)

  7. Evaluation of the inflammatory activity in chronic osteomyelitis. Contribution of the scintigraphy with polyclonal antibodies; Avaliacao de atividade inflamatoria em osteomielite cronica. Contribuicao da cintilografia com anticorpos policlonais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    1996-07-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis (superimposed on diseases that changes the normal bone structure fractures, post-surgery, prosthesis) can be difficult to diagnose by anatomic radiological imaging modalities, like plain radiograph and CT. These diseases frequently cause also increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc-99m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater inflammation/infection avidity and specificity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium-99. Tc-99m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. The mechanism of IgG uptake at the inflammation site has not been fully elucidated yet. Specific (receptor linking, physico-chemical immunoglobulin properties) and nonspecific mechanisms (enhanced vascular permeability and macromolecular exudate) has been suggested. IgG scintigraphy results are affected by the isotope, labeling procedure adopted and characteristics of the inflammatory focus. Nineteen patients with suspected osteomyelitis (active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis) were studied by Tc-99m-IgG scintigraphy (directly labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin, Sandoglobuilina - Sandoz). All patients also underwent standard three-phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP), gallium-67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs. Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99m-MDP, gallium-67 and Tc 99m-IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%,88 and 82%. All patients with false positive IgG scintigraphies had previous surgery. Other current scintigraphic procedures used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis are also reviewed. (author)

  8. Evaluation of maximum absorbed dose for accompanying patients in nuclear medicine establishments; Avaliacao da dose maxima absorvida por acompanhantes de pacientes em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Geovanna; Amaral, Ademir; Hazin, Clivis A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Ricardo A.; Nogueira, Maria S. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lopes, Ferdinand [Centro de Medicina Nuclear de Pernambuco (CEMUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    2001-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, radioisotopes are bound to various pharmaceuticals for use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. These unsealed sources are administered in various forms to patients, who remain radioactive for hours or days, and represent a source of potential radiation exposure for others. Thus, in nuclear medicine departments, radiation protection of workers and members of the public (especially persons accompanying patients) must consider this exposure. In this study, thermoluminescent dosimeters were given to various persons who were accompanying patients in two nuclear medicine departments in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Exposure results are given, and issues regarding exposure conditions and times for members of the public in these departments are discussed. (author)

  9. Powder addition assessment of manganese residue ceramic matrix coating; Avaliacao da adicao do po de residuo de manganes em matriz ceramica para revestimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, A.C.R. da; Santos, O.C.; Leao, M.A., E-mail: arangel-ma@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The use of recycled materials in the composition of new products follows the production's worldwide trending, meeting new technological requirements and environmental concerns. This work aims to utilize the residue of manganese dust on ceramic mass for the production of ceramic coating. The raw materials were characterized by both x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. The powder residue added to clay in the percentage of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (measured in weight) was compressed by a uniaxial pressing of 30MPa and the sintering temperatures were 900°, 1000° and 1100°. The samples were analysed in relation to flexural strength, bulk density, water absorption and linear shrinkage. The microstructural variation was also analysed by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The results showed that there is a viability for the production of porcelain ceramic coating (A3 and A4 formulations) and stoneware (A2 formulation) according to the specification of technical standards. author)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  11. Evaluation of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and collagen by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Avaliacao da polivinilpirrolidona e do colageno por ressonancia magnetica nuclear de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paula de M.; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: pmcosta@ima.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers represent a new class of materials with better mechanical properties and biocompatibility than those of the single components. Collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) are well known for their important biological properties. The blending of collagen with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur. Do to the excellent biocompatibility of these polymers, this blend has been much studied intending biomedical applications. And a one technique that can provide important information on molecular mobility, compatibility and even evaluate the interactions that can occur with these polymers is the Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Thus, the purpose of this work is to evaluate collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. From the values of relaxation times obtained, we can conclude that these materials have different interactions, and different mobility domains, confirming the heterogeneity and complexity of these materials. (author)

  12. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected after gamma irradiation. The electronic paramagnetic resonance can be detected irradiated samples. (author)

  13. Evaluation of absorbed radiation dose in mammography using Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em mamografia usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno L.; Tomal, Alessandra [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2016-07-01

    Mammography is the main tool for breast cancer diagnosis, and it is based on the use of X-rays to obtain images. However, the glandular tissue present within the breast is highly sensitive to ionizing radiation, and therefore requires strict quality control in order to minimize the absorbed dose. The quantification of the absorbed dose in the breast tissue can be done by using Monte Carlo simulation, which allows a detailed study of the deposition of energy in different regions of the breast. Besides, the results obtained from the simulation can be associated with experimental data and provide values of dose interest, such as the dose deposited in glandular tissue. (author)

  14. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation of hydrogen production from natural gas; Avaliacao exergetica e termo-economica da producao de hidrogenio a partir do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Flavio Eduardo da [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2008-07-01

    Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is the natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. This paper presents exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm{sup 3} of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.(author)

  15. Evaluation of homogeneity and dose conformity in IMRT planning in prostate radiotherapy; Avaliacao da homogeneidade e conformidade de dose em planejamentos de IMRT de prostata em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Juliane S.; Leidens, Matheus; Estacio, Daniela R., E-mail: juliane.lopes@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Razera, Ricardo A.Z.; Streck, Elaine E.; Silva, Ana M.M. da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the dose distribution homogeneity and conformity of radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. Data from 34 treatment plans of Hospital Sao Lucas of PUCRS, where those plans were executed, were retrospectively analyzed. All of them were done with 6MV X-rays from a linear accelerator CLINAC IX, and the prescription doses varied between 60 and 74 Gy. Analyses showing the homogeneity and conformity indices for the dose distribution of those plans were made. During these analyses, some comparisons with the traditional radiation therapy planning technic, the 3D-CRT, were discussed. The results showed that there is no correlation between the prescribed dose and the homogeneity and conformity indices, indicating that IMRT works very well even for higher doses. Furthermore, a comparison between the results obtained and the recommendations of ICRU 83 was carried out. It has also been observed that the indices were really close to the ideal values. 82.4% of the cases showed a difference below 5% of the ideal value for the index of conformity, and 88.2% showed a difference below 10% for the homogeneity index. Concluding, it is possible to confirm the quality of the analyzed radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. (author)

  16. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  17. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  18. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the optical quality of compound parabolic concentrator solar collectors; Avaliacao da qualidade otica de coletores solares concentradores parabolicos compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, P.O.; Krenzinger, A. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    1990-12-31

    This work presents a simulation of solar compound parabolic concentrators using the ray tracing technique. The program can be used as a computer aided design and quality control applications for parabolic mirrors. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Evaluation of operational management in the oil terminals using human factor indicator; Avaliacao da gestao operacional em terminais com o uso do indicador de fator humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, George L.D. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). LATEC. Mestrado Profissional em Sistemas de Gestao

    2005-07-01

    This research has as objective to analyze the continuous improvement in a management system at TRANSPETRO in Madre de Deus Terminal (BA), environment and occupational health, particularly in the reduction of the accident levels. We consider relevant in this research the effective implementation of the human factor that includes the boarding of the work system relating them it three points: individual activities, organizational processes of work and activities, emphasizing the management of these resources and the communication between them. The case study it was make in a company of logistic of fuels. The methodology was lead through bibliographical research and applied closed questionnaire (adaptation's baseline API 770 - Manager's Guide to Reducing Human Errors Improving - Improving in the Process Industries) in 2003 and 2005 with the manager, coordinators, supervisors, operators and others technician. Were analyzed results of the company in management security and occupational health, such as: pointers of the tax of frequency of accidents with and without removal, volume of leaked product and results of internal and external audits. We conclude that the importance of the human factor in the Safety Management that propitiated significant progress in the organization during the development of the research. (author)

  1. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  2. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  3. Methodology for probability of failure assessment of offshore pipelines; Metodologia qualitativa de avaliacao da probabilidade de falha de dutos rigidos submarinos estaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzi Filho, Mario [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this study it is presented a methodology for assessing the likelihood of failure for every failure mechanism defined for carbon steel static offshore pipelines. This methodology is aimed to comply with the Integrity Management policy established by the Company. Decision trees are used for the development of the methodology and the evaluation of the extent and the significance of these failure mechanisms. Decision trees enable also the visualization of the logical structure of algorithms which eventually will be used in risk assessment software. The benefits of the proposed methodology are presented and it is recommended that it be tested on static offshore pipelines installed in different assets for validation. (author)

  4. Evaluation of absorbed radiation dose rate in a didactic X-ray equipment; Avaliacao da taxa de dose absorvida em um equipamento de raios-X didatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Phelipe Amaral Ferreira; Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira, E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    This work was performed in order to create a new didactic experiment in the X-ray apparatus of PHYWE, where the saturation current was obtained through a free air ionization chamber. The values of saturation currents were obtained in two ways. Initially, the anodic DDP was kept constant and the anodic current was varied. In the second way, the anodic current was kept constant while the anodic DDP was varied. Therefore, we were able to evaluate the dependence of the absolved dose rate in relation to the DDP and the tube current. (author)

  5. Kerma rate evaluation in the air in a room interventional cardiology; Avaliacao da taxa de Kerma no ar em uma sala de cardiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the number of interventional cardiology procedures is increasing. However, due to the long time of fluoroscopy in these procedures, care teams can receive high doses of radiation. The radiation scattered by the patient is not uniform, and their assessment is of utmost importance. This study aimed to estimate and map the kerma rate in the air at the time of the gonads, in an interventional cardiology room, seeking to optimize the dose absorbed by individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. For data collection, the room was divided into quadrants of 1m{sup 2}, totaling 40 collection points. The simulator was positioned so that its entry surface was located in the interventional reference point. Were chosen the conditions that simulate angiography and angioplasty procedures performed in the service. The data were obtained for height of 1 meter, gonad region. The results obtained for kerma rates in air, in quadrants, show that higher measured values was in the vicinity of the X-ray tube. Has been found that the medical staff are more exposed, because of its location during the procedure, around the table. The law of the inverse square distance of the farthest points of the X-ray tube were verified.

  6. Evaluation of the capacity of heavy metal adsorption in exfoliated vermiculite; Avaliacao da capacidade de adsorcao de metal pesado em vermiculitas esfoliadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.F.; Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), Bodocongo, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Many groups from modern society have seen with attention the issues of pollutants, generally present in nature, those same that have caused irreversible damages to the environment. The Vermiculite, a phyllosilicate, with t-o-t structure, have high interlamelar charge, has been studied as cationic exchanger, whose application when exfoliated, are increased. This work has the objective of evaluate the absorption capacity of chromium (III), in different concentrations, in high, slim and medium concentrations of exfoliated vermiculites. The results obtained from the characterization by spectroscopy in infrared and by diffraction of x-ray from prepared solids showed important variations in the quantity of adsorbed metal in order the size of the concentrated particles. (author)

  7. Method for evaluating the applicability and application rate wastes in soil; Metodo para avaliacao da aplicabilidade e taxa de aplicacao de residuos em solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Monica Moreira [Partime (Brazil); Seabra, Paulo Negrais [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1991-01-01

    Land treatment of refinery solid wastes has been practiced in the last few years by some PETROBRAS refineries. The biodegradation process is dynamic and complex, and incorrect monitoring may destroy the potential of the soil. Due to great differences both in terms of soils and of residues, each case must be monitored individually. We therefore developed a monitoring method for land farming systems based on the impact of the waste on indigenous soil microbial populations. The method is extremely simple, requiring only a gas chromatograph to evaluate the CO{sub 2} evolution, and can detect possible causes for low efficiency biodegradation processes. Conditions should then be altered, to ensure adequate functioning of the system.The method also allows for determination of the applicability of candidate wastes and of acceptable waste application rates in soil. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Evaluation of the life cycle of integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel; Avaliacao do ciclo de vida da producao integrada de etanol e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone Pereira de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], email: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Pacca; Sergio Almeida [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades], email: spacca@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane and palm are amongst the crops with the highest yields, which can reach 6 to 7.5 thousand liters of ethanol per hectare year and 4 to 6 metric tons of oil per hectare year, respectively. A joint production of biofuels from these crops is an interesting alternative for life cycle assessment improvement through fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, besides energy efficiency gains. The objective of this work is comparing the Brazilian production system sugarcane ethanol with an integrated system proposal where the ethanol and palm biodiesel are produced together. This comparative study is based on a life cycle approach using the ISO 14.044/2006 and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado, Cerradao and grassland ecosystem were considered. The energy balance, carbon balance and land use change were evaluated. The integrated system includes a 100% substitution of biodiesel by diesel, which is used in life cycle agriculture stages. Distinct fractions of sugarcane used for sugar production were assessed. When all sugarcane is sent to sugar production, ethanol is produced by molasses. The data were collected by direct observation method by questionnaire and secondary sources. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo state and a palm mill located in Para state were surveyed. Results showed a 164% increase in energy balance for the joint production system in comparison to the traditional system. Besides this, the joint production system demonstrated a 24% GHG emission reduction. For ethanol production by molasses, the energy balance was up to 59% and 162% higher in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, which differ each other through of the boiler that was utilized. For GHG emission, the reduction can reach 91%. The land use change identify an average ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao and Degraded Grassland of 5, 10, and -5 years, respectively. In conclusion, the joint production system of sugarcane ethanol and palm biodiesel presents an improvement in energy balance, GHG emissions and land use change impacts in comparison to the traditional ethanol system. (author)

  9. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao da atividade antibacteriana de Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Leoncio M. de; Gois, Roberto W. da S.; Lemos, Telma L. G.; Arriaga, Angela M. C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P., E-mail: gil@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias; Costa, Jose G.M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F.G. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Biologica

    2013-11-01

    The chemical investigation of the stems and branches of Macroptilium lathyroides led to the isolation of a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The extracts from the roots allowed the isolation of lasiodiplodin, a mixture of stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one and stigmast-4,22-dien-6{beta}-ol-3-one, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin, genistein and lupinalbin A. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their NMR data, including comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from stems, branches and roots was evaluated. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species. (author)

  10. Biodegradation evaluation of recycled polyethylene doped with Moringa oleifera oil; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de filmes de polietileno reciclado dopados com oleo de Moringa oleifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Luciana A.; Novack, Katia M.; Melo, Tania M.S., E-mail: knovack@iceb.ufop.br [Dept. de Quimica (DEQUI) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Chemical modifications and use of additives are some of the mainly ways to obtain polymer materials with especial properties. Vegetable oils incorporated to polymers preserve their structure while make possible a reduction of degradation rate. This work proposed the use of polyethylene, one of the most common polymer commodities, because of its low cost and wide application. In this project it was verified the possibility of making polymer materials with properties of a natural product through the incorporation of Moringa oleifera oil to recycled low density polyethylene (LDPEr) in different proportions. The films were buried for different times and their degradation was evaluated.) Samples were characterized by DSC, TGA and XRD. It was observed that samples doped with Moringa oil showed lower degradation time. (author)

  11. Evaluation of radiation effects on dental enamel hardness and dental restorative materials; Avaliacao do efeito da irradiacao na dureza do esmalte dental e de materiais odontologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese

    2000-07-01

    This research presents the results of the microhardness of human dental enamel and of the following dental restorative materials: three dental porcelains - Ceramco II, Finesse and Noritake, and two resin restorative materials - Artglass and Targis, for materials submitted to different times of irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12}n cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} . The results obtained indicated that there is a decrease of the surface microhardness when the enamel is irradiated for 1 h and when dental materials are irradiated for 3 h. However, enamels irradiated for 30 min. did not show significant change of their surface hardness. Therefore, the selection of irradiation time is an important factor to be considered when irradiated teeth or dental materials are used in the investigations of their properties. (author)

  12. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  13. Evaluation of thermal stability of paraffin wax by differential scanning calorimetry; Avaliacao da estabilidade termica de parafina por calorimetria diferencial de varredura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, K.O.; Silva, A.G.P.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos], Email: holanda@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    Phase change materials for heat storage are used as passive solar energy storage materials, which can be impregnated into construction materials. In this work the thermal stability (heating/cooling cycle) of the paraffin wax was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The latent heat and fusion temperature were determined for the following thermal cycles: 0, 30, 180 and 360. The thermal stability for paraffin wax infiltrated in support of gypsum was also determined. The experimental results showed that the paraffin wax showed good thermal stability in the states pure and infiltrated for up to 360 thermal cycles. (author)

  14. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture; Avaliacao da influencia dos fertilizantes nos teores de radio encontrados na cultura do tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao Radiologica Ambiental; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Meio Ambiente; Perez, Daniel V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Analises de Solos e Plantas

    2001-07-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  15. A regulatory model for conformity evaluation in natural gas building installations; Um modelo regulatorio para avaliacao da conformidade das instalacoes prediais de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossa, Alberto Jose; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of the Brazilian growth needs to consider necessarily the energy arrangements, and natural gas has relevant participation in this matter. The possibility of its end use that make possible an effective adequacy of our energy matrix must be supported by modern concepts of quality and conformity. In this particular, the program of 'Tecnologia Industrial Basica' (TIB), including concepts and application of conformity evaluation processes, is considered basic for the construction of a consistent gas market. This paper present the Brazilian reality related to TIB aspects and elements, from which it constructs a technician and regulatory building gas installations model proposal for a conformity evaluation program in the country. (author)

  16. Analysis of an in-line diesel production system through event driven simulation; Avaliacao do esquema de producao em linha de diesel atraves da simulacao por eventos discretos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Gilsa P.; Naegeli, Guilherme S.T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Nilza M.Q. [PETROBRAS S.A., Mataripe, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Refinaria Landulfo Alves (RLAM); Netto, Joaquim D.A. [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The interactions between refining processes (such as distillation, hydrotreatment, etc.) and typical transfer and storage operations (mixtures, decantation, storage, etc.) provide a high complexity to the refineries production systems of petroleum derivatives. These production systems are characterized by many aspects, such as: blending rules, feed composition, petroleum campaigns, storage tanks limitations, continuous and batch processes interactions, etc. Besides these operational aspects, the equipment and systems' reliability has strong influence on the level of production goals achievement and petroleum derivatives quality specification. Looking for a higher economic efficiency and in order to provide refineries with orientation about resources optimization for their petroleum derivatives' production systems, the development of a methodology capable of being applied since the design phase to identify systems limitations and improvement opportunities, considering all the raised aspects, is a very important task. With this objective, this article presents the main points of an evaluation that was conducted during the conceptual design for a diesel in-line blending production system proposed by a Brazilian refinery, detailing the main steps of the methodology that was developed through this analysis, based on discrete event simulation. (author)

  17. Evaluation of biodegradation of bionanocomposites of PHB/PP-g-MA/vermiculite; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de bionanocompositos de PHB/PP-g-MA/vermiculita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, P.J.P. de; Alves, T.S.; Barbosa, R., E-mail: tsaeng3@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia dos Materiais; Andrade, D. de L.A.C.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos- Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we evaluated the process of biodegradation of PHB bionanocomposites/PP-g-MA/clay. Films were prepared with compositions of 5% PP-g-MA and 3% clay (BIO5); and 2.5% PP-g-MA and 3% clay (BIO2.5). The biodegradation test was conducted according to ASTM G 160-03 for a period of 86 days. The evaluation of biodegradation was performed by optical microscopy (MO), loss of mass, FTIR and XRD. The bionanocomposites presented change of coloration and appearance of fissures. As for loss in mass in the system presented loss of BIO2,5 22.5% and 25.9% BIO5, for 86 days of simulated soil exposure. We also observed by FTIR sharp reduction in intensity of the band corresponding to the C = O groups, indicating that the microbial attack promoted cleavage of the ester group links. By XRD, reduction in the intensity of the peaks and enlargements of the same with increasing exposure time, proving the biodegradation behavior of bionanocomposites. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  19. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new 4-thiazolidones derived from formipyridine thiosemicarbazones; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimicrobiana de novas 4-tiazolidinonas obtidas a partir de formilpiridina tiossemicarbazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercoza, George Leonardo; Feitoza, Danniel Delmondes; Alves, Antonio Jose; Aquino, Thiago Mendonca de; Lima, Jose Gildo de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: jgildolima@gmail.com; Araujo, Janete Magali; Cunha, Ivana Glaucia B.; Goes, Alexandre Jose da Silva [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2009-07-01

    Twelve novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (2a-l) have been synthesized by reacting formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones (1a-l) and anhydride maleic in toluene. Their chemical structures were confirmed by IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. The new compounds were submitted to in vitro evaluation against pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The findings obtained showed that the compounds 2a, 2d, 2e and 2g were effective against some of the bacterial strains used, whereas the compounds 2d, 2e and 2i exhibited a moderate antifungal activity against the yeast strains evaluated. An initial structure activity relationship (SAR) was established. (author)

  20. Critical evaluation of the external occupational exposure in nuclear medicine services in Brazil; Avaliacao critica da exposicao ocupacional externa nos servicos de medicina nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Ana Luiza Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Currently in Brazil (2016), there are 421 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). In nuclear medicine, the possibility of occupational internal contamination and external exposure is unavoidable. The chest individual monitoring, to estimate the effective dose, is mandatory, but the extremity monitoring is not always made. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of data for external exposure of NMS professionals in Brazil from 1987 to 2010, analysing them in terms of trends and comparing them with measurements carried out in this work and in other countries. Although most of the NMS is still located in large urban centres (54% in the Southeast region), there is no state without any NMS. The increasing number of NMS has generated the need for more professionals. In the year 1987, they were 755 workers and, in 2010, 4134, with the following distribution of specialties: 29% of Nuclear Medicine Technicians (NMT), 23% of Nursing professionals, 29% of Physicians and 3% of Physicists. The average annual effective dose reached more than 3.0 mSv in some regions of the country, from 1987 to 2010, but tends to 1.0 mSv in 2010. The highest doses, as expected, are received by NMT and Nursing. The professionals who handle radiopharmaceuticals have their hands much more exposed than the chest. During 2010, only 31% of NMT and 16% of Nursing used extremity dosimeters as compared to chest dosimeters. The data from the measurements indicate that not all individual dosimeters are used properly. Generally, both in the measurements as in national registries, the hand doses were higher for professionals who prepared the radiopharmaceutical (NMT) than those who injected (Nursing). The value measured by chest dosimeters can be used to estimate the equivalent dose to the eye lenses, except for NMT at preparation practices at conventional NMS, where the equivalent dose of the lens is about 2 times higher than the dose at the chest. The most exposed areas of the hands are the tips of the index and middle fingers of the non-dominant hand for professionals who carry out preparation of the radiopharmaceutical and the index finger of the dominant hand for those who perform injection in conventional NMS and making fractionation and injection in the case of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Thus, measurements with dosimetric rings estimate better the extremity equivalent dose than bracelets, which can underestimate the hand equivalent dose by a factor between 10 and 20. Unlike the effective dose, the possibility that an occupational equivalent dose value exceeds the annual limit is real. The ability of the operator and the use of shielding seem to be more important to the magnitude of the dose than the used fractionation technique, which is highly relevant for the dose distribution in the hands. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  2. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  3. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  4. Comparison of the automated evaluation of phantom mama in digital and digitalized images; Comparacao da avaliacao automatizada do phantom mama em imagens digitais e digitalizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo, E-mail: pcs@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Propedeutica Complementar; Gomes, Danielle Soares; Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer if it is provided as a very good quality service. The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. This work compare the automated methodology for the evaluation of scanned digital images the phantom mama. By applied the DIP method techniques was possible determine geometrical and radiometric images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include circular details of low contrast, contrast ratio, spatial resolution, tumor masses, optical density and background in Phantom Mama scanned and digitized images. The both results of images were evaluated. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that this automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of subjectivity in both types of images, but the Phantom Mama present insufficient parameters for spatial resolution evaluation. (author)

  5. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless ongoing action is needed to resolve the remaining problems and to increase the impact. The proposed method for public monitoring should be modified to evaluate primarily the quality of the final exam provided to the consumer. (author)

  6. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminum 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de

    2011-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {psi} method. The results show that the formation of the curvature arc height is proportional to the shot peening pressure, of spheres size and inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample, and that stress concentration factor is larger for samples shot peened with small balls. On final of this paper presents an additional study on micro strain and average crystallite size, which can evaluate the profile of the samples after blasting. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the strengthening of the conditions of voltage security using sensitivity analysis; Avaliacao do reforco das condicoes da seguranca de tensao utilizando a analise de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, A.L.S.; Costa, V.M. da; Peres, W. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails: arleilucas@gmail.com, vander@lacee.ufjf.br, wesley.peres@yahoo.com.br; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Email: prada@ele.puc-rio.br

    2009-07-01

    Voltage stability or voltage security analysis has motivated an expressive attention of power systems researchers. In this work, a simple and fast method evaluates voltage security and proposes conditions to improve the loading margin. System analysis is carried out in terms of active power transmission path. Sensitivity analysis provides the most adequate buses to active and reactive power redispatch. A sequential iterative methodology to reinforce system conditions is presented. (author)

  8. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu{sup 2+}(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival; Avaliacao da genotoxicidade induzida pelo peroxido de hidrogenio na presenca dos quelantes de ions Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipiridil) e de ions Cu{sup 2+} (neocuproina), em Escherichia coli: envolvimento de mecanismos de reparo de DNA na sobrevivencia bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-07-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  9. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da fertilidade e sobrevida de vermes oriundos de cercárias irradiadas com 3 Krad, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos foram infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercárias (das cepas LE e SJ do S. mansoni não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, com a finalidade de observar o efeito da irradiação gama sobre a fertilidade das fêmeas e a sobrevida dos vermes no sistema porta. A partir do 33º dia ocorre uma certa estabilidade na população dos vermes sobreviventes, ficando esta população constante, notadamente em relação à cepa LE, até o final das observações (90º dia. Concluiu-se que esta dose de radiação gama impede a produção de ovos dos vermes em 98,1% dos camundongos infectados, sendo mortos todos os ovos detectados; as fêmeas são mais resistentes à irradiação e o efeito desta sobre a mortalidade dos machos somente se torna estatisticamente significativo a partir do 61º dia de infecção. O longo tempo de permanência de vermes adultos irradiados estéreis no sistema porta de camundongos e o seu provável envolvimento no desenvolvimento de imunoproteção, tipo imunidade concomitante sem as implicações imunopatológicas para o hospedeiro, são discutidos nesse trabalho.The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus, experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains, by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a non-irradiated (control groups, and b irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60. From the 33rd day on, some estability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90th day, notedly in relation to the LE strain. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad is able to hinder the worm egg

  10. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  11. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  12. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  13. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  14. Filosofia da análise da estabilidade da liquidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antônio Chaves da Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A informação foi considerada finalidade de nosso conhecimento, até o período em os pensadores e pesquisadores da contabilidade passaram a raciocinar sobre o conteúdo e o significado dos informes. Nesta busca da razão sobre os estados patrimoniais, surgiu a análise contábil que procura por meio de relações e identidades, o significado da dinâmica expressa da estaticamente na informação. O primeiro aspecto que surgiu no objeto de análise foi o estudo da liquidez, que é um dos principais exercícios do patrimônio. A estabilidade também é outro exercício básico e imprescindível, pois este é que promove o equilíbrio do organismo administrativo. A ciência contábil após a sua dignidade científica passou a trilhar caminhos esplendorosos, amparados em doutrina que permite alcançar os píncaros filosóficos. Os estudos concernentes aos aspectos de interação da estabilidade na liquidez são, complexos e somente com os recursos filosóficos da contabilidade se pode estudá-los com o panorama holístico e sublime. A filosofia da contabilidade não é alheia às suas práticas tecnológicas, podendo buscar pontos sublimes de panoramas abrangentes, para o estudo analítico da liquidez e estabilidade, observando todas as dimensionalidades e essencialidades de acontecimentos, na comprovação e orientação dos estados de ineficácia e eficácia patrimonial.

  15. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  16. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  17. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  18. Zebrafish chemical screening reveals the impairment of dopaminergic neuronal survival by cardiac glycosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Sun

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the prominent degeneration of dopaminergic (DA neurons among other cell types. Here we report a first chemical screen of over 5,000 compounds in zebrafish, aimed at identifying small molecule modulators of DA neuron development or survival. We find that Neriifolin, a member of the cardiac glycoside family of compounds, impairs survival but not differentiation of both zebrafish and mammalian DA neurons. Cardiac glycosides are inhibitors of Na(+/K(+ ATPase activity and widely used for treating heart disorders. Our data suggest that Neriifolin impairs DA neuronal survival by targeting the neuronal enriched Na(+/K(+ ATPase α3 subunit (ATP1A3. Modulation of ionic homeostasis, knockdown of p53, or treatment with antioxidants protects DA neurons from Neriifolin-induced death. These results reveal a previously unknown effect of cardiac glycosides on DA neuronal survival and suggest that it is mediated through ATP1A3 inhibition, oxidative stress, and p53. They also elucidate potential approaches for counteracting the neurotoxicity of this valuable class of medications.

  19. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  20. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  1. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  2. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  3. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. It describes the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix of the handbook gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. Others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable with inexpensive materials found in most households. This report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah. It is the first comprehensive handbook of survival information for use by untrained citizens who want to improve their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. Sections may be easily excerpted and reproduced for mass distribution through news media

  4. A Sintaxe da Janela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Jorge

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação fundamenta! do trabalho é de caráter ontológico: esboçar o problema das significações apriorísticas e autônomas dos elementos que compõem a sintaxe arquitetônica. O trabalho elege um desses elementos: a janela. Este artigo parte da aproximação histórica entre a janela e a secção da pirâmide visual, construção imaginária da teoria da perspectiva renascentista. A consideração da janela na linguagem arquitetônica implica reconhecer uma ambigüidade essencial: a janela deve inserir-se ordenadamente no plano da parede - raciocínio típico da modenatura - mas também relacionar-se com a imagem vista através dela, que extrapola o plano, ressaltando a tridimensionalidade - herança da perspectiva renascentista, fundamentada no espaço euclidiano. Ver janela ou ver através da janela são alternativas que se colocam tanto ao observador interno ao edifício, quanto ao externo. Texto de duplaface, a sintaxe da janela versa sobre o relacionamento desses dois lados

  5. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  6. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  7. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  8. Evaluation of the efficiency of a tubular digester in the reduction of organic load of biogas from swine wastes; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na reducao da carga organica de biogas a partir de dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Moreno Palacio, Soraya [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil); Szymanski, Nayara [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Quimica

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the anaerobic biological treatment systems in the reduction and stabilization of biodegradable organic matter of swine waste. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. The residues analysis was performed by means of sampling at the entrance and way out of the digester. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, DBO{sub 5}, DQO, total solids, total volatile solids, total fixed solids, total nitrogen e ammonia, potassium, total phosphate, average of biogas production. The results suggested that the anaerobic biological treatment system was efficient for reducing and stabilizing the organic matter resulted from the swine wastes. Expressive reductions of DBO, DQO, ST and SVT of 76, 77, 43 and 59% respectively, were obtained for the effluent originated by the digester. The average daily production of biogas during the analyzed period was 31, 5 m{sup 3}. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of broccoli significant difference on the yellowing during storage. It is concluded that the processing of collard greens and broccoli butter by gamma radiation may be a viable alternative to the industry, since there was a reduction of the population of microorganisms, without changes in the sensory qualities and with minimum changes in the characteristics that confer antioxidant power. (author)

  10. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  11. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava; Avaliacao do efeito sinergistico da embalagem a vacuo, irradiacao e refrigeracao da mandioca minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, Bianca Maria

    2005-07-01

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  12. Social environmental and economic evaluation diagnosis through application of MADSA (Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix) customization; Diagnostico de desempenho socioambiental e economico por meio da customizacao da MADSA (Matriz para Avaliacao de Desempenho Socioambiental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziliotto, Marco Aurelio B.; Villa, Alessandra T.; Padilha, Simone L. Vieira; Canaverde, Patricia Margue [Instituto ECOPLAN, General Carneiro, PR (Brazil); Sanqueta, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present paper reports a social, environment and economic diagnosis in an oil and energy organization, in the enlargement of its plant. Attending to some previous requirements made by this company, the diagnosis was accomplished making use of an innovative evaluation tool called MADSA{sup R} (Social and Environmental Evaluation Matrix). Through the customization of this tool, it was possible to evaluate, systematically, the performance of the engaged companies hired by the organization to implement its enterprise, based on proposed actions in QSMS - Quality, Safety, Environment and Health. The performance evaluation was supported by the employees', the organization, its clients' and the local community perception. MADSA{sup R} methodology made it possible to measure the accomplished gain through proposed actions. The development of a performance indicator allowed the comparison between achieved results and accomplished investments. It was concluded that MADSA{sup R} provided subsidies to elaborate an action plan to improve the organization achievements, since it was able to represent the strategy of the organization, to guide and standardize actions, to identify and quantify points to be made better of. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the potentiality of the use of high-carbon microsilica as a pozzolanic material; Avaliacao da potencialidade da utilizacao de microssilica de alto teor de carbono como material pozolanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, R.L.S.; Pederneiras, C.M.; Costa, T.C.S.; Silva, C.H.R.B., E-mail: ruan_landolfo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Anjos, M.A.S. [Instituto Federal da Paraiba (IFPB), PB (Brazil); Nobrega, A.K. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Supplementary Cementitious Materials reduce the production of clinker, which minimizes the environmental impact of cement production and the generation of industrial waste, also improve mechanical behavior and durability. Thus, this article aims to evaluate the potential use of microsilica with high content of carbon as pozzolanic material, based on the requirements of ISO 12653 (ABNT, 2015). The techniques of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and compressive strength of mortar of lime and cement (at 7 and 28 days, respectively) were used to evaluate the pozzolanic of the microsilica as a mineral addition. The results indicated that the microsilica has a high amorphous silicon dioxide percentage structure. In the DRX could be possible to analyze the formation of CSH, justifying the good results of mechanical strength, especially with cement. Thus, the mineral admixture used in this research can be considered as a pozzolanic material. (author)

  14. Calculation of the uncertainty of H{sub P} (10) evaluation for a thermoluminescent dosimetry system; Calculo da incerteza da avaliacao do H{sub P} (10) para um sistema de dosimetria termoluminescente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.S.; Silva, E.R.; Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: max.das.ferreira@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full interpretation of dose assessment only can be performed when the uncertainty of the measurement is known. The aim of this study is to calculate the uncertainty of the TL dosimetry system of the LDF/IRD for evaluation of H{sub P} (10) for photons. It has been done by experimental measurements, extraction of information from documents and calculation of uncertainties based on ISO GUM. Energy and angular dependence is the most important source to the combined u{sub c}(y) and expanded (U) uncertainty. For 10 mSv, it was obtained u{sub c}(y) = 1,99 mSv and U = 3,98 mSv for 95% of coverage interval. (author)

  15. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  16. Resistance evaluation expanded perlite the leaching acid: variation of parameters concentration, time and leaching agent; Avaliacao da resistencia da perlita expandida a lixiviacao acida: variacao dos parametros concentracao, tempo e agente lixiviante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J.M.F. de; Damasceno Junior, E.; Oliveira, E.S.; Fernandes, N.S., E-mail: janielequimicaufrn@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Meio Ambiente

    2016-07-01

    The expanded perlite is an amorphous aluminosilicate which presents in its composition about 75.0% silicon oxide (SiO2), also having other species in the composition as oxides of some metals. Silicas and silicates have been used in the environmental field, in relevant anti-corrosive activity. In this context, materials that exposes too many highly acidic media, require preservation against this type of wear, as this type of damage causes a great financial loss, thereby requiring low-cost, abundant materials, non-toxic and easy to purchase as some silica coating. The study evaluated the perlite expanded resistance against an acid leaching process. With undeniability the use of strong acids and different working conditions were not able to remove the oxides present on the expanded perlite sample, thus demonstrating the high strength of the expanded perlite against acid attacks. (author)

  17. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing {sup 131}I; Avaliacao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em servicos de medicina nuclear atraves da analise de aerossois contendo {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao, E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Gustavo Affonso de [Escola SESC de Ensino Medio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of {sup 131}I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of {sup 131}I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam {sup 131}I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m{sup 3}. This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10{sup 3} Bq of {sup 131}I / m{sup 3} corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures.

  18. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology;Analise preliminar das doses para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em exames radiograficos na radiologia veterinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Dias, Mayara T.P.; Santos, Andrea C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Melo, Camila S.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  19. In vitro assessment of the composition and microhardness of hard tissues of oral cavity submitted to gamma irradiation; Avaliacao in vitro da composicao e microdureza dos tecidos duros da cavidade bucal submetidos a irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Wilber Edison Bernaola

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Radiotherapy is extremely important for the treatment of malignant lesions of the head and neck region, however, exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to systemic or local complications during and after radiation treatment. Among these immediate local complications are the oral cavity xerostomia and the consequent oral mucositis. Regarding late complications produced by radiation, tooth decay of radiation and osteoradionecrosis are included, which are considered dose-dependent lesions, with high incidence in recent decades and difficult to manage, although these appear after completion of treatment and under the influence of local factors. The methodology proposed in this study consists in evaluating the effect of gamma radiation after irradiation of the samples, using the dose used in patients suffering with head and neck cancer. The samples were obtained from human enamel and root dentin; and swine mandibular bone, which were previously polished, and then submitted to the analysis of the initial surface microhardness of all groups. Subsequently, the samples were irradiated in a dose rate of 4 Gy per day, completing a total dose of 72 Gy. Finally, the samples were submitted to surface microhardness analysis after irradiation, which presented statistically significant results from the Student t, ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests referred to the difference of the mean of the initial and final values of each study group with a significant value of p = 0.00 (<0.05). Regarding the morphological analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the deleterious effect of gamma irradiation was evidenced as structural cracks, breaks and superficial fractures of the analyzed tissues and the biochemical analysis by Attenuated Total Reflection technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR - FTIR) showed degradation of inorganic components and denaturation of organic compounds; whereby, the effect of gamma irradiation on the hard tissues of the oral cavity with respect to mechanical, compositional and morphological properties was deleterious and this study highlighted the isolated action of this ionizing radiation which contributes highly for its appearance, independent of local and systemic factors in the irradiated patients. (author)

  20. The refractometry use in the evaluation of type 'C' gasoline non-conformities; Uso da refratometria na avaliacao de nao conformidades da gasolina tipo 'C'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, K.M.; Andrade, J.M.; Severiano, M.L.; Medeiros, M.A.O.; Fernandes, N.S.; Fernandes, V.J. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: klecia.morais@bol.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The need of the creation of practical and efficient methods that can monitor the quality of the automotive fuels it is an important factor, because they should evaluate the physical-chemical properties of the fuels to guarantee your conformity. To determine these parameters of conformity, several regulars analyses are done in the gasoline type 'C', as the distillation and content of ethyl alcohol (AEAC). However, the present work has as objective uses the refractometry in the forecast of irregularities in the gasoline trying to establish a faster and efficient analysis method. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the effects resulting from the application of magnetic fields on the properties of crude oils and paraffins; Avaliacao da influencia da aplicacao de campos magneticos sobre as propriedades de petroleo e parafinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Lenise Couto; Rocha, Nelson de Oliveira; Dittz, Carlos Henrique da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Setor de Tecnologia de Processamento e Transporte

    2000-03-01

    In petroleum industry the phenomenon of build-up of organic deposits, basically of paraffinic nature, into surface equipment, flow lines and columns has been one of the greatest problems concerning the production and transfer of crude oils, leading to significant and increasing losses in production. The approach through the application of magnetic field is a novel technique, neither explained nor exploited altogether, not one that turns out to be a simple preventive solution for the problem requiring low investment and showing expressive benefits, provided its effectiveness is confirmed. The main results of laboratory test where the effects of application of magnetic fields on the properties of two crude oil types, one mixture of paraffins and two reference solution were evaluated are presented herein, and this paper also approaches the influence of process variables (Magnetization temperature, exposure time and magnetic field density) on the efficiency of this process of treatment. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the mineralogical characterization of several smectite clay deposits of the state of Paraiba, Brazil using statistical analysis of variance; Avaliacao da caracterizacao mineralogica de diversos depositos de argilas esmectiticas do estado da Paraiba utilizando analise estatistica de variancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, A.J.A.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Brito, A.L.F. de, E-mail: agama@reitoria.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Currently over 80% of industrialized bentonite clay produced in Brazil in sodium form for use in various industrial applications come from the deposits in Boa Vista - PB. Recently they were discovered new bentonite deposits situated in the municipalities of Cubati - PB, Drawn Stone - PB, Sossego - PB, and last in olive groves - PB, requiring systematic studies to develop all its industrial potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical characterization several deposits of smectite clays from various regions of the state of Paraíba through the analysis of statistical variance. Chemical analysis form determined by fluorescence x-ray (EDX). Then analyzes were carried out of variance statistics and Tukey test using the statistical soft MINITAB® 17.0. The results showed that the chemical composition of bentonite clay of new deposits showed different amounts of silica, aluminum, magnesium and calcium in relation clays in Boa Vista, and clays imported. (author)

  3. Model for qualitative evaluation of risk in ducts through the fuzzy logic in conformity with the methodology of IBR; Modelo para avaliacao qualitativa do risco em oleodutos atraves da logica fuzzy segundo a metodologia da IBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, Koje Daniel Vasconcelos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, Jose Felicio da; Silva, Joao Bosco de Aquino [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPb), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This work considers a system for qualitative evaluation of the terrestrial risk in pipelines, based in the methodology of the Inspection Based on Risk and the Fuzzy Logic. For this one developed a matrix of risk associated with the oil transport and its derivatives, that define the type of tracking and the regularity of inspection with Pig Instrumented in function of the level of risk found in the stretch in study. This matrix of risk considers the probabilities and the consequences associates to the damage for corrosion. The evaluation of the considered system was based on the consistency of the found levels of risk, in relation to that it would be found in the practical one. The gotten results had demonstrated that the use of the methodology of the IBR and the Fuzzy Logic can be used jointly as one sufficiently efficient alternative technique in the evaluation of risk in corroded pipe-lines. (author)

  4. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment; Analise ambiental da celula a combustivel de membrana trocadora de protons sob o enfoque da avaliacao do ciclo de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-07-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and the current studies on LCA of PEMFC. Several questions raised up on this issues have contributed in the development of a method of recuperating the PEMFC catalysts and, particularly, for its subsequent environmental evaluation. Among significant results are the importance of LCA, out lined as useful tool for perceiving the weight of environmental matters concerning the platinum and its subsidy strategies relating to the development, consolidation and to the innovation of PEMFC. (author)

  5. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio

    2011-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential oil, ethanolic and hexane extracts of Peperomia pellucida were tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus in vitro on Petri plates. The antifungal activity was based on the inhibition zone and IC{sub 50} values against the pathogen on Petri plates assays. Also, the essential oil chemical composition was determined by GC-MS. (author)

  6. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica de elementos quimicos pela analise de liquen epifitico no Campus da Cidade Universitaria de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements originated from the natural and anthropogenic sources. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the results showed six major components, where components 1 and 2 accounted for 52.9 % of the variance of the data. Enrichment factors (EF) calculated for the results of lichens from CUASO and a region considered unpolluted were EF> 1 for most elements, showing that these elements may be from anthropogenic sources. From the results obtained in this study can be concluded that the elements found in lichens from CUASO can be originated from sources such as resuspension of soil particles and anthropogenic emissions. (author)

  7. Evaluation of image quality versus doses in service of mammography of Belo Horizonte, MG, BR; Avaliacao da qualidade da imagem versus doses em servicos de mamografia de Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.; Nogueira, M.S.; Guedes, E. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Seguranca Nuclear; Andrade, M.C. [Superintendencia Estadual de Vigilancia Sanitaria, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, J.E. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Radiologia; Silva, V.L.S.; Borges, J.C. [Vigilancia Sanitaria da Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo horizonte (VISA/PBH), MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the radiation protection and quality of 37 services out a total of 82 mammography facilities existing in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Two instruments were used: a proposed evaluation protocol of the Health Surveillance -VISA and a protocol for evaluation of image quality. Of the 37 services who completed the study, none was achieved 100% conformity in image quality. The results of radiation protection requirements according to the VISA protocol bore close relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection (p>0.05)

  8. Evaluation of {sup 137}Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil; Avaliacao da mobilidade do {sup 137}Cs em perfis de solos da regiao do Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for {sup 137}Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to {sup 137}Cs soil and can be used in the task of remediation in case of rural areas by accident and {sup 137}Cs contamination establishing geographic areas where we should prioritize treatment due to a greater vulnerability. (author)

  9. Evaluation gamma radiation in composite sisal fiber- polyurethane derived of castor oil by bending test; Avaliacao da influencia da radiacao gama em compositos de fibra de sisal - poliuretano derivado de oleo de mamona atraves de ensaios de flexao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Felipe H. de; Geraldo, Ricardo R.; Vasco, Marina C.; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Claro Neto, Salvador [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    Materials used for making furniture and accessories or positioning in X -ray examination rooms should not exhale volatile organic compounds and are resistant to ionizing radiation. One solution is the use of vegetable fiber and polyurethane composites of vegetable origin, since they are biodegradable, derived from renewable raw materials and have no volatile organic compounds. The main difficulty in developing this material is fiber adhesion with the polymer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of composite sisal fiber composite, without further treatment, and polyurethane derived from castor oil, with a dose of 25 kGy gamma radiation, subjected to 3 points bending tests. (author)

  10. Evaluation exposure to the ionizing radiation of workers during the operation of first Brazilian uranium mine; Avaliacao da exposicao de trabalhadores a radiacao ionizante durante a operacao da primeira mina de uranio do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Silva, Ana Claudia A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios. Servico de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    The production of uranium in Brazil initiated, in industrial scale, in the year of 1982, in the Miner-Industrial Complex at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper analysed the data of 13410 individual historic of dose, registered along the years of work, bay the radioprotection service of installation. Descriptive statistics and frequency histograms based on dose historic, and the annual distribution doses and the accumulated doses were evaluated during the functioning period of the CIPC, and his adequacy to the in force legislation at the time of it operation

  11. Profit of solar energy for salting and drying of a brazilian fish Colossoma mitrei Berg, 1895; Utilizacao da energia solar para avaliacao da salga e secagem do pacu, Colossoma mitrei Berg, 1895

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Ronaldo de Oliveira [1Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Beirao, Luiz Henrique [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Alimentos

    1986-12-01

    This paper studied a simple method for processing dried-salted `pacu` fish. The average weight in relation to total weight was 58,6% and the result came very close to the average of weight of other dried salted fishes, when treated in same way. The main purpose of this process was to reduce the long time expanded by the conventional process, allowing to reduce the humidity of the dried-salted product from 56 to 43,5% in 28 hours only. (author) 20 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of the influence of water and oil derivatives absorption on PVC pipes; Avaliacao da influencia da absorcao de agua e de derivados de petroleo em tubulacoes de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, D.C.F. del; D' Almeida, J.R.M., E-mail: dalmeida@puc-rio.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    PVC is the only polymer of large consume that is not totally obtained from petroleum, since it contains 57% of chlorine. As chlorine containing materials are resistant to bacteria rich environments, such as buried pipes, PVC is being used for fluid transportation, principally water, but it can also be considered as an alternative material for the transportation of other fluids. This work analyzes the aging behavior of PVC exposed to water, ethanol and diesel oil, using TGA, DSC, FT-IR and DR-X techniques. The results showed that the chemical structure of PVC is not affected by exposure to water and ethanol. For these fluids a dipolar interaction could be occurring, increasing at the beginning of the absorption process, the polymer thermal stability. The diesel oil caused plasticization, with reduction of the Tg since the beginning of the aging process. (author)

  13. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  14. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  15. Study of the heterogeneity effects of lung in the evaluation of absorbed dose in radiotherapy; Estudo dos efeitos da heterogeneidade de pulmao na avaliacao da dose absorvida em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luciana Tourinho

    2006-02-15

    The main objective of radiotherapy is to deliver the highest possible dose to the tumour, in order to destroy it, reducing as much as possible the doses to healthy tissues adjacent to the target volume. Therefore, it is necessary to do a planning of the treatment. The more complex is the treatment, the more difficult the planning will be, demanding computation sophisticated methods in its execution, in order to consider the heterogeneities present in the human body. Additionally, with the appearing of new radiotherapeutic techniques, that used irradiation fields of small area, for instance, the intensity modulated radiotherapy, the difficulties for the execution of a reliable treatment planning, became still larger. In this work it was studied the influence of the lung heterogeneity in the planning of the curves of percentage depth dose, PDP, obtained with the Eclipse{sup R} planning system for different sizes of irradiation fields, using the correction algorithms for heterogeneities available in the planning system: modified Batho, general Batho and equivalent tissue-air ratio. A thorax phantom, manufactured in acrylic, containing a region made of cork to simulate the lung tissue, was used. The PDP curves generated by the planning system were compared to those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and with the use of thermoluminescent, TL, dosimetry. It was verified that the algorithms used by the Eclipse{sup R} system for the correction of heterogeneity effects are not able to generate correct results for PDP curves in the case of small fields, occurring differences of up to 100%, when the 1x1 cm{sup 2} treatment field is considered. These differences can cause a considerable subdosage in the lung tissue, reducing the possibility of the patient cure. (author)

  16. Mining adaptation to the radioprotection regulations: evaluation of the regulation CNEN-NN-4.01; Adaptacao da mineracao as normas de radioprotecao: avaliacao da Norma CNEN-NN-4.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Silva, Cleber Jabarra da; Campinhos, Gabriela Michalsky [Jabarra Servicos e Comercio de Radioprotecao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Consultoria em Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    This paper proposes a generic model of monitoring to be used in mining with uranium or thorium associated viewing to estimate the dose of workers for classification the mining in the specific question of worker exposure. Besides the monitoring model, a dosimetric model also is proposed. It is indicated some instruments and techniques used in individual and area monitoring, besides to point out the necessity of radioprotection supervisor specific in this area

  17. Evaluation of eco toxicity, biocide effectiveness and corrosiveness of fluid for pipelines hydro testing; Avaliacao da ecotoxicidade, eficiencia biocida e da corrosividade de fluidos para teste hidroestatico de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia A.; Veiga, Leticia F.; Penna, Monica O.; Souza, Leonardo S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Fabio F.; Amigo, Alexandre A.; Chaves, Claudia [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Before the installation of subsea pipelines for draining the oil and gas production, the line need to be submitted to hydrostatic tests. In these, the lines are flooded with sea water and chemicals and pressurized to check the leakage occurrence. By the end of the test, the fluid needs to be discharged in-situ. Based on the environmental restrictions, this study began, and the three most important aspects in relation to the environmental risks had been evaluated: the toxicity, the biocide efficiency and the fluids' corrosiveness. By the partial results, it was observed that the fluids which had presented the best results in all studied aspects were the ones that contained the biocide THPS, combined with U.V. and a quaternary salt. In relation to the corrosion, it could be established that the studied fluids do not present impacts in internal corrosion, since during the test, the pipes are totally flooded with the fluid, remaining stamped and all the internal air having been removed. An important aspect is: even with concentrations below of the recommended ones for biocides, in order to guarantee lower environmental risks, by making use of alternative techniques (U.V.) and efficient biocide products, it is also possible to reach success in terms of biocide's efficiency. A regular monitoring procedure of the fulfilling fluid's quality is essential. (author)

  18. Combined discrete nebulization and microextraction process for molybdenum determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); Avaliacao da combinacao da nebulizacao discreta e processos de microextracao aplicados a determinacao de molibdenio por espectrometria de absorcao atomica com chama (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Jenny A.; Jesus, Amanda M.D. de; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R., E-mail: erpf@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    Simple and sensitive procedures for the extraction/preconcentration of molybdenum based on vortex-assisted solidified floating organic drop microextraction (VA-SFODME) and cloud point combined with flame absorption atomic spectrometry (FAAS) and discrete nebulization were developed. The influence of the discrete nebulization on the sensitivity of the molybdenum preconcentration processes was studied. An injection volume of 200 μ resulted in a lower relative standard deviation with both preconcentration procedures. Enrichment factors of 31 and 67 and limits of detection of 25 and 5 μ L{sup -1} were obtained for cloud point and VA-SFODME, respectively. The developed procedures were applied to the determination of Mo in mineral water and multivitamin samples. (author)

  19. Evaluation of natural rubber from IAC series clones by solid state {sup 13}C NMR; Avaliacao da borracha natural de clones da serie IAC por {sup 13}C RMN no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria A.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Goncalves, Paulo S. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Cafe e Plantas Tropicais. Programa Seringueira]. E-mails: paulog@iac.sp.gov.br; mariaalice@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Forato, Lucimara A.; Colnago, Luiz A.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: colnago@cnpdia.embrapa.br; forato@cnpdia.embrapa.br; rogerio@cnpdia.embrapa.br; mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Job, Aldo E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2005-07-01

    Agronomic Institute (IAC) and EMBRAPA Agricultural Instrumentation (EMBRAPA/CNPDIA) have been studied Hevea species in order to increase the production of the natural rubber and to develop new clones more appropriated to Brazil's soil and climate. Structural characterization of natural rubber [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. - Arg.] from new clones of the IAC series (IAC 300, 301, 302, 303, 35, 40, and 56) and from RRIM 600 clone has been studied by high-resolution solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and by single pulse technique. The results have shown that the application of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR using the single pulse technique is a powerful tool to study natural rubber. The spectra obtained through this technique confirmed that natural rubber from all clones studied are cis-1,4-polyisoprene (author) form.(author)

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of spectrophotometric response of alanine gel solution for gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations; Avaliacao dosimetrica da resposta espectrofotometrica da solucao gel de alanina para radiacao gama, de fotons, de eletrons e de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo

    2009-07-01

    Alanine Gel Dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on Alanine system developed by Costa. The DL-Alanine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO{sub 2}) is an amino acid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to analyse the main dosimetric characteristics this new gel material for future application to measure dose distribution. The performance of Alanine gel solution was evaluated to gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations using the spectrophotometry technique. According to the obtained results for the different studied radiation types, the reproducibility intra-batches and inter-batches is better than 4% and 5%, respectively. The dose response presents a linear behavior in the studied dose range. The response dependence as a function of dose rate and incident energy is better 2% and 3%, respectively. The lower detectable dose is 0.1 Gy. The obtained results indicate that the Alanine gel dosimeter presents good performance and can be useful as an alternative dosimeter in the radiotherapy area, using MRI technique for tridimensional dose distribution evaluation. (author)

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina; Avaliacao dosimetrica de uma combinacao de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porcao distal da vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues [Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia Estereotactica; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: handrade@hcnet.usp.br; Seraide, Rodrigo Migotto [Centro de Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  2. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the utilization of biopiles technology to the bioremediation of the soil of Guamare/RN (Brazil); Avaliacao preliminar da aplicacao da tecnologia de biopilhas para a biorremediacao do solo de Guamare/RN (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmilson P.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Costa, Alex S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of biopiles to the bioremediation of the soil of Stabilization Station of Guamare-RN-Brazil. The evaluation was performed by the characterization of the soil, tests of biodegradation in laboratory scale and by the use of a complete 2{sup 3} factorial design with triplicate at the central point. The input variables were: Nitrogen concentration; diesel-oil concentration; and inoculum concentration. The response variable was the percentage gravimetric loss of organic matter. Statistical analyses of the main factors and their interactions on the response variable were performed using contour curves and Pareto obtained from the software STATISTICA for Windows, Release 5.5. The results showed that biopiles technology can be used to remediate eventual contaminated areas in that region. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by the thyroid of patients undergoing treatment of Graves disease;Avaliacao da dose absorvida pela tireoide de pacientes submetidos ao tratamento da doenca de Graves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tiago L.; Filho, Joao A. [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Silva, Jose M.F. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The radioiodine is used as complementary treatment of thyroid cancer and as first choice for the treatment of Graves' disease, being efficient, safe and easy administration, but without there is a protocol defined. This work was evaluated the thyroid absorbed dose from its mass and maximum uptake of I-131 obtained in the examination of diagnostic radiology of radiotherapeutic patients undergoing treatment of Graves' disease. Based on the results, it is observed that the thyroid absorbed dose, as much in terms of mass as the maximum uptake of I-131 for different values of administered activity, varies significantly. The analysis of these parameters is an excellent indicator for the pre-define quantity of radionuclide that is administered to the patient in terms of the radiation dose required to achieve an efficient therapeutic treatment. Moreover, it was observed that the thyroid absorbed dose depends on the degree of pathology of the disease, its mass and of the maximum uptake of I-131. (author)

  5. Evaluation of radiological protection and dose of skin entrance in paediatric dentistry examinations; Avaliacao da protecao radiologica e da dose de entrada na pele em exames de odontologia pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Vasconcelos, Flavia Maria Nassar de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontopediatria; Brasileiro, Izabela Vanderley

    2005-07-01

    In this work the radiological protection conditions and dose at the entrance of pediatric patients undergoing dental intraoral radiographs were evaluated. The study was conducted in two clinics of the dentistry course at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PB, Brazil, equipped with conventional X-ray apparatus, with 60 and 70 kV. 254 exams of 113 patients between the ages of 3 to 12 years were evaluated. The skin entrance dose was estimated using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. During the examination were also recorded information regarding the time of exposure, radiographic technique used, use of thyroid protectors and lead apron, angle and distance of the cone Locator to the patient's skin. The results showed that the input skin doses ranged from 0.3 mGy to 10mGy. The lead apron was used in 71% of exams while the thyroid shield was only used in 58% of the exams. The exposure times ranged from 0,5s to 1,5s. From the results it can be concluded that the radiological procedures are not optimized and that in some cases the patient dose is high.

  6. Network survivability performance (computer diskette)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    File characteristics: Data file; 1 file. Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; high density; 2.0MB. System requirements: Mac; Word. This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunication networks to user expectations for network survivability.

  7. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  9. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  10. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  11. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Tópicos da teoria da relatividade

    OpenAIRE

    Fragata, Paulo Renato Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Matemática para Professores, 25 de Outubro 2013, Universidade dos Açores. Qualquer descrição física da natureza tem por base a especificação da posição e do instante em que decorre determinado acontecimento. Para tal, é necessário recorrer a um sistema de coordenadas, escolhido por cada observador, do modo que ele achar mais pertinente. Dada a generalidade na escolha do sistema de coordenadas, é útil conhecer as regras que nos permitem comparar cálculos feitos em d...

  13. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  14. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  15. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  16. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  17. MACIEZ DA CARNE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as características de qualidade da carne bovina, a maciez assume posição de destaque, sendo considerada a característica organoléptica de maior influência na aceitação da carne por parte dos consumidores. A dureza da carne pode ser dividida em dureza residual, causada pelo tecido conjuntivo e outras proteínas do estroma, e dureza de actomiosina, causada pelas proteínas miofibrilares. Dentre os fatores que influenciam a maciez da carne, podem ser destacados a genética, a raça, a idade ao abate, o sexo, a alimentação, o uso de agentes hormonais (?-adrenérgicos e os tratamentos post-mortem. A qualidade final da carne é resultante de tudo o que aconteceu com o animal durante toda a cadeia produtiva. Devem-se assegurar procedimentos adequados de transporte, armazenamento, manipulação, exposição e preparo da carne, a fim de se obter um produto de melhor qualidade. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Calpaínas, calpastatina, qualidade da carne, rigor mortis, tecido muscular.

  18. GERONTOLOGIA: ESTADO DA ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M.A.Tordino Brandão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Gerontologia da PUC desenvolve pesquisas focando o ser na perspectiva do envelhecimento. As atividades são interdisciplinares e reúnem docentes, alunos e ex-alunos. Nesta mesa redonda apresentamos um panorama sobre estes estudos. Na área da educação e comunicação o foco está centrado na longevidade e na preparação e representação social da velhice. São ressaltadas como temáticas: a formação continuada de profissionais e pesquisadores; o significado da religiosidade/espiritualidade ao longo da trajetória, e sua repercussão na qualidade de vida do idoso; os programas sócio-educacionais para idosos e concepções sobre educação; o monitoramento da mídia na cobertura da crescente longevidade e seus impactos. Em identidade e modos de morar reflete-se sobre soluções planejadas e sua adequação para a inclusão do envelhecimento populacional como questão fundamental, que implica a elaboração de novas políticas, investigações e, especialmente, apresenta-se como questão a ser analisada, refletida e vivenciada pela sociedade em geral. Quanto à saúde, o Programa desenvolve várias pesquisas numa abordagem interdisciplinar tendo como objetos de estudo: a terapia assistida com animais direcionada a idosos com diagnóstico de Alzheimer; o acompanhamento terapêutico e o atendimento psicoterapêutico em grupo, a aplicação da técnica de Calatonia em idosos moradores de ILPI, além da investigação sobre impasses clínicos no idoso frágil. Palavras-chave: gerontologia, longevidade, envelhecimento

  19. Conjecturas da Epistemológia Jurídica e Aspectos da Teoria da Linguagem

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Cartelli de; Cesumar; Motta, Ivan Dias; Cesumar

    2008-01-01

    Apresentar-se-ão reflexões em torno da epistemologia jurídica e alguns aspectos da teoria da linguagem; a necessidade de acompanhamento e aprimoramento da linguagem jurídica, para que o direito não se distancie da realidade, mantendo-se apenas como um sistema do status quo; uma breve análise de algumas teorias da ciência do direito e da linguagem; as especificidades dos termos lingüísticos para a análise da ciência do direito, pautada na contemporaneidade sob a perspectiva humanista, buscando...

  20. CONDICIONANTES DA COMPETITIVIDADE EMPRESARIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Contador

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho examina teoricamente os fatores determinantes da competitividade do produto e do negócio, imprescindíveis à elaboração de estratégias competitivas que visam à obtenção e sustentação de vantagens competitivas. Esse tema é objeto tanto da área de marketing estratégico quanto da de estratégia empresarial. Nas duas áreas, há um ponto de consenso que afirma que a empresa deve diferenciar sua oferta para conquistar e manter vantagem competitiva. Mas, os estudos conduzidos por meio do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição revelaram que a empresa pode diferenciar seu produto e/ou serviço de modo mais amplo, levando em consideração, na formulação da sua estratégia competitiva, também o campo da competição, quer do produto, quer dela própria. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é evidenciar que, para a empresa ser competitiva, além de diferenciar seu produto e/ou seu serviço no sentido tradicional, ela precisa: 1 diferenciar seu produto incluindo a definição em quais campos vai competir em cada segmento; e 2 escolher as armas da competição que irá utilizar e definir a intensidade de cada arma. Para atingir tal objetivo, foram necessários vários conceitos do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição: campo da competição, arma da competição, tese do modelo, configuração dos campos da competição, campo coadjuvante, produto coadjuvante e par produto-mercado. Como uma proposta inovadora sempre desperta dúvida, é mostrado o processo de validação do modelo de Campos e Armas da Competição e são discutidas sua universalidade, consistência e completude.

  1. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  2. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Efeito da eutonia no tratamento da fibromialgia

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda,Cecília; Martinez,José Eduardo; Neder,Matilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a eutonia como método terapêutico auxiliar no tratamento da fibromialgia (FM). MÉTODOS: estudou-se um grupo de 20 mulheres, segundo os critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR), com duração mínima de seis meses, sem alterações no tratamento medicamentoso ou prescrição de exercícios nesse período. As pacientes foram avaliadas através do questionário de dados sociodemográficos; Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) para dor e questionário genérico de avaliação da qualidade d...

  4. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation documents Kennedy Space Center's Independent Assessment work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer during key programmatic reviews and provided the GSDO Program with analyses of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and ground worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, a team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedy's Vehicle Assembly Building.

  5. The Survival of the Wisest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that humans differ from other living organisms in the ability to exercise learned behavior and the individual will, which may allow people to make the changes in values necessary to survive on this planet. (DW)

  6. Het Italiaanse voorzetsel da

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING In een voorzetselstudie in het kader van Jackendoffs semantische theorie wordt het sterk polyseme Italiaanse voorzetsel da geanalyseerd als een verzameling deelbetekenissen waarbij de meeste door een of meer semantische regels afgeleid kunnen worden van de basisbetekenis ruimtelijke

  7. ESPECTROS INFRAVERMELHOS DA CREATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko K. Sakane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados espectros infravermelhos da creatina, na faixa de 4000 a 400 cm−1. Os resultados são comparados com espectros observados e calculados, publicados na literatura.

  8. Significados Ocultos da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiliam César alves Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que as ações de cuidar em enfermagem foram sendo moldadas através da história da humanidade e deram-se, majoritariamente, na esfera do subjetivo que permeia as interações existenciais do ser humano que cuida e daquele que recebe cuidados. Campo fecundo para intercâmbios eletromagnéticos. Suas origens remontam ao cuidado prestado por mães, pais, avós, irmãos e demais familiares incumbidos da responsabilidade de ajudar entes recém-natos, crianças, doentes e idosos em suas necessidades de cuidados para preservação da vida.

  9. Customer service skills for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium?

  10. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  11. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  12. ORIGEM DA ANGTIA MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvino Rabuske

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema que me foi proposto "origem da angtia moderna". Por certo, um tema extremamente complexo. Trata-se de surpreender as modalidades modernas de um fenomeno, antigo como o prrio homem. Visando contribuir numa semana de reflexo sobre a esperan crist em, que esta abordada a partir, de diversos gulos, parece indicado que esta exposio n se atenha a um ico aspeto da angtia.

  13. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria; Avaliacao de tecnicas radioterapicas conformacionais utilizando criterios fisicos e biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero

    2012-07-01

    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control

  14. As dobras da imagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Profª. Drª. Fátima Antunes da Silva (Yaska Antunes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo tentar compreender a produção da imagem visual no teatro. Para isso se vale da apropriação livre do conceito de “dobra? de Gilles Deleuze para se referir à multiplicidade de imagens criadas pelas diversas modalidades artísticas. Como no teatro há o entrelaçamento de imagens verbais – palavras enunciadas pelo texto dramático ou teatral – com imagens visuais – a visualidade advinda da composição cênica concreta que organiza no espaço ator e objeto –, a ênfase só podia recair sobre estas duas formas imagéticas. No caso do teatro, surge ainda a percepção de que para além da materialidade da cena, outras imagens emergem do confronto entre palco e platéia. Nesse sentido, imagem teatral seria então aquilo que surge da interação entre ator e espectador. A contribuição desse trabalho pode estar no fato de atualizar certos conceitos sobre a criação da imagem poética na poesia e no cinema para aplicá-los ao teatro. Ao recuperar o pensa-mento de Otávio Paz, Alfredo Bosi, Sergei Eisenstein, entre outros, bus-ca-se promover uma reflexão mais aprofundada sobre a construção visual no teatro.

  15. Surviving Armageddon - Solutions for a Threatened Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Bill

    2005-07-01

    What do earthquakes, magma, asteroid 1950DA, and global warming have in common? All are very real natural disasters, already under way; all are also the focus of intensive work by scientists, aimed at preventing, predicting, or at least limiting their impact on civilization. Using the latest chilling data and taking care to draw a clear line between scientific fact and fiction, McGuire discusses the various ways that scientists have already started to prepare for survival. Solutions on earth range from 'space reflectors' to prevent global warming, to pressure-relieving 'robot excavators' to stop volcanic eruptions. In space, NASA is developing rocket motors to gently nudge asteroids out of Earth's path, and plans to have all threatening asteroids larger than 1km detected by 2008, thereby enabling us to predict possible collisions up to 2880. The book provides the strategies to the problems we face, and concludes optimistically with ways in which we can use technology to protect our society and planet from global catastrophe.

  16. Trauma da Veia Porta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trauma da veia porta é raro e freqüentemente fatal por causa de exsanguinação e alta incidência de lesões de estruturas adjacentes. Devido às pecualiaridades desta lesão e diferentes condutas propostas na literatura, o objetivo dos autores é relatar a experiência neste tipo de lesão. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, de janeiro de 1994 e dezembro de 2001, de 1370 pacientes submetidos à laparotomia devido trauma abdominal. Entre esses, 15 pacientes apresentavam lesão da veia porta. As lesões foram classificadas conforme a sua extensão e localização. RESULTADOS: O mecanismo de trauma predominante foi o penetrante. O diagnóstico da lesão foi realizado no intraoperatório. Os procedimentos executados foram: sutura, anastomose término-terminal e ligadura da veia porta. A mortalidade foi de 53,3%. CONCLUSÃO: A lesão da veia porta possui alta taxa de mortalidade e o atendimento adequado está diretamente relacionado à sobrevida.

  17. Cell Survival Signaling in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis and malignant transformation is driven by overexpression and dominance of cell survival pathways and a lack of normal cellular senescence or apoptosis. Therefore, manipulation of cell survival pathways may decrease the malignant potential of these tumors and provide avenues for the development of novel therapeutics. This review focuses on several facets of cell survival pathways including protein kinases (PI3K, AKT, ALK, and FAK), transcription factors (NF-κB, MYCN and p53), and growth factors (IGF, EGF, PDGF, and VEGF). Modulation of each of these factors decreases the growth or otherwise hinders the malignant potential of neuroblastoma, and many therapeutics targeting these pathways are already in the clinical trial phase of development. Continued research and discovery of effective modulators of these pathways will revolutionize the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:22934706

  18. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  19. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    elevation, sun location, temperature, humidity, ozone level, visibility, cloud coverage, and wind speed and direction. Survivability in the Low Altitude...JASP Summer PMSG 14–16 July 2009 Key West, FL AUG 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2–5 August 2009 Denver, CO

  20. Predetermining value analysis of the prehospital phase procedures in trauma victims survival Análisis del valor predeterminante de los procedimientos de la fase prehospitalaria en la sobrevivencia de las víctimas de trauma Análise do valor predeterminante dos procedimentos da fase pré-hospitalar na sobrevivência das vítimas de trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the determining value of the procedures carried out during prehospital care in the survival time of traffic accident victims. Data of 175 victims with Revised Trauma Score £ 11, cared for and transported by advanced life support to tertiary referral hospitals, were submitted to Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis and to Cox proportional hazards model. Four procedure groups associated with survival were identified: basic circulatory; advanced respiratory; volume replaced and medication. Until hospital discharge, the victims who underwent orotracheal intubation and chest compressions showed 3.6 and 6.4 times higher death hazards, respectively. The need for definitive airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prehospital phase was predetermining with higher death hazard. The less than 1000ml intravenous fluid replacement was the only predetermining factor with protective power against death hazard.La propuesta de este estudio fue analizar el valor determinante de los procedimientos realizados durante la atención prehospitalaria en el tiempo de sobrevivencia de víctimas de accidentes de tránsito. Datos de 175 víctimas con Revised Trauma Score A proposta deste estudo foi analisar o valor predeterminante dos procedimentos realizados, durante o atendimento pré-hospitalar no tempo de sobrevivência de vítimas de acidentes de trânsito. Dados de 175 vítimas com Revised Trauma Score < 11, atendidas e transportadas pelo suporte avançado à vida a hospitais terciários, foram submetidas à Análise de Sobrevivência de Kaplan Méier e à Análise de Riscos Proporcionais de Cox. Identificou-se 4 grupos de procedimentos associados à sobrevivência: circulatórios básicos; respiratórios avançados; volume reposto e medicamentos. Até a alta hospitalar, as vítimas, submetidas à entubação orotraqueal e compressões torácicas, apresentaram 3,6 e 6,4 vezes maior risco para o óbito, respectivamente. A

  1. Da Vinci Linjen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin.......Afsluttende evalueringsrapport fra følgeforskningen gennem tre år i forbindelse med dety pædagogiske arbejde på Blåbjerggårdskolens Da Vinci Linje for skolemotiverede og underpræsterende elever på 7. til 9. klassetrin....

  2. Profilaxia da peste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato dos Santos Araújo

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor parte da premissa de que a profilaxia da doença infecciosa decorre do encadeamento epidemiológico: fonte de infecção-veículo transmissor - receptivel, para explicar a da peste, baseada no mesmo princípio. Depois de citar os 4 principais complexos epidemiológicos da peste e afirmar que tôda a profilaxia da doença consiste em atingir os dois primeiros elos dessas cadeias e proteger o último, passa a classificar os vários métodos profiláticos empregados em 2 grandes grupos: o das medidas destrutivas ou provisórias e o das medidas supressivas ou definitivas. Entre as primeiras arrola a desratização e a despulização, às quais acrescenta o tratamento e isolamento do doente e do portaãor, e entre as segundas inclui a anti-ratização e a imunização. A seguir, passa a explicar em que consistem essas várias medidas profiláticas e quais os agentes de que se tem lançado mão para executá-las, expendendo ao curso dessa exposição o conceito que formula a respeito de cada uma delas, à guisa de apreciação do seu valor relativo. Enaltece sobretudo as medidas supressivas ou definitivas, às quais empresta a maior significação na luta antipestosa, chamando a atenção, em especial, para a necessidade de estudos imunológicos para aperfeiçoamento do poder imunitário das vacinas de germes vivos avirulentos, que considera um grande recurso para a profilaxia da doença, sobretudo para a proteção do rurícola, cujo labor e modo de vida o expõem inevitavelmente a se infectar, por ocasião da ocorrência de epizootias de origem silvestre. Concluída essa primeira parte, passa a fazer o histórico de como se desenvolveu a campanha contra a peste, no Brasil, desde a época da sua invasão em 1899 pelo pôrto de Santos até os nossos dias. Nesse histórico, detem-se um pouco para expôr a atuação do extinto Serviço Nacional de Peste, o qual, criado em 1941, após a reorganização do Departamento Nacional de Saúde, passou

  3. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet

  4. Survival analysis II: Cox regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards regression can provide an effect estimate by quantifying the difference in survival between patient groups and can adjust for confounding effects of other variables. The purpose of this article is to explain the basic concepts of the

  5. Environmental survival of Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Y-L; Martin, L E; Stephens, D S

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is transmitted through the inhalation of large human respiratory droplets, but the risk from contaminated environmental surfaces is controversial. Compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumanni, meningococcal viability after desiccation on plastic, glass or metal surfaces decreased rapidly, but viable meningococci were present for up to 72 h. Encapsulation did not provide an advantage for meningococcal environmental survival on environmental surfaces.

  6. Survivability of SCADA Control Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, José; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The endorsement of information technologies for critical infrastructures control introduces new threats in their security and surveillance. Along with certain level of protection against attacks, it is desirable for critical processes to survive even if they succeed. A stochastic Petri Nets-based

  7. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  8. Complexity for survival of livings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    A connection between survivability of livings and complexity of their behavior is established. New physical paradigms-exchange of information via reflections, and chain of abstractions-explaining and describing progressive evolution of complexity in living (active) systems are introduced. A biological origin of these paradigms is associated with a recently discovered mirror neuron that is able to learn by imitation. As a result, an active element possesses the self-nonself images and interacts with them creating the world of mental dynamics. Three fundamental types of complexity of mental dynamics that contribute to survivability are identified. Mathematical model of the corresponding active systems is described by coupled motor-mental dynamics represented by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, respectively, while the progressive evolution of complexity is provided by nonlinear evolution of probability density. Application of the proposed formalism to modeling common-sense-based decision-making process is discussed

  9. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  10. Complexity for survival of livings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, Michail [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Advance Computing Algorithms and IVHM Group, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]. E-mail: Michail.Zak@jpl.nasa.gov

    2007-05-15

    A connection between survivability of livings and complexity of their behavior is established. New physical paradigms-exchange of information via reflections, and chain of abstractions-explaining and describing progressive evolution of complexity in living (active) systems are introduced. A biological origin of these paradigms is associated with a recently discovered mirror neuron that is able to learn by imitation. As a result, an active element possesses the self-nonself images and interacts with them creating the world of mental dynamics. Three fundamental types of complexity of mental dynamics that contribute to survivability are identified. Mathematical model of the corresponding active systems is described by coupled motor-mental dynamics represented by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, respectively, while the progressive evolution of complexity is provided by nonlinear evolution of probability density. Application of the proposed formalism to modeling common-sense-based decision-making process is discussed.

  11. Saudi sands, SCUDS, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, M P

    1993-01-01

    SCUD attacks were one of many challenges this pediatric nurse practitioner (NP) and Air Force Reserve flight nurse faced daily during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Providing nursing care to sick and injured patients on board a C141 transport plane en route from Saudi Arabia to Germany was her primary responsibility. Additionally, many hours were spent filling sandbags, attending in-service classes, and practicing putting on a gas mask and protective suit. Although the war has been over for almost 3 years, the effects are long lasting. The author was able to use her wartime experience positively to gain insight into survival in today's violent society. As violence increases, NPs must reshape their focus and educate their clients about survival.

  12. da Zehirlenmeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Akbulut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıda Teknolojisinin gelişmesi ile, gıda maddesinin tüketici için daha alımlı olmasını sağlamak, kısa zamanda bozulmasını engellemek ve pazara yeni çeşitler sunmak için bazı kimyasal maddeler kullanılmaya başlanılmıştır. Bunun yanında tarımda kullanılan kimyasal maddeler artmış, ambalaj sanayi gelişmiş, bu dada maddelerine bulaşan maddelerin türlerini arttırmıştır. Ayrıca gıda maddelerine belirli amacı olmadan katılan maddelerde vardır. Diğer taraftan tüketiciyi aldatmak, hile yapmak, çok kar sağlamak veya kötü kaliteyi gizlemek amacı ile de kullanılan maddeler bulunmaktadır. İster teknik zorunluk, ister hile amacıyla olsun bu tür yabancı maddeler öncelikle insan sağlığını ilgilendirmektedir. Bazı maddelerin vücuda alınması sakıncasız olduğu halde, bazıları sakıncalıdır. Sakıncasız olanlarında belirli bir sınırın üzerinde uzun süre alınmaları zararlı olabilmektedir. Bu toplum sağlığı sorunu birçok ülkeyi gıda sanayiinde kullanılan kimyasal maddelerin hoşgörü sınırlarının hesaplanması noktasına götürmüştür.

  13. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  14. Relações entre a personalidade dos pacientes e a sobrevivência após o transplante de medula óssea: revisão da literatura Linkings between patients' personality and bone marrow transplant survival: bibliographical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sanches Peres

    2006-08-01

    mantenimiento del bienestar biopsicosocial de esos sujetos.Bone marrow transplant (BMT is a medical procedure used in case of serious illness treatment, that is, when the conventional therapeutic modalities do not offer a good prognostic. Recent researches suggest that, the patients' personality is a decisive psychosocial factor for adaptation and recovery after BMT procedure. The present paper intends to evaluate the scientific productions regarding the patients' personality and its relation to post-BMT survival. Data collection was carried out by using on-line searches in the different bibliographical identification systems available. The results obtained suggest the need for new researches, because understanding the relation between the patients' personality and the post-BMT survival can aid the individual/patient in both, in the prevention, as well as in the maintenance of the bio-psychosocial well being.

  15. CONCEAL TO SURVIVE: RESISTANCE STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Zuleide Duarte de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategy of concealment, theoretically bounded by Accetto (2001, and used by Delfina, character in the novel O Alegre Canto da Perdiz of Paulina Chiziane, Mozambican writer. Focuses, among other things, the relationship colonizer versus colonized, discussing the con­dition of female inferiority that forces a reaction apparently submissive, which assumes the sale of the body and the rejection of their ancestral tra­ditions. To interpret the attitudes of Delfina as a strategy that masks resent­ment against abusive domain power.

  16. A REFORMA DA IGREJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Galdino Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O pontificado do papa Francisco trouxe à tona o tema da reforma da Igreja. Retoma-se essa causa que acompanha a história da Igreja desde os seus primórdios e que interessa a todos os membros do povo santo de Deus. O texto divide-se em quatro partes. Primeiro, faz-se um apanhado histórico dos anseios de reforma da Igreja, mostrando que, muitas vezes em instâncias subterrâneas, sempre houve o desejo e também ações concretas de renovação. Em seguida, apresenta-se como razão para a reforma da Igreja o anúncio e a realização do Reino de Deus, pelo qual é preciso que a Igreja se volte à concretude humana e histórica de Jesus de Nazaré, pela superação do apego ao poder e às estruturas religiosas. Num terceiro momento, trata-se do critério pelo qual se mede a realização e a veracidade da reforma da Igreja: a santidade de cada fiel e do povo cristão no meio do mundo. Por fim, conclui-se que o caminho para a reforma da Igreja está na escuta dos clamores do Espírito Santo, que fala na própria Igreja e no mundo através do sensus fidei dos fiéis, das Igrejas particulares, dos pobres, das mulheres e das realidades terrestres. ABSTRACT: The pontificate of Pope Francis brought to the surface the theme of reform of the Church. This essay takes up this cause that accompanies the history of the Church from its beginnings and concerns all the members of the holy people of God. The text is divided into four parts. First, it gives a historical summary of the yearnings for reform of the Church, showing that, in many instances subterranean, there has always been the desire and also the concrete actions of renewal. Following from this, the essay presents as the reason for the reform of the Church the proclamation and the realization of the Kingdom of God, whereby it is necessary that the Church return to the concrete human and historical Jesus of Nazareth, in order to overcome the addiction to power and to religious structures. In the

  17. A cultura da internet

    OpenAIRE

    Cádima, Francisco Rui

    2017-01-01

    O novo ambiente digital é cada vez mais perturbante na sua dimensão ‘visível’ e está, em boa parte, incontrolável nessa área ainda algo desconhecida da Internet negra, conhecida por deep web ou dark net, convoca-nos para uma reflexão profunda de largo espectro, que não se pode vincular apenas às questões de mercado, tecnológicas e de redes, mas que nos vem alertar sobretudo para a ordem do político e da cidadania, do ‘desconhecido’ e do conhecimento e, enfim, do acesso à rede, quer no que is...

  18. [da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years.

  19. A utilização da teoria da aprendizagem significativa no ensino da Enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa; Nilton Soares Formiga; Simone Helena dos Santos Oliveira; Marta Miriam Lopes Costa; Maria Júlia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: sintetizar a produção científica acerca da Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa no processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Enfermagem. Método: revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e CINAHL, com artigos que abordaram a temática ou aspectos da teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Fizeram parte da amostra dez artigos, sendo seis escritos no idioma português e quatro no inglês, publicados de 1998 a 2013. Resultados: cinco...

  20. Os (descaminhos da identidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Roberto Cardoso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A conferência procurou apresentar uma interpretação das vicissitudes da identidade étnica e/ou nacional quando observada em situações de ambigüidade. É quando o processo identitário expressa crises reais ou virtuais, como as que têm lugar entre imigrantes latino-americanos nos Estados Unidos, entre povos de diferentes regiões da Espanha emigrados para Barcelona, entre catalães espanhóis, franceses e andorranos residentes em Andorra, e entre povos indígenas em regiões de fronteira do Brasil com países vizinhos. O exame do processo identitário que tem lugar em diferentes latitudes, nas Américas e na Europa, sugere que os fenômenos socioculturais de etnicidade e de nacionalidade possuem em comum características tais como a busca de reconhecimento da pessoa moral, o respeito à diferença e, como corolário ético, a elevação do que se pode definir como "taxa de consideração".

  1. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Castro Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atribuído as microcistinas incluírem gastroenterite, reações alérgicas ou irritativas, neurotoxicidade, o principal alvo da toxina é o fígado. Nos hepatócitos as microcistinas são carreadas pelo sistema transportador do ácido biliar, inibindo a atividade da proteína fosfatase no citoplasma. A inibição leva a mudanças morfológicas na membrana plasmática pela hiperfosforilação de citoqueratinas, e à atividade de promoção tumoral pelas proteínas hiperfosforiladas. Os métodos de detecção e quantificação de microcistinas no ambiente incluem a cromatografia líquida, o bioensaio em camundongos e os testes imunoenzimáticos. O último vem ganhando destaque pela praticidade e alta sensibilidade.

  2. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  3. Life-Cycle Models for Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Current software development life-cycle models are not focused on creating survivable systems, and exhibit shortcomings when the goal is to develop systems with a high degree of assurance of survivability...

  4. Probability of Survival Decision Aid (PSDA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Amin, Mitesh; Santee, William R

    2008-01-01

    A Probability of Survival Decision Aid (PSDA) is developed to predict survival time for hypothermia and dehydration during prolonged exposure at sea in both air and water for a wide range of environmental conditions...

  5. p70S6 kinase signals cell survival as well as growth, inactivating the pro-apoptotic molecule BAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harada, H; Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2001-01-01

    Cytokines often deliver simultaneous, yet distinct, cell growth and cell survival signals. The 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) is known to regulate cell growth by inducing protein synthesis components. We purified membrane-based p70S6K as a kinase responsible for site-specific phospho...

  6. Controle da fusariose em plantas de pimenta-do-reino com bactérias endofíticas: sobrevivência e respostas morfofisiológicas Fusariosis control in black pepper plants with bacterial endophytes: survival and morphophysiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH LINDA BENCHIMOL

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Oito bactérias endofíticas de plântulas de pimenta-do-reino foram testadas em casa de vegetação, objetivando controlar Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis e avaliar respostas morfofisiológicas das plantas tratadas com os agentes de controle. Plantas com quatro meses de idade tiveram o sistema radicular tratado com as suspensões bacterianas (10(9 ufc mL-1 por 10 minutos, e foram plantadas em vasos com solo natural infestado artificialmente com o patógeno (0,25%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições para avaliar o comportamento fotossintético, a produção e a alocação de biomassa, e cinco repetições para avaliar a mortalidade das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas 120 dias após a instalação do ensaio. O isolado B0 (Methylobacterium radiotolerans controlou F. solani f. sp. piperis, provocando redução significativa do número de plantas mortas. Na ausência do patógeno, M. radiotolerans funcionou ainda como promotor de crescimento. Os demais isolados testados não apresentaram efeito na diminuição da mortalidade das plantas. A aplicação das bactérias endofíticas não afetou a taxa fotossintética instantânea das plantas, à exceção de B6, que teve efeito negativo. As plantas tratadas com M. radiotolerans priorizaram a alocação de carbono para a parte aérea.Eight endophytic bacteria from black pepper seedlings were tested under greenhouse conditions aiming to control Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis and to evaluate some morphophysiological responses in plants treated with the biocontrol agents. Four-month old plants had their roots treated with the bacterial suspensions (10(9 cfu mL-1 for 10 minutes and were planted in pots containing soil artificially infested with the pathogen (0.25%. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three replications to evaluate photosynthetic behavior, and biomass production and allocation, and five replications to evaluate plant

  7. IPO survival in a reputational market

    OpenAIRE

    Espenlaub, Susanne; Khurshed, Arif; Mohamed, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    We examine IPO survival in a 'reputational' market, the Alternative Investment Market (AIM), where principle-based regulation pivots on the role of a regulatory agent, the nominated advisor (Nomad) to the IPO company. We find that Nomad reputation has a significant impact on IPO survival. IPOs backed by reputable Nomads 'survive longer (by about two years) than those backed by other Nomads. We also find that survival rates of AIM IPOs are broadly comparable to those of North American IPOs. Wh...

  8. Survival Patterns Among Newcomers To Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Bates

    1997-01-01

    This study analyzes survival patterns among franchisee firms and establishments that began operations in 1986 and 1987. Differing methodologies and data bases are utilized to demonstrate that 1) franchises have higher survival rates than independents, and 2) franchises have lower survival rates than independent business formations. Analyses of corporate establishment data generate high franchisee survival rates relative to independents, while analyses of young firm data generate the opposite ...

  9. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2015-11-12

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea-microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  10. Ghrelin as a Survival Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bharath K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Ghrelin administration induces food intake and body weight gain. Based on these actions, the ghrelin system was initially proposed as an antiobesity target. Subsequent studies using genetic mouse models have raised doubts about the role of the endogenous ghrelin system in mediating body weight homeostasis or obesity. However, this is not to say that the endogenous ghrelin system is not important metabolically or otherwise. Here we review an emerging concept in which the endogenous ghrelin system serves an essential function during extreme nutritional and psychological challenges to defend blood glucose, protect body weight, avoid exaggerated depression, and ultimately allow survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum

  12. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  13. 46 CFR 199.201 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.201 Section 199.201 Shipping COAST... craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be... addition to the survival craft required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, additional liferafts must be...

  14. 46 CFR 199.261 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.261 Section 199.261 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.261 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be a totally...

  15. 46 CFR 28.120 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 28.120 Section 28.120 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.120 Survival craft. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section and 28.305, each vessel must carry the survival craft specified in Table 28...

  16. 46 CFR 133.105 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 133.105 Section 133.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.105 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as...

  17. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  18. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  19. Hepatotoxicidade da cianotoxina microcistina

    OpenAIRE

    Leal,Andréa de Castro; Soares,Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Constitui interesse emergente em saúde pública avaliar a possibilidade de intoxicação humana por biotoxinas de algas cianofíceas, principalmente as hepatotoxinas do grupo das microcistinas. A microcistina, um heptapeptídeo monocíclico, é produzida principalmente pela cianobactéria Microcistis aeruginosa. São caracterizadas por alguns aminoácidos variáveis, dois deles com uma estrutura não usual que possuem importante papel na hepatotoxidade da microcistina. Apesar do acometimento humano atrib...

  20. Aspectos moleculares da anemia falciforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiza Neto Gentil Claudino de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo abordaram-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário que acomete expressivo número de indivíduos em várias regiões do mundo. As pesquisas realizadas em torno desta patologia da hemácia, ao longo de quase um século, a partir de 1910, cooperaram para a criação de um novo e importante segmento da ciência, denominado biologia molecular. A descoberta dos polimorfismos da mutação (GAT->GTG no gene que codifica a cadeia beta da hemoglobina, originando diferentes haplótipos da doença, permitiu um melhor e mais amplo conhecimento em torno da heterogeneidade clínica nos pacientes falcêmicos. Analisando a hemoglobina na sua estrutura normal e mutante, sua produção e evolução, pode-se ter um entendimento mais completo da fisiopatologia desta doença e da sua complexidade clínica.

  1. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberling, Daniel Fontana

    2008-03-15

    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators; Avaliacao da taxa de equivalente de dose ambiente utilizando monitores de area para neutrons em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of a plug-flow digester to produce biogas from swine waste water; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na producao de biogas a partir de aguas residuarias de suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Reichl, Johann [Escola de Energia Biolsolar, Quatro Pontes, PR (Brazil); Schwab, Jair; Schwab, Vera [Colegio Estadual Entre Rios do Oeste, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of a plug-flow digester, type Reichl, was evaluated with and without mixing. The digester, treating swine wastewater, had a capacity of 800 m{sup 3} and were operated at a loading rate of 0,931 kg and 0,634 kg of total solids and volatile solids per day, respectively. With mixing, the daily average biogas production was 289,50 m{sup 3} day{sup -1}, the specific volume production of 0,362 m{sup 3} biogas m{sup -3} reactor day{sup -1} and a specific biogas production of 0,389 m{sup 3} and 0,571 m{sup 3} biogas kg{sup -1} total solids and volatile solids added, respectively. Without mixing, was observed a reduction of 17,69% on the daily average biogas production, to only 238,30 m{sup 3} day{sup -1}. It correspond to a specific volume production of 0,298 m{sup 3} biogas m{sup -3} reactor day{sup -1} and a specific biogas production of 0,320 m{sup 3} and 0,470 m{sup 3} biogas kg{sup -1} total solids and volatile solids added, respectively. With mixing, a reduction of 68,67% total solids was achieved, compared to 52,11% without mixing. Considering volatile solids, it was achieved 80,16% with mixing, compared to 58,77% without mixing. (author)

  4. Safety analysis for the Abadia de Goias repository: alternative evaluation of the ingestion dose rate critical distance; Analise de seguranca para o repositorio de Abadia de Goias: avaliacao alternativa da distancia critica de taxa de dose de ingestao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Alves, A.S. de; Passos, E.M. dos [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    An alternative calculation of the ingestion dose rate critical distance due to a hypothetical release of Cs-137 from the structure of the Repository of Abadia de Goias is presented. The release pathway considers the repository - groundwater region - well - and food chain. The main adopted modification comparing to the previous work is the inclusion of the convective and molecular diffusion terms in the radionuclide transport equation in addition to the radioactive decay term. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of polymer efficiency on the inhibition of calcium carbonate scale in synthetic brines; Avaliacao da acao de polimeros sobre a inibicao de incrustacoes de carbonato de calcio em salmouras sinteticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Juliana M.; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Loureiro, Tatiana S.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Spinelli, Luciana S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: julianamatos@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The inorganic scale results in serious problems for oil production. This scale results from the incompatibility between the chemical compositions of formation water and injection, and the changes of thermodynamic system. These deposits consist mainly of calcium carbonate and barium sulfate. In order to prevent the formation of these deposits, the petroleum industry has made use of chemicals that act as scale inhibitors. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two types of polymeric inhibitors prevent the formation of calcium carbonate from brines of different compositions with high concentrations of calcium. The inhibitors were tested at varying concentrations and at fixed conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and time. The estimated effectiveness of each inhibitor was measured by complexometric titration. The inhibitor carboxylic acid-based (poly (maleic acid)) was more efficient at relatively low concentrations, which is important both economically and environmentally. (author)

  6. Evaluation of radioiodine therapy with fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi in patients with Graves disease; Avaliacao da radioiodoterapia com doses fixas de 10 e 15 mCi em pacientes com doenca de Graves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadas, Viviane; Vilar, Lucio; Moura, Eliane; Brito, Ana; Castellar, Enio [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: vivi2207@ig.com.br

    2007-10-15

    The treatment options for the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease are antithyroid drugs, surgery and radioiodine, none of which is considered ideal, as they do not act directly on the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Radioiodine has been increasingly used as the treatment of choice because it is a safe and definitive therapy whose administration is very easy. Some authors prefer to administer higher doses in order to deliberately induce hypothyroidism, while others recommend lower doses that result in a lower incidence of hypothyroidism and a greater incidence of euthyroidism. There is no consensus for the optimal regimen of fixed doses to be used and this is the main focus of the present study, where doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I were compared. Among the 164 patients analyzed, 61 (37.2%) were submitted to 10 mCi and 103 (62.8%) to 15 mCi. In the longitudinal analysis it was observed that remission of the hyperthyroidism was statistically different in the sixth month (p < 0.001), being higher in the group that used the dose of 15 mCi, but similar in both groups at 12 and 24 months. It may be concluded that the administration of fixed doses of 10 and 15 mCi of {sup 131}I brought about a similar remission of the hyperthyroidism after 12 months of treatment. Moreover, the remission rate of the hyperthyroidism had no association with age, sex or previous therapy with antithyroid drugs. (author)

  7. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nos teores de carotenoides, acido ascorbico e acucares do fruto Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Luis dos Santos [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Quimica, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br; Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Silva, Jaqueline Michele [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Irradiacao de Alimentos], e-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, e-mail: jaquelinefisica@bol.com.br; Coelho, Maysa Joppert [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear. Engenharia Ambiental], e-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Quimica Organica e de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: sidney@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical fruit from the Northeast and Center-West Amazon of Brazil, is used in many regional dishes. It is considered an excellent source of carotenoids that are A vitamin precursors, showing a majority of beta-carotene. It also presents ascorbic acid and sugar contents. Many studies have indicated that the lack of A vitamin is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. Also, ascorbic acid deficiency may cause scorbutic disease. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to agriculture through the reduction of post-harvesting losses while maintaining food nutritional quality. In this study, buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation with doses of 0.5 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The objective was to evaluate the irradiation effects on total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugars concentrations of buriti. The fruit was evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (alpha and beta-carotene and lutein), ascorbic acid and sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids (44600 {mu}g/100 g). The irradiation of buriti with the dose of 0.5 kGy did not significantly change carotenoids and sugars contents. However, there was a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration with an increase of the dose, which may have been caused by irradiation or by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that alter ascorbic acid stability in food, converting ascorbic to dehydroascorbic acid, while keeping the C vitamin active form. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the potential of additives as corrosion inhibitors of CA-50 carbon steel used as reinforcement in concretes; Avaliacao da potencialidade de aditivos como inibidores de corrosao do aco carbono CA-50 usado como armadura de estruturas de concreto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennucci, Marina Martins

    2006-07-01

    In this work, various compounds were tested to evaluate their potential capability for their use as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel reinforcement in concretes. The additives tested were sodium benzoate, polyethylene glycol, hexamethylenetetramine, benzotriazole and yttrium carbonate. Initially, exploratory tests were carried out to select the ones to be used as corrosion inhibitors, based on the inhibit ion efficiency determined from electrochemical tests, specifically polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests were carried out in a solution composed of 0.01 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 0.05 N potassium hydroxide (KOH) to simulate the composition of the solution inside the pores in concretes. The additive that presented the most promising potential to be used as corrosion inhibitor was benzotriazole (BTA). After the elimination of some compounds and selection of the additive with higher corrosion inhibit ion efficiency in the test medium, the effect of its concentration on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was evaluated. Sodium nitrite solutions with the same concentrations as those solutions with BTA were tested for comparison reasons. Sodium nitrite is a well established corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel reinforcement in concretes but it has been related to toxic effects. The BTA was associated to higher corrosion inhibition efficiencies than that of sodium nitrite in similar concentrations. A blackish adherent film was formed on the steel surface exposed to BTA solutions during long periods of immersion in the alkaline medium. The results suggest that BTA is a potential candidate for substitution of nitrites as corrosion inhibitor of reinforcements in concrete. (author)

  9. Evaluation of color and radon exhalation rate in granite rocks between accelerated aging cycles; Avaliacao da cor e taxa de exalacao de radonio em rochas graniticas entre ciclos de envelhecimento acelerado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Diones Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Data used for the assessment of the analyzes performed on three types of dimension stone (Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Artico), in natural state and after several cycles of accelerated aging are presented, correlating them with the gas exhalation rate radon issued by the analyzed lithologies. In the samples were conducted permeability, porosity, colorimetry, image analysis, petrographic and exhalation rate of radon, accompanied by aging tests on climate simulation chamber which simulates change situations of materials by weathering agents, accelerating wear and tear samples. The measurements were performed on samples in natural state, with 50 and 100 cycles of aging acceleration, where each cycle corresponds to variations in temperature and humidity in climatic simulation chamber, with the addition of an internal atmosphere of SO{sub 2} with 25 concentration ppm. The results obtained during the tests were related to better analysis of the changes observed on the samples and the variation rate of exhalation radon emitted. The rocks have radon concentration values above the limits suggested by relevant international agencies (200-400 Bq/m³), with average values in the natural state, in 6149, 1619 and 866 Bq/m³ for Juparana Bordeaux, Branco Nevasca and Golden Arctic, respectively. The other aging cycles (50 and 100 cycles) showed an average increase of 0.8% for Juparana Bordeaux, 6.9% for White Blizzard and -23.87% for the Golden Arctic, with 50 cycles. From 50 to 100 cycles, there was reduction of 3.43% for Juparana Bordeaux and 22.15% for Branco Nevasca and an increase of 13.82% in the Golden Artico. The porosity results in the natural state obtained values an average of 0.696% for Juparana Bordeaux, 0.919% for Branco Nevasca and 0.830% for Golden Artico, and after 50 cycles of accelerated aging, obtained 0.621% to Juparana Bordeaux, 0.910% for Branco Nevasca and 0.840% for Golden Artico. The permeability of the samples showed values in the natural state, in mDarcy, of 1,49E{sup -4} to Juparana Bordeaux, 3,41E{sup -4} to Branco Nevasca and 1,56E-{sup -4} for the Golden Artico, and in 100 cycles, the results were 4,92E{sup -4} to Juparana Bordeaux, 4,72E{sup -4} to Branco Nevasca and 4,88E-4 for Golden Artico. The image analysis and colorimetry showed that the samples visually showed minor variations in color during the accelerated aging cycles. With these results we it is considered that after accelerated aging cycles, the rocks studied showed an increase in most parameters assessed, especially in permeability, and a consequent increase in the rate of exhalation gas radon. (author)

  10. Assessment of influence of OSL dosimeters in the skin dose in radiotherapy: study for Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao da influencia de dosimetros OSL na dose na pele em radioterapia: estudo por simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Franciely F.; Nicolucci, Patricia, E-mail: franschuch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeiraoo Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The interest in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry materials is growing due to its potential use in quality control in Radiotherapy. The use of these dosimeters for in vivo dosimetry, however, may influence the dose to the skin and deeper tissues in the patient. The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of the OSL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material in dose deposited in the skin and deep in Radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate this purpose when OSL dosimeters of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are positioned on the skin surface of the patient. Percentage depth dose curves for clinical beams of 6 and 10 MV were simulated with and without the presence of the dosimeter on the surface of a water phantom. The results showed a decrease of doses in regions close to the surface of the skin. In the build-up region, the maximum decreases of dose produced by the presence of the dosimeters were 52,5% and 47,5% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. After the build-up region, there are not significant changes in the doses for any of the used beams. The differences of doses found are due to the influence of the dosimetric material on the relative fluence of electrons near the end surface of the dosimeter. Thus, the results showed that the presence of the dosimetric material on the surface interferes on the skin dose. However, these dosimeters do not cause dose variations in depths of clinical interest, allowing its application in routine in vivo dosimetry in Radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Evaluation of skin entrance radiation dose in pediatric patients undergoing chest X-rays exams; Avaliacao da dose de entrada na pele em pacientes pediatricos submetidos a exames radiograficos do torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabardo, Farly Piantini

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the incident air kerma of lateral (LAT) and anterior-posterior (AP) together with posterior-anterior (PA) projection chest X-ray exams in one of the largest pediatric hospitals in Brazil. Dosimetric results are accompanied with the detailed analysis of patient characteristics and radiographer strategy. The exams of 225 (119 male and 106 female) patients were studied and 389 X-ray exams (200 AP/PA projections and 189 LAT projections) of pediatric patients were acquired. Patient thickness can be restored from age, height or weight with the uncertainty of ∼20-30%. Very slight correlation between the patient dose and thickness was observed with the difference in dose for patients of the same thickness reaching 4 times. By standardization of radiological protocols, it should be possible to keep dose within the intervals 50-100 μGy for LAT projection and 40-80 μGy for AP/PA projection. The dose values are lower than those recommended by major European guidelines to good practice. (author)

  12. Use of the HRICP-MS technique for the evaluation of boron isotopes in Eucalitpus plants; Uso da tecnica HRICP-MS na avaliacao dos isotopos de boro em eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiello, Edson Marcio; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro da, E-mail: mattiello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The {sup 10}B isotope tracer technique is essential to study the B mobility in plants. Factors that can influence the quality of measured B isotope ratios were optimized experimentally using High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HRICP-MS). An isotopically certified standard (NIST SRM-951) was used. The best combination was obtained using a resolution of 400, a RF power of 1250 W, followed by 15 measurements over a 10-s integration period each (15*10). Utilizing this approach it was possible to obtain a precision of 0.3 % in standard material and 2z % in the experimental samples. The results show the importance of establishing optimized work conditions before carrying out the analytical series. (author)

  13. Evaluation of radiochemistry purity and p H of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Pernambuco, Brazil; Avaliacao da pureza radioquimica e pH de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Poliane A.L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are cellular or molecular structures that have a radionuclide in its composition and they are used for diagnosing or treating diseases. The evaluation of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is essential to produce images with artifacts free, as well as avoid unnecessary absorbed dose to the patient. Since they are administered in humans is important and necessary that they undergo rigorous quality control. Due to this fact, the norm in ANVISA RDC 38/2008 declaring the mandatory completion of a minimum of tests in routine nuclear medicine services before human administration. (author)

  14. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the {sup 99}Tc{sup m} measurements in the nuclear medicine; Aplicacao de teste de proficiencia para avaliacao da medicao de {sup 99}Tc{sup m} na medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: aedu@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nicoli, Ieda Gomes, E-mail: ieda@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Escritorio de Brasilia; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria, E-mail: falabarse@ird.gov.b, E-mail: axavier@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2009-07-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing {sup 99}Tc{sup m}. Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  15. Consideration on the uncertainty evaluation in the obtention of PDD curve in quality assurance in teletherapy; Consideracoes sobre avaliacao de incertezas na obtencao da curva de PDD na garantia de qualidade em teleterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Emer; Pinto, Fernando Sandi; Sousa Junior, Samuel Facanha; Freitas, Dayslon Luiz Gaudareto; Andrade, Lucio das Chagas de, E-mail: lucio-andrade@hotmail.com [Fundacao do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The PDD is a relative dosimetry of great importance in beam quality assurance. Although PDD is obtained by the ratio of two dose measurements, there are the type B uncertainty that must be considered in the expression of the result of this percentage. The malposition of the Tank Getting simulator must be corrected by making the best alignment possible. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the permeability of microporous membranes polyamide 6 / clay bentonite for water-oil separation; Avaliacao da permeabilidade de membranas microporosas de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica para separacao agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, P.S.S.; Medeiros, K.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Lira, H.L., E-mail: keilamm@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The petroleum refining industries have faced major problems in relation to the treatment of their effluents before disposal into the environment. Among the conventional technologies treatment of these effluents, the process of oil-water separation by means of membranes has been extensively used, for having enormous potentiality. Therefore, in this study, hybrid membranes of polyamide 6/ bentonite clay were produced by the technique of phase inversion and by precipitation of the solution from the nanocomposites obtained by melt intercalation. The clay was organically modified with the quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide®). The nanocomposites were obtained from (PA6) with untreated (AST) and treated clay (ACT), which were subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Already membranes were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow measurements. From the XRD results, it was observed an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure for the nanocomposites and for the membranes. From SEM images it was observed that the presence of AST and ACT clays in the polymeric matrix caused changes in membrane morphology and pore formation. The flow with distilled water in the membranes showed a decrease initially and then followed by stability. All membranes tested in the process of separating emulsions of oil in water, particularly those of nanocomposites obtained a significant reduction of oil concentration in the permeate, thus showing that these membranes have a great potential to be applied to the water-oil separation. (author)

  17. Impregnation of 12-tungstophosphoric acid on silica - part I: determination of impregnation parameters, characterization and evaluation of catalytic activity; Impregnacao do acido 12-fosfotungstico em silica - parte I: determinacao de parametros de impregnacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao da atividade catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroccaro, Karine Isabel; Tanobe, Valcineide Oliveira de Andrade; Cocco, Lilian Cristina; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo, E-mail: karineisabel@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Wypych, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Catalyst based on Kegging-type heteropolyacids (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} - HPA), supported on SiO{sub 2} (H{sub 3}PW), were prepared by the impregnation method under different thermal treatment conditions. The materials were characterized by different instrumental techniques and used as catalysts in the methyl esterification reactions of stearic acid. Using the catalyst with 15% of HPA, conversions higher than 60% were obtained after 2 h of reaction at 65 deg C. Recovery studies using hot-filtration with ethanol at 75 deg C showed satisfactory activity for two additional reaction cycles. (author)

  18. Niobium (V) doped bioceramics: evaluation of the hydrothermal route modified with citric acid and urea to obtain modified hydroxyapatite; Bioceramicas aditivadas com niobio (V): avaliacao da rota hidrotermica modificada com acido citrico e ureia para obtencao de hidroxiapatitas modificadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simomukay, E.; Souza, E.C.F. de; Antunes, S.R.M.; Borges, C.P.F.; Michel, M.D.; Antunes, A.C. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}; HA) has become a widely used ceramic material for bone reconstruction due to its biocompatibility with the bone tissue. This biocompatibility as well as other physical and chemical properties of the hydroxyapatite can be modified by the addition of different ions to its structure. Niobium (V) ion has not been commonly used in the hydroxyapatite synthesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrothermal route in the niobium (V) doped hydroxyapatite synthesis. The route used the niobium ammonium oxalate (NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}[NbO(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}].3H{sub 2}O) complex as a niobium (V) ion precursor. The addition of citric acid and urea in the hydrothermal route is used for the control of synthesis pH and precipitation rate. Pure sample and sample added with 5.3 ppm of niobium (V) ion were prepared. The coexistence of other phases besides the hydroxyapatite was not observed in any of the samples through the use of X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The FTIR technique revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite characteristic functional groups. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the formation of agglomerates composed of round particles, confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy technique. The X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic analysis detected the presence of niobium in the doped sample. The results showed that niobium (V) doped hydroxyapatite can be synthesized by means of hydrothermal route, which may be considered as huge potential for future application in bioceramics. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimally processed; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Hayward minimamente processado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio

    2011-07-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to rethink their eating habits, consuming fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, therefore, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has high nutritional value, being rich in C vitamin especially, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Thus, along with papaya, passion fruit and pineapple, kiwi can be considered as an additional feature of C vitamin in the diet, or as a substitute for traditional citrus. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of gamma radiation on physical and chemical characteristics of kiwis minimally processed and stored under refrigeration, since this technology increases the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The Kiwis was stripped, processed and cut into slices, stored in polyethylene bags of 10 cm squared and irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1 and 2 kGy. A source of {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220, dose rate of 0.429 kGy/hour, in which each treatment had 5 replicates with 15 slices of kiwifruit per replicate. After irradiation the samples were stored in a climatic chamber at 6 degree C (near the temperature of commercial refrigerators). The following criteria were physical chemical analysis: pH, color, chlorophyll content, loss of weight, moisture, acidity and Brix. The analysis were done on 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} days after irradiation. The results indicated that gamma radiation did not induce deleterious changes in the physicochemical properties of the kiwi may be used for preservation of minimally processed kiwifruit. (author)

  20. An evaluation of the participation of the social movements on the decision making process and planning of the electric sector; Uma avaliacao da participacao dos movimentos sociais no planejamento e no processo decisorio do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral Hernandez, Francisco del; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: delmoral@hotmail.com; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents some reflexions on the possibility of a public sphere in the decision making process in the energetic sector. By using the conceptual mark of Juergen HABERMAS, some reflexions on the political participation specificities at Latin America, mainly those ones suggested by AVRITZER (2002) and the theoretical reflexions of HONNETH (2003) recognition fight and construction in the social movements, the work tries the verification of how far the requirements of social organizations identified in this work are from a desirable situation, or else a more effective participation of the social movements on the decisions and planning spaces and the deliberative character of the public discussion space in the area of energy.

  1. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  2. Effects of JPEG data compression on magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of small vessels ischemic lesions of the brain; Efeitos da compressao de dados JPEG na avaliacao de lesoes vasculares cerebrais isquemicas de pequenos vasos em ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriki, Paulo Eduardo de Aguiar; Abdala, Nitamar; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Carrete Junior, Henrique; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: paulokuriki@gmail.com

    2006-01-15

    Objective: to establish the maximum achievable JPEG compression ratio without affecting quantitative and qualitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of ischemic lesion in small vessels of the brain. Material and method: fifteen DICOM images were converted to JPEG with a compression ratio of 1:10 to 1:60 and were assessed together with the original images by three neuro radiologists. The number, morphology and signal intensity of the lesions were analyzed. Results: lesions were properly identified up to a 1:30 ratio. More lesions were identified with a 1:10 ratio then in the original images. Morphology and edges were properly evaluated up toa 1:40 ratio. Compression did not affect signal. Conclusion: small lesions were identified ( < 2 mm ) and in all compression ratios the JPEG algorithm generated image noise that misled observers to identify more lesions in JPEG images then in DICOM images, thus generating false-positive results.(author)

  3. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength observed in the composites specimens. Besides that, this reduction did not affect negatively mechanical properties of blends compared to the composites. Ionizing radiation neither promoted detectable interaction between polymeric matrix and fibers. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that lixiviation products from homopolymers, blend and composites did not release sufficient amount of substances to induce significant cellular death. Thermal processing used to obtain composites and previous acetylation by chemical treatment contributed to the bioburden reduce. Furthermore, reducing initial bioburden it was possible to diminish radiation doses needed to perform sterilization. Enzymatic and soil degradation were not negatively affected by radiation processing. Even though fiber incorporation to the polymer blend slightly reduced degradation process, composites continued degrading through time. Artifacts produced by means of the materials studied here can be radiation processed with doses up to 100 kGy without prejudice of their biodegradability. (author)

  4. Environmental assessment on PETROBRAS pipeline projects: case study of Cacimbas-Catu gas pipeline; Engenharia de avaliacao ambiental no processo de concepcao de projetos de dutos da PETROBRAS - estudo de caso do Gasoduto Cacimbas (ES) - Catu (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Pereira, Junior, Edson R; Fonseca, Renata A. Almeida; Rocha, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luis Felipe [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Avaliacao Ambiental

    2005-07-01

    The environmental assessment process is one of the most important phases in the implementation of pipeline projects. For that reason, new technologies and work procedures are used to perform the environmental assessment of areas where pipeways will be implemented. Since the quality of environmental assessment studies influences the social acceptance of projects and, consequently, the time required to obtain the environmental permits, PETROBRAS (Engenharia/IETEG/ETEG/EAMB) applies advanced technological tools to acquire remote sensing data (conventional / digital aero-surveys and satellite images), as well as software for digital image processing and integration and spatial analysis of information. Information about the physical, biological and socioeconomic environments are further verified and complemented through field trips using helicopters. This process makes it possible to identify environmentally favorable corridors to develop guidelines for the implementation of the pipeline, assuring its environmental feasibility, and produces relevant data to support the Environmental Impact Assessment Study, the Environmental Impact Assessment Report and the Risk Analysis Study. As an example of the application of this methodology, this paper presents results of the assessment of the Cacimbas / Catu gas pipeline, which is currently being permitted and is planned to be implemented in areas of high environmental complexity. (author)

  5. Evaluation of mercury contamination in sediments from Santos - Sao Vicente Estuarine system, in period of 1996 -2000; Avaliacao da contaminacao por mercurio dos sedimentos do Estuario Santos - Sao Vicente, no periodo de 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortellani, Marcos Antonio

    2003-07-01

    The distribution of mercury contamination in the Santos - Sao Vicente Estuarine System was observed through the analysis of seventy seven surface sediments samples collected in two series. In different periods and points, since the Channel of Piacaguera, the head of the system, , through the estuarine arms of Santos and Sao Vicente as far as the Bay of Santos, about 30 Km downstream, and in different mangrove areas, including industrial and harbor influence zones. The obtained values ranged from 0.03 to 1.19 {mu}g g {sup -1} About 90% of the samples of the first series collected among 1997-1998 and 50% of the second series collected among 1999-2000 presented levels of Hg > 0,13 {mu}g g {sup -1} ,limit considered by the Canadian legislation and adopted by CETESB, below which doesn't happen adverse effect in the biological community. And about 35% of samples of the first series and 11 % of the second series presented concentrations of Hg > 0.698 {mu}g g {sup -1} probable level of occurrence of adverse effect in the biological community. These results indicate an increase of the mercury levels caused by the industrial, port and urban activities. The mercury concentration in sediments was determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, coupling with a flow injection system by a cold vapor generation, using a manual injection valve (FIA-CVAAS). The estimate of the uncertainties associated to this procedure was calculated. The following elements were also determined: Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Co in 46 samples of the second series, by atomic absorption spectrometry. In order to verify possible relationship among all the investigated elements in the samples sediments, was carried out a statistical study, using the SPSS-8.0 software. Pearson correlation and Principal Component's analysis were used for with the objective to identify of major relationship for additional exploration of the general behavior of the data. (author)

  6. Energy evaluation of soil preparation for deployment of the eucalyptus culture: a subsidy for sustainable analysis; Avaliacao energetica do preparo do solo para implantacao da cultura de eucalipto: subsidio para uma analise de sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Quintana, Nuria Rosa Gagliardi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura

    2004-07-01

    The knowledge of the production and expenditure of energy for the agriculture are fundamental due, among other factors, to the strategic importance that occupies as producing of energy input for other economic sections. With the objective of presenting the participation of the several energy types employees in the soil prepare for implantation of the eucalyptus culture, this work is constituted in a contribution regarding the subject of the sustain grow. It was determined that the field hypothetical to be prepared possesses soil with sandy texture and raise plan or soft-wavy, where the minimum cultivation of the soil allows without problems, the use of 'subsolador florestal multifuncional'. The silviculture practical, linked to the minimum cultivation of the soil in the implantation of the culture was: liming, court of the residues and roots, subsoil, basic fertilizing, control chemical of undesirable plants and control chemical of ants. The technical coefficients, the work day, the revenue, the identification of the tractors, implements and equipment; its specifications and respective consumption of fuel, lubricants and greases, besides the quantification of the labor used by silviculture practical, were certain starting from collected secondary data. The adopted methodological procedures were based in literature revision. In agreement with the obtained results, it was ended that of the total of energy maid's 3.309,62 MJ for hectare in the soil prepare, it is had the participation of 83,30% of industrial energy, 16,52% of fossil energy and 0,18% of biological energy. It was verified like this that the dependence of the industrial energy and of the fossil energy in the soil prepare. In that way, we suggest himself the search of the use of another types of energy that they allow the energy sustainability of this agro-ecosystems. (author)

  7. Evaluation of occupational exposure to chemicals in research and development laboratories in the petrochemical industry; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional a substancias quimicas em laboratorios de pesquisa e desenvolvimento na area petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Paulo Antonio de Paiva [Seguranca, Meio Ambiente, Eficiencia Energetica e Saude (SMES). Gerencia de Saude (Brazil)], e-mail: prebelo@petrobras.com.br; Coeli, Medina [Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro (UN-RIO). Gerencia de Seguranca(Brazil)], e-mail: leo.medina@petrobras.com.br; Rosa, Henrique Vicente Della; Nascimento, Elizabeth de Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)], e-mails: hdellarosa@toxikon.com, esnasci@usp.br

    2009-04-15

    A sectional study was conducted on workers in 137 laboratories, 30 pilot units and support areas of a research center in order to evaluate the level of occupational exposure based on environmental measurements from the 2004's workplace environmental protection program with the aim of assessing the risk of health injury arising from occupational exposure to chemical agents. The recognition task was developed using interviews and secondary data from safety programs covering health and environmental risks of all procedures, facilities / equipment and activities. 2,738 cases of exposure were identified, involving exposure to 484 chemicals (with 246 agents and 238 chemicals mixtures), ranging in purity and concentration, found in 243 jobs. The target population comprised 1,563 workers exposed to chemical agents, subdivided into 168 different Homogeneous Group of Expose with an average of 4.55 employees per group. In each workplace were identified, on average, 4.91 HGE and, on average, 3.73 chemicals. Regarding the 2,738 cases of chemical agents versus activity, in 14% of the cases (382 cases) there was daily exposure, in 82.1% (2,249 cases) the frequency of use varied from two to three times a week and in the remaining 3.9% (107 cases) the use was sporadic, about once a week or less. Nine of the ten most frequently used substances were hydrocarbons. 977 samples (485 samples of chemicals and 492 samples of benzene) were measured. Out of the total number of measurements taken, 91.9% of the evaluations corresponding to 92.5% of workers who work with chemicals, presented environmental measurement results below the action level, demonstrating, therefore, exposure to low concentrations.Chemical were found in most areas of work and accounts for 81% of occupational exposure in the evaluated laboratories. There is evidence of presence of one given substance in various locations, as well as of a great diversity of frequently used chemicals, since in every workplace 3.73 chemicals on average were identified, ranging from 1 to 12 and 96.1% of cases. Exposure to a given substance occurs at least every three days; in 14% of cases it happens on a daily basis, involving 71.5% of chemicals. In the study group, 59% of workers remain in business for over ten years, undergoing exposure for a long time (chronic). (author)

  8. Evaluation of Sao Paulo population knowledge about nuclear energia and radioactive wastes. Did the Goiania accident rise any interest ?; Avaliacao do conhecimento da populacao paulistana sobre a energia nuclear e os rejeitos radioativos. O acidente de Goiania despertou o interesse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzyski, Barbara M.; Sartori, Carla E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The results of the inquire collected in 1996, about 10 years after Goiania accident, regarding to the knowledge of nuclear energy and rad wastes are presented. The survey was performed among university students and the population of the Sao Paulo city, of all social levels and different ages. The results show that people between 45 and 55 years are more receptive to the matter. It was observed that the major part of the information absorbed by the public arise form news divulged by newspapers and some spread facts, in cases of incidents or accidents as was Goiania 2 refs., 11 tabs., 1 append.; e-mail: bmrzyski at net.ipen.br

  9. Market evaluation and investment planning in natural gas industry in Brazil: development of the net distribution pipeline; Avaliacao de mercado e planejamento de investimentos na industria de gas natural no Brasil: perspectivas de crescimento da malha de gasodutos de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro L.; Pamplona, Edson O. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes to develop a real options model to decision-making investments in flexible technologies. As a result, finding a closed-form solution, derived from the partial differential equation of the value of flexibility provided by alternative fuels. However, you can present and analysis the results of a practical application using the method to solve real options problems known as binomial model. Initially presents a brief explanation on the method of discounted cash flow, its failures and changes to the real options analysis. In the sequence chart an overview of the natural gas industry on Brazil, emphasizing the need for consistent investments evaluations in the sector. The next section shows the proposed development of mathematical model for assessing the flexibility to choose, obtained by the exchange of fuel for transport of gas pipeline distribution of natural gas. The model takes as the case scenario where the flexible pipeline can carry both natural gas and hydrogen, and the evaluation of the option of exchanging input gives more value to the investment opportunity, and consider the optimum conditions where the option to be exercised. Keywords: Decision Making, Real Options; Natural Gas, Flexible Technology. (author)

  10. Assessment of the adsorptive capacity of the Kaolin deposit targeting its use on the removal of colors in aqueous solution; Avaliacao da capacidade adsortiva do rejeito de caulim visando seu uso na remocao de corantes em solucao aquosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, S.C.; Hildebrando, E.A., E-mail: matos.cintia68@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (FEMat/UFPA), PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The Amazonic region has large and valuable kaolin deposits. The state of Para by itself comprises three large industries which process kaolin. It has been noticed that the waste resulting from the processing of kaolin is rich in silico-aluminate, presenting potential in adsorption processes. Thus, this research's objective is to assess the kaolin waste produced during the processing phase, aiming at its application as low cost adsorbent material. For that, the kaolin waste has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis (XRF), and then sieved and calcined at 700 ° C, being then subjected to the adsorption process and observed qualitatively its capacity of retention by methylene blue (AM). Preliminary results show that the kaolin waste has satisfactory adsorption capacity at concentrations of up to 50.0 mg / MP, demonstrating the potential that it be used in the removal of dyes in wastewater treatment. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the of thermal shock resistance of a castable containing andalusite aggregates by thermal shock cycles; Avaliacao da resistencia ao dano por choque termico por ciclagem de um concreto refratario contendo agregados de andaluzita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G.C.R.; Santos, E.M.B.; Ribeiro, S., E-mail: girribeiro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Resende, W.S. [Industrias Brasileiras de Artigos Refratarios (IBAR), Lorena, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The thermal shock resistance of refractory materials is one of the most important characteristics that determine their performance in many applications, since abrupt and drastic differences in temperature can damage them. Resistance to thermal shock damage can be evaluated based on thermal cycles, i.e., successive heating and cooling cycles followed by an analysis of the drop in Young's modulus occurring in each cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance to thermal shock damage in a commercial refractory concrete with andalusite aggregate. Concrete samples that were sintered at 1000 deg C and 1450 deg C for 5 hours to predict and were subjected to 30 thermal shock cycles, soaking in the furnace for 20 minutes at a temperature of 1000 deg C, and subsequent cooling in circulating water at 25 deg C. The results showed a decrease in Young's modulus and rupture around 72% for samples sintered at 1000 ° C, and 82% in sintered at 1450 ° C. The refractory sintered at 1450 deg C would show lower thermal shock resistance than the refractory sintered at 1000 deg C. (author)

  12. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser; Avaliacao da reducao bacteriana em conduto radicular infectado e irradiado com laser de diodo. Estudo in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radaelli, Claudia Amaral Rabello de Mello

    2002-07-01

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x10{sup 8} CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 {mu}m optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm{sup 2}. The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at the periapical point which width measured 1 mm, approximately. The maximum temperature variation was 7.45 deg C. Under electron microscope scanning, the control groups showed areas with smear layer covering the dentinal walls. The laser irradiated groups showed a smooth, uniform, clean appearance, with small areas of closed dentinal tubules without cracking alternately with areas of exposed open dentinal tubules. Some parts showed fusion of the dentinal mass (groups irradiated with 3 W). In groups where calcium hydroxide was associated with laser irradiation remains were found over the irradiated surface and, in many parts, the dentinal tubules could not be observed. The use of high intensity diode laser at 830 nm proved to be efficient and able to promote reduction in the Enterococcus faecalis population in the infected root canals. (author)

  13. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberling, Daniel Fontana

    2008-03-15

    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  14. Evaluation of '9{sup 9}Mo presence in eluates of {sup 99}mTc used in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da presenca de {sup 99}Mo em eluatos de {sup 99m}Tc utilizados em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bianca da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Tc-99m is used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine through SPECT technique. It is obtained by the elution of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators. During the elution process {sup 99}Mo can be extracted becoming a radionuclidic impurity. One of the quality parameters of the eluate is the radionuclidic purity, MBT (molybdenum break through), defined as the ratio between {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc activities in the eluate. The North-American and European pharmacopoeias restrict the {sup 99}Mo content, respectively, in 0.015 e 0.1% and, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the activity ratio at the moment of administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient, should not exceed 0.015%. In Brazil, the control of such parameter is not obliged in official regulations. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates. It was initially optimized a methodology to determine the activity of {sup 99}Mo in eluate samples. Efficiency curves were obtained for a NaI (Tl) 8'' x 4'' scintillation detector installed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LABMIV-IRD). The methodology has been validated through the measurement of a {sup 99}Mo standard liquid source calibrated at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The samples analyzed in this work were gently supplied by 5 Nuclear Medicine Clinics located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The activities of {sup 99}mTc and {sup 99}Mo in those samples have been measured respectively at the clinics and at the LABMIV. By applying a standardized methodology, the ration between the activities were calculated. The results show that 147 out of 174 samples presented {sup 99}Mo activities above the minimum detectable activity of the technique. On the other hand, only 2 out of 147 samples surpassed the MBT limit suggested by the IAEA and have been detected in samples eluted from generators of 750 mCi. In one of the samples, eluted from a generator of 1000 mCi, the calculated MBT value was very close to the IAEA limit. However, the results are not sufficient to establish a relationship between MBT values and generator activity. The measurement technique developed has enough sensitivity to detect {sup 99}Mo in {sup 99m}Tc eluates samples and permits to evaluate the quality of the generators used by the Clinics participating in this study. Furthermore, it was developed a spreadsheet aimed to calculate MBT values at the moment of elution to be used by the staff of the clinic. (author)

  15. Evaluation of demand for water and electricity for papaya micro sprinkler irrigation system in Paraiba state, Brazil; Avaliacao das demandas de agua e energia eletrica para mamao irrigado por microaspersao no estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Riuzuani Michelle Bezerra Pedrosa; Dantas Neto, Jose; Farias, Soahd Arruda Rached Farias; Azevedo, Carlos Alberto Vieira de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais. Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: riuzuani@yahoo.com.br, zedantas@deag.ufcg.edu.br, soahd_rached@hotmail.com, cazevedo@deag.ufcg.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an assessment on the demands for water and electricity for fruit irrigated by micro sprinkler irrigation in agricultural planning. We obtained the demands of gross water and electricity for papaya in 15 municipalities spread over the Rio Paraiba-PB, which was used by micro irrigation system with 90% application efficiency. The city of Joao Pessoa is the place to lower water consumption, requiring 32.9% of the amount required for papaya in Exile, which had the highest annual and daily evapotranspiration, combined with the lowest annual rainfall likely at a 75 % probability. The municipalities were chosen because they had a greater variance in terms of climate, in order to examine various irrigation demands. In Exile is a necessary volume of water-to 8.006,9 m{sup 3}.ha{sup -1}.year{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya while in Joao Pessoa need to 2.712,89 m{sup 3}.ha-1.year{sup -1}. The consumption of electricity in the city of Desterro is higher among the cities studied, necessitating 2.009,0 kW.ha{sup -1}.ano{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya, while in Joao Pessoa we only need 876,54 kW.ha {sup -1}.ano{sup -1} (author)

  16. Assessment of the occupational exposure of the workers involved in the {sup 123}I production at the IEN/CNEN-RJ; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional dos trabalhadores envolvidos na producao de {sup 123}I no IEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisco de

    2005-07-01

    {sup 123}I is a gamma emitter used for diagnosis in Nuclear Medicine. Since 1998 it is produced in the Institute of Nuclear Energy (IEN) and supplied to the Clinics and Hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The annual production is in the approximately of 0,74 TBq (20 Ci), which represents a risk of external and internal exposure to the workers involved in this activity. A survey of external doses in the period of 1994 to 2004 was carried out based on the individual registries available in the CONEXO Data Base operated by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). It was verified an increase of the external exposure associated to the production curve. However, the individual doses are all bellow the annual limits established by the regulatory board. On the other hand, the variation of doses among individuals involved in the same tasks suggests the possibility of optimization of procedures. Regarding internal exposure it was calculated a decision factor above 1mSv for the practice, which justifies the need for internal monitoring. An evaluation of the process based on the results of in vivo thyroid monitoring in the period of 2000 to 2004 was carried out to identify the steps which represent higher risk of internal exposure. The available data indicate that the laboratory of quality control is the critical step in terms of internal contamination. This conclusion can be justified by the high volatility of iodine which is manipulated in the form of a liquid open source during this step. With the aim of optimizing monitoring procedures for the control of occupationally exposed workers in the production of {sup 123}I, in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods were developed to identify and quantify internal contamination by such radionuclide, using the detection systems available at the Bioassay Laboratory and at the In Vivo Measurements Laboratory. The techniques developed present sensitivity compatible with the derived registry level associated to the committed effective dose equivalent of 1mSv. It was also established a methodology for the interpretation of bioassay data using the software AIDE. The methods developed in this work can be used to implement improvements in the radiation protection program of the IEN. It is suggested to increase the frequency of in vivo measurements and to include in vitro bioassay in the monitoring program, which will permit a better evaluation of the internal doses of the workers(author)

  17. Evaluation of the price volatility of short-term in Brazil and its relation with the thermal generation; Avaliacao da volatilidade do preco de curto prazo no Brasil e sua relacao com a geracao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideier, R.B.; Prado, F.A.A.; Saidel, M.A.; Ueocka, M.Z. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mails: fernando@sinerconsult.com.br, saidel@pea.usp.br, marcos.ueocka@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article evaluate the intensity of volatility of the electric power prices in the short term market in selected countries. It were analyzed historical series of monthly prices of major energy markets worldwide, with assessment of the energy matrix of each region. The study, by analysis of data entry program for optimizing the operation of the SIN (NEWAVE and DECOM), concludes that the price volatility in short-term in Brazil is marked by the large variation of thermal power available, especially the lack of natural gas.

  18. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars; Avaliacao da lama vermelha como material pozolanico em substituicao ao cimento para producao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C., E-mail: elizmanfroi@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: malik@valores.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  19. Radiological investigation in the outside area of expedition's room during radiopharmaceuticals' expedition; Avaliacao radiologica na area externa da sala de expedicao durante a expedicao de radiofarmacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, Luiz C.; Monteiro, Ilka H.T.S.; Silva, Joao Carlos P. da; Teixeira, Danilo L.; Pedro, C.R.; Santos, J. Regis dos, E-mail: reina@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcarlos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals produced in IEN - Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, are issued by the radiation protection team, which is responsible for preparing and issuing the packaged documentation required for movement in modal transportation. The documents are: Invoice , Shipper's Declaration of Radioactive Material , Shipper's Declaration of Dangerous Goods - (form IATA ) , Emergency Sheet, sketch of packed. All this documentation is inserted in an envelope of emergency. The Department of Radiological Protection is responsible for issuing such documents except the invoice that is issued by the Commercial Sector (Setcom). A employee of this sector is responsible for delivering it to the shipment sector. The preparation of packaged and documentation is performed in a room located in the building of Radiopharmaceutical Division. The vehicles which are used in the transport are parked outside this building, where are monitored after commissioning of packaged. The present study aims to evaluate potential and occupational radiation risks of people in transit or remain in the area where radioactive material circulates due to the shipment of radiopharmaceuticals for the classification of the area during the operation of dispatch.

  20. Evaluation of energy efficiency of climatization system in dairy cattle free-stall; Avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de sistemas de climatizacao em galpoes tipo 'free-stall' para confinamento de bovinos leiteiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perissinoto, Mauricio [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Setor de Construcoes Rurais], Email: mperissi@esalqusp.br; Moura, Daniella Jorge de; Lima, Karla Andrea Oliveira de; Mendes, Angelica Signor [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Matarazzo, Soraia Vanessa

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this research was the evaluation of the economical efficiency, in relation to water and energy expenses, of two different evaporative cooling systems, misting and sprinkler, associated with forced ventilation. The study was carried out in a commercial dairy cattle farm located in a small city of Sao Paulo State. The experimental period was twenty-eight consecutive days of November 2003. For the economical analysis of each system of climatization the cost with electrical energy and water expended in each system was considered and also the feeding consumption. The sprinkling cooling system presented a greater consumption of water and energy than the misting system. Even those treatments promoting similar feed intake (the difference was 3.0 kg DM.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}), the sprinkling system associated to forced ventilation led to an increase (18.0 liters.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}) of 3% in milk production. As consequence, it was observed an increase of 5,8% in total month profit in relation to misting system. (author)

  1. Application of support vector machines in the evaluation of reliability generation and transmission systems; Aplicacao de maquinas de vetores suporte na avaliacao da confiabilidade de sistemas de geracao e transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Wellington Damascena; Resende, Leonidas Chaves de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil); Manso, Luiz Antonio da Fonseca; Silva, Armando Martins Leite da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the reliability indices for composite generation and transmission systems based on Support Vector Machines (SVM). The importance of SVMs is its high generalization ability. The SVMs are used to classify data into two distinct classes. These can be named positive and negative. Thus, the basic idea is to classify the system states into success or failure. For this, a pre-classification of states is achieved by performing the proposed SVM-based neural network, where the sampled states during the beginning of the non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) are considered as input data for training and validation sets. By adopting this procedure, a large number of states are classified by a simple evaluation of the network, providing significant reductions in computational costs. The proposed methodology is applied to the IEEE Reliability Test System and to the IEEE Modified Reliability Test System. (author)

  2. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results; Avaliacao da presenca de NORM no tratamento de agua do municipio de Pocos de Caldas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianomotaferreira@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  3. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the reservoir was carried out and the possibility of these elements interfering adversely on biota and water quality of this environment. (author)

  4. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating; Avaliacao da potencialidade de argilas do Rio Grande do Norte quando submetidas a elevadas taxas de aquecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira, R L; Pereira, L M; Dutra, R P.S.; Nascimento, R M [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  5. Evaluation of natural clay Brasgel as adsorbent in removal of lead in synthetic waste water; Avaliacao da argila Brasgel natural como adsorvente na remocao de chumbo de efluentes sinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, W.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Mota, M.F.; Patricio, A.C.L.; Silva, M.M., E-mail: wsl_20@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LABNOV/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Novos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The smectite clays have high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. Due to its chemical and physical characteristics, they can be effectively used as adsorbent of pollutants (such as metal ions). The initial objective of this study was to characterize the clay Brasgel through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Spectrometry by Energy Dispersive (EDX) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method), seeking its use in removing lead (Pb{sup 2+}) from synthetic effluents. System was used in finite bath to assess the potential removal of lead (Pb{sup 2+}), following a 2{sup 2} factorial experimental design with three center point experiments, taking as input variables: pH and initial concentrations of lead (Pb{sup 2+}). The clay has Brasgel clay in its composition that characterize it as a smectite clay. By having a large surface area, this clay showed great potential on the adsorption of metal ions. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  8. Root planing with Er:YAG laser X Gracey curette, a study in vitro in scanning electron microscopic study; Avaliacao em microscopia eletronica de varredura da superficie radicular, raspada e alisada com Er: YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Fabiano Augusto Sfier de

    2000-07-01

    The Er:YAG laser has been studied as a periodontal therapies, used to remove subgingival calculus and its bactericidal effects. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser in root planing in comparison to the traditional method, not surgical. Six recently extracted due to the disease periodontal, were cut longitudinally, tends like this two half of the root. These half were separate in four groups. The first group is the natural tooth (group controls negative), the second group (group controls) was accomplished to root planing with Gracey curette. And in the third to Er:YAG laser with a contact tip, using a 45 deg angle in relation to the root; in the fourth group was scraped and planned with Er:YAG laser and complemented root planing with Gracey curette. The used energy was of 100 mJ (out put) and the frequency of 10 Hz accomplished with irrigation. The obtained results were similar in the groups 2 and 3 in comparison to the amount of smear-layer. In group 4 however, better result was obtained, because the image (SEM) was much more regular and with less amount of smear-layer. The conclusion of the work is that with the association of the laser technique and Gracey curette the results are superior to the conventional treatment. (author)

  9. HDPE/LLDPE blend-based nanocomposites - Part I: evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties and weathering resistance; Nanocompositos de blendas HDPE/LLDPE e OMMT - parte I: avaliacao das propriedades termo-mecanicas e da resistencia ao intemperismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passador, Fabio R.; Backes, Eduardo H.; Travain, Daniel R.; Ruvolo Filho, Adhemar; Pessan, Luiz A., E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    Nano composites from high density polyethylene/ linear low density polyethylene (HDPE/LLDPE) blends were prepared at the melt state in an extruder, using HDPE-g-MA as compatibilizer agent. The structural characterization was performed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that adding the compatibilizer induced formation of a predominant intercalated microstructure. Dynamic-mechanical studies showed that the addition of the compatibilizer increases the interactions between the nano clay surface and the polyolefin matrix. The weathering conditions affected the mechanical behavior of HDPE/LLDPE blend-based nano composites. Both treatments performed in hot water and in a forced convection air oven provided the relief of residual stresses in the polymer matrix, while the treatment in an accelerated aging chamber provided the formation of carbonyl groups that lead to a decreased degree of crystallinity and elastic modulus of the nanocomposites. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the nanoparticle treatment effect on the development of nanocomposite resin epoxy/kaolinite;Avaliacao do efeito do tratamento da nanoparticula no desenvolvimento de nanocomposito resina epoxi/caulinita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tharsia C.C.; Mendonca, Rannier M., E-mail: tharsia@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Ito, Edson N; Melo, Jose D.D.; Paskocimas, Carlos A., E-mail: ito@ufrnet.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The nanocomposites formed from polymer matrices and mineral clays have been studied since the decade of 60s when Blumstein demonstrated the intercalation the polymer molecules between lamellae of montmorillonite. The application of the kaolinite in nanocomposite polymeric is rare, however the kaolinite is expandable and it is possible to do the process of the superficial functionalization. The present work demonstrates that after leaching process of the kaolinite through a chemical treatment with hydrogen peroxide combined with acid solutions the kaolinite inside presents a surface activated with good resulted of dispersion of a polymers matrix by a mechanical agitation, in high-energy mill. The samples had been characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed the potential of using the functionalized kaolinite as an agent of reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  12. Evaluation of CFD numerical models for the study of the flow of water from the RMB pool; Avaliacao de modelos numericos de CFD para o estudo do escoamento de agua da piscina do RMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Bruno Leonhardt; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos; Rezende, Hugo Cesar, E-mail: blp@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEM-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Schweizer, Fernando Lage Araujo, E-mail: flas@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    In this work two numerical models were developed for the study of the flow in the pool of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor-RMB using two computer codes: FLUENT and CFX. The codes presents big differences that may affect the results and performance of the simulation. An example is the mesh, which can be fully composed of regular hexahedral and present local refinement in FLUENT, due to the implementation of the solution focused on the element, which is not possible in CFX, which takes a node-centric solution. The temperature profiles were evaluated over the time of simulation. The research and the defining of an appropriate and optimized numerical model will be of fundamental importance for the RMB hot water layer project.

  13. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate whether exposure to ionizing radiation to which women are subjected can be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Goiania. The defined study area is the central region of Goiania, or the Sanitary Districts of Campinas-Centro and Sul, in which are the seven major accident sources of contamination with Cesium 137, and also, as shown by previous study, the majority of new cases of breast cancer (60,43 %). We used the geographical division of the city in census tracts and health districts. The data collection was divided in two stages: the first, for the survey of radiometric measurements, and the second, for identifying the addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The radiometric survey occurred between 2010 and 2014, in which was used an environmental gamma radiation mobile measuring system. This system was composed by a high-sensitivity detector coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a microcomputer. The assembly was installed on a motor vehicle so that the height of the detector is found at one meter from the ground, and programmed to obtain a measurement of the doses absorbed in the air rate each second. The data collected were: doses absorbed in the air rate, geographical coordinates, altitude, date and time of acquisition. From Mobisys software, files were generated and from ArcGIS 10.0 platform, geospatial assessment survey through the elaboration of thematic maps and geospatial analysis statistics. The annual averages of effective doses and collective effective doses were estimated from the rate of doses absorbed in air collected by the system and the resident population in the census tracts. The second stage begun from the data collection at the Registry of Goiania's Population Based Cancer (RCBPGO), in which were identified addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2001 and 2010. Part of the data was geographically referenced and using census data were estimated and compared the annual averages of crude rates of incidence. The spatial correlation of groups (clusters) of new cases has been verified, through the Moran index, and from geographically referenced radiometric measurements obtained in the previous step, the correlation between the incidence of breast cancer and ionizing radiation levels was assessed by unconditional linear regression. The results were presented in two papers. In the first, radiometric surveys were conducted in 1.405 of the 1.636 (85,9%) census tracts sectors that make up the seven Sanitary Districts in the city of Goiania. In total 197.811 geographically referenced measures of the absorbed dose rate in the air were made, with a average of 29,85 ± 7,47 and amplitude from 9,17 to 629,88 nGy/h. From these values were estimated the average of annual effective dose and collective effective dose for outdoor environments, with values of 0,036 ± 0,003 mSv/year and 28,51 ± 11,68 man.mSv/year, respectively. The levels of exposure to external gamma radiation, found in the city of Goiania 28 years after the radiological accident with Cesium-137, are compatible with the values estimated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). And the value of the annual average of effective dose in Goiania, is lower than in other places in Brazil, which have only 'background' of natural radiation outdoors. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dosimetric situation in Goiania does not present undue risk to people and the environment. In the second article, were identified 4.105 new cases of breast cancer, 2.233 in the study area and 1.286 (57,59%) of these geographically referenced. The annual average values of crude rates of incidence, considering the total numbers of cases and geographically referenced presented in the study area are, respectively, 102,91 and 71,86 new cases per 100.000 women. The crude rate of incidence in Goiania was 66,59 cases per 100.000, while in the study area was 102,91 cases per 100.000 and, outside the area, 46,86 ca ses per 100.000. These value s are within the range of average values presented by other Brazilian capitals, which is 130,99 cases per 100.000 in Porto Alegre-RS, and 20,04 cases in Macapa/AP, and the national average in the capital of 79,37 cases per 100.000 women. The cluster analysis showed a slight spatial correlation of crude rates of breast cancer incidence in three small sets of census tracts, far from the accident sources of contamination with Cesium-137. The scatter plot points and the R{sup 2} value did not indicate any association between the crude rates of incidence and radiometric measurements. This study supports the hypothesis that ionizing radiation levels to which women living in Goiania are exposed, are not associated with the emergence of new cases of breast cancer. (author)

  14. Delphi technique applied to risk identification and assessment on pipe supports fabrication and erection contracts; Aplicacao da tecnica Delphi para identificacao e avaliacao de riscos na contratacao e montagem de suportes de tubulacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Rodrigo Luiz Neves; Balbi, Diego Junca de Gonzaga [Promon Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Through the years, Risk Management became an accepted subject in Brazilian Organizations, with its own language, techniques and tools; and its processes are being more and more often introduced in its management models. However, risk identification, assessment and management is a difficult task, and can be even more difficult for construction industry-related projects, for these ventures tend to be more dynamic and complex. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to present the application of Delphi technique for risk identification in the erection of piping support. To achieve the desired objective, a literature review of theory references was conducted to understand concepts involved. To apply the technique itself, experts in plant erection were involving. (author)

  15. Time evaluation of discharges of suspension solids in the treated acid waters from the Osamu Utsumi - INB - Brazil; Avaliacao temporal das descargas de solidos em suspensao nas aguas acidas tratadas da mina Osamu Utsumi/INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maculan, Gabriella Giarola [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    The present work presents only the flow and mass variations of particles on the the treated water at the points of interface with the environment. The region presents two very well established stations (dry and rainy), and the generated flows also presented oscillations as function of the hydrological year. The full knowledge of the hydrological fluxes involved in the Mine Acid Draining generation is essential for the elaboration of solutions aiming to minimize the environmental and costs impacts associated to the environmental passive generated by uranium mining

  16. Applications of API RP 1102 in stress analysis of buried pipelines at automated cultivation land; Avaliacao de tensoes em dutos enterrados, em area de cultura mecanizada, a luz da norma API RP 1102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Castro, Newton Camelo de [PETROBRAS Transportes S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    According to the development of the agriculture business in the Midwest of Brazil, it can be noted that the cultivated land has imposed to the right of way pipeline weight and quantity increasing of vehicles moving above TRANSPETRO pipelines. This paper has the objective promoting discussions about this theme, presenting preceding conclusions when analyzing pipeline stresses, when the pipeline equipment are submitted to great loadings of agricultural machines. In order to execute this analysis, analytical formulations were used to compute static and dynamic loadings. These evaluations were referenced from API RP 1102 american norm. Many loading simulations, with different operating and environment configurations to the buried installations, were realized. These data were applied having the purpose of diagnosing typical situations existing in automated cultivated land crossings, related to OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo - Brasilia) right of way pipeline. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the shield calculation adequacy of radiotherapy rooms through Monte Carlo Method and experimental measures; Avaliacao da adequacao do calculo de blindagens de salas de radioterapia atraves do metodo de Monte Carlos e medidas experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao

    2016-07-01

    The shielding calculation methodology for radiotherapy services adopted in Brazil and in several countries is that described in publication 151 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 151). This methodology however, markedly employs several approaches that can impact both in the construction cost and in the radiological safety of the facility. Although this methodology is currently well established by the high level of use, some parameters employed in the calculation methodology did not undergo to a detailed assessment to evaluate the impact of the various approaches considered. In this work the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used with the purpose of evaluating the above mentioned approaches. TVLs values were obtained for photons in conventional concrete (2.35g / cm{sup 3}), considering the energies of 6, 10 and 25 MeV, respectively, first considering an isotropic radiation source impinging perpendicular to the barriers, and subsequently a lead head shielding emitting a shaped beam, in the format of a pyramid trunk. Primary barriers safety margins, taking in account the head shielding emitting photon beam pyramid-shaped in the energies of 6, 10, 15 and 18 MeV were assessed. A study was conducted considering the attenuation provided by the patient's body in the energies of 6,10, 15 and 18 MeV, leading to new attenuation factors. Experimental measurements were performed in a real radiotherapy room, in order to map the leakage radiation emitted by the accelerator head shielding and the results obtained were employed in the Monte Carlo simulation, as well as to validate the entire study. The study results indicate that the TVLs values provided by (NCRP, 2005) show discrepancies in comparison with the values obtained by simulation and that there may be some barriers that are calculated with insufficient thickness. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the additional safety margins considered when calculating the width of the primary barrier of radiotherapy rooms are conservative. They also show that the attenuation provided by the patient's body decreases with increased energy, with the highest attenuation being 0.54, for the energy of 6 MeV. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the modified nanoclay effect on the vulcanization of SBR through rheometric curve and DSC;Avaliacao do efeito de nanoargila modificada na vulcanizacao de SBR atraves da curva reometrica e DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Maria Madalena C.; Brito, Karin J.S., E-mail: mmcforte@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Gheller Junior, Jordao [SENAI, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros

    2009-07-01

    Rubber nanocomposites with nanoclays organically modified by quaternary ammonium salts may have the curing features modified significantly, since the salts may act on the rubber cure system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influences of an organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) on the curing reaction of an SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) with sulfur. The SBR/OMMT nanocomposites were prepared by co-coagulating SBR latex and Cloisite{sup R} 20A aqueous suspension at different nanoclay concentrations. The OMMT effect on the sulfur curing reaction was evaluated by the rheometric curve using a rheometer type RPA (Rubber Process Analyzer) and the heat of vulcanization (DELTAH{sub v}) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The evaluation of the clay nanolayers dispersion in the SBR matrix was accomplished by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. (author)

  19. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice; Avaliacao dos efeitos do laser em baixa intensidade na regiao da glandula tireoide de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm{sup 2}, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  20. In vitro evaluation of the chemical and morphological changes of the enamel surface using different bleaching techniques; Avaliacao in vitro das alteracoes quimica e morfologica da superficie do esmalte utilizando diferentes tecnicas de clareamento dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Alessandra de Siervi

    2003-07-01

    'In vitro' evaluation through MEV and EDS of the morphological and chemical changes, respectively, of the bovine enamel, submitted to different bleaching techniques. For the MEV evaluation eighteen apical thirds were pigmented and divided into two parts. One half of each sample was the control and the other half was bleached according to the protocol of each test group (n= 6). Group I - home bleaching with a 10% carbamide peroxide; group II bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and LED; group III - bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with diode laser bleaching. The same procedure was done with the eighteen samples which were analyzed through EDS and which had their buccal surface grinded and polished before the bleaching procedure in order to obtain more precise values of the fraction of calcium and phosphorus. The results showed no morphological changes among the analyzed control halves and the bleached halves. There was not a statistical significant difference about Ca and P values, among the control halves and the bleached halves regarding the chemical components (p< 0,05). (author)

  1. Evaluation of specific consumption from the use of chicken oil biodiesel in one cylinder generator set; Avaliacao do consumo especifico a partir da utilizacao de biodiesel de oleo de frango em um grupo-gerador monocilindrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Diego Augusto [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PGEAGRI/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: dafiorese@yahoo.com.br; Lima, Paulo Peruzzo de [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Souza, Abel Alves de; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Dallmeyer, Arno Udo [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (PGEAGRI/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel can be produced from numerous materials, including by-products of animal chain. In this scenario, the chicken's oil, that is located and an environment not explored for biodiesel production, can be a good alternative in South and Southeast Brazilian Region, where they are slaughtered around 9.100.000 chickens per day. In order to determine the specific consumption from a generator set with single cylinder 6.6 kW of power and generation capacity of 5 kW, using chicken oil biodiesel (B-100), were performed the bench test using a auxiliary tank, precision scale and an energy analyzer. Were conducted four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of generating capacity). The worst SC was the engine at 25% of generation capacity (1.5 kW) and better with 75% of maximum load (3.75 kW) with a mean of 479.34 g kWh{sup -1}. By Turkey's test ant 5% probability there was a significant difference only for the first treatment. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the efficiency of silicone polyether additives as foam inhibitor in crude oil; Avaliacao da eficiencia de aditivos a base de silicone polieter como inibidores de espuma em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This work evaluates the chemical and physico-chemical properties of commercial anti-foam products based on silicone polyethers along with their efficiency in inhibiting foaming. The commercial surfactants were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), determination of solubility in different solvents and measurement of the surface and interfacial tensions. A method to test the formation of foam in oil was used to mimic the operating conditions in gas-oil separators. The results show that the most polar additive was the most efficient in breaking up the foam. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  4. Radioisotope and mathematical modeling in the assessment of supplementation of Phytase in diets for growing pigs; Radioisotopo e modelagem matematica na avaliacao da suplementacao de fitase em dietas para suinos em crescimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, L.C.; Moreira, J.A.; Oliveira, R.L.R., E-mail: japmoreira@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Vitti, D.M.S.S. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Patino, R.M. [Universidade de Sucre, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of including increasing levels of phytase enzyme in pig diets for growing pigs, using the mathematical model. Data from 20 crossbred male piglets, castrated and weighing 26.80 kg on average was used. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages to collect feces and urine in a 17 day period. A randomized block experimental design containing five treatments and four repetitions was used. The experimental diet provided to piglets contained corn and soybean and was supplemented with five increasing levels of phytase enzyme (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 UF/kg), corresponding to 0.00 %, 0.01 %, 0.02 %, 0.03 % and 0.04 % respectively. The variables evaluated were: intake, excretion, output flow of P in the digestive tract, bloodstream, bones and soft tissues. The phytase enzyme did not affect the P intake (P>0.05 (F{sub 10}), the P excreted in urine (F{sub 02}) and the output flow of P in the bones (F{sub 32} e F{sub 23}) and soft tissue (F{sub 42} e F{sub 24}), however, there was a reduction in P excreted in feces (F{sub 01}) of 8.92 %, 26.76 %, 22.53 % and 28.64 % to the levels 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000UF/kg, respectively and showed a positive linear effect (P<0.08) for the endogenous P (F{sub 12}). Corn and soybean meal based diets can be used with 50% of P by dicalcium phosphate, adding 250UF/kg diet for growing pigs, and may cause a reduction of 27 % of P excretion in feces. (author)

  5. Development of methodologies for internal exposure assessment due to the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}FDG; Desenvolvimento de metodologias para avaliacao da exposicao ocupational interna devido ao radiofarmaco {sup 18}FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de

    2013-07-01

    The production of {sup 18}F has increased in the last decade. It is produced basically for the synthesis of {sup 18}F- fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG), the main radiopharmaceutical used in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans. The growth in the frequency of these tests resulted in rise of the number of occupationally exposed individuals (OEI) to the radionuclide {sup 18}F as {sup 18}FDG, increasing thereby the probability of its accidental incorporation. This study aimed to implement optimized techniques for assessing internal exposures of individuals occupationally exposed through both in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods during production and handling of {sup 18}FDG at the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA), Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN). The in vivo monitoring was conducted at the Laboratorio de Dosimetria Interna, Divisao de Laboratorios Tecnico-Cientificos (DILAB). For this bioassay method, measurements were done with a 3x3' NaI(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to Genie 2000 software. The calibration of the system was performed with a brain phantom containing a standard liquid source of {sup 22}Na to simulate a contaminated individual. The calibration of the HPGe coaxial detector for in vitro monitoring was performed at the Laboratorio de Medidas de Atividade de Radionuclideos (DIPRA/CRCN-NE/CNEN) with a standard source of {sup 22}Na. Base on the calibration factors, it was possible to determine the minimum detectable activities (MDA) for the systems by using direct measurements and simulation of uncontaminated urine. Then, through the biokinetic models published by ICRP 106 and edited by the AIDE software (version 6.0), it was possible to estimate the minimum detectable effective dose (MDED), which evaluates the detection sensitivity of the techniques developed. The MDED was estimated for in vivo and in vitro measurements performed 2.4 hours after the occurrence of incorporation by ingestion, since this is the period of higher retention fraction of activity in the brain compartment and accumulated urine for {sup 18}FDG. The values obtained were compared to the recording level of 1 mSv, recommended by the IAEA. After validation of in vivo monitoring technique, measurements of the IOE from DIPRA began shortly after the end of production and quality control procedures. The in vitro internal monitoring was not performed since there was not voluntary participation to obtain the biological sample (urine). The techniques developed showed sufficient sensitivity for application to occupational internal monitoring. (author)

  6. Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method; Avaliacao da tenacidade a fratura de ceramicas dentarias atraves do metodo de entalhe - SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.A.; Santos, C.; Souza, R.C.; Ribeiro, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Polo Urbo-Industrial; Strecker, K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (DME/UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais Eletricos; Oberacker, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro-particled and ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanometric, ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the maximum energy achieved through generation of hydro and wind power in the Northeast subsystem; Avaliacao da maxima energia assegurada atraves de geracao hidro-eolica no subsistema do Nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Pedro T.; Teixeira, Marcos A.; Kissel, Johannes [Gesellschaft Fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the current context to encourage sustainable development, wind energy plays an important role in the spread of renewable energy sources. In this paper, the possibilities and difficulties of wind power integration in large-scale are evaluated, specifically in the northeastern region of Brazil. From the seasonal complementarity with the water source, scenarios are set out where the maximum participation of only these two sources in the energy supply of the region is sought. Aiming to evaluate the possibilities of a completely sustainable regional energy supply, the northeast subsystem is isolated, excluding, in principle, imports and exports. Therefore, the energy storage capacity of reservoirs in the region is used as a key factor, combined with the seasonal availability of data sources and the annual energy consumption of the region. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the environmental conditioning factors in the perspective of expansion of ethanol production in Brazil; Avaliacao dos condicionantes ambientais na perspectiva de expansao da producao de etanol no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Conceicao Elaine Cardoso

    2010-03-15

    Various countries have studied the possibility of adding ethanol to gasoline or using pure fuel ethanol as an alternative to petroleum derivatives. Brazil occupies a leading position in this scenario because with its National Alcohol Program (Programa Nacional do Alcool - PROALCOOL), created in 1975, it became the pioneer in setting up a biofuels program. Since then it has accumulated experience and gained mastery of the technology to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Hence there is a strong expectation that the country can become the world's main ethanol exporter. This thesis examines the main environmental impacts associated with the ethanol productive chain, which are relevant conditioning factors for the expansion of this industry in Brazil. The study describes the evolution of PROALCOOL and the overview of current structure of the brazilian sugar-alcohol sector, identifies technologies and environmental management policies, and presents the perspective of expansion of ethanol production. Thus, the study undertakes an extensive review of the literature and examines to what extent the creation and implementation of public and private environmental management policies (legal restrictions and market instruments, respectively) interfere with the expansion of these productive activities. (author)

  9. Feasibility evaluation of using spent FCC catalyst for metals treatment from industrial waste; Avaliacao do potencial de recuperacao de niquel de catalisadores equilibrados (E-CAT) atraves da tecnica de remediacao eletrocinetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Adalberto; Ponte, Haroldo de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the feasibility evaluation using FCC catalyst for treatment from industrial wastes increasing the life time of the spent catalysts and reducing the environmental impact. Evaluated the reutilization of catalyst in process recovery of nickel adsorbed. The technique used was the Electrokinetic Remediation. This technique is based in application of a direct current of low intensity or low potential between the electrodes located in soil. The pollutants are mobilized how loaded species or particles. It used a electrokinetic reactor with approximated volume of 1200 cm{sup 3}, where the residue is placed. In your extremity are adapted two cameras of acrylic, being one anodic, with steel inox 304 electrode, and other cathodic, with lead electrode. In anodic camera, it was injected, with aid a bomb, a solution of sulfuric acid, which work as electrolyte, to a flow rate of 20 ml/h. Was evaluated the desorption of Nickel in the equilibrium catalyst submitting a variation of the conditions of the concentration and potential. (author)

  10. Geological, geotechnical and environmental evaluation of influence area of the oil production in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao geologico-geotecnica e ambiental da zona de influencia do duto petrolifero no municipio de Mangaratiba (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Andre Ferreira; Polivanov, Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Silva, Jorge Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geografia; Oliveira, Wilson J. de [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is applicable for a specials and strategies areas that must be permanently controlled called pipelines and their proximities. Those areas are liable to be under the influence of different situations like potential environmental risks - eg. conflagrations, floods, soil erosion, slumps and also accidental risks like located spills. Besides those negatives environmental situations, the pipelines also cross different regions that has an important natural resource like forests, watersheds, urban, industrial and agricultural areas. For main regulator of this work the pipeline was developed a series of maps that can be used single or overlayed with another maps. Those maps can be useful for Mangaratiba city urban management and demonstrate possible environmental risks that can occur on pipelines proximities of this city. (author)

  11. In vivo evaluation of Fe in the human skin and swins mice skin through the X-rays fluorescence technique; Avaliacao in vivo de Fe na pele humana e de camundongos swins atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevam, Marcelo

    2005-07-01

    Recent technological improvements allow the method of in vivo XRF to supply useful sensibility for diagnostics or monitoring in biomedical applications. In cases of hereditary sanguine disorders as the {beta}-Thalassaemia or a genetic disorder like Haemochromatosis, there is a high concentration of elements as Fe, Zn and Cu in the skin and internal organs, due to the treatment of those abnormalities or due to the own dysfunction caused by the disease. The levels of Fe related to the patient bearers of the {beta}-Thalassaemia are determined, at the moment, measuring a protein in the sanguine current, called ferritin. The monitoring of the protein is ineffective in several situations, such as when the patient suffers any disturbance of health. Nowadays, the main forms of measuring the levels of those metals through hepatic storage are the biopsy of the liver, that is invasive and potentially dangerous, presenting a rate of mortality of 0,1%, and through magnetic susceptibilities that employs a quantum superconductor, which is highly expensive and there are only three main world medical centers with this equipment. This work investigates the use of a Si PIN-diode detector and a 238Pu source (13 and 17 keV; 13%; 95.2 mCi; 86y) for the measurement of Fe skin levels compatible with those associated to the disease {beta}-Thalassaemia. XRF spectra were analyzed using a set of AXIL-WinQXAS programs elaborated and disseminated by the IAEA. The determination coefficient of the calibration model (sensitivity curve) was 0.97. Measurements on skin phantoms containing concentrations of Fe in the range from 15 to 150 parts per million (ppm), indicate that we are able to detect Fe at levels of the order of 13 ppm, using monitoring periods of 50 seconds and skin entrance dose less than 10 mSv. The literature reports skin Fe levels from 15.0 to 60.0 ppm in normal persons and from 70 to 150 ppm in thalassaemic patients. So, the employed methodology allows the in vivo measurement of the skin Fe concentration in wanted levels. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the susceptibility to corrosion by pites of supermartensitic stainless steel with different superficial finishing; Avaliacao da susceptibilidade a corrosao por pites do aco inoxidavel supermartensitico com diferentes acabamentos superficiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Mario Jose Bueno de Souza

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility by pitting corrosion in a supermartensitic stainless steel (13%Cr) with different surface finishes, in an environment that simulates the conditions found in the range of the Brazilian marine subsoil before the dense layer of salt - the so-called pre-salt. In this study were conducted electrochemical tests of potentiodynamic anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in environment containing 35, 50 and 190 g/L of NaCl and dissolved oxygen concentrations <10, 100 and 500ppb. Were also used the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry) coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for microstructural characterization of 13%Cr steel. It was observed by the electrochemical tests, the increase in the concentration of chloride ions in solution makes the studied steel more susceptible to localized corrosion. It was also observed that the material showed less susceptibility to pitting corrosion when its surface was less rough. (author)

  13. Offshore degasser vessel capacity versus performance qualitative evaluation for waste water treatment; Avaliacao qualitativa da capacidade versus desempenho de vaso degaseificador em plataformas offshore visando tratamento de agua produzida para descarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Marcel V.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Daniel B.V.F. [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Present work shows a qualitative evaluation of an offshore degasser vessel aiming the improvement of the water processing plant capacity. For such computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allowed the analysis of the flow pattern inside the vessel for different operational flow rates and internal geometries. This vessel is responsible for the process of water final polishing to be disposed into the sea. Original capacity of the vessel is 13.308 m{sup 3}/d, but after some changes in the outlet section, the processing capacity increased to 24.000 m{sup 3}/d, without changing its separation efficiency. However, as newer production predictions state that the new processing capacity should be increased to 26.000 m{sup 3}/d, there is some uncertainty on how would be this vessel behaviour, given the new operational condition. CFD analysis will be used to evaluate the flow characteristics inside the vessel (residence time distribution), therefore providing information on the separation performance for each one of the specified conditions and internal modifications. (author)

  14. Development of a methodology for the evaluation of energy efficiency of central irrigation pivots; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para a avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de pivos centrais de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Aureo Cezar de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET-Pet), PE (Brazil); Guimaraes Junior, Sebastiao Camargo; Camacho, Jose Roberto; Salerno, Carlos Henrique [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (NERFAE/UFU), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica. Nucleo de Eletricidade Rural e Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2006-07-01

    It will be presented in this work a methodology for the evaluation of the energy efficiency of irrigation center systems by central pivot. Integrating water efficiency application with the energy associated to the sprinklers, adduction pipeline, pivot arm and pump systems, the proposed indexes make possible to evaluate the energy income of each component of the irrigation system, contributing for the increase of the global efficiency of the irrigated agriculture. (author)

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of halogenated furans and analogue compounds to nostoclides; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimicrobiana de furanonas halogenadas e de compostos analogos aos nostoclideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Maltha, Celia R.A.; Demuner, Antonio J.; Pinheiro, Patricia F.; Varejao, Jodieh O.S.; Montanari, Ricardo M., E-mail: lcab@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Andrade, Nelio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2010-07-01

    Considering the broad spectrum of biological activity of gamma-butyrolactone derivatives, we presented the synthesis of 3,4-dihalo-5-arylidenefuran-2(5H)-ones (17-21) and analogues (24-28) of the natural product nostoclide (7,8). Furanones 17-21 were synthesized from the condensation of aromatic aldehydes with lactones 14 and 15, that were obtained from mucobromic and mucochloric acids. Lactone 15 was converted into the intermediate 23 in 36% overall yield. Compound 23 was then transformed into the nostoclide analogues 24-28. Some of the compounds prepared showed antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus comparable to commercial antibiotics. (author)

  16. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre o conteudo de tocoferois em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliacao sensorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  17. Apical microinfiltration evaluation of radicular channels irradiated with Er:YAG laser in vitro; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao apical de condutos radiculares irradiados in vitro com laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebrao, Catia Cilene Nass

    2003-07-01

    It was evaluated, in vitro, the adaptation of the filling material (Sealer 2S{sup R}) to the root channels dentine walls treated using the endodontic technique and prepared with the Er:YAG laser, by the technique of infiltration of methylene blue dye. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the morphologic alteration of the root channel dentine was observed for one sample per studied group. Also, an evaluation of the temperature increase in the external surface of the root during the irradiations was performed for two samples per group. For each group of samples, with eleven roots each, two sub-groups had been considered: the dry, irradiated after completely dry with absorbent cones of paper, and the humid, where a cone of absorbent paper was applied for two seconds in the root canal, leaving them lightly humidified. Considering the used energies for the irradiations, the groups are: G1, control (without irradiation), G2-dry (100 mJ-10 Hz), G2-humid (100 mJ-10 Hz), G3-dry (140 mJ-6 Hz), G3-humid (140 mJ-6 Hz), G4-dry (180 mJ-6 Hz), and G4-humid (180 mJ-6 Hz). The results had shown that apical microinfiltration did not exhibit significant difference among groups. The highest increase in temperature was observed for the dry groups, with the maximum variation of temperature of 6.5 deg C. Under the scanning electronic microscopy analysis, the humid groups had presented cleaner surfaces than the dry groups. The G4-humid group presented extensive regions of fusion and resolidification of the dentine. (author)

  18. Irradiation effects of GaAlAs ({lambda}=830 nm) laser on oral traumatic ulceration; Avaliacao dos efeitos da irradiacao de ulceras traumaticas na cavidade bucal com o laser de GaAlAs ({lambda}=830 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Andre Machado de

    2003-07-01

    Low intensity GaAlAs ({lambda}=830 nm) laser irradiation effects on oral traumatic ulceration were evaluated. For this purpose, twenty patients presenting orthodontic appliance - induced oral traumatic ulceration were randomly distributed in two groups. Patients in group 1 were submitted to the irradiation procedure and group 2 was the control one. The irradiation parameters employed were the following: wavelength 830 nm, one single application of 4 J/cm{sup 2}, punctual in the contact mode and 30 mW power. The control group received the conventional treatment, consisting on topical application of Triancinolon based ointment four times a day. For both groups the agent responsible for the trauma was removed or covered with utility wax whenever removal was impossible. The results were evaluated concerning the wounds size reduction and pain relief. The time of laser irradiation was considered the starting time (time zero) and analysis were done 24 hours, 48 hours and seven days after that. The statistical analysis showed an acceleration in the healing process as well accentuated pain reduction for the irradiated group compared to the control one. These evidences allows us to indicate this protocol of one single application of 4 J/cm{sup 2} as therapy when patients with oral traumatic ulceration can not attend several sessions for a multiple application procedure. (author)

  19. Clinical and morphologic evaluation of Er:YAG laser action at the front of cervical dentinal hypersensitivity; Avaliacao clinica e morfologica da acao do laser de Er:YAG frente a hipersensibilidade dentinaria cervical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Dalva Maria

    2001-07-01

    This work was achieved in vivo and in vitro to evaluate the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the cervical dentinal hypersensitivity treatment (HSDC). The Clinical study was achieved in patients with HSDC. The treatment was realized in five sessions: the first for selection, the second for exams (clinic and X-Ray) and trying to remove the etiologic factors that could cause the HSDC. The third and fourth sessions were subjected to the radiation with that protocol: 60 mJ energy ,2 Hz frequency, 6 mm out of focus, under air cooling, 20 seconds each application which the same was repeated four times with one minute breaks, which scanning movements and without using anaesthetics. The fifth was evaluation. The patients were evaluated and registered in a subject scale of pain 0 to 3, in the beginning and end of each session of irradiation, and one month after the last session. The results showed that for the irradiated group occurs significant differences in the beginning of each session and between. For the control group did not occur significant differences in the beginning and after each session, but did show a difference between the sessions. As the control group as the irradiated group, had reduction of sensibility between the session. For the morphologic study nine teeth were selected, 7 molars and 2 pre-molars from operative dentistry discipline. Half of the surface was irradiated with Er:YAG laser, the same protocol used in vivo, and the other half was used as a control without receiving any laser irradiation. Subsequently, specimens were prepared for SEM examinations. The results showed that laser treated surfaces showed a reduction of dentine tubular diameter with partial or total closure of the dentine tubules. For the control group, it was observed bigger amounts smear layer and open dentine tubular. The results obtained indicated that the Er:YAG laser can contribute to the HSDC treatment. (author)

  20. Evaluation of occupational radiation dose in nuclear medicine: radiopharmaceutical administration to scintiscanning exams of myocardial perfusion; Avaliacao da dose de radiacao ocupacional em medicina nuclear: administracao de radiofarmacos em exames de cintilografria de perfusao miocardica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Cassio V., E-mail: cassiok@yahoo.com [Medicina Nuclear do Triangulo (MNT), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Michelin, Charlie A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela R., E-mail: charlie@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: requi@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lemes, Alyne O.; Silva, Juliana L.M., E-mail: alyne275@gmail.com, E-mail: jujumontesdocinho@gmail.com [Faculdade do Trabalho (FATRA), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    In nuclear medicine, workers directly involved in exams are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation. The procedure for administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the patient is one of the most critical times of exposure. In tests of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) administration of radiopharmaceutical repeats the steps of rest and cardiac stress. In this study, we used a Geiger -Mueller detector for measuring occupational radiation doses for during the administration of technetium- {sup 99m}- sestamibi in MPS tests. In the evaluation, discriminated the stages of examination and related professional experience time to doses measures at home. It were followed 110 procedures at home (55 conducted by professionals with over 5 years experience and 55 conducted by professionals with less than 1 year of experience) and 55 effort procedures. The results showed that the rest of the procedure time and dose are related to the experience of the worker. More experienced workers were faster (mean: 43 {+-} 16 vs 67 {+-} 25 seconds / procedure), and therefore received lower doses (mean 0.57 {+-} 0.16 versus 0.80 {+-} 0.24 {mu}Sv / procedure), both with statistical significance (p <0.001). In step effort, there were procedures lasting longer (mean: 19 {+-} 2 minutes / procedure), which resulted in higher doses (mean 3.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}Sv / procedure)

  1. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of vermicompost from bovine manure and evaluation of competitive adsorption of cadmium and lead; Caracterizacao quimica e fisico-quimica de vermicomposto de esterco bovino e avaliacao da adsorcao competitiva por cadmio e chumbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamim, Soraida Sozzi Miguel [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Jordao, Claudio Pereira; Brune, Walter; Pereira, Jose Luis [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1996-09-01

    The chemical and physicochemical characterization of vermicompost from bovine manure has been studied. It was examined the pH and cation exchangeable capacity (CTC), moistness, ash, organic carbon, total nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and metal concentrations, among other characteristics. The vermicompost was then applied to the retention and competition of metal pollutants (Cd and Pb) from metal nitrate solutions. The retention was affected by both the pH and time of adsorption, while the competitive character of these metals for the substrate was not relevant to each pH examined. (author) 46 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Simulation and evaluation of mammography quality from an X-ray equipment of a instrument calibration laboratory; Simulacao e avaliacao das qualidades da mamografia do equipamento de raios-x de um laboratorio de calibracao de instrumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F. da; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory (ICL) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil has developed some work in order to establish a primary standard system for low energy X-ray employing a ionization chamber of free air. For this, one of the most important steps is the determination of factors of correction of its answer. Simulation is a frequently used tool for this because some correction factors can not be determined experimentally. For the correct simulation of these correction factors is necessary some input parameters such as geometry, the material composition of the dosimeter, the experimental arrangement and the radiation source are specified correctly. For the ionization chamber available on the LCI, the geometry, the material components and the experimental arrangement can be obtained easily. On the other hand, spectrum of radiation energy source, which must be inserted into the computer code has not been obtained. Thus, this study aims to determine this radiation spectrum, thus enabling the characterization of the new primary standard for low power X-radiation of ICL.

  3. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the response of thermoluminescent detectors in clinical beams dosimetry using different phantoms; Avaliacao da resposta de detectores termoluminescentes na dosimetria de feixes clinicos utilizando diferentes objetos simuladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Luciana Cardoso

    2010-07-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the three principal treatment modalities used in the treatment of malignant diseases such as cancer, the other two are chemotherapy and radiosurgery. In contrast to other medical specialties that rely mainly on the clinical knowledge and experience of medical specialists, radiotherapy, with its use of ionizing radiation in treatment of cancer, relies heavily on modern technology and the collaborative efforts of several professionals whose coordinated team approach greatly influences the outcome of the treatment. In the area of clinical dosimetry, an efficient and accurate calibration of the radiation beam ensures knowledge of the radiation dose delivered to the patient, allowing thus the success of radiotherapy. This study aims to compare the thermoluminescent response of calcium sulfate doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) dosimeters produced by IPEN (6 mm in diameter and 0,8 mm tick) with the response of lithium fluoride (3,15 x 3,15 x 0,9 mm{sup 3}) doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti) in dosimetry of clinical photons (6 and 15 MV) and electrons beams (6 and 9 MeV) using solid water (RMI-457), water and PMMA phantoms. Initially, the dose-response curves were obtained for irradiation in cobalt-60 gamma radiation source in air (PMMA plates) and under electronic equilibrium conditions and for clinical electrons and photons beams at depth of maximum dose. The sensitivities of the thermoluminescent dosimeters were also evaluated and the values of their reproducibilities and intrinsic efficiency were determined for the response to different types of phantoms and radiation energy. The obtained results indicate that the main advantage of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosimeters is the enhanced sensitivity to radiation doses measured for {sup 60}Co, photons and electrons beams, thus representing a viable alternative for application in dosimetry in the radiotherapy area. (author)

  5. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Portland cement from X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis; Avaliacao de cimento Portland a partir da difracao de raios X associada a analise por agrupamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobbo, Luciano de Andrade, E-mail: luciano.gobbo@panalytical.com [Panalytical Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Tarcisio Jose, E-mail: tarcisio.montanheiro@gmail.com [Instituto Geologico, Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montanheiro, Filipe, E-mail: flpmontanheiro@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LEBAC/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia Aplicada. Lab. de Estudos de Bacias; Sant' Agostino, Lilia Mascarenhas, E-mail: agostino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental

    2013-12-15

    The Brazilian cement industry produced 64 million tons of cement in 2012, with noteworthy contribution of CP-II (slag), CP-III (blast furnace) and CP-IV (pozzolanic) cements. The industrial pole comprises about 80 factories that utilize raw materials of different origins and chemical compositions that require enhanced analytical technologies to optimize production in order to gain space in the growing consumer market in Brazil. This paper assesses the sensitivity of mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction associated with cluster analysis to distinguish different kinds of cements with different additions. This technique can be applied, for example, in the prospection of different types of limestone (calcitic, dolomitic and siliceous) as well as in the qualification of different clinkers. The cluster analysis does not require any specific knowledge of the mineralogical composition of the diffractograms to be clustered; rather, it is based on their similarity. The materials tested for addition have different origins: fly ashes from different power stations from South Brazil and slag from different steel plants in the Southeast. Cement with different additions of limestone and white Portland cement were also used. The Rietveld method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for measuring the results generated by the cluster analysis technique. (author)

  7. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study; Avaliacao clinica da eficiencia do laser de Nd:YAG associado ao fluor fosfato acidulado na prevencao de caries de sulcos e fissuras de criancas e adolescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-07-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 {mu}m, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm{sup 2}. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  8. Intrapulpal temperature during preparation with the Er:YAG laser: an in vitro study; Avaliacao da temperatura intrapulpar de incisivos bovinos irradiados com o laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo-Martins, Vinicius Rangel

    2003-07-01

    This study evaluated the variation of the pulp chamber temperature when dentine, with 2,0 mm of thickness, adjacent to the pulp, was irradiated by the Er:YAG laser. Seventy two bovine incisors were used, that had the enamel and dentine of the buccal surface weared until to reach the thickness used in this study. The teeth were divided in 3 groups, according with the repetition rate used ( Group I = 2 Hz; Group II = 4 Hz and Group III = 6 Hz), and irradiated, with or without water cooling, using 250, 300 and 350 mJ of energy per pulse. Thermocouples were introduced inside the pulp chamber through the palatine opening of the samples and fixed to the vestibular wall of the pulp chamber using a thermal paste. After the statistical analysis, it was verified that there was a decrease of the intrapulpal temperature for all of the parameters in the group I irradiated with water cooling. In the same group, but without cooling, occurred increases of the intrapulpal temperature, however they were less than 2 deg C. In the group 11, only the para meter 350 mJ/4 Hz/ with water cooling presented decrease of the temperature (-0,08 deg C). The other irradiations presented increase of the intrapulpal temperature, varying from 1,5 to 1,9 deg C for irradiations without cooling and of 0,03 the 0,58 deg C for the samples irradiated under water cooling. In the group III, all of the samples presented increase of the intrapulpal temperature, however, they were smaller than to 2,5 deg C. The conditions of this study allow to conclude that the use of the laser of Er:YAG promoted acceptable temperature increases inside the pulp chamber, not reaching the critical level of 5,5 deg C. However, in spite of the temperature variations inside the pulp chamber have not reached critical levels, this procedure should not be recommended because macroscopic observations of the dentine irradiated without water cooling showed dark lesions, suggesting carbonization of this tissue. (author)

  9. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  10. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  11. Study of uptake and endocytosis of gamma rays-irradiated crotoxin by mice peritoneal macrophages; Avaliacao do mecanismo de captacao e endocitose de crotoxina submetida a acao da radiacao, por macrofagos peritoneais de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardi, Bruno Andrade

    1999-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and endocytosis of 2000 Gy {sup 60}Co irradiated crotoxin through mouse peritoneal macrophages, correlating with native one and another non related protein, the ovalbumin. Native (CTXN) or 2000 Gy {sup 60} Co {gamma}-rays (dose rate 540 Gy/hour) irradiated crotoxin (CTXI) or ovalbumin processed of same manner (OVAN - OVAI) were offered to mouse peritoneal macrophages and their uptake was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative in situ ELISA. The involvement of scavenger receptors (ScvR) was evaluated by using blockers drugs (Probuco-PBC or Dextran Sulfate - SD) or with nonspecific blocking using fetal calf serum (FBS). The morphology and viability of macrophages were preserved during the experiments. CTXI showed irradiation-induced aggregates and formation of oxidative changing were observed on this protein after gamma rays treatment. By immunohistochemistry we could observe heavy stained phagocytic vacuole on macrophages incubated with CTXI, as compared with CTXN. Quantitatively by in situ ELISA, the sema pattern was observed, displaying a 2-fold CTXI incorporation. In presence of PBC or SD we could find a significant decrease of CTXI uptake but not of CTXN. However the CTXN uptake was depressed by FBS, not observed with CTXI. OVA, after gamma rays treatment, underwent a high degradation suffering a potent incorporation and metabolism by macrophages, with a major uptake of OVAI in longer incubation (120 minutes). Gamma rays ({sup 60} Co) produced oxidative changes on CTX molecule, leading to a uptake by ScvR-mice peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that the relation antigen-presenting cells and gamma rays-modified proteins are responsible for the better immune response presented by irradiated antigens. (author)

  12. Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. A clinical trial; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao laser de emissao vermelha em baixa intensidade na incorporacao de fluor no esmalte. Estudo clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Regina Keiko

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two maxillary central incisors of each volunteer to be biopsied were used and divided into 4 groups: group G{sub C} (control, which was untreated; group G{sub F} (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group G{sub LF} (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser ({lambda}= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm{sup 2}) with APF application after irradiation and group G{sub FL} (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as G{sub LF}. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results show a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups G{sub F}, G{sub LF} and G{sub FL} when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for G{sub LF} with respect to G{sub F}, there were no statistical differences among treated groups. These findings suggest that low-intensity laser radiation used before APF could be employed in the clinical practice to prevent dental caries. (author)

  13. Rectal dose assessment in patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer; Avaliacao da dose no reto em pacientes submetidas a braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose para o tratamento do cancer do colo uterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jetro Pereira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Rosa, Luiz Antonio Ribeiro da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br; Batista, Delano Valdivino Santos; Bardella, Lucia Helena [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unit of Medical Physics; Carvalho, Arnaldo Rangel [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry

    2009-03-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at developing a thermoluminescent dosimetric system capable of assessing the doses delivered to the rectum of patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer. Materials and methods: LiF:Mg,Ti,Na powder was the thermoluminescent material utilized for evaluating the rectal dose. The powder was divided into small portions (34 mg) which were accommodated in a capillary tube. This tube was placed into a rectal probe that was introduced into the patient's rectum. Results: The doses delivered to the rectum of six patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer evaluated by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters presented a good agreement with the planned values based on two orthogonal (anteroposterior and lateral) radiographic images of the patients. Conclusion: The thermoluminescent dosimetric system developed in the present study is simple and easy to be utilized as compared to other rectal dosimetry methods. The system has shown to be effective in the evaluation of rectal doses in patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer. (author)

  14. In vitro evaluation of the chemical and morphological changes of the enamel surface using different bleaching techniques; Avaliacao in vitro das alteracoes quimica e morfologica da superficie do esmalte utilizando diferentes tecnicas de clareamento dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Alessandra de Siervi

    2003-07-01

    'In vitro' evaluation through MEV and EDS of the morphological and chemical changes, respectively, of the bovine enamel, submitted to different bleaching techniques. For the MEV evaluation eighteen apical thirds were pigmented and divided into two parts. One half of each sample was the control and the other half was bleached according to the protocol of each test group (n= 6). Group I - home bleaching with a 10% carbamide peroxide; group II bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and LED; group III - bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with diode laser bleaching. The same procedure was done with the eighteen samples which were analyzed through EDS and which had their buccal surface grinded and polished before the bleaching procedure in order to obtain more precise values of the fraction of calcium and phosphorus. The results showed no morphological changes among the analyzed control halves and the bleached halves. There was not a statistical significant difference about Ca and P values, among the control halves and the bleached halves regarding the chemical components (p< 0,05). (author)

  15. Evaluation of the temperature rise in pulp chamber during class V preparation with Er:YAG laser; Avaliacao da temperatura na camara pulpar durante preparo classe V com laser de Erbio:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picinini, Leonardo Santos

    2001-07-01

    One of the major concerns regarding laser irradiation in the dentistry field is the overheating in dental tissue, specially pulpal tissue. A temperature raise over 5.5 deg C is considered to be harmful to its vitality. The current study evaluated the temperature increase in the pulp chamber, during class V preparation, performed with the laser Er:YAG in 36 bovine incisive extracted teeth. The samples were eroded on the outer side of the vestibular wall to obtain the dentinal thickness of 2.0 mm (group I), 1.0 mm (group II) and 0.5 mm (group III). Thermocouples were fixed to the inner part of the vestibular wall using thermal paste, through the palatine opening of the samples. Class V cavities were prepared in the vestibular side only in 1 mm{sup 2} thick dentins. Irradiation parameters used were: 500 mJ/10 Hz, 850 mJ/10 Hz and 1 000 mJ/10 Hz for all the groups. The results were processed by a microcomputer. This study showed that the temperature increased into the pulpal cavity reached around 3 deg C for the groups I (2,0 mm thick dentine) and II (1.0 mm thick dentine). In the group III (0.5 mm thick) temperature was around 5.5 deg C. Thus, the parameters used for cavity preparation, using Er:YAG laser, were safe in relation to the temperature raise for dentinal thickness of 1,0 and 2,0 mm; in 0.5 mm thick dentins, temperature increase reached 5.5 deg C and an appropriate correction in the laser parameters was necessary. (author)

  16. Development of a model for strategic evaluation of the global performance of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliacao estrategica do desempenho global da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2003-07-01

    A conscious, effective course of action, now essential to several areas and organizations, has become a must in the public administration. In this sense, modem managerial practices may contribute significantly for governmental organism to take up an attitude shifted to results in the society, without losing its eminently public function. In order to measure the social impact of the activities of the State as a whole, institutions must use mechanisms that allow self-evaluations of their performance, so as to verify the return obtained as a result of their efforts. However, most institutions do not have structured tools for such evaluation. The present study proposes to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear a model to measure its global performance, offering a proposed architecture for the measurement system in accordance with the results of the planning process of the Institution. The methodology presented also comprises the definition of cause-and-effect critical models between the strategic objectives of the organization and its respective factors critic ai for success, as well as related performance indicators. This work also includes the breakdown of the measurement system for the macro processes of the organization, optimizing resource sharing and the flow of information, avoiding redundant efforts and bringing forth further advantages aiming at creating a organizational 'unit'. Within this context, the developed model may offer substantial help for the improvement of the maturity of the organization in goal-oriented management, considering that the proposed global performance measurement follows a planned structure, with a systemic approach of the organization, allowing that the process be carried out in a way that is transparent and objective. (author)

  17. Evaluation in vitro of pulpal chamber temperature of deciduous teeth during Er:YAG laser application; Avaliacao in vitro da temperatura na camara pulpar de dentes deciduos durante aplicacao do laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sznajder, Alexandre Joseph

    2001-07-01

    The Er:YAG laser technology has been thoroughly studied, since its invention, and has been increasingly recommended in Dentistry. However, its use in deciduous teeth has not been deserving the equivalent attention to its counterpart in permanent teeth, despite of the deciduous teething occur in a phase of life in which it has a far more importance than its substitutes. For that reason, this study aims to identify the suitable parameters to the clinic procedures in deciduous teeth, using the already established protocols in permanent teeth. The study was lead in a way to resemble the most the conditions of the clinical use of the laser. Five groups were analyzed using different energy densities and repetition rates. Each group was composed of 10 first superior right deciduous molars randomly selected. The energy densities and repetition rates used for each group were: 60 mJ 15 Hz, 250 mJ 2 Hz, 250 mJ 15 Hz, 400 mJ 6 Hz and 500 mJ 2 Hz. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the use of the Er:YAG laser in Odontopediatrics is effective, safe and secure and the main reason for its recommendation is the low transfer of heat to the adjacent tissues of the applied surfaces. (author)

  18. Are the imaging findings used to assess the portal triad reliable to perform living-donor liver transplant?; Os achados de imagem para avaliacao da triade portal sao confiaveis para realizacao do transplante hepatico com doador vivo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazzi, Francisco Leoncio; Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Mancero, Jorge Marcelo Padilla; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; D' Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, E-mail: franciscodazzi@hotmail.com [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia Geral e Transplante; Leao-Filho, Hilton Muniz [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Silva, Adavio de Oliveira e [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia

    2013-07-01

    Background: a crucial aspect of living-donor liver transplant is the risk imposed to the donor due to a procedure performed in a healthy individual that can lead to a high postoperative morbidity rate Aim: To correlate the pre- and intraoperative hepatic imaging findings of living adult donors. Methods: From 2003 to 2008 the medical charts of 66 donors were revised; in that, 42 were males (64%) and 24 females (36%), mean age of 30±8 years. The preoperative anatomy was analyzed by magnetic resonance cholangiography to study the bile ducts and by computed tomography angiography to evaluate the hepatic artery and portal vein. Normalcy criteria were established according to previously published studies. Results: Anatomic variations of the bile ducts were found in 59.1% of donors, of the artery hepatic in 31.8% and of the portal vein in 30.3% of the cases during the preoperative period. The magnetic resonance cholangiography findings were in agreement in 44 (66.6%) of donors and in disagreement in 22 (33.3%). With regards to hepatic artery, in all donors the findings of the imaging examination were in agreement with those of the intraoperative period. As to the portal vein, the computed tomography findings were in agreement in 59 (89.4%) donors and in disagreement in seven (10.6%). Conclusions: the bile duct anatomic variations are frequent, and the magnetic resonance cholangiography showed moderate accuracy (70%) in reproducing the surgical findings; the computed tomography reproduced the intraoperative findings of the hepatic artery in 100% of donors, and of the portal vein in 89.4% of the cases, thus demonstrating high accuracy (89%). (author)

  19. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  20. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  1. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment; Quantificacao de micronucleos em linfocitos de pacientes expostas a radiacao gama para a avaliacao da dose absorvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-15

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with {sup 60}Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  2. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 {mu}m), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 {mu}m). The structures of packaging were submitted to radiation doses between 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy, in one electron accelerator of 1,5 M and V, 25 mA and 37,5 kW, dose tax of 11,22 kGy / s, room temperature and air presence . Eight days, Two and Six months after irradiations, mechanical resistance experiment were accomplished to tension and elongating in rupture, sealing resistance and perforation resistance, all based in respective ASTM norms. The perforation experiment by insects were realized in an acclimatized room, where irradiated samples in doses of 0, 10, 20 and 60 kGy were sealed containing 40 g of granola, 40 g of pasta and cereal bar in number of nine by experiment, and equally divided in three plastic screened boxes by studied dose. In each box 20 adults of each insect were added in for 60 days, when the packages were evaluated to verify possible perforations. The differences between the sample results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA (p<0.05). The results showed that concerning the perforation resistance by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais the polymeric structures evaluated showed low resistance by insects perforation before and after the treatment. BOPPmet/BOPP (50 {mu}m), PETmet/BOPP (32 {mu}m), PET/PP1 (72 {mu}m) and PET/PP2 (32 {mu}m) structures showed significant losses in mechanical properties studied. The BOPP/PP (50 {mu}m) showed the best set of answers in mechanical properties to the radiation treatment with electrons sheaf up to 10 kGy doses. Among the mechanical properties evaluated, sealing was the most affected by ionizing radiation, has shown, in general, increasing losses with radiation dose. (author)

  3. Metals on urban soils: evaluation of the concentration on soils adjacent to the Pinheiros river border avenues; Metais em solos urbanos: avaliacao da concentracao em solos adjacentes a marginal do rio Pinheiros, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nammoura Neto, Georges M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Silva, Natalia C.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Camargo, Sonia P., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2009-07-01

    The samples for this study were collected in seven points with approximately 3 km of distance, with a depth of 5 cm and prepared in laboratory. Also, with the samples three BEN (IWG-GIT), GS-N (IWG-GIT) and Soil-7 (IAEA) reference standards were analysed,for quality control of the results. Using neutron activation analysis it was possible to determine the concentrations of these heavy metal, particularly the zinc and the barium, and in these study, these two metals have their concentrations rose surpassing the intervention limits, according to the stipulated by the Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), which can be connected to vehicle emissions and the use of pesticides and herbicides as long as his extension, being considered a risk for the human heath through the resuspension the dust of these contaminated soil

  4. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical; Estudo do mecanismo de acao da crotoxina em tumores mamarios e avaliacao do seu potenctial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina Bicalho

    2010-07-01

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 ({sup 125}I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 ({sup 131}I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL{sub 50} in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. {sup 125}I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented K{sub d}=24.98 nmol/L and B{sub max}=16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and K{sub d}=0.06 nmol/L and B{sub max}=210 sites/cell high affinity binding sites; moreover, the radiolabeled polypeptide interaction showed low specificity toward to MCF-7 (37%). EGF reduced 20% of {sup 125}I-Crotoxin specific binding, so specific binding sites of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells partially overlap to EGFR. Crotoxin biodistribution studies showed significant uptake in the tumor paw (tumor/skeletal muscle ratio= 18.55), three hours after administration. SPECT imaging also showed tumor uptake confirming in vivo interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells. Crotoxin had an antitumoral effect on Ehrlich tumor cells and this action is due, at least partially, to the specific interaction with low and high affinity binding sites. Low affinity binding sites correlate EGFR and high affinity binding sites still need identification. These results confirm Crotoxin as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis and as a tool for cancer studies, increasing its biotechnological potential. (author)

  5. Radiation exposure evaluation of the professional working interventionist procedures in a hemodynamics service; Avaliacao da exposicao a radiacao dos profissionais que executam procedimentos intervencionistas em um servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Leonardo Peres

    2004-07-01

    An evaluation of the dose distribution received by all the workers involved on coronary angioplasty, arteriography, coronary angiography and mitral valvuloplasty procedures has been made in this work. For the measurements, LiF:Mg, Ti TLD(TLD 100) was used, located in seven different points on the worker's body: hands, knees, neck, forehead and thorax, inside and outside lead apron.) The measurements have been done for each hemo dynamical procedure, and the TLD calibrated in personal dose equivalent (H{sub p}(d)) operational quantity for 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm depth. Nurses and auxiliary doctors did not receive expressive dose values, indicating that the adopted radioprotection procedures seem to be appropriate and sufficient for them. However, the same is not true for the doctors direct in charge of the procedure. The results show the importance of the use of thyroid protections in these cases. This work discusses the main factors that cause occupational dose increase. From all interventionist hemo dynamical procedures analyzed, the dose values received by the doctors on coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary angiography were higher than the ones found on arteriography and mitral valvuloplasty. The higher dose values has been found for coronary angiography procedures in X-ray tools, that work with fluoroscopy on continuous mode and have been executed with brachial way, even in the eyes, hands, knees and thyroid, with or without shield. Multiplying these high dose values, measured in one procedure by the mean number of annual procedures made at the studied hospital by each doctor, the individual dose annual limits can be surpassed. Based on these estimations, some optimizations suggestions have been made and one discussion about the need of additional monitoring points is presented. Different algorithms have been used in order to estimate the effective dose, including a new proposal. The obtained results using the actual Radiodiagnostic Brazilian regulation underestimate the dose, in the major part of the measured cases. The proposed algorithm seem sto offer a better estimation for the occupational effective dose for Interventional Radiology. (author)

  6. Development of methodology for evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I incorporated activities during lactation; Desenvolvimento de metodologia para avaliacao da atividade de {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 131}I em lactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dantas, A.L.A.; Mesquita, S.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Oliveira, S.M.V., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2012-07-01

    Internal contamination of babies may occur for milk ingestion or inhalation of mothers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with possible incorporation or mothers submitted to medical exposures during lactation. Radionuclide concentrations in the mother's milk may cause organ absorbed doses in the babies proportionally to the breast volumes. Milk analysis allow to determine activities ingested by the babies by determining the peak of mother's milk considering the decrease of the activity rate and the milk activities drunk at different time intervals. The work had the aim to develop simulators and methodology to evaluate {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in lactation, in the following steps: to prepare standard solution of contaminated milk separately with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I; to build four breast simulators (600 g and 800 g) and respective calibration for two geometries (breast and whole-body) in the Whole-Body Counter Unit in Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The results demonstrated the system efficiency to determine {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I activities in breasts during the lactation period. The methodology for positioning in the 'breast geometry' seemed to be more efficient than the 'whole-body geometry' for different breast volumes. The experiment allows achieving better evaluation of internal dosimetry of mothers and their young children. (author)

  7. Economic evaluation of photovoltaic electric power generation connected to the grid in deregulated electric power markets; Avaliacao economica da geracao de energia eletrica fotovoltaica conectada a rede em mercados eletricos desregulados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaran, David Richard Orosco

    2000-12-01

    This work presents an analysis of economic, tariff and regulating issues related to the introduction of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems in a deregulated electric market context; a case study for the peruvian electric market is realized. Based on the pricing system of the electric market, it is developed an economic assessment model that can be used by institutions interested in promoting this technology for generating electricity. (author)

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the reservoir was carried out and the possibility of these elements interfering adversely on biota and water quality of this environment. (author)

  9. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  10. Evaluation of human dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide bleacher compared with phosphoric acid conditioning - radioactive method; Avaliacao da perda dental humana com o uso do clareador peroxido de carbamida comparado ao condicionamento com acido fosforico - metodo radiometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Eduardo Makoto; Yousseff, Michel Nicolau [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Dentistica; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The radiometric method was applied to the evaluation of dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide when it is applied on the surface layers of enamel and dentin tissues. Also the dental loss caused by the etching with 37% phosphoric acid procedure used in aesthetic restoration was assessed for comparison with those results obtained. The tooth samples irradiated with a P standard in a thermal neutron flux of the nuclear reactor were placed in contact with 10% carbamide peroxide or with 37% phosphoric acid solution. The radioactivity of {sup 32} P transferred from the radioactive teeth to the bleaching gel or to etching acid was measured using a Geiger Muller detector to calculate the mass of P removed in this treatment and losses were calculated after obtaining their P concentrations. Results obtained indicated that enamel and dentin exposed to carbamide peroxide bleaching agent lose phosphorus. The extent of enamel loss was smaller than that obtained for dentin. In the case of acid etching, there was no difference between the results obtained for enamel and dentin loss. Also the dentin loss obtained after a treatment of 30 applications of 10% carbamide peroxide was the same magnitude of that one application of 37% phosphoric acid. (author)

  11. Evaluation of gains of energy efficiency in illumination with the use of proposed rulemaking labeling for buildings; Avaliacao dos ganhos em eficiencia energetica em iluminacao com o uso da proposta de regulamentacao de etiquetagem para edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Guilherme Augusto Marques; Saidel, Marco Antonio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: guilherme.araujo2@poli.usp.br, saidel@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article aims to examine the gains in energy efficiency through the classification levels, assigned to the installation of lighting systems with the use of the proposed regulations for voluntary labeling of the level of energy efficiency in commercial buildings, and public services. Were produced three different simulations: the first, considering a survey of data in an existing building which is hosting an administrative part of the public power, composed of 275 dependences. The second and third simulations deal with the application in a lighting project in the same enterprise, in two different luminaries (composed of optical systems with and without fins, respectively). From these activities that guide the direct application of the methodology for preparation of projects have been established comparisons between the results and made comments on the rates of illuminance, the levels of efficiency and the use of luminaries. (author)

  12. Radiation exposure evaluation of the professional working interventionist procedures in a hemodynamics service; Avaliacao da exposicao a radiacao dos profissionais que executam procedimentos intervencionistas em um servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Leonardo Peres

    2004-07-01

    An evaluation of the dose distribution received by all the workers involved on coronary angioplasty, arteriography, coronary angiography and mitral valvuloplasty procedures has been made in this work. For the measurements, LiF:Mg, Ti TLD(TLD 100) was used, located in seven different points on the worker's body: hands, knees, neck, forehead and thorax, inside and outside lead apron.) The measurements have been done for each hemo dynamical procedure, and the TLD calibrated in personal dose equivalent (H{sub p}(d)) operational quantity for 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm depth. Nurses and auxiliary doctors did not receive expressive dose values, indicating that the adopted radioprotection procedures seem to be appropriate and sufficient for them. However, the same is not true for the doctors direct in charge of the procedure. The results show the importance of the use of thyroid protections in these cases. This work discusses the main factors that cause occupational dose increase. From all interventionist hemo dynamical procedures analyzed, the dose values received by the doctors on coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary angiography were higher than the ones found on arteriography and mitral valvuloplasty. The higher dose values has been found for coronary angiography procedures in X-ray tools, that work with fluoroscopy on continuous mode and have been executed with brachial way, even in the eyes, hands, knees and thyroid, with or without shield. Multiplying these high dose values, measured in one procedure by the mean number of annual procedures made at the studied hospital by each doctor, the individual dose annual limits can be surpassed. Based on these estimations, some optimizations suggestions have been made and one discussion about the need of additional monitoring points is presented. Different algorithms have been used in order to estimate the effective dose, including a new proposal. The obtained results using the actual Radiodiagnostic Brazilian regulation underestimate the dose, in the major part of the measured cases. The proposed algorithm seem sto offer a better estimation for the occupational effective dose for Interventional Radiology. (author)

  13. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn, the highest contents were related to industrial zones and this element can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. (author)

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole; Sintese e avaliacao da propriedade reguladora de crescimento vegetal de compostos indolicos derivados do safrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Irineu [Escola Agrotecnica Federal de Rio do Sul, Rio do Sul, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: marchi@softhouse.com.br; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-15

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  15. Synthesis of polyisoprene and its evaluation as reducer of flow loss temperature of paraffinic drilling fluid; Sintese de poliisopreno e sua avaliacao como redutor da temperatura de perda de fluidez de fluido de perfuracao parafinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Luiz Carlos; Pires, Renata V.; Sant' Anna, Monica; Cardoso, Jaciene J.F.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizpalermo@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    N-paraffin fluids are widely used in drilling oil wells. However, under low temperature, such as those found in deep water, they lose their ability to flow due to solidification of paraffins. In order to keep the fluid flowing, isoparaffins are added to fluids. Nevertheless, the safety of the process is affected, due to its low flash point, especially during the storage in platforms offshore. This paper aims to obtain polymeric additives that can reduce the flow loss temperature of the n-paraffin fluid, replacing the isoparaffin, without affecting its rheological properties. So, oligomers/polymers based on isoprene were synthesized and the rheological behavior of the products and their mixtures with n-paraffin, as a function of decreasing temperature, was evaluated. Products from chemical degradation of natural rubber (NR) were also evaluated. The results showed that samples presenting relatively low molar mass, about 5,000 g/mol, exhibited good performance. When obtaining product by polymerization, a chain transfer agent must be used. (author)

  16. Marginal microleakage evaluation in class V composite restorations of deciduous teeth prepared conventionally and using Er:YAG laser; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao marginal em cavidades classe V de dentes deciduos preparados com laser Er:YAG e alta rotacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulga, Neusa Vieira Galvao

    2001-07-01

    The evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations of deciduous teeth prepared using Er:laser and comparison to the ones observed when conventionally prepared, using two photopolimerizable materials, composite resin and glass ionomer cement, was the subject of this study. Twenty eight complete deciduous teeth were divided into four groups Group 1 (G1) prepared with high speed drill + composite resin; Group 2 (G2) prepared with high speed drill + glass ionomer cement; Group 3 (G3) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 mJ/cm{sup 2} + composite resin; Group 4 (G4) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 J / cm{sup 2} + glass ionomer cement. After the preparation and restoration the specimens where stored at 37 deg C for 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours while kept in the dark. The specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in photodeveloping solution and exposed to fluorescent light for 6 hours. After this process the samples were sectioned and observed by stereomicroscopy. For comparison the groups were divided into occlusive and cervical microleakage. The results were analysed under the Kruskal-Wallis test. For the occlusive microleakage the statistical significance was 5% among the groups and the average comparison showed higher microleakage for G1 (M=35.1) than for G2 (M=24.0) as well as compared to G3 (M=22.3). The other groups did not present statistical differences among them. For the cervical microleakage the Kruskal-Wallis test did not present any statistical difference. Comparing the occlusive and cervical microleakage data, for every group, using the Wilcoxon test, no statistical differences were observed. Concluding, this study showed the Er:YAG laser to be effective for class V restorations and to result in a smaller microleakage degree using the composite resin. These results indicate the viability of the Er:YAG laser for conservative restorations of deciduous teeth. (author)

  17. Marginal microleakage in vitro study of occlusal fissures sealing prepared and etched or not with Er: YAG laser; Avaliacao in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em selamentos oclusais preparados e condicionados ou nao pelo laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Fernanda de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of marginal microleakage in occlusal sealing by invasive techniques, after preparation with Er:YAG laser followed or not by Er:YAG laser etching and compared to the conventional technique. Thirty human premolars were divided into three groups: A (control group) - cavities were prepared with high speed and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group B - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J /cm{sup 2}) and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group C - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J/cm{sup 2}), and etched with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ, 4 Hz and 25 m/cm{sup 2}). All cavities were treated with the same adhesive system and restored with flow composite according to manufacturer instructions. Teeth were submitted to thermal cycling procedures and immersed in 50% Silver Nitrate Solutions for 8 hours in total darkness. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the bucco-lingual direction, in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice was immersed into photo developing solution under 16 hours of fluorescent light. Slices were photographed and microleakage was scored from 0 to 7 J by three standard examiners. Results showed statistically significant differences for group C (Er:YAG laser preparation and etching). We concluded that Er:YAG laser can be used for cavity preparation of occlusal sealing, like the conventional high speed method. However, this laser, used as enamel etching agent, could not promote an adequate surface for adhesive procedures. (author)

  18. Evaluation of ultrasound inspection of steel H K-40 tubes used in oil processing plant furnaces; Avaliacao da inspecao ultra-sonica de tubos de aco HK-40 usado em fornos de plantas de processamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszczak, Eduardo Jose; Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado; Riguera, Glaucio [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Ensaios Nao-Destrutivos; Martins, Marcus Vinicius M.; Carneval, Ricardo de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-06-01

    The ultra-sound inspection is usually an alternative to the techniques used for the inspection of tubes of steel H K-40. Even so up to now it was not very analyzed it remains so much to real potentiality of the technique in what it refers to the minimum size of discontinuities for its detection with relationship to the characterization of the size of discontinuities and the respective ultra-sound signal. This work besides reviewing fundamental aspects of the problems of inspection of these tubes tries to relate the form of the ultra-sound signal with the size of the found discontinuities. (author)

  19. Development of a model for strategic evaluation of the global performance of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliacao estrategica do desempenho global da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2003-07-01

    A conscious, effective course of action, now essential to several areas and organizations, has become a must in the public administration. In this sense, modem managerial practices may contribute significantly for governmental organism to take up an attitude shifted to results in the society, without losing its eminently public function. In order to measure the social impact of the activities of the State as a whole, institutions must use mechanisms that allow self-evaluations of their performance, so as to verify the return obtained as a result of their efforts. However, most institutions do not have structured tools for such evaluation. The present study proposes to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear a model to measure its global performance, offering a proposed architecture for the measurement system in accordance with the results of the planning process of the Institution. The methodology presented also comprises the definition of cause-and-effect critical models between the strategic objectives of the organization and its respective factors critic ai for success, as well as related performance indicators. This work also includes the breakdown of the measurement system for the macro processes of the organization, optimizing resource sharing and the flow of information, avoiding redundant efforts and bringing forth further advantages aiming at creating a organizational 'unit'. Within this context, the developed model may offer substantial help for the improvement of the maturity of the organization in goal-oriented management, considering that the proposed global performance measurement follows a planned structure, with a systemic approach of the organization, allowing that the process be carried out in a way that is transparent and objective. (author)

  20. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  1. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  2. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  3. Sustainable charcoal use in iron and steel industry in Carajas region, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial brasileiro de florestas plantadas na reducao da concentracao do carbono atmosferico: o caso do polo guseiro de Grande Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Concern about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change has raised awareness that forest-management strategies have a large potential for storing and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Other measures under consideration include the use of renewable biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel use. This thesis shows the potential of charcoal from renewable Eucalyptus plantations for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by replacing charcoal from the harvest of native forest in the iron and steel industry located at Carajas region, state of Para, Brazil. The results show that, if deforestation in the Carajas region were stopped and substituted by renewable forests for charcoal production, within a 21-year time horizon some 470.000 hectares of native Amazon forests could be preserved, avoiding the emission of some 2.67 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr to the atmosphere, which is 3.2% of the current carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Brazil (82,4 x 10{sup 6} tC/yr) at a cost of 2,65-3,84 US$/tC. (author)

  4. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  5. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation rate was determined by the passive detection technique with the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) and the sealed can technique, assuming a ventilation rate of 0.5 h{sup -1} and an annual exposure time of 7000 h. The results for this studies show that the annual effective dose ranged from (62 {+-} 3) {mu}Sv.y{sup 1} to (138 {+-} 1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and the internal annual effective dose ranged from (0,39 {+-} 0,04) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} to (70 {+-} 4) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. These values are below the maximum limit of 1 mSv.y{sup -1} suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection, meaning that the granitic rocks evaluated can be used without radiological implications since the considered scenario is obeyed. The values obtained for the contribution due to the internal dose ranged from 1 % to 78 % of the values obtained for the respective external dose showing the radon contribution varies strongly with the rock type. The results of the correlations between {sup 222}Rn superficial exhalation rate, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, density, porosity and major oxides of the samples, showed that, in terms of influence in the emanation fraction of radon, the most important parameter is the density, due to low porosity and similarity in terms of chemical composition amid the studied samples. (author)

  6. Evaluating factorial kriging for seismic attributes filtering: a geostatistical filter applied to reservoir characterization; Avaliacao da krigagem fatorial na filtragem de atributos sismicos: um filtro geoestatistico aplicado a caracterizacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Evaldo Cesario

    1999-02-01

    In this dissertation the Factorial Kriging analysis for the filtering of seismic attributes applied to reservoir characterization is considered. Factorial Kriging works in the spatial, domain in a similar way to the Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain. The incorporation of filtered attributes via External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging in the estimate of reservoir characterization is discussed. Its relevance for the reservoir porous volume calculation is also evaluated based on comparative analysis of the volume risk curves derived from stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with collocated variable and stochastic conditional simulations with external drift. results prove Factorial Kriging as an efficient technique for the filtering of seismic attributes images, of which geologic features are enhanced. The attribute filtering improves the correlation between the attributes and the well data and the estimates of the reservoir properties. The differences between the estimates obtained by External Drift Kriging and Collocated Cokriging are also reduced. (author)

  7. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (C{sub vol}) evaluation in Recife; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem e do indice volumetrico de Kerma ar em tomografia computadorizada (C{sub vol}) em Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida

    2008-07-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (C{sub VOL}) and air kerma length product (P{sub KL,CT}) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms ({sub n}C{sub W}), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the C{sub VOL} values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the P{sub KL,CT}, from 150 to 750 mGy{center_dot}cm. The C{sub VOL} values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT}, between 120 and 460 mGy{center_dot}cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, C{sub VOL} values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT} values varied between 24 and 67 mGy{center_dot}cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the ACR requirements, suggesting the need to implement quality assurance programs at the evaluated institutions. (author)

  8. Rectal cancer survival in a Brazilian Cancer Reference Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo da Silva Corrêa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malign tumors in men and women all over the world. In spite of prevention advances in the last few years, worldwide incidence remains significant, about one million per year. Objectives: Evaluate rectal cancer survival in patients diagnosed and surgically treated at the Cancer Reference Unit at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Methods: Observational retrospective study composed by 135 patients assisted from 2007 to 2014 at Doctor Luiz Antonio Hospital, Natal, Brazil. Data were collected from the patient records revision and survival rates were calculated and analyzed by non-parametric Kaplan–Meier and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. All patients were submitted to surgical treatment, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Results: Overall survival was 62% in seven years, while disease-free survival in one, three and five years was 91.7%, 75.5% and 72.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Overall survival and disease-free survival remained enhanced until the end of the study, suggesting that the treatment protocols used in the institution have shown to be effective. Resumo: O câncer colorretal é um dos tumores malignos mais comuns em homens e mulheres em todo o mundo. Apesar das melhorias na prevenção nos últimos anos, a incidência global ainda é expressiva, cerca de um milhão por ano. Objetivos: Avaliar a sobrevida do câncer de reto nos pacientes diagnosticados e tratados cirurgicamente na Unidade de Referência do Câncer no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo composto por 135 pacientes, compreendido no período de 2007 a 2014 no Hospital Dr. Luiz Antônio, Natal, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados através da revisão de prontuários e as sobrevidas foram calculadas e comparadas utilizando, respectivamente, os métodos não-paramétricos de Kaplan-Meier e teste de Wilcoxon. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico, quimioterápico e radioter

  9. REFLETINDO SOBRE AS ESPECIFICIDADES DA GEOGRAFIA NA CRISE DA MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício A. S. Carneiro Carneiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a evolução da ciência moderna, bem como a crise desse paradigma dominante e seus efeitos sobre a geografia. Destaca ainda a necessidade da construção de um novo pensamento científico para além das fronteiras disciplinares e do método absoluto.

  10. A dignidade da pessoa humana na doutrina social da igreja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzone, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma análise panorâmica sobre a compreensão da dignidade humana nos diversos textos da Doutrina Social da Igreja, mostrando o entendimento da mesma nos diversos documentos dos Papas, notadamente Leão XII, Pio XI, Pio XII e João Paulo II, além de apontar aspectos históricos e culturais que influenciaram cada pronunciamento, o que foi determinante para a evolução do pensamento do Magistério na questão social. O ponto de partida é a visão antropológica da Doutrina Social da Igreja, resumida em termos de “homem criado por Deus a sua imagem e resgatado pelo sangue de Jesus Cristo” (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis 29. A partir daí, há a defesa do primado do ser humano sobre o social e reivindicações totalitaristas que perpassaram a história recente da humanidade, embora a pessoa seja sempre um ser-em-relação e situado em uma sociedade determinada

  11. Os usos da diversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Geertz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Ao discorrer sobre o “Futuro do Etnocentrismo”, este artigo parte da premissa de que a globalização, apesar de ter – em muitos casos – diminuído as diferenças entre povos, não tem amenizado os preconceitos e as formas de discriminação que ocorrem em nome dessas diferenças. Ele resgata a importância do antropólogo neste cenário lembrando que a diversidade cultural faz parte da sociedade complexa, remetendo-se não apenas a grupos étnicos ou nacionais bem delimitados, mas também a diferenças de geração, gênero, sexo e classe, entre outros. Neste contexto, a tolerância passiva de modos distantes de vida assim como a aceitação pragmática de nosso próprio paroquialismo são atitudes não somente intelectualmente desonestas mas também moralmente repreensíveis. É no encontro incômodo de subjetividades variantes na sua própria sociedade que o antropólogo define seu lugar.

  12. Progresso Interdisciplinar da Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Correia-Pinto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Portugal é muitas vezes citado como um bom exemplo na prestação de cuidados de saúde. Para tal concorreram a investigação (engenharia biomédica, a evolução técnica e a diferenciação clínica de diferentes especialidades. Para que esta evolução se transfira para o paciente com o seu máximo potencial, o diálogo e a interdisciplinaridade são imprescindíveis. Nesta Edição da Gazeta Médica, vários artigos trazem até ao leitor alguns exemplos desta evolução e interdisciplinaridade, que continua todos os dias nos nossos hospitais. Assim não podemos deixar de salientar o enorme progresso que houve no desenvolvimento de antimicrobianos e logicamente, o desafio que agora enfrentamos, o da resistência aos antibióticos. Por outro lado, a biologia molecular ao permitir-nos conhecer melhor a origem e fisiopatologia de inúmeras doenças, abriu um janela de oportunidade para individualizar o algoritmo clínico de orientação e tratamento clínicos. É com naturalidade, portanto, que a seguir encontramos vários artigos que relatam estratégias de individualização terapêutica, aumentando o efeito terapêutico, e minimizando os efeitos laterais. Sendo o relator deste editorial, um cirurgião, não posso deixar de dar enfoque à forma como a cirurgia minimamente invasiva tem revolucionado a intervenção cirúrgica. A história reporta-nos que foram os urologistas e os ginecologistas os pioneiros em muitos dos passos determinantes para chegarmos à cirurgia laparoscópica. Aqueles e os cirurgiões digestivos documentaram clinicamente que o desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe consigo várias vantagens que, resumidamente, resultam numa convalescença pós-operatória mais suave e mais curta. Inspirado pelos benefícios bem documentados de cirurgia minimamente invasiva em adultos e crianças, o século XXI começou com as primeiras tentativas de transportar as vantagens desta abordagem para recém-nascidos, tal

  13. Surviving Scientific Academia . . . and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    It's been 16 years since I first took a physics class at Weber State University. Since them, I've survived graduate school in Nuclear Engineering, and a postdoc appointment doing nuclear nonproliferation. Now I'm a Technical Staff Member at Los Alamos National Laboratory working with nuclear data, the physics behind the numerical simulations of nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Along the way, I've learned a few things. First, scientific computing is everywhere in science. If you are not writing codes, you will be analyzing their output, and generally there will be more output than a human can correctly and accurately interpret in a timely manner. Second, a career in science or engineering can be very rewarding with opportunities to collaborate with and generate friendships with very bright people from all over the world.

  14. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed...... is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures...

  15. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  16. Fingertip replantation: determinants of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Zheng; Zhu, Qingsheng; Lei, Wei; Han, Yisheng; Li, Mingquan; Wang, Zhen

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for an unsuccessful replanted fingertip. Two hundred eleven complete fingertip amputations in 211 patients who underwent replantation surgery between August of 1990 and March of 2006 were included in this study. The patients' age, gender, smoking history, digit position, dominant hand, amputation level, injury mechanism, platelet count, ischemia time, preservation method of the amputated part, anesthesia, number of arteries repaired, venous drainage, use of vein grafting, neurorrhaphy, bone shortening, and smoking after operation were tested for their impact on fingertip survival. One hundred seventy-two of 211 patients (81.5 percent) had a successful replantation. Univariate analysis showed crush or avulsion injury, high platelet count, and inappropriate preservation of the amputated part in saline solution or ethanol to be associated with a high incidence of replantation failure. Twenty-two of 54 patients (41 percent) who had a crush or avulsion trauma had failed replantation. Logistic regression analysis identified injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of the amputated part, and the use of vein grafting as statistically significant predictive factors for success or failure. Injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of amputated part, and the use of vein grafting were found to be the main predictors for the survival of the replanted fingertip. Applying external bleeding in zone 1 and venous drainage through the medullary cavity in zone 2 or venous anastomosis combined with vein grafting rather than venous anastomosis alone were strongly recommended in the fingertip replantation of crush or avulsion injury.

  17. Heparanase Expression in Malignant Salivary Gl, Tumors Inversely Correlates with Long-Term Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Ben-Izhak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upregulation of the endo-b-Dglucuronidase, heparanase, was noted in an increasing number of human malignancies. Heparanase expression correlated with enhanced local, distant metastatic spread, increased vascular density, reduced postoperative survival. PATIENTS, METHODS: We analyzed heparanase expression in 60 patients (aged 59 ± 17 years with malignant salivary tumors (39 males, 21 females using immunohistochemistry. We applied antiheparanase antibody 733, which has previously been shown to preferentially recognize a 50-kDa active heparanase subunit over a 65-kDa latent enzyme. Thus, immunostaining can directly be correlated with enzymatic activity. RESULTS: Heparanase staining was positive (> 0 in 70% of tumors (42 of 60 patients, was negative (0 in the remaining 30% (18 patients. The cumulative survival of patients diagnosed as heparanase-negative (n = 18 at 300 months was 70% (95% confidence interval = 35-88. In contrast, the cumulative survival of patients diagnosed as heparanase-positive (n = 42 at 300 months was 0% (statistically significant difference, P = .035. CONCLUSIONS: Heparanase expression levels inversely correlate with the survival rates of salivary gl, cancer patients, clearly indicating that heparanase is a reliable prognostic factor for this malignancy, an attractive target for anticancer drug development.

  18. Os limites da competitividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rattner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Costuma-se destacar os aspectos aparentemente positivos e as vantagens hipotéticas da concorrência e da competitividade entre empresas e também entre nações. Não se pode negar que a concorrência nos mercados tenha exercido uma função central e fundamental na gênese e na expansão do sistema de produção capitalista. Ela contribuiu para a geração e acumulação de riquezas materiais. Também estimulou e fortaleceu as aspirações de seus principais atores sociais, os empreendedores, de exigir uma organização política mais democrática em oposição ao regime feudal ou absolutista, em determinado período da história do mundo ocidental.

  19. Engenharia da mente

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Tânia Cristina D'Agostini

    2005-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Na era da informação digitalizada, pesquisadores de diferentes áreas do conhecimento enfrentam uma nova questão: a organização semântica dos dados. A matéria tornou-se importante pelo fato das informações digitalmente disponíveis estarem dispostas, em sua maioria, como dados não-estruturados. Todavia, sabe-se que a estruturação de dados é um problema complexo ...

  20. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  1. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Controladoria tem sido alvo de estudos e destaque de análises e reflexões dos estudiosos das ciências que têm como foco o campo gerencial das organizações como a da Administração e Contabilidade. É importante observar a contribuição da Controladoria à governança pública, fundamento de uma gestão democrática e participativa. Nesse contexto, insere-se o objetivo deste estudo, refletir sobre atuação da controladoria pública da cidade de Salvador, observando a contribuição efetiva na governança nesse município. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos na Secretaria da Fazenda (SEFAZ do município a quem Controladoria vincula-se. Com caráter exploratório, essa investigação descritiva envolveu pesquisa de campo, análise de documentos e relatórios emitidos pela SEFAZ e pelo Tribunal de Contas do Município (TCM. Verificou-se o organograma da SEFAZ, seu orçamento e os pareceres do TCM. Os resultados expressam a importância da Controladoria e denotam a impressão de que, na instituição estudada, essa área não esteja cumprindo bem seu papel. 

  2. Ocorrência da ferrugem da videira em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelica Aparecida Xavier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da videira causada por Phakopsora euvitis Ono constitui-se numa ameaça às regiões produtoras de uva em função do potencial destrutivo da planta. A doença foi detectada no Brasil, pela primeira vez, em 2001. Atualmente, ela ocorre no Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Espírito Santo e Santa Catarina. Em abril de 2010, observaram-se na estação experimental da Unimontes, Janaúba, Minas Gerais, plantas da cv. Niágara rosada com sintomas típicos da doença. A análise dos sintomas e a caracterização dos urediniósporos sésseis, levemente equinulados, com formato oval, ou elipsoide formado em urédias subepidérmicas na origem, inrompentes e com paráfises circundantes dorsalmente, levaram à diagnose de Phakopsora euvitis como o agente causal da doença. Este é o primeiro relato da doença no Estado de Minas Gerais.

  3. Historicidade da filosofia em Hegel e Heidegger

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Iber

    2017-01-01

    Gostaria de discutir, em forma de teses, a temática da historicidade da filosofia em contraste e na sua divergência em Hegel e Heidegger. Diferente do historicismo, que não soluciona o problema da historicidade da filosofia, porque ele dissolve tendencialmente a filosofia na história da filosofia e não coloca em especial a questão da verdade, Hegel e Heidegger desenvolvem uma teoria genuinamente filosófica da história da filosofia do interesse filosófico pela verdade. Esse interesse genuiname...

  4. Survivability Assessment: Modeling A Recovery Process

    OpenAIRE

    Paputungan, Irving Vitra; Abdullah, Azween

    2009-01-01

    Survivability is the ability of a system to continue operating, in a timely manner, in the presence ofattacks, failures, or accidents. Recovery in survivability is a process of a system to heal or recover from damageas early as possible to fulfill its mission as condition permit. In this paper, we show a preliminary recoverymodel to enhance the system survivability. The model focuses on how we preserve the system and resumes itscritical service under attacks as soon as possible.Keywords: surv...

  5. Modelo para sistemas da qualidade como base da estrategia competitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Vários autores propõem a empresa como um sistema em transformação, sendo que esse enfoque sistêmico parece oferecer um meio efetivo de prover as capacidades estratégicas que são valorizadas pelos mercados atuais. Por outro lado, vem crescendo a consciência para o enfoque da qualidade como base da estratégia competitiva, onde esta é associada à lucratividade e incluída no processo de planejamento estratégico, tornando-se um instrumento eficaz de concorrência que, para fazer frente à di...

  6. Dimensão da maturidade à luz da logoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardi, Tadeu Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o tema da maturidade humana à luz da logoterapia, fundada por Viktor Emil Frankl. Nos dias de hoje, existe a frustração existencial, não mais a sexual, como analisada por Freud. Cada ser humano, como pessoa livre e responsável e tendo como meta a busca da maturidade, vai percorrendo seu próprio caminho, que o leva à ceitação de si, de seus limites e potencialidades e ao relacionamento social e religioso, capacitando-o ao confronto com o sofrimento humano

  7. Survival after stereotactic biopsy of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, R.J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Taylor, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    For many patients with malignant gliomas in inaccessible or functionally important locations, stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy (RT) may be a more appropriate initial treatment than craniotomy and tumor resection. We studied the long term survival in 91 consecutive patients with malignant gliomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: 64 had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 27 had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Sixty-four per cent of the GBMs and 33% of the AAs involved deep or midline cerebral structures. The treatment prescribed after biopsy, the tumor location, the histological findings, and the patient's age at presentation (for AAs) were statistically important factors determining patient survival. If adequate RT (tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 cGy) was not prescribed, the median survival was less than or equal to 11 weeks regardless of tumor histology or location. The median survival for patients with deep or midline tumors who completed RT was similar in AA (19.4 weeks) and GBM (27 weeks) cases. Histology was an important predictor of survival only for patients with adequately treated lobar tumors. The median survival in lobar GBM patients who completed RT was 46.9 weeks, and that in lobar AA patients who completed RT was 129 weeks. Cytoreductive surgery had no statistically significant effect on survival. Among the clinical factors examined, age of less than 40 years at presentation was associated with prolonged survival only in AA patients. Constellations of clinical features, tumor location, histological diagnosis, and treatment prescribed were related to survival time

  8. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...