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Sample records for survival apoptosis autophagy

  1. 6-Gingerol induces autophagy to protect HUVECs survival from apoptosis.

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    Wang, Shaopeng; Sun, Xiance; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Xiaofang; Chen, Min; Yao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Qinghua; Yang, Guang

    2016-08-25

    6-Gingerol, the major pharmacologically-active component of ginger, has the potential to prevent heart disease. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, the protective effect of 6-gingerol against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33342 and Flow cytometry analysis. To further elucidate the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy, we tested the expression of autophagy related proteins, LC3B, Bcl-2, Beclin1, AKT, p-AKT, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and p-mTOR. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential and the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also investigated. Our data revealed that 6-gingerol significantly reduced apoptosis by inducing autophagy. It has been demonstrated that 6-gingerol suppressed the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, increased the expression of Beclin1 to promote autophagy, and increased Bcl-2 expression to inhibit apoptosis. In addition, the damage of mitochondrial was protected, and ROS level was decreased by 6-gingerol. These firmly indicate 6-gingerol has a strong protective ability against the apoptosis caused by oxidative stress in HUVECs, and the mechanism may relate to the induction of autophagy. Our data suggest 6-gingerol may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autophagy and apoptosis: where do they meet?

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    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Sinha, Niharika; Das, Durgesh Nandini; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are two important cellular processes with complex and intersecting protein networks; as such, they have been the subjects of intense investigation. Recent advances have elucidated the key players and their molecular circuitry. For instance, the discovery of Beclin-1's interacting partners has resulted in the identification of Bcl-2 as a central regulator of autophagy and apoptosis, which functions by interacting with both Beclin-1 and Bax/Bak respectively. When localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, Bcl-2 inhibits autophagy. Cellular stress causes the displacement of Bcl-2 from Beclin-1 and Bax, thereby triggering autophagy and apoptosis, respectively. The induction of autophagy or apoptosis results in disruption of complexes by BH3-only proteins and through post-translational modification. The mechanisms linking autophagy and apoptosis are not fully defined; however, recent discoveries have revealed that several apoptotic proteins (e.g., PUMA, Noxa, Nix, Bax, XIAP, and Bim) modulate autophagy. Moreover, autophagic proteins that control nucleation and elongation regulate intrinsic apoptosis through calpain- and caspase-mediated cleavage of autophagy-related proteins, which switches the cellular program from autophagy to apoptosis. Similarly, several autophagic proteins are implicated in extrinsic apoptosis. This highlights a dual cellular role for autophagy. On one hand, autophagy degrades damaged mitochondria and caspases, and on the other hand, it provides a membrane-based intracellular platform for caspase processing in the regulation of apoptosis. In this review, we highlight the crucial factors governing the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis and describe the mechanisms controlling cell survival and cell death.

  3. Autophagy and apoptosis have a role in the survival or death of stallion spermatozoa during conservation in refrigeration.

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    Juan M Gallardo Bolaños

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been recognized as a cause of sperm death during cryopreservation and a cause of infertility in humans, however there is no data on its role in sperm death during conservation in refrigeration; autophagy has not been described to date in mature sperm. We investigated the role of apoptosis and autophagy during cooled storage of stallion spermatozoa. Samples from seven stallions were split; half of the ejaculate was processed by single layer centrifugation, while the other half was extended unprocessed, and stored at 5°C for five days. During the time of storage, sperm motility (CASA, daily and membrane integrity (flow cytometry, daily were evaluated. Apoptosis was evaluated on days 1, 3 and 5 (active caspase 3, increase in membrane permeability, phosphatidylserine translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential using flow cytometry. Furthermore, LC3B processing was investigated by western blotting at the beginning and at the end of the period of storage. The decrease in sperm quality over the period of storage was to a large extent due to apoptosis; single layer centrifugation selected non-apoptotic spermatozoa, but there were no differences in sperm motility between selected and unselected sperm. A high percentage of spermatozoa showed active caspase 3 upon ejaculation, and during the period of storage there was an increase of apoptotic spermatozoa but no changes in the percentage of live sperm, revealed by the SYBR-14/PI assay, were observed. LC3B was differentially processed in sperm after single layer centrifugation compared with native sperm. In processed sperm more LC3B-II was present than in non-processed samples; furthermore, in non-processed sperm there was an increase in LC3B-II after five days of cooled storage. These results indicate that apoptosis plays a major role in the sperm death during storage in refrigeration and that autophagy plays a role in the survival of spermatozoa representing a new pro-survival

  4. Crosstalk between Autophagy and Apoptosis: Potential and Emerging Therapeutic Targets for Cardiac Diseases

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    Meng Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a cell survival process which is related to breaking down and reusing cytoplasm components. Moreover, autophagy regulates cell death under certain conditions. Apoptosis has the characteristics of chromatin agglutination and the shrinking of nuclear and apoptosis body form. Even if the mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis have differences, some proteins modulate both autophagy and apoptosis. Crosstalk between them exists. This review highlights recent advances in the interaction of autophagy and apoptosis and its importance in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Overcoming Autophagy to Induce Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

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    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0529 TITLE: Overcoming Autophagy to Induce Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...survival mechanism and led cells to undergo apoptosis . Survival mechanisms elicited by CRPC C4-2B cells when treated with Enza may be blocked by...Targeting cancer cell metabolism: the combination of metformin and 2-deoxyglucose induces p53-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cancer

  6. Autophagy to Survive

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    Muzeyyen Izmirli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is the catabolic mechanism that involves cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components through the actions of lysosomes. It helps to keep the cells alive in such cases like oxidative stress, lack of nutrients and growth factors providing recycling of intracellular molecules. However, it works as a part of metabolism regulation, morphogenesis, cell differentiation, senescence, cell death and immune system. As a result of impairment of this mechanism, pathological situations arise including cancer, neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Consequently, researches about autophagy mechanism are important for the development of novel diagnosis, follow-up and treatment modalities in health problems. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 411-419

  7. Intimacy and a deadly feud: the interplay of autophagy and apoptosis mediated by amino acids.

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    Wu, Zhenlong; Hu, Chien-An A; Wu, Guoyao; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Chand, Hitendra; Sun, Kaiji; Ji, Yun; Wang, Bin; Dai, Zhaolai; Walton, Brian; Miao, Yubin; Hou, Yongqing

    2015-10-01

    Autophagy (i.e., "self-eating") and apoptosis (i.e., type I programmed cell death) are essential and intimately involved in molecular, cellular, and whole-body homeostasis in humans and animals. Autophagy has been categorized as a mechanism of intracellular degradation, recycling, defense, and survival. To date, three types of autophagy have been identified: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. Recent discoveries strongly suggest that macroautophagy also modulates type II programmed cell death under specific circumstances. Autophagy and apoptosis are fundamentally distinct processes, but are interconnected by common stress initiators and intermediate regulators. During the past two decades, the role of amino acid metabolism and signaling in the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy has been intensively studied. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate both autophagy and apoptosis in the context of amino acid signaling.

  8. The role of autophagy in THP-1 macrophages resistance to HIV- vpr-induced apoptosis.

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    Zhou, Hua-Ying; Zheng, Yu-Huang; He, Yan; Chen, Zi; He, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Macrophages are resistant to cell death and are one of HIV reservoirs. HIV viral protein Vpr has the potential to promote infection of and survival of macrophages, which could be a highly significant factor in the development and/or maintenance of macrophage viral reservoirs. However, the impact of vpr on macrophages resistance to apoptosis is yet to be comprehended. Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism under stress state. In this study, we investigated whether autophagy is involved in macrophages resistant to vpr-induced apoptosis. Using the THP1 macrophages, we studied the interconnection between macrophages resistance to apoptosis and autophagy. We found that vpr is able to trigger autophagy in transfected THP-1 macrophages confirmed by electron microscopy (EM) and western blot analysis, and inhibition of autophagy with 3MA increased vpr-induced apoptosis. The results indicate that autophagy may be responsible for maintenance of macrophage HIV reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Punicalagin promotes autophagy to protect primary human syncytiotrophoblasts from apoptosis.

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    Wang, Ying; Chen, Baosheng; Longtine, Mark S; Nelson, D Michael

    2016-02-01

    Punicalagin is a prominent polyphenol in pomegranate juice that protects cultured syncytiotrophoblasts from stress-induced apoptosis. Here, we test the hypothesis that punicalagin has this effect by inhibiting the mTOR kinase pathway to enhance autophagic turnover and limit apoptosis in cultured primary human syncytiotrophoblasts. In syncytiotrophoblasts, starvation, rapamycin, or punicalagin all decreased the expression of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of the mTOR kinase, and of the autophagy markers, LC3-II and p62. In contrast, in the presence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of late stages of autophagy and degradation in the autophagolysosome, syncytiotrophoblasts exposed to starvation, rapamycin, or punicalagin all showed increased levels of LC3-II and p62. The number of LC3-II punctae also increased in punicalagin-treated syncytiotrophoblasts exposed to chloroquine, another inhibitor of autophagic degradation, and punicalagin increased the number of lysosomes. The apoptosis-reducing effect of punicalagin was attenuated by inhibition of autophagy using bafilomycin or knockdown of the autophagy related gene, ATG16L1. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that punicalagin modulates the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis to promote survival in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. Biomarkers of Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Autophagy in Osteoarthritis

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    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Al-Wasiyah, Mohammad K.; Alqahtani, Mohammed H.; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cell death with morphological and molecular features of apoptosis has been detected in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, which suggests a key role for chondrocyte death/survival in the pathogenesis of OA. Identification of biomarkers of chondrocyte apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapies that may eliminate the cause or, at least, slow down the degenerative processes in OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signals that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords chondrocyte death, apoptosis, osteoarthritis, autophagy and biomarker. Several molecules considered to be markers of chondrocyte apoptosis will be discussed in this brief review. Molecular markers and signalling pathways associated with chondroycte apoptosis may turn out to be therapeutic targets in OA and approaches aimed at neutralizing apoptosis-inducing molecules may at least delay the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA. PMID:26334269

  11. The role of autophagy in THP-1 macrophages resistance to HIV- vpr-induced apoptosis

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    Zhou, Hua-ying, E-mail: zhouhuaying_2004@126.com; Zheng, Yu-huang; He, Yan; Chen, Zi; He, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Macrophages are resistant to cell death and are one of HIV reservoirs. HIV viral protein Vpr has the potential to promote infection of and survival of macrophages, which could be a highly significant factor in the development and/or maintenance of macrophage viral reservoirs. However, the impact of vpr on macrophages resistance to apoptosis is yet to be comprehended. Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism under stress state. In this study, we investigated whether autophagy is involved in macrophages resistant to vpr-induced apoptosis. Using the THP1 macrophages, we studied the interconnection between macrophages resistance to apoptosis and autophagy. We found that vpr is able to trigger autophagy in transfected THP-1 macrophages confirmed by electron microscopy (EM) and western blot analysis, and inhibition of autophagy with 3MA increased vpr-induced apoptosis. The results indicate that autophagy may be responsible for maintenance of macrophage HIV reservoirs. - Highlights: • HIV Vpr is able to trigger autophagy in transfected THP-1 macrophages. • Autophagy inhibition increases vpr-transfected THP1-macrophages apoptosis. • Autophagy is involved in THP-1 macrophages resistant to vpr-induced apoptosis.

  12. p53/HMGB1 Complexes Regulate Autophagy and Apoptosis

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    Livesey, Kristen M.; Kang, Rui; Vernon, Philip; Buchser, William; Loughran, Patricia; Watkins, Simon C.; Zhang, Lin; Manfredi, James J.; Zeh, Herbert J.; Li, Luyuan; Lotze, Michael T.; Tang, Daolin

    2012-01-01

    The balance between apoptosis (“programmed cell death”) and autophagy (“programmed cell survival”) is important in tumor development and response to therapy. Here we show that HMGB1 and p53 form a complex which regulates the balance between tumor cell death and survival. We demonstrate that knockout of p53 inHCT116 cells increases expression of cytosolic HMGB1 and induces autophagy. Conversely, knockout of HMGB1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts increases p53 cytosolic localization and decreases...

  13. VMP1 related autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells: VMP1 regulates cell death

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    Qian, Qinyi [Department of Ultrasonograph, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu (China); Zhou, Hao; Chen, Yan [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Shen, Chenglong [Department of General Surgery, Changshu No. 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu (China); He, Songbing; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Liang [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Wan, Daiwei, E-mail: 372710369@qq.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Gu, Wen, E-mail: 505339704@qq.com [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •This research confirmed VMP1 as a regulator of autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We proved the pro-survival role of VMP1-mediated autophagy in colorectal cancer cell lines. •We found the interaction between VMP1 and BECLIN1 also existing in colorectal cancer cell lines. -- Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is an autophagy-related protein and identified as a key regulator of autophagy in recent years. In pancreatic cell lines, VMP1-dependent autophagy has been linked to positive regulation of apoptosis. However, there are no published reports on the role of VMP1 in autophagy and apoptosis in colorectal cancers. Therefore, to address this gap of knowledge, we decided to interrogate regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by VMP1. We have studied the induction of autophagy by starvation and rapamycin treatment in colorectal cell lines using electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. We found that starvation-induced autophagy correlated with an increase in VMP1 expression, that VMP1 interacted with BECLIN1, and that siRNA mediated down-regulation of VMP1-reduced autophagy. Next, we examined the relationship between VMP1-dependent autophagy and apoptosis and found that VMP1 down-regulation sensitizes cells to apoptosis and that agents that induce apoptosis down-regulate VMP1. In conclusion, similar to its reported role in other cell types, VMP1 is an important regulator of autophagy in colorectal cell lines. However, in contrast to its role in pancreatic cell lines, in colorectal cancer cells, VMP1-dependent autophagy appears to be pro-survival rather than pro-cell death.

  14. High-fat diet induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the inhibition of autophagy.

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    Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yi; Lee, Bai-Chin; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2016-10-01

    Excessive fat intake induces obesity and causes cardiac injury. Intracellular degradation process involving destruction of long-lived proteins and organelles maintains homeostasis for cells under stress. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac injury and intracellular degradation process with regard to autophagy and ER stress. HFD feeding for 24 weeks induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and cardiac hypertrophy in adult male C57BL/6 mice. In the heart, PARP cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis, levels of LC3-II and p62, indicators of autophagy, and CHOP, indicator of ER stress, were increased. A palmitate-treated cardiomyoblast (H9C2) cell culture was examined to explore how HFD induced myocardial injury. Excessive palmitate (400 μM) treatment induced apoptosis and increased the number of autophagosomes and acid vacuoles of H9C2 cells. Besides, it elevated the expression of LC3-II, p62, and PARP cleavage. Induction of autophagy by rapamycin ameliorated palmitate-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or LC3 siRNA exacerbated palmitate-induced apoptosis. Palmitate treatment also induced CHOP expression which is associated with ER stress. HFD can cause cardiac injury by induction of apoptosis which is associated with autophagy dysregulation and ER stress. In addition, autophagy deficiency augments cardiac apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy serves as a pro-survival role in lipotoxic condition.

  15. The dual role of autophagy under hypoxia-involvement of interaction between autophagy and apoptosis.

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    Li, Mengmeng; Tan, Jin; Miao, Yuyang; Lei, Ping; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Hypoxia is one of severe cellular stress and it is well known to be associated with a worse outcome since a lack of oxygen accelerates the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis caused by hypoxia. Generally autophagy blocks the induction of apoptosis and inhibits the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury. However, in special cases, autophagy or autophagy-relevant proteins may help to induce apoptosis, which could aggravate cell damage under hypoxia condition. In addition, the activation of apoptosis-related proteins-caspase can also degrade autophagy-related proteins, such as Atg3, Atg4, Beclin1 protein, inhibiting autophagy. Although the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis has been known for rather complex for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This short review discusses and summarizes the dual role of autophagy and the interaction and molecular regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and apoptosis under hypoxia.

  16. Crosstalk between Apoptosis and Autophagy: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies in Cancer

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    Abdelouahid El-Khattouti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both apoptosis and autophagy are highly conserved processes that besides their role in the maintenance of the organismal and cellular homeostasis serve as a main target of tumor therapeutics. Although their important roles in the modulation of tumor therapeutic strategies have been widely reported, the molecular actions of both apoptosis and autophagy are counteracted by cancer protective mechanisms. While apoptosis is a tightly regulated process that is implicated in the removal of damaged or unwanted cells, autophagy is a cellular catabolic pathway that is involved in lysosomal degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles, and thereby is considered an important survival/protective mechanism for cancer cells in response to metabolic stress or chemotherapy. Although the relationship between autophagy and cell death is very complicated and has not been characterized in detail, the molecular mechanisms that control this relationship are considered to be a relevant target for the development of a therapeutic strategy for tumor treatment. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, autophagy, and those of the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in order to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that may be essential for the balance between cell survival and death as well as their role as targets for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  17. Alcohol modulates autophagy and apoptosis in pig liver tissue.

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    Potz, Brittany A; Lawandy, Isabella J; Clements, Richard T; Sellke, Frank W

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy serves as a cellular protective mechanism against alcohol-induced tissue injury but excessive autophagy can also be detrimental leading to apoptosis. Our laboratory has previously shown that moderate alcohol consumption alters expression of proteins in the insulin signaling pathway and worsens glucose metabolism in the liver in a swine model of metabolic syndrome. We examined the effect of alcohol consumption on apoptosis and autophagy signaling in the liver in our clinically relevant animal model of chronic hypercholesterolemia. Twenty-six Yorkshire swine were fed a high-fat diet for 4 wks and were then split into three groups: hypercholesterolemic diet alone (HCC, n = 9), hypercholesterolemic diet with vodka (hypercholesterolemic vodka [HCV], n = 9), and hypercholesterolemic diet with wine (hypercholesterolemic wine [HCW], n = 8) for 7 wks. Animals underwent euthanasia, and liver tissue samples were harvested for analysis. Liver tissue was analyzed via Western blot analysis. Protein density data were normalized to GAPDH and is reported as fold-change values ± standard error of the mean compared to the high-cholesterol diet control group. A Kruskal-Wallis test with a Dunn's multiple comparison test was used to compare the means among groups. The HCV group showed significant increases in several proapoptotic proteins (including caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, and cleaved caspase 9) compared with the HCC group. There was a decrease in the proapoptotic protein (BAD) and an increase in anti-apoptotic signal (B-cell lymphoma-2) in the HCW group compared with HCC control. There were increases in pro-survival proteins (AKT, p-AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR) in the HCW and the HCV group compared with control (HCC). There were decreases in autophagy protein LCB-3 in the HCW and HCV compared with the control. We found that moderate alcohol consumption altered protein expression related to apoptosis and autophagy signaling in pig liver in the setting of

  18. Cisplatin-induced autophagy protects breast cancer cells from apoptosis by regulating yes-associated protein.

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    Jiang, Yulin; Ji, Feihu; Liu, Yifeng; He, Mengjia; Zhang, Zhiqian; Yang, Junhong; Wang, Nian; Zhong, Changli; Jin, Qianni; Ye, Xiangsen; Chen, Tingmei

    2017-10-16

    Breast cancer is a common cause of cancer‑related deaths in women. Treatment with cisplatin exhibits some therapeutic efficacy. However, treatment optimization is required, and the mechanisms underlying the cisplatin's proapoptotic effects remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that cisplatin induced apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells. Autophagy induced by cisplatin played a protective role in breast cancer cells, which impaired its proapoptotic effect. Mechanistically, for the first time, we found that cisplatin treatment activated the MAPK signaling pathway and promoted autophagy via the ERK signaling pathway. Notably, we found that nuclear translocation of yes-associated protein (YAP) was regulated by cisplatin-induced autophagy, and we identified YAP as a survival input that promoted survival in cisplatin-treated breast cancer cells. These findings revealed that administration of cisplatin along with an autophagy inhibitor is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating breast cancer.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 enhances autophagy in podocytes as a protective mechanism against high glucose-induced apoptosis

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    Dong, Chenglong [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zheng, Haining [Department of Hyperbaric Oxygen, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, Nanjing (China); Huang, Shanshan; You, Na; Xu, Jiarong; Ye, Xiaolong; Zhu, Qun; Feng, Yamin; You, Qiang; Miao, Heng [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Ding, Dafa, E-mail: dingdafa2004@aliyun.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Lu, Yibing, E-mail: luyibing2004@126.com [Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Injury and loss of podocytes play vital roles in diabetic nephropathy progression. Emerging evidence suggests autophagy, which is induced by multiple stressors including hyperglycemia, plays a protective role. Meanwhile, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) possesses powerful anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, we investigated the impact of autophagy on podocyte apoptosis under diabetic conditions and its association with HO-1. Mouse podocytes were cultured in vitro; apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Transmission electron microscopy and biochemical autophagic flux assays were used to measure the autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and beclin-1. LC3-II and beclin-1 expression peaked 12–24 h after exposing podocytes to high glucose. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine or Beclin-1 siRNAs or Atg 5 siRNAs sensitized cells to apoptosis, suggesting autophagy is a survival mechanism. HO-1 inactivation inhibited autophagy, which aggravated podocyte injury in vitro. Hemin-induced autophagy also protected podocytes from hyperglycemia in vitro and was abrogated by HO-1 siRNA. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was higher in hemin-treated and lower in HO-1 siRNA-treated podocytes. Suppression of AMPK activity reversed HO-1-mediated Beclin-1 upregulation and autophagy, indicating HO-1-mediated autophagy is AMPK dependent. These findings suggest HO-1 induction and regulation of autophagy are potential therapeutic targets for diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • High glucose leads to increased autophagy in podocytes at an early stage. • The early autophagic response protects against high glucose-induced apoptosis. • Heme oxygenase-1 enhances autophagy and decreases high glucose -mediated apoptosis. • Heme oxygenase-1 induces autophagy through the activation of AMPK.

  20. Autophagy Regulates Colistin-Induced Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells

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    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Yonghao; Ding, Wenjian; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli

    2015-01-01

    Colistin is a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Our recent study demonstrated that colistin induces apoptosis in primary chick cortex neurons and PC-12 cells. Although apoptosis and autophagy have different impacts on cell fate, there is a complex interaction between them. Autophagy plays an important role as a homeostasis regulator by removing excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of autophagy and apoptosis regulation in PC-12 cells in response to colistin treatment. PC-12 cells were exposed to colistin (125 to 250 μg/ml), and autophagy was detected by visualization of monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-labeled vacuoles, LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) immunofluorescence microscopic examination, and Western blotting. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, and Western blotting. Autophagosomes were observed after treatment with colistin for 12 h, and the levels of LC3-II gene expression were determined; observation and protein levels both indicated that colistin induced a high level of autophagy. Colistin treatment also led to apoptosis in PC-12 cells, and the level of caspase-3 expression increased over the 24-h period. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increased colistin toxicity in PC-12 cells remarkably. However, rapamycin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 and decreased the rate of apoptosis of PC-12 cells. Our results demonstrate that colistin induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC-12 cells and that the latter was affected by the regulation of autophagy. It is very likely that autophagy plays a protective role in the reduction of colistin-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. PMID:25645826

  1. Luteolin Promotes Cell Apoptosis by Inducing Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Zhijia Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Luteolin, a flavonoid from traditional Chinese medicine, shows anti-cancer activity in many cancer cells, including HCC. However, the mechanism underlying the action of luteolin in HCC, especially its role in regulating cell autophagy, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of luteolin in regulating cell autophagy and the role of autophagy in luteolin-induced apoptosis. Methods: The 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT was used to investigate cell viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Hoechst 33342 staining was used to detect cell apoptosis. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate autophagy. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect apoptosis- and autophagy-related mRNAs and proteins. Results: Luteolin reduced the viability of SMMC-7721 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner, and induced significant G0/G1-phase arrest. In addition, the results of flow cytometry analysis and Hoechst 33342 staining showed that luteolin treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells obviously, and the results of qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that luteolin treatment increased caspase 8 and decreased bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, luteolin increased the number of intracellular autophagosomes, promoted LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II, and increased Beclin 1 expression. Finally, co-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine weakened the effects of luteolin on cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Luteolin induced apoptosis in human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells, partially via autophagy. Thus, luteolin could be used as a regulator of autophagy in HCC treatment.

  2. Modulation of Acupuncture on Cell Apoptosis and Autophagy

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    Dan Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been historically practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis largely remains elusive. Recent studies suggested that cell apoptosis and autophagy might play key roles in acupuncture therapy. Therefore, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, aiming to find the potential relationship between acupuncture and cell apoptosis and autophagy. To provide readers with objective evidence, some problems regarding the design method, acupoints selection, acupuncture intervention measure, and related diseases existing in 40 related researches were shown in this review. These findings demonstrated that acupuncture has a potential role in modulating cell apoptosis and autophagy in animal models, suggesting it as a candidate mechanism in acupuncture therapy to maintain physiologic homeostasis.

  3. The Beclin 1 network regulates autophagy and apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, R; Zeh, H J; Lotze, M T; Tang, D

    2011-01-01

    Beclin 1, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg6, has a central role in autophagy, a process of programmed cell survival, which is increased during periods of cell stress and extinguished during the cell cycle...

  4. Fangchinoline Induces Apoptosis, Autophagy and Energetic Impairment in Bladder Cancer

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    Bo Fan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tetrandrine and Fangchinoline (Fcn are two natural products that are found in Stephania tetrandra. Tetrandrine is a known anti-bladder cancer compound, but the effects of Fcn on bladder cancer have been previously unclear. In the present study, we focused on the anti-tumor effects of Fcn on bladder cancer. Methods and Results: We treated T24 and 5637 bladder cancer cell lines with Fcn in vitro. We observed that Fcn inhibited the viability of bladder cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of PCNA, a biomarker of proliferation, was down-regulated. Fcn treatment induced both apoptosis and autophagy in bladder cancer cells, as shown by the increased cleavage of caspase-3, an up-regulated LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and the down-regulated p62 level. Blocking autophagy with 3-MA (3-Methyladenine enhanced Fcn-induced apoptosis, indicating that Fcn-induced autophagy was adaptive. Additionally, we observed that Fcn treatment inhibited mTOR and reduced the intracellular ATP levels. The exogenous addition of methyl pyruvate (MP to compensate metabolic substrates alleviated Fcn-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Conclusions: Our data indicated that Fcn caused an impairment in energy generation, which led to apoptosis and adaptive autophagy in bladder cancer. These results demonstrated that Fcn may be a potential candidate for use in the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.

  5. Autophagy and apoptosis-related genes in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Kotsafti Andromachi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of autophagy is important in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. Several aspects of the biological role of autophagy are however still unclear and the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy, particularly in the liver has yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study we evaluated the expression of Beclin 1 (one of the main autophagocytic agents, which bridges autophagy, apoptosis and both differentiation, and both pro- (Bad, Bax and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL factors in liver samples from patients with different stages of liver disease. Methods The study concerned 93 patients from 49 cases of chronic hepatitis (CH (30 HCV and 19 HBV-related, 13 of cirrhosis (CIRR (10 HCV and 3 HBV-related, 21 of hepatocellular carcinoma (both HCC and peritumoral tissues [PHCC], and 10 controls (CONTR. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to measure mRNA and protein expression levels. Results Beclin 1 mRNA levels were lower in HCC than in CH (P = 0.010 or CIRR (P = 0.011, and so were the Bcl-xL transcripts (P  Conclusions High Beclin 1, Bcl-xL and Bad levels in CH and CIRR tissues suggest an interaction between autophagy and apoptosis in the early and intermediate stages of viral hepatitis. In HCC these processes seem to be downregulated, probably enabling the survival and growth of neoplastic hepatocytes.

  6. Parthenolide suppresses pancreatic cell growth by autophagy-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weifeng Liu,1 Xinshuai Wang,2 Junjun Sun,1 Yanhui Yang,1 Wensheng Li,1 Junxin Song1 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 2Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, and College of Clinical Medicine of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luo Yang, China Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and is unresponsive to conventional chemotherapies. Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from feverfew, has exhibited potent anticancer effects against various cancers. The purpose of this report was to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of parthenolide in human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 and BxPC3 cells. The results demonstrated that parthenolide suppressed the growth and induced apoptosis of Panc-1 and BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ranging between 7 and 9 µM after 24 h of treatment. Significant autophagy was induced by parthenolide treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. Parthenolide treatment concentration-dependently increased the percentage of autophagic cells and significantly increased the expression levels of p62/SQSTM1, Beclin 1, and LC3II in Panc-1 cells. Punctate LC3II staining confirmed autophagy. Furthermore, inhibiting autophagy by chloroquine, 3-methyladenine, or LC3II siRNA significantly blocked parthenolide-induced apoptosis, suggesting that parthenolide induced apoptosis through autophagy in this study. In conclusion, these studies established that parthenolide inhibits pancreatic cell growth by autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Data of the present study suggest that parthenolide can serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer. Keywords: parthenolide, pancreatic cancer, autophagy, apoptosis, P62, cleaved PAPRP

  7. Autophagy and gap junctional intercellular communication inhibition are involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat liver cells

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    Zou, Hui [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Zhuo, Liling [College of Life Science, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, Shandong, 277160 (China); Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy, with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.

  8. Inhibition of autophagy stimulate molecular iodine-induced apoptosis in hormone independent breast tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Preeti [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Godbole, Madan, E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Rao, Geeta [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Annarao, Sanjay [Centre of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Lucknow (India); Mitra, Kalyan [Electron Microscopy Unit, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow (India); Roy, Raja [Centre of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Lucknow (India); Ingle, Arvind [Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Mumbai (India); Agarwal, Gaurav; Tiwari, Swasti [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) causes non-apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB231 breast tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy is activated as a survival mechanism in response to I{sub 2} in MDA-MB231. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to I{sub 2}-induced apoptotic cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy inhibitor potentiates apoptosis and tumor regressive effects of I{sub 2} in mice. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor negative (ER{sup -ve}) and p53 mutant breast tumors are highly aggressive and have fewer treatment options. Previously, we showed that molecular Iodine (I{sub 2}) induces apoptosis in hormone responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and non-apoptotic cell death in ER{sup -ve}-p53 mutant MDA-MB231 cells (Shrivastava, 2006). Here we show that I{sub 2} (3 {mu}M) treatment enhanced the features of autophagy in MDA-MB231 cells. Since autophagy is a cell survival response to most anti-cancer therapies, we used both in vitro and in vivo systems to determine whether ER{sup -ve} mammary tumors could be sensitized to I{sub 2}-induced apoptosis by inhibiting autophagy. Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine (CQ) and inhibitors for PI3K (3MA, LY294002) and H+/ATPase (baflomycin) resulted in enhanced cell death in I{sub 2} treated MDA-MB231 cells. Further, CQ (20 {mu}M) in combination with I{sub 2}, showed apoptotic features such as increased sub-G1 fraction ({approx}5-fold), expression of cleaved caspase-9 and -3 compared to I{sub 2} treatment alone. Flowcytometry of I{sub 2} and CQ co-treated cells revealed increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability (p < 0.01) and translocation of cathepsin D activity to cytosol relative to I{sub 2} treatment. For in vivo studies ICRC mice were transplanted subcutaneously with MMTV-induced mammary tumors. A significant reduction in tumor volumes, as measured by MRI, was found in I{sub 2} and CQ co-treated mice relative to I{sub 2} or

  9. Modulation of Acupuncture on Cell Apoptosis and Autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Liang, Feng-xia

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture has been historically practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis largely remains elusive. Recent studies suggested that cell apoptosis and autophagy might play key roles in acupuncture therapy. Therefore, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), aiming to find the potential relationship between acupuncture and cell apoptosis an...

  10. IL-17-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction impairs apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts through activation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seon-Young; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Da Som; Moon, Su-Jin; Lee, Jennifer; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2017-01-19

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) are a major cell population of the pannus that invades cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). FLS resistance to apoptosis is a major characteristic of RA. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells on resistance to apoptosis in FLSs from RA patients (RA FLSs) and their roles in mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy. Mitochondrial function was assessed in RA FLSs and FLSs from osteoarthritis patients (OA FLSs). FLSs were treated with IL-17 and their morphological features, respiratory level and mitochondrial gene expression were measured. The effects of IL-17 and Th17 cells on the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis were evaluated by measuring the expression of apoptosis-related genes using sodium nitroprusside or 3-methyladenine. The mitochondria of FLSs isolated from RA and osteoarthritis patients displayed different morphological and physiological features. RA FLSs exhibited greater autophagosome formation and greater dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration compared with OA FLSs. IL-17 induced mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagosome formation in RA FLSs, suggesting that they were resistant to apoptosis. Autophagy-related antiapoptosis induced by IL-17 was restored by inhibition of autophagy, suggesting a relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and cell survival in RA FLSs. Th17 cells and IL-17 increased autophagy of RA FLSs by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings suggest that, in RA, interactions between RA FLSs and Th17 cells may be involved in the tumorous growth of FLSs and the formation of pannus in joints.

  11. Blue light emitting diode induces apoptosis in lymphoid cells by stimulating autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Hwang, Hyosook; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Jeongil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Minjoo; Lim, SeokTae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the induction of apoptotic cell death and autophagy by blue LED irradiation, and the contribution of autophagy to apoptosis in B cell lymphoma A20 and RAMOS cells exposed to blue LED. Irradiation with blue LED reduced cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death, as indicated by exposure of phosphatidylserine on the plasma outside membrane and fragmentation of DNA. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential increased, and apoptotic proteins (PARP, caspase 3, Bax, and bcl-2) were observed. In addition, the level of intracellular superoxide anion (O2(-)) gradually increased. Interestingly the formation of autophagosomes and level of LC3-II were increased in blue LED-irradiated A20 and RAMOS cells, but inhibited after pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), widely used as an autophagy inhibitor. Inhibition of the autophagic process by pretreatment with 3-MA blocked blue LED irradiation-induced caspase-3 activation. Moreover, a significant reduction of both the early and late phases of apoptosis after transfection with ATG5 and beclin 1 siRNAs was shown by the annexin V/PI staining, indicating a crucial role of autophagy in blue LED-induced apoptosis in cells. Additionally, the survival rate of mice irradiated with blue LED after injection with A20 cells increased compared to the control group. Our data demonstrate that blue LED irradiation induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, in conjunction with autophagy. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of blue LED-induced immune cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Autophagy, apoptosis, mitoptosis and necrosis: interdependence between those pathways and effects on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Wiem; User, Sırma D; El-Gazzah, Mohamed; Jaksik, Roman; Sajjadi, Elaheh; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna; Los, Marek J

    2013-02-01

    Cell death is a fundamental ingredient of life. Thus, not surprisingly more than one form of cell death exists. Several excellent reviews on various forms of cell death have already been published but manuscripts describing interconnection and interdependence between such processes are uncommon. Here, what follows is a brief introduction on all three classical forms of cell death, followed by a more detailed insight into the role of p53, the master regulator of apoptosis, and other forms of cell death. While discussing p53 and also the role of caspases in cell death forms, we offer insight into the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis, or necrosis, where autophagy may initially serve pro-survival functions. The review moves further to present some details about less researched forms of programmed cell death, namely necroptosis, necrosis and mitoptosis. These "mixed" forms of cell death allow us to highlight the interconnected nature of cell death forms, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. The interdependence between apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis, and their significance for cancer development and treatment are also analyzed in further parts of the review. In the concluding parts, the afore-mentioned issues will be put in perspective for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies.

  13. Apoptosis, autophagy & endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Levent; Guclu, Aydin; Erdur, Fatih Mehmet; Akbas, Emin Murat; Ozcicek, Adalet; Onk, Didem; Turkmen, Kultigin

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing secondary to increased consumption of food and decreased physical activity worldwide. Hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hypertrophy of pancreatic beta cells occur in the early phase of diabetes. However, with the progression of diabetes, dysfunction and loss of beta cells occur in both types 1 and 2 DM. Programmed cell death also named apoptosis is found to be associated with diabetes, and apoptosis of beta cells might be the main mechanism of relative insulin deficiency in DM. Autophagic cell death and apoptosis are not entirely distinct programmed cell death mechanisms and share many of the regulator proteins. These processes can occur in both physiologic and pathologic conditions including DM. Besides these two important pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also acts as a cell sensor to monitor and maintain cellular homeostasis. ER stress has been found to be associated with autophagy and apoptosis. This review was aimed to describe the interactions between apoptosis, autophagy and ER stress pathways in DM.

  14. Inhibition of Starvation-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in ARPE-19 Cells by Taurine through Modulating the Expression of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Shu; Liu, Yuci; Gao, Kun; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhou

    2017-10-14

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line) were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) through starvation to induce RPE metabolic stress. Secondly, inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) alleviated autophagy and apoptosis, and suppression of autophagy by 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) reduced the cell apoptosis, but the ER stress was minimally affected. Thirdly, the apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy were inhibited by gene silencing of calpain-2 and overexpression of calpain-1, respectively. Finally, taurine suppressed both the changes of the important upstream regulators (calpain-1 and calpain-2) and the activation of ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis, and taurine had protective effects on the survival of ARPE-19 cells. Collectively, this data indicate that taurine inhibits starvation-triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells by modulating the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2.

  15. Inhibition of Starvation-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in ARPE-19 Cells by Taurine through Modulating the Expression of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle’s balanced salt solution (EBSS through starvation to induce RPE metabolic stress. Secondly, inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA alleviated autophagy and apoptosis, and suppression of autophagy by 3-methyl adenine (3-MA reduced the cell apoptosis, but the ER stress was minimally affected. Thirdly, the apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy were inhibited by gene silencing of calpain-2 and overexpression of calpain-1, respectively. Finally, taurine suppressed both the changes of the important upstream regulators (calpain-1 and calpain-2 and the activation of ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis, and taurine had protective effects on the survival of ARPE-19 cells. Collectively, this data indicate that taurine inhibits starvation-triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells by modulating the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2.

  16. Activation of autophagy rescues amiodarone-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells and pulmonary toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Yo; Oh, Sehee; Choi, You-Jin; Oh, Seon-Hee; Yang, Young-Su; Yang, Mi-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Amiodarone, bi-iodinated benzofuran derivative, is one of the most frequently prescribed and efficacious antiarrhythmic drugs. Despite its low incidence, amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is of great concern and the leading cause of discontinuation. Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process that mediates continuous recycling of intracellular materials when nutrients are scarce. It either leads to a survival advantage or initiates death processes in cells under stress. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Amiodarone treatment-induced autophagy in H460 human lung epithelial cells and BEAS-2B normal human bronchial epithelial cells was demonstrated by increased LC3-II conversion, Atg7 upregulation, and autophagosome formation. Autophagic flux, as determined by the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1, was also increased following amiodarone treatment. To determine the role of autophagy in amiodarone toxicity, amiodarone-induced cell death was evaluated in the presence of 3-methyladenine or by knocking down the autophagy-related genes Atg7. Inhibition of autophagy decreased cellular viability and significantly increased apoptosis. Intratracheal instillation of amiodarone in rats increased the number of inflammatory cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and periodic acid-Schiff-positive staining in bronchiolar epithelial cells. However, induction of autophagy by rapamycin treatment inhibited amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, amiodarone treatment induced autophagy, which is involved in protection against cell death and pulmonary toxicity.

  17. Inhibition of autophagy enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis by disrupting CHK1-dependent S phase arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Jong-Shian; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yen, Wen-Yen; Tang, Yu-Shuan [Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kakadiya, Rajesh B.; Su, Tsann-Long [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yih, Ling-Huei, E-mail: lhyih@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-08-01

    DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, but the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cell fate is not fully understood. BO-1012, a bifunctional alkylating derivative of 3a-aza-cyclopenta[a]indene, is a potent DNA interstrand cross-linking agent with anticancer activity. In this study, BO-1012 was found to reduce DNA synthesis, inhibit S phase progression, and induce phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 (γH2AX) exclusively in S phase cells. Both CHK1 and CHK2 were phosphorylated in response to BO-1012 treatment, but only depletion of CHK1, but not CHK2, impaired BO-1012-induced S phase arrest and facilitated the entry of γH2AX-positive cells into G2 phase. CHK1 depletion also significantly enhanced BO-1012-induced cell death and apoptosis. These results indicate that BO-1012-induced S phase arrest is a CHK1-dependent pro-survival response. BO-1012 also resulted in marked induction of acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing and redistribution, features characteristic of autophagy. Depletion of ATG7 or co-treatment of cells with BO-1012 and either 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1, two inhibitors of autophagy, not only reduced CHK1 phosphorylation and disrupted S phase arrest, but also increased cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP, and cell death. These results suggest that cells initiate S phase arrest and autophagy as pro-survival responses to BO-1012-induced DNA damage, and that suppression of autophagy enhances BO-1012-induced apoptosis via disruption of CHK1-dependent S phase arrest. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibitors enhanced the cytotoxicity of a DNA alkylating agent, BO-1012. • BO-1012-induced S phase arrest was a CHK1-dependent pro-survival response. • Autophagy inhibition enhanced BO-1012 cytotoxicity via disrupting the S phase arrest.

  18. Erythropoietin protects epithelial cells from excessive autophagy and apoptosis in experimental neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Yu

    Full Text Available Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of preterm infants. Increased intestinal epithelium permeability is an early event in NEC pathogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are induced by multiple stress pathways which may impact the intestinal barrier, and they have been associated with pathogenesis of diverse gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, this study investigates autophagy and apoptosis under experimental NEC stresses. Furthermore this study evaluates the effect of erythropoietin (Epo, a component of breast milk previously shown to decrease the incidence of NEC and to preserve intestinal barrier function, on intestinal autophagy and apoptosis. It was found that autophagy and apoptosis are both rapidly up regulated in NEC in vivo as indicated by increased expression of the autophagy markers Beclin 1 and LC3II, and by evidence of apoptosis by TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 staining. In the rat NEC experimental model, autophagy preceded the onset of apoptosis in intestine. In vitro studies suggested that Epo supplementation significantly decreased both autophagy and apoptosis via the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and the MAPK/ERK pathway respectively. These results suggest that Epo protects intestinal epithelium from excessive autophagy and apoptosis in experimental NEC.

  19. Autophagy inhibits high glucose induced cardiac microvascular endothelial cells apoptosis by mTOR signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Shenwei; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ning; Jin, Zhitao; Ding, Liping; Jiang, Wei; Yang, Junke; Sun, Zhimin; Qiu, Chunguang; Hu, Taohong

    2017-08-20

    Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) dysfunction is an important pathophysiological event in the cardiovascular complications induced by diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully clarified. Autophagy is involved in programmed cell death. Here we investigated the potential role of autophagy on the CMECs injury induced by high glucose. CMECs were cultured in normal or high glucose medium for 6, 12 and 24 h respectively. The autophagy of CMECs was measured by green fluorescence protein (GFP)-LC3 plasmid transfection. Moreover, the apoptosis of CMEC was determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, 3-Methyladenine (3MA), ATG7 siRNA and rapamycin were administrated to regulate the autophagy state. Moreover, Western blotting assay was performed to measure the expressions of Akt, mTOR, LC3 and p62. High glucose stress decreased the autophagy, whereas increased the apoptosis in CMECs time dependently. Meanwhile, high glucose stress activated the Akt/mTOR signal pathway. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA and ATG7 siRNA impaired the autophagy and increased the apoptosis in CMECs induced by high glucose stress. Conversely, rapamycin up-regulated the autophagy and decreased the apoptosis in CMECs under high glucose condition. Our data provide evidence that high glucose directly inhibits autophagy, as a beneficial adaptive response to protect CMECs against apoptosis. Furthermore, the autophagy was mediated, at least in part, by mTOR signaling.

  20. Autophagy in response to photodynamic therapy: cell survival vs. cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Xue, Liang-yan; Chiu, Song-mao; Joseph, Sheeba

    2009-02-01

    Autophagy (or more properly, macroautophagy) is a pathway whereby damaged organelles or other cell components are encased in a double membrane, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes for digestion by lysosomal hydrolases. This process can promote cell survival by removing damaged organelles, but when damage is extensive, it can also be a mechanism of cell death. Similar to the Kessel and Agostinis laboratories, we have reported the vigorous induction of autophagy by PDT; this was found in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells whether or not they were able to efficiently induce apoptosis. One way to evaluate the role of autophagy in PDT-treated cells is to silence one of the essential genes in the pathway. Kessel and Reiners silenced the Atg7 gene of murine leukemia L1210 cells using inhibitory RNA and found sensitization to PDT-induced cell death at a low dose of PDT, implying that autophagy is protective when PDT damage is modest. We have examined the role of autophagy in an epithelium-derived cancer cell by comparing parental and Atg7-silenced MCF-7 cells to varying doses of PDT with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4. In contrast to L1210 cells, autophagy-deficient MCF-7 cells were more resistant to the lethal effects of PDT, as judged by clonogenic assays. A possible explanation for the difference in outcome for L1210 vs. MCF-7 cells is the greatly reduced ability of the latter to undergo apoptosis, a deficiency that may convert autophagy into a cell-death process even at low PDT doses. Experiments to investigate the mechanism(s) responsible are in process.

  1. Autophagy Contributes to the Death/Survival Balance in Cancer PhotoDynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an important cellular program with a “double face” role, since it promotes either cell survival or cell death, also in cancer therapies. Its survival role occurs by recycling cell components during starvation or removing stressed organelles; when damage becomes extensive, autophagy provides another programmed cell death pathway, known as Autophagic Cell Death (ACD. The induction of autophagy is a common outcome in PhotoDynamic Therapy (PDT, a two-step process involving the irradiation of photosensitizer (PS-loaded cancer cells. Upon tissue oxygen interaction, PS provokes immediate and direct Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS-induced damage to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER, mitochondria, plasma membrane, and/or lysosomes. The main biological effects carried out in cancer PDT are direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells, vasculature damage and induction of inflammatory reactions stimulating immunological responses. The question about the role of autophagy in PDT and its putative immunological impact is hotly controversial and largely studied in recent times. This review deals with the induction of autophagy in PDT protocols and its dual role, also considering its interrelationship with apoptosis, the preferential cell death program triggered in the photodynamic process.

  2. Formoxanthone C, isolated from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum, reverses anticancer drug resistance by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in human A549 lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Boonnak, Nawong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2018-02-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer toward cancer chemotherapy is one of the obstacles in cancer therapy. Therefore, it is of interested to use formoxanthone C (1,3,5,6-tetraoxygenated xanthone; XanX), a natural compound, which showed cytotoxicity against MDR human A549 lung cancer (A549RT-eto). The treatment with XanX induced not only apoptosis- in A549RT-eto cells, but also autophagy-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis did not block XanX-induced autophagy in A549RT-eto cells. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy by beclin-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not interrupt XanX-induced apoptosis, indicating that XanX can separately induce apoptosis and autophagy. Of interest, XanX treatment reduced levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) protein overexpressed in A549RT-etocells. The co-treatment with XanX and HDAC4 siRNA accelerated both autophagy and apoptosis more than that by XanX treatment alone, suggesting survival of HDAC4 in A549RT-eto cells. XanX reverses etoposide resistance in A549RT-eto cells by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, and confers cytotoxicity through down-regulation of HDAC4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Lutein Attenuates Both Apoptosis and Autophagy upon Cobalt (II) Chloride-Induced Hypoxia in Rat Műller Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Frederic K C; Law, Betty Y K; Lo, Amy C Y

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury is a common feature of various retinal diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Lutein, a potent anti-oxidant, is used to improve visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein attenuates apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of acute retinal ischemia/hypoxia. Here, we further show that lutein improved Műller cell viability and enhanced cell survival upon hypoxia-induced cell death through regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, autophagy was activated upon treatment of cobalt (II) chloride, indicating that hypoxic injury not only triggered apoptosis but also autophagy in our in vitro model. Most importantly, we report for the first time that lutein treatment suppressed autophagosome formation after hypoxic insult and lutein administration could inhibit autophagic event after activation of autophagy by a pharmacological approach (rapamycin). Taken together, lutein may have a beneficial role in enhancing glial cell survival after hypoxic injury through regulating both apoptosis and autophagy.

  4. Crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages infected with ectromelia orthopoxvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniszyn, Lech; Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia; Boratyńska-Jasińska, Anna; Struzik, Justyna; Winnicka, Anna; Niemiałtowski, Marek

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have provided evidence that complex relationships between autophagic and apoptotic cell death pathways occur in cancer and virus-infected cells. Previously, we demonstrated that infection of macrophages with Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-MOS) induces apoptosis under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here, we found that autophagy was induced in RAW 264.7 cells during infection with ECTV-MOS. Silencing of beclin 1, an autophagy-related gene, reduced the percentage of late apoptotic cells in virus-infected RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pharmacological modulation of autophagy by wortmannin (inhibitor) or rapamycin (inductor) did not affect or cause increased apoptosis in ECTV-MOS-infected RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. Meantime, blocking apoptosis by a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, increased the formation of autophagosomes in infected macrophages. Taken together, three important points arise from our study. First, autophagy may co-occur with apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells exposed to ECTV-MOS. Second, at later stages of infection, autophagy may partially participate in the execution of macrophage cell death by enhancing apoptosis. Third, when apoptosis is blocked infected macrophages undergo increased autophagy. Our results provide new information about the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in ECTV-MOS-infected macrophages.

  5. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  6. Leptin promotes apoptosis and inhibits autophagy of chondrocytes through upregulating lysyl oxidase-like 3 during osteoarthritis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z M; Du, S H; Huang, L G; Li, J H; Xiao, L; Tong, P

    2016-07-01

    Leptin has been found highly expressed in human osteoarthritis. We aimed to explore the possible effects and mechanisms of leptin on the apoptosis and autophagy of chondrocytes during osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Gene expression profile from osteoarthritis affected and preserved cartilage were downloaded from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE57218). Lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3) mRNA expression in cartilage tissues and leptin concentration in joint synovial fluid (SF) was measured in samples from 45 osteoarthritis patients and 25 healthy donors by real-time PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Rat osteoarthritis model was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). The expression of apoptosis regulators and autophagy markers were detected by Western blot. Cell survival and cell apoptosis were identified by CCK-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. Re-analysis on GSE57218 indicated that LOXL3 mRNA was upregulated in osteoarthritis affected cartilage. LOXL3 mRNA was upregulated in osteoarthritis patients, which was positively correlated with SF leptin concentration. Similar results were obtained in rat osteoarthritis model. Moreover, ACLT surgery led to a significant increase in the protein levels of cleaved caspase 3, and a notable decrease in the protein levels of Bcl-2, LC3 II/LC3 I and Beclin1. Silencing of LOXL3 in ACLT and leptin treated primary chondrocytes significantly inhibited cell apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation and autophagy. Moreover, overexpression of LOXL3 remarkably inhibited autophagy of chondrocytes via activating mTORC1. LOXL3, a downstream of leptin, stimulated the apoptosis, but inhibited the autophagy of chondrocytes. LOXL3 is a potential therapy target for osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metformin promotes autophagy and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by downregulating Stat3 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Ke, C; Tang, Q; Dong, H; Zheng, X; Lin, W; Ke, J; Huang, J; Yeung, S-CJ; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    The antidiabetic drug metformin exerts chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects in many types of malignancies. However, the mechanisms responsible for metformin actions appear diverse and may differ in different types of cancer. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms specific for different cancers is important to optimize strategy for metformin treatment in different cancer types. Here, we investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Metformin selectively inhibited cell growth in ESCC tumor cells but not immortalized noncancerous esophageal epithelial cells. In addition to apoptosis, metformin triggered autophagy. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy sensitized ESCC cells to metformin-induced apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and its downstream target Bcl-2 was inactivated by metformin treatment. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Stat3 knockdown enhanced metformin-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and concomitantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of metformin on cell viability. Similarly, the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene, an inhibitor of both apoptosis and autophagy, was repressed by metformin. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 protected cells from metformin-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. In vivo, metformin downregulated Stat3 activity and Bcl-2 expression, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibited tumor growth. Together, inactivation of Stat3-Bcl-2 pathway contributes to metformin-induced growth inhibition of ESCC by facilitating crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24577086

  8. Dual PI-3 kinase/mTOR inhibition impairs autophagy flux and induces cell death independent of apoptosis and necroptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert W.; Vincent, Joseph H.; Strang, Conor J.; Luo, Shouqing

    2016-01-01

    The PI-3 kinase (PI-3K)/mTOR pathway is critical for cell growth and proliferation. Strategies of antagonising this signaling have proven to be detrimental to cell survival. This observation, coupled with the fact many tumours show enhanced growth signaling, has caused dual inhibitors of PI-3K and mTOR to be implicated in cancer treatment, and have thus been studied across various tumour models. Since PI-3K (class-I)/mTOR pathway negatively regulates autophagy, dual inhibitors of PI-3K/mTOR are currently believed to be autophagy activators. However, our present data show that the dual PI-3K/mTOR inhibition (DKI) potently suppresses autophagic flux. We further confirm that inhibition of Vps34/PI3KC3, the class-III PI-3K, causes the blockade to autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our data suggest that DKI induces cell death independently of apoptosis and necroptosis, whereas autophagy perturbation by DKI may contribute to cell death. Given that autophagy is critical in cellular homeostasis, our study not only clarifies the role of a dual PI-3K/mTOR inhibitor in autophagy, but also suggests that its autophagy inhibition needs to be considered if such an agent is used in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26814436

  9. Autophagy protects meniscal cells from glucocorticoids-induced apoptosis via inositol trisphosphate receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Gu, Wen; Cai, Gui-Quan; Peng, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids (GCs) has been widely used in the management of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, several studies showed that GCs had toxic effects on chondrocytes as well as synovial cells. Previously we reported the protective role of autophagy in the degeneration of meniscal tissues. However, the effects of GCs on autophagy in the meniscal cells have not been fully elucidated. To investigate whether GCs can regulate autophagy in human meniscal cells, the meniscal cells were cultured in vitro and exposed in the presence of dexamethasone. The levels of apoptosis and autophagy were investigated via flow cytometry as well as western blotting analysis. The changes of the aggrecanases were measured using real-time PCR. The role of autophagy in dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was investigated using pharmacological agents and RNA interference technique. An agonist of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) was used to investigate the mechanism of dexamethasone-induced autophagy. The results showed that dexamethasone induced autophagy as well as apoptosis in normal human meniscal cells. Using RNA interference technique and pharmacological agents, our results showed that autophagy protected the meniscal cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Our results also indicated that dexamethasone increased the mRNA levels of aggrecanases. This catabolic effect of dexamethasone was enhanced by 3-MA, the autophagy inhibitor. Furthermore, our results showed that dexamethasone induced autophagy via suppressing the phosphorylation of IP3R. In summary, our results indicated that autophagy protected meniscal cells from GCs-induced apoptosis via inositol trisphosphate receptor signaling.

  10. Biliary Epithelial Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Senescence in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Sasaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized serologically by the high prevalence of anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs and histologically by the cholangitis of small bile ducts, eventually followed by extensive loss of the small bile duct. An autoimmune pathogenesis is suggested by clinical and experimental studies, but there remain issues regarding the etiology, the significance of AMAs in the pathogenesis of bile duct lesions, and so on. The unique properties of apoptosis in biliary epithelial cells (BECs, in which there is exposure of autoantigen to the effectors of the immune system, are proposed to be a cause of bile duct lesions in PBC. Recent progress disclosed that cellular senescence and autophagy are involved in bile duct lesions in PBC. Senescent BECs may modulate the periductal microenvironment by expressing senescence-associated secretory phenotypes, including various chemokines, and contribute to the pathogenesis of bile duct lesions in PBC.

  11. Autophagy protects against cholesterol-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiahua; Kong, Feijuan; Pan, Qianqian; Du, Ying; Ye, Jun; Zheng, Fenping; Li, Hong; Zhou, Jiaqiang

    2017-01-22

    Autophagy is believed to play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in pancreatic β-cells during insulin resistance. This study investigated the role of autophagy in β-cell damage induced by cholesterol and its possible activation mechanism. Rat and mouse pancreatic β-cell lines INS-1 and βTC-6 were incubated with cholesterol alone or in combination with autophagy inhibitors E-64d/Pepstatin A or bafilomycin A1. DAPI staining, western blotting, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence were conducted to assess the effects of autophagy inhibitors on cholesterol-induced apoptosis and autophagy activity. An increase in FITC-LC3 fluorescence dots, autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II protein indicated that autophagy was activated in cells treated with cholesterol. This was further confirmed by blocking the natural turnover processes in lysosomes and autolysosomes with autophagy inhibitors, suggesting enhanced autophagic activity rather than blockage of autophagy. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy significantly augmented the activation of caspase 3 and the percentage of cholesterol-induced apoptotic nuclei. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role against cholesterol-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spliced XBP1 promotes macrophage survival and autophagy by interacting with Beclin-1

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    Tian, Ping-Ge [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Jiang, Zhi-Xin [Centre Laboratory, The 305th Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100017 (China); Li, Jian-Hua [Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hosptial, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhou, Zhe, E-mail: zhouzhe76@126.com [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhang, Qing-Hua, E-mail: 1056055170@qq.com [Department of Cardiology, The 305th Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100017 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Macrophage autophagy plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanism mediating this process is unclear. The potential role of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a crucial transduction factor that is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy is unknown. This study mainly explores the roles of XBP1 mRNA splicing in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy. The present study shows that the transient overexpression of spliced XBP1 via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer induces autophagy and promotes proliferation in bone marrow-derived macrophages via the down-regulation of Beclin-1, but that the sustained overexpression of spliced XBP1 leads to apoptosis. When XBP1 is down-regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages using siRNA, rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation is ablated. Furthermore, we have detected the overexpression of XBP1 in areas of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of ApoE−/− mice. These results demonstrate that XBP1 mRNA splicing plays an important role in maintaining the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages and provide new insight into the study and treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • XBP1 was up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE−/− mice. • Transient spliced XBP1 overexpression induced macrophages autophagy via Beclin-1. • Sustained spliced XBP1 overexpression triggered macrophages apoptosis. • Spliced XBP1 plays a key role in maintaining the macrophages survival.

  13. Basal autophagy is pivotal for Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells' survival and growth revealing a new strategy for Hodgkin lymphoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, Katrin; Moll, Katharina; Newrzela, Sebastian; Hartmann, Sylvia; Dröse, Stefan; Hansmann, Martin-Leo

    2016-07-19

    As current classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) treatment strategies have pronounced side-effects, specific inhibition of signaling pathways may offer novel strategies in cHL therapy. Basal autophagy, a regulated catabolic pathway to degrade cell's own components, is in cancer linked with both, tumor suppression or promotion. The finding that basal autophagy enhances tumor cell survival would thus lead to immediately testable strategies for novel therapies. Thus, we studied its contribution in cHL.We found constitutive activation of autophagy in cHL cell lines and primary tissue. The expression of key autophagy-relevant proteins (e.g. Beclin-1, ULK1) and LC3 processing was increased in cHL cells, even in lymphoma cases. Consistently, cHL cells exhibited elevated numbers of autophagic vacuoles and intact autophagic flux. Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine or inactivation of ATG5 induced apoptosis and reduced proliferation of cHL cells. Chloroquine-mediated inhibition of basal autophagy significantly impaired HL growth in-vivo in NOD SCID γc-/- (NSG) mice. We found that basal autophagy plays a pivotal role in sustaining mitochondrial function.We conclude that cHL cells require basal autophagy for growth, survival and sustained metabolism making them sensitive to autophagy inhibition. This suggests basal autophagy as useful target for new strategies in cHL treatment.

  14. Large intergenic non-coding RNA-ROR reverses gemcitabine-induced autophagy and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Min; Liu, Yu; Wei, Hai-Yan; Lv, Ke-Zhen; Fu, Pei-Fen

    2016-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the potential role of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, regulator of reprogramming (linc-ROR) in gemcitabine (Gem)-induced autophagy and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knockdown Linc-ROR expression in the presence of Gem. Gem treatment alone decreased cell survival and increased both apoptosis and autophagy. Gem treatment also increased the expression of LC3-II, Beclin 1, NOTCH1 and Bcl-2, but decreased expression of p62 and p53. Untreated MDA-MB-231 cell lines strongly expressed linc-ROR, but linc-ROR knockdown decreased cell viability and expression of p62 and p53 while increasing apoptosis. Linc-ROR knockdown also increased LC3-II/β-actin, Beclin 1, NOTCH1, and Bcl-2 expression, as well as the number of autophagic vesicles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Linc-ROR negatively regulated miR-34a expression by inhibiting histone H3 acetylation in the miR-34a promoter. We conclude that linc-ROR suppresses Gem-induced autophagy and apoptosis in breast cancer cells by silencing miR-34a expression.

  15. The ROS/NF-κB/NR4A2 pathway is involved in H2O2 induced apoptosis of resident cardiac stem cells via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingxing; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Honghong; Yin, Deling; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Cardiac stem cells (CSCs)-based therapy provides a promising avenue for the management of ischemic heart diseases. However, engrafted CSCs are subjected to acute cell apoptosis in the ischemic microenvironment. Here, stem cell antigen 1 positive (Sca-1+) CSCs proved to own therapy potential were cultured and treated with H2O2 to mimic the ischemia situation. As autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), inhibited H2O2-induced CSCs apoptosis, thus we demonstrated that H2O2 induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis in CSCs, and continued to find key proteins responsible for the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 2 (NR4A2), increased upon cardiomyocyte injury with unknown functions in CSCs, was increased by H2O2. NR4A2 siRNA attenuated H2O2 induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs, which suggested an important role of NR4A2 in CSCs survival in ischemia conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB (P65) subunit were both increased by H2O2. Either the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or NF-κB signaling inhibitor, bay11-7082 could attenuate H2O2-induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs, which suggested they were involved in this process. Furthermore, NAC inhibited NF-κB activities, while bay11-7082 inhibited NR4A2 expression, which revealed a ROS/NF-κB/NR4A2 pathway responsible for H2O2-induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs. Our study supports a new clue enhancing the survival rate of CSCs in the infarcted myocardium for cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Autophagy facilitates multidrug resistance development through inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W L; Lan, D; Gan, T Q; Cai, Z W

    2015-01-01

    Acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main mechanism of chemotherapeutic drugs resistance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of MDR are complex and still not very clear. Recently, including our previous study, several studies have revealed that macroautophagy (here referred to as autophagy) induced by anti-cancer drugs in breast cancer cells may facilitate the development of resistance to epirubicin (EPI), paclitaxel (PTX), tamoxifen or herceptin. Whereas there are a few studies on the relationship between autophagy and MDR, especially the studies designed directly employing induced resistant breast cancer cells. Based on previous study, we explored the relationship between autophagy and MDR. The results showed that induced EPI-resistant MCF-7er and SK-BR-3er cells were simultaneously resistant to PTX and vinorelbine (NVB), which demonstrated that the cells obtained MDR phenotype. Furthermore, PTX and NVB could also induce autophagy in MCF-7er and SK-BR-3er cells, and the induced autophagy protected the cells from apoptosis, which facilitated the development of resistance to PTX and NVB. Thus, autophagy promoted the development of MDR in breast cancer cells through inhibition of apoptosis. In addition, we found that P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was overexpressed in MCF-7er and SK-Br-3er cells. And we preliminarily investigated the relationship between autophagy and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). The results showed that the expression of the protein did not obviously change despite the inhibition of autophagy. Therefore, the role of Pgp in the development of MDR might be independent of autophahy. Also this finding implies that autophagy might be a target to overcome MDR in breast cancer cells, and clinical use autophagy inhibitors might be one of the important strategies for overcoming MDR in breast cancer therapy. Autophagy, apoptosis, multidrug resistance, breast cancer, chemotherapy.

  17. IR-induced autophagy plays a role in survival of HeLa cells

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    Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Ryu, Tae Ho; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Cells respond to stress with repair, or are diverted into irreversible cell cycle exit (senescence) or are eliminated through programmed cell death. There are two major morphologically distinctive forms of programmed cell death, apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Apoptosis contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play a dual role in mediating either cell survival or death in response to various stress stimuli. Here we analysed cellular responses induced by IR. The understanding of an appropriate cellular stress response is of crucial importance in foreseeing the cell fate. Apoptotic feagures were not detected in HeLa under our experimental irradiation condition. Autophagic cell death in HeLa may play an important role in cell protection and can result in cell survival.

  18. Induction of autophagy by salidroside through the AMPK-mTOR pathway protects vascular endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiang-Tao; Wu, Zi-Heng; Wei, Ye; Dai, Ju-Ji; Yu, Guan-Feng; Yuan, FengLai; Ye, Le-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are highly sensitive to oxidative stress, and this is one of the mechanisms by which widespread endothelial dysfunction is induced in most cardiovascular diseases and disorders. However, how these cells can survive in oxidative stress environments remains unclear. Salidroside, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to confer vascular protective effects. We aimed to understand the role of autophagy and its regulatory mechanisms by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with salidroside under oxidative stress. HUVECs were treated with salidroside and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The results indicated that salidroside exerted cytoprotective effects in an H2O2-induced HUVEC injury model and suppressed H2O2-induced apoptosis of HUVECs. Pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, increased oxidative stress-induced HUVEC apoptosis, while the autophagy activator rapamycin induced anti-apoptosis effects in HUVECs. Salidroside increased autophagy and decreased apoptosis of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner under oxidative stress. Moreover, 3-MA attenuated salidroside-induced HUVEC autophagy and promoted apoptosis, whereas rapamycin had no additional effects compared with salidroside alone. Salidroside upregulated AMPK phosphorylation but downregulated mTOR phosphorylation under oxidative stress; however, administration of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abrogated AMPK phosphorylation and increased mTOR phosphorylation and apoptosis compared with salidroside alone. These results suggest that autophagy is a protective mechanism in HUVECs under oxidative stress and that salidroside might promote autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway and downregulation of mTOR pathway.

  19. Beclin-1-mediated autophagy protects spinal cord neurons against mechanical injury-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Lin, Jian-Hua; Muharram, Akram; Liu, Wen-Ge

    2014-06-01

    Apoptosis has been widely reported to be involved in the pathogenesis associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, autophagy has also been implicated in various neuronal damage models. However, the role of autophagy in SCI is still controversial and its interrelationship with apoptosis remains unclear. Here, we used an in vitro SCI model to observe a time-dependent induction of autophagy and apoptosis. Mechanical injury induced autophagy markers such as LC3 lipidation, LC3II/LC3I conversion, and Beclin-1 expression. Injured neurons showed decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. To elucidate the effect of autophagy on apoptosis, the mechanically-injured neurons were treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and 3-methyl adenine (3-MA), which are known to regulate autophagy positively and negatively, respectively. Rapamycin-treated neurons showed the highest level of cell viability and lowest level of apoptosis among the injured neurons and those treated with 3-MA showed the reciprocal effect. Notably, rapamycin-treated neurons exhibited slightly reduced Bax expression and significantly increased Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, by plasmid transfection, we showed that Beclin-1-overexpressing neuronal cells responded to mechanical injury with greater LC3II/LC3I conversion and cell viability, lower levels of apoptosis, higher Bcl-2 expression, and unaltered Bax expression as compared to vector control cells. Beclin-1-knockdown neurons showed almost the opposite effects. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy may serve as a protection against apoptosis in mechanically-injured spinal cord neurons. Targeting mTOR and/or enhancing Beclin-1 expression might be alternative therapeutic strategies for SCI.

  20. Cracking the survival code: autophagy-related histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-04-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the "apoptotic histone code" came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging "autophagic histone code" and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision.

  1. Estradiol inhibits osteoblast apoptosis via promotion of autophagy through the ER-ERK-mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Hua; Chen, Ke; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiang-Wei; Zheng, Xin-Feng; Wang, Yu-Ren; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Estradiol could protect osteoblast against apoptosis, and apoptosis and autophagy were extensively and intimately connected. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that autophagy was present in osteoblasts under serum deprivation and estrogen protected against osteoblast apoptosis via promotion of autophagy. MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were cultured in a serum-free and phenol red-free minimal essential medium (α-MEM). Ultrastructural analysis, lysosomal activity assessment and monodansycadaverine (MDC) staining were employed to determine the presence of autophagy, and real time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of autophagic markers. Meanwhile, the osteoblasts were transferred in a serum-free and phenol red-free α-MEM containing either vehicle or estradiol. Apoptosis and autophagy was assessed by using the techniques of real-time PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence assay, and flow cytometry. The possible pathway through which estrogen promoted autophagy in the serum-deprived osteoblasts was also investigated. Real-time PCR demonstrated the expression of LC3, beclin1 and ULK1 genes in osteoblasts under serum deprivation, and immunofluorescence assay verified high expression of proteins of these three autophagic bio-markers. Lysosomes and autolysosomes accumulated in the cytoplasm of osteoblasts were also detected under transmission electron microscopy, MDC staining and lysosomal activity assessment. Meanwhile, estradiol significantly decreased the expression of proteins of the bio-markers of apoptosis, and at the same time increased the expression of proteins of the bio-markers of autophagy in the serum-deprived osteoblasts. Furthermore, the estradiol-promoted autophagy in serum-deprived osteoblasts could be blocked by estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (ICI 182780), and estradiol failed to rescue the cells pretreated with an inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase (bafilomycin A) from apoptosis. Serum deprivation resulted in apoptosis through

  2. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

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    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bao, Jin-ku, E-mail: jinkubao@yahoo.com [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. {yields} ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. {yields} ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+}-dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-{kappa}B-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  3. Silica Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and Autophagy but Not Apoptosis in the MRC-5 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Nicoleta Petrache Voicu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro effects of 62.5 µg/mL silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs on MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells for 24, 48 and 72 h. The nanoparticles’ morphology, composition, and structure were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Our study showed a decreased cell viability and the induction of cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, carbonyl groups, and advanced oxidation protein products after 24, 48, and 72 h, as well as a decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH and protein sulfhydryl groups. The protein expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 decreased at all time intervals, while the level of protein Hsp70 remained unchanged during the exposure. Similarly, the expression of p53, MDM2 and Bcl-2 was significantly decreased for all time intervals, while the expression of Bax, a marker for apoptosis, was insignificantly downregulated. These results correlated with the increase of pro-caspase 3 expression. The role of autophagy in cellular response to SiO2 NPs was demonstrated by a fluorescence-labeled method and by an increased level of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Taken together, our data suggested that SiO2 NPs induced ROS-mediated autophagy in MRC-5 cells as a possible mechanism of cell survival.

  4. Gene Network Exploration of Crosstalk between Apoptosis and Autophagy in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gene expression levels change to adapt the stress, such as starvation, toxin, and radiation. The changes are signals transmitted through molecular interactions, eventually leading to two cellular fates, apoptosis and autophagy. Due to genetic variations, the signals may not be effectively transmitted to modulate apoptotic and autophagic responses. Such aberrant modulation may lead to carcinogenesis and drug resistance. The balance between apoptosis and autophagy becomes very crucial in coping with the stress. Though there have been evidences illustrating the apoptosis-autophagy interplay, the underlying mechanism and the participation of the regulators including transcription factors (TFs and microRNAs (miRNAs remain unclear. Results. Gene network is a graphical illustration for exploring the functional linkages and the potential coordinate regulations of genes. Microarray dataset for the study of chronic myeloid leukemia was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. The expression profiles of those genes related to apoptosis and autophagy, including MCL1, BCL2, ATG, beclin-1, BAX, BAK, E2F, cMYC, PI3K, AKT, BAD, and LC3, were extracted from the dataset to construct the gene networks. Conclusion. The network analysis of these genes explored the underlying mechanisms and the roles of TFs and miRNAs for the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy.

  5. Autophagy regulates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyeon [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that up-regulation of autophagy may be a tractable therapeutic intervention for clearing disease-causing proteins, including α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and other misfolded or aggregated proteins in pesticide-induced neurodegeneration. In a previous study, we reported that chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is mediated through reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we explored a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to prevent CPF neurotoxicity involving the regulation of autophagy. We investigated the modulation of CPF-induced apoptosis according to autophagy regulation. We found that CPF induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, as demonstrated by the activation of caspase-3 and nuclear condensation. In addition, we observed that cells treated with CPF underwent autophagic cell death by monitoring the expression of LC3-II and p62. Pretreatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability of CPF-exposed cells, and the enhancement of cell viability was partially due to alleviation of CPF-induced apoptosis via a decrease in levels of cleaved caspase-3. Specifically, rapamycin pretreatment decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression in mitochondria. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased cytochrome c release in from mitochondria into the cytosol. However, pretreatment of cells with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), remarkably increased CPF toxicity in these cells; this with correlated with increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in mitochondria. Our results suggest that CPF-induced cytotoxicity is modified by autophagy regulation and that rapamycin protects against CPF-induced apoptosis by enhancing autophagy. Pharmacologic induction of autophagy by rapamycin may be a useful treatment strategy in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells ► CPF-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by

  6. Combination of LC3 shRNA plasmid transfection and genistein treatment inhibited autophagy and increased apoptosis in malignant neuroblastoma in cell culture and animal models.

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    Nishant Mohan

    Full Text Available Malignant neuroblastoma is an extracranial solid tumor that usually occurs in children. Autophagy, which is a survival mechanism in many solid tumors including malignant neuroblastoma, deters the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. To mimic starvation, we used 200 nM rapamycin that induced autophagy in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells in cell culture and animal models. Combination of microtubule associated protein light chain 3 short hairpin RNA (LC3 shRNA plasmid transfection and genistein (GST treatment was tested for inhibiting rapamycin-induced autophagy and promoting apoptosis. The best synergistic efficacy caused the highest decrease in cell viability due to combination of 50 nM LC3 shRNA plasmid transfection and 25 µM GST treatment in rapamycin-treated SK-N-BE2 cells while combination of 100 nM LC3 shRNA plasmid transfection and 25 µM GST treatment in rapamycin-treated IMR-32 cells. Quantitation of acidic vesicular organelles confirmed that combination of LC3 shRNA plasmid transfection and GST treatment prevented rapamycin-induced autophagy due to down regulation of autophagy promoting marker molecules (LC3 II, Beclin 1, TLR-4, and Myd88 and upregulation of autophagy inhibiting marker molecules (p62 and mTOR in both cell lines. Apoptosis assays showed that combination therapy most effectively activated mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma in cell culture and animal models. Collectively, our current combination of LC3 shRNA plasmid transfection and GST treatment could serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for inhibiting autophagy and increasing apoptosis in human malignant neuroblastoma in cell culture and animal models.

  7. EVA1A inhibits GBM cell proliferation by inducing autophagy and apoptosis

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    Shen, Xue; Kan, Shifeng; Liu, Zhen [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Guang [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Yingyu [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Beijing 100191 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyun@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Eva-1 homolog A (EVA1A) is a novel lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein involved in autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-EVA1A vector (Ad5-EVA1A) to overexpress EVA1A in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines and evaluated its anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. We found that overexpression of EVA1A in three GBM cell lines (U251, U87 and SHG44) resulted in a suppression of tumor cell growth via activation of autophagy and induction of cell apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EVA1A-mediated autophagy was associated with inactivation of the mTOR/RPS6KB1 signaling pathway. Furthermore in vivo, overexpression of EVA1A successfully inhibited tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice. Our data suggest that EVA1A-induced autophagy and apoptosis play a role in suppressing the development of GBM and their up-regulation may be an effective method for treating this form of cancer. - Highlights: • Overexpression of EVA1A suppresses GBM cell growth. • EVA1A induces autophagy through the mTOR/RPS6KB1 pathway. • EVA1A induces GBM cell apoptosis. • EVA1A inhibits the development of GBM in vivo.

  8. Modulation of Apoptosis Pathways by Oxidative Stress and Autophagy in β Cells

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    Maorong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human islets isolated for transplantation are exposed to multiple stresses including oxidative stress and hypoxia resulting in significant loss of functional β cell mass. In this study we examined the modulation of apoptosis pathway genes in islets exposed to hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, hypoxia, and cytokines. We observed parallel induction of pro- and antiapoptotic pathways and identified several novel genes including BFAR, CARD8, BNIP3, and CIDE-A. As BNIP3 is an inducer of autophagy, we examined this pathway in MIN6 cells, a mouse beta cell line and in human islets. Culture of MIN6 cells under low serum conditions increased the levels of several proteins in autophagy pathway, including ATG4, Beclin 1, LAMP-2, and UVRAG. Amino acid deprivation led to induction of autophagy in human islets. Preconditioning of islets with inducers of autophagy protected them from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. However, induction of autophagy during hypoxia exacerbated apoptotic cell death. ER stress led to induction of autophagy and apoptosis in β cells. Overexpression of MnSOD, an enzyme that scavenges free radicals, resulted in protection of MIN6 cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Ceramide, a mediator of cytokine-induced injury, reduced the active phosphorylated form of Akt and downregulated the promoter activity of the antiapoptotic gene bcl-2. Furthermore, cytokine-stimulated JNK pathway downregulated the bcl-2 promoter activity which was reversed by preincubation with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. Our findings suggest that β cell apoptosis by multiple stresses in islets isolated for transplantation is the result of orchestrated gene expression in apoptosis pathway.

  9. Inhibiting ROS-TFEB-Dependent Autophagy Enhances Salidroside-Induced Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells.

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    Zeng, Wei; Xiao, Tao; Cai, Anlie; Cai, Weiliang; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Jingling; Li, Jie; Tan, Miduo; Xie, Li; Liu, Ying; Yang, Xiangcheng; Long, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy modulation has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy for human chondrosarcoma, and a previous study indicated that salidroside exhibits significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, the ability of salidroside to induce autophagy and its role in human chondrosarcoma cell death remains unclear. We exposed SW1353 cells to different concentrations of salidroside (0.5, 1 and 2 mM) for 24 h. RT-PCR, Western-blotting, Immunocytofluorescence, and Luciferase Reporter Assays were used to evaluate whether salidroside activated the TFEB-dependent autophagy. We show that salidroside induced significant apoptosis in the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353. In addition, we demonstrate that salidroside-induced an autophagic response in SW1353 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of P62. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blocking of autophagy enhanced salidroside -induced apoptosis, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in salidroside-treated SW1353 cells. Salidroside also induced TFEB (Ser142) dephosphorylation, subsequently to activated TFEB nuclear translocation and increase of TFEB reporter activity, which contributed to lysosomal biogenesis and the expression of autophagy-related genes. Importantly, we found that salidroside triggered the generation of ROS in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, NAC, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effects of salidroside on TFEB-dependent autophagy. These data demonstrate that salidroside increased TFEB-dependent autophagy by activating ROS signaling pathways in human chondrosarcoma cells. These data also suggest that blocking ROS-TFEB-dependent autophagy to enhance the activity of salidroside warrants further attention in treatment of human chondrosarcoma cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Inhibiting ROS-TFEB-Dependent Autophagy Enhances Salidroside-Induced Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells

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    Wei Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Autophagy modulation has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy for human chondrosarcoma, and a previous study indicated that salidroside exhibits significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, the ability of salidroside to induce autophagy and its role in human chondrosarcoma cell death remains unclear. Methods: We exposed SW1353 cells to different concentrations of salidroside (0.5, 1 and 2 mM for 24 h. RT-PCR, Western-blotting, Immunocytofluorescence, and Luciferase Reporter Assays were used to evaluate whether salidroside activated the TFEB-dependent autophagy. Results: We show that salidroside induced significant apoptosis in the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353. In addition, we demonstrate that salidroside-induced an autophagic response in SW1353 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of P62. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blocking of autophagy enhanced salidroside -induced apoptosis, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in salidroside-treated SW1353 cells. Salidroside also induced TFEB (Ser142 dephosphorylation, subsequently to activated TFEB nuclear translocation and increase of TFEB reporter activity, which contributed to lysosomal biogenesis and the expression of autophagy-related genes. Importantly, we found that salidroside triggered the generation of ROS in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, NAC, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effects of salidroside on TFEB-dependent autophagy. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that salidroside increased TFEB-dependent autophagy by activating ROS signaling pathways in human chondrosarcoma cells. These data also suggest that blocking ROS-TFEB-dependent autophagy to enhance the activity of salidroside warrants further attention in treatment of human chondrosarcoma cells.

  11. Novel functional roles of caspase-related genes in the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy.

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    Shin, Ju-Hyun; Min, Sang-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, cleave substrates and play significant roles in apoptosis, autophagy, and development. Recently, our group identified 72 genes that interact with Death Caspase-1 (DCP-1) proteins in Drosophila by genetic screening of 15,000 EP lines. However, the cellular functions and molecular mechanisms of the screened genes, such as their involvement in apoptosis and autophagy, are poorly understood in mammalian cells. In order to study the functional characterizations of the genes in human cells, we investigated 16 full-length human genes in mammalian expression vectors and tested their effects on apoptosis and autophagy in human cell lines. Our studies revealed that ALFY, BIRC4, and TAK1 induced autophagy, while SEC61A2, N-PAC, BIRC4, WIPI1, and FALZ increased apoptotic cell death. BIRC4 was involved in both autophagy and apoptosis. Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter activity indicated that ALFY, BIRC4, PDGFA, and TAK1 act in a p53-dependent manner, whereas CPSF1, SEC61A2, N-PAC, and WIPI1 appear to be p53-independent. Overexpression of BIRC4 and TAK1 caused upregulation of p53 and accumulation of its target proteins as well as an increase in p53 mRNA levels, suggesting that these genes are involved in p53 transcription and expression of its target genes followed by p53 protein accumulation. In conclusion, apoptosis and/or autophagy mediated by BIRC4 and TAK1 may be regulated by p53 and caspase activity. These novel findings may provide valuable information that will aid in a better understanding of the roles of caspase-related genes in human cell lines and be useful for the process of drug discovery.

  12. Effects of DDIT4 in Methamphetamine-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neurons.

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    Li, Bing; Chen, Rui; Chen, Ling; Qiu, Pingming; Ai, Xiuyun; Huang, Enping; Huang, Weiye; Chen, Chuanxiang; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Xie, Wei-Bing; Wang, Huijun

    2017-04-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychoactive drug that can cause a variety of detrimental effects to the nervous system, especially dopaminergic pathways. We hypothesized that DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) is involved in METH-induced dopaminergic neuronal autophagy and apoptosis. To test the hypothesis, we determined changes of DDIT4 protein expression and the level of autophagy in rat catecholaminergic PC12 cells and human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, and in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of Sprague Dawley rats exposed to METH. We also examined the effects of silencing DDIT4 expression on METH-induced dopaminergic neuronal autophagy using fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Flow cytometry and Western blot were used to determine apoptosis and the expression of apoptotic markers (cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) after blocking DDIT4 expression in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells with synthetic siRNA, as well as in the striatum of rats by injecting LV-shDDIT4 lentivirus using a stereotaxic positioning system. Our results showed that METH exposure increased DDIT4 expression that was accompanied with increased autophagy and apoptosis in PC12 cells (3 mM) and SH-SY5Y cells (2 mM), and in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of rats. Inhibition of DDIT4 expression reduced METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. However, DDIT4-related effects were not observed at a low concentration of METH (1 μM). These results suggest that DDIT4 plays an essential role in METH-induced dopaminergic neuronal autophagy and apoptosis at higher doses and may be a potential gene target for therapeutics in high-dose METH-induced neurotoxicity.

  13. p53 Mediates Colistin-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Xie, Daoyuan; Chen, Xueping; Hughes, Maria L R; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Xia, Chunli; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli; Xu, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Li, Rui; Wang, Rui; Qian, Feng; Li, Jian; Li, Jichang

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of colistin-induced neurotoxicity is still unknown. Our recent study (L. Zhang, Y. H. Zhao, W. J. Ding, G. Z. Jiang, Z. Y. Lu, L. Li, J. L. Wang, J. Li, and J. C. Li, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:2189-2197, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.04092-14; H. Jiang, J. C. Li, T. Zhou, C. H. Wang, H. Zhang, and H. Wang, Int J Mol Med 33:1298-1304, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.1684) indicates that colistin induces autophagy and apoptosis in rat adrenal medulla PC-12 cells, and there is interplay between both cellular events. As an important cellular stress sensor, phosphoprotein p53 can trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and regulate autophagy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the p53 pathway in colistin-induced neurotoxicity in PC-12 cells. Specifically, cells were treated with colistin (125 μg/ml) in the absence and presence of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT-α; 20 nM), for 12 h and 24 h, and the typical hallmarks of autophagy and apoptosis were examined by fluorescence/immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. The results indicate that colistin had a stimulatory effect on the expression levels of the target genes and proteins involved in autophagy and apoptosis, including LC3-II/I, p53, DRAM (damage-regulated autophagy modulator), PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), Bax, p-AMPK (activated form of AMP-activated protein kinase), and caspase-3. In contrast, colistin appeared to have an inhibitory effect on the expression of p-mTOR (activated form of mammalian target of rapamycin), which is another target protein in autophagy. Importantly, analysis of the levels of p53 in the cells treated with colistin revealed an increase in nuclear p53 at 12 h and cytoplasmic p53 at 24 h. Pretreatment of colistin-treated cells with PFT-α inhibited autophagy and promoted colistin-induced apoptosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that colistin

  14. Increased autophagy and apoptosis contribute to muscle atrophy in a myotonic dystrophy type 1 Drosophila model

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    Ariadna Bargiela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Muscle mass wasting is one of the most debilitating symptoms of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 disease, ultimately leading to immobility, respiratory defects, dysarthria, dysphagia and death in advanced stages of the disease. In order to study the molecular mechanisms leading to the degenerative loss of adult muscle tissue in DM1, we generated an inducible Drosophila model of expanded CTG trinucleotide repeat toxicity that resembles an adult-onset form of the disease. Heat-shock induced expression of 480 CUG repeats in adult flies resulted in a reduction in the area of the indirect flight muscles. In these model flies, reduction of muscle area was concomitant with increased apoptosis and autophagy. Inhibition of apoptosis or autophagy mediated by the overexpression of DIAP1, mTOR (also known as Tor or muscleblind, or by RNA interference (RNAi-mediated silencing of autophagy regulatory genes, achieved a rescue of the muscle-loss phenotype. In fact, mTOR overexpression rescued muscle size to a size comparable to that in control flies. These results were validated in skeletal muscle biopsies from DM1 patients in which we found downregulated autophagy and apoptosis repressor genes, and also in DM1 myoblasts where we found increased autophagy. These findings provide new insights into the signaling pathways involved in DM1 disease pathogenesis.

  15. Gastrin activates autophagy and increases migration and survival of gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

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    Rao, Shalini V; Solum, Guri; Niederdorfer, Barbara; Nørsett, Kristin G; Bjørkøy, Geir; Thommesen, Liv

    2017-01-21

    The peptide hormone gastrin exerts a growth-promoting effect in both normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue. Gastrin mediates its effect via the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCKBR/CCK2R). Although a substantial part of the gastric adenocarcinomas express gastrin and CCKBR, the role of gastrin in tumor development is not completely understood. Autophagy has been implicated in mechanisms governing cytoprotection, tumor growth, and contributes to chemoresistance. This study explores the role of autophagy in response to gastrin in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Immunoblotting, survival assays and the xCELLigence system were used to study gastrin induced autophagy. Chemical inhibitors of autophagy were utilized to assess the role of this process in the regulation of cellular responses induced by gastrin. Further, knockdown studies using siRNA and immunoblotting were performed to explore the signaling pathways that activate autophagy in response to gastrin treatment. We demonstrate that gastrin increases the expression of the autophagy markers MAP1LC3B-II and SQSTM1 in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Gastrin induces autophagy via activation of the STK11-PRKAA2-ULK1 and that this signaling pathway is involved in increased migration and cell survival. Furthermore, gastrin mediated increase in survival of cells treated with cisplatin is partially dependent on induced autophagy. This study reveals a novel role of gastrin in the regulation of autophagy. It also opens up new avenues in the treatment of gastric cancer by targeting CCKBR mediated signaling and/or autophagy in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs.

  16. Reduction of apoptosis by proanthocyanidin-induced autophagy in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chao; Zhou, Jie; Qin, Xiaokang; Shi, Xianming; Zeng, Qingqi; Liu, Jia; Yan, Shihai; Zhang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that are widely present in the skin and seeds of various plants, with the highest content in grape seeds. Many experiments have shown that proanthocyanidins have antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro. Autophagy and apoptosis of tumor cells induced by drugs are two of the major causes of tumor cell death. However, reports on the effect of autophagy induced by drugs in tumor cells are not consistent and suggest that autophagy can have synergistic or antagonistic effects with apoptosis. This research was aimed at investigating whether proanthocyanidins induced autophagy and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 cells and to identify the mechanism of proanthocyanidins action to further determine the effect of proanthocyanidins-induced autophagy on apoptosis. MTT assay was used to examine the proanthocyanidin cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining were used to detect autophagy. Annexin V APC/7-AAD double staining and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were used to explore apoptosis. Western blotting was used to determine expression of proteins related to autophagy and apoptosis. Real-time quantitative PCR technology was used to determine the mRNA level of Beclin1 and BCL-2. The results showed that proanthocyanidins exhibit a significant inhibitory effect on the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 proliferation in vitro and simultaneously activate autophagy and apoptosis to promote cell death. Furthermore, when proanthocyanidin-induced autophagy is inhibited, apoptosis increases significantly, proanthocyanidins can be used together with autophagy inhibitors to enhance cytotoxicity.

  17. Chronic expression of Ski induces apoptosis and represses autophagy in cardiac myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglinski, Matthew R; Davies, Jared J L; Ghavami, Saeid; Rattan, Sunil G; Halayko, Andrew J; Dixon, Ian M C

    2016-06-01

    Inappropriate cardiac interstitial remodeling is mediated by activated phenoconverted myofibroblasts. The synthesis of matrix proteins by these cells is triggered by both chemical and mechanical stimuli. Ski is a repressor of TGFβ1/Smad signaling and has been described as possessing anti-fibrotic properties within the myocardium. We hypothesized that overexpression of Ski in myofibroblasts will induce an apoptotic response, which may either be supported or opposed by autophagic flux. We used primary myofibroblasts (activated fibroblasts) which were sourced from whole heart preparations that were only passaged once. We found that overexpression of Ski results in distinct morphological and biochemical changes within primary cardiac myofibroblasts associated with apoptosis. Ski treatment was associated with the expression of pro-apoptotic factors such as Bax, caspase-7, and -9. Our results indicate that Ski triggers a pro-death mechanism in primary rat cardiac myofibroblasts that is mediated through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Myofibroblast survival is prolonged by an autophagic response, as the dataset indicate that apoptosis is hastened when autophagy is inhibited. We suggest that the apoptotic death response of myofibroblasts is working in parallel with the previously observed anti-fibrotic properties of Ski within this cell type. As myofibroblasts are the sole mediators of matrix expansion in heart failure, we suggest that Ski, or a putative Ski-mimetic, may induce graded apoptosis in myofibroblasts within the failing heart and may be a novel therapeutic approach towards controlling cardiac fibrosis. Future studies are needed to examine the potential effects of Ski overexpression on other cell types in the heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin) and genetic (si

  19. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

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    Jintao Zhang

    Full Text Available Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells.Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29 were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot.Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II, beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin and genetic

  20. Ghrelin Attenuates Retinal Neuronal Autophagy and Apoptosis in an Experimental Rat Glaucoma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke; Zhang, Meng-Lu; Liu, Shu-Ting; Li, Xue-Yan; Zhong, Shu-Min; Li, Fang; Xu, Ge-Zhi; Wang, Zhongfeng; Miao, Yanying

    2017-12-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), may protect retinal neurons against glaucomatous injury. We therefore characterized the underlying mechanism of the ghrelin/GHSR-1a-mediated neuroprotection with a rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model. The rat COH model was produced by blocking episcleral veins. A combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, TUNEL assay, and retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was used. Elevation of intraocular pressure induced a significant increase in ghrelin and GHSR-1a expression in retinal cells, including RGCs and Müller cells. Western blot confirmed that the protein levels of ghrelin exhibited a transient upregulation at week 2 after surgery (G2w), while the GHSR-1a protein levels were maintained at high levels from G2w to G4w. In COH retinas, the ratio of LC3-II/LC-I and beclin1, two autophagy-related proteins, were increased from G1w to G4w, and the cleavage product of caspase3, an apoptotic executioner, was detected from G2w to G4w. Intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin significantly increased the number of surviving RGCs; inhibited the changes of LC3-II/LC-I, beclin1, and the cleavage products of caspase3; and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in COH retinas. Ghrelin treatment also reversed the decreased levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR, upregulated GHSR-1a protein levels, and attenuated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in COH retinas. All these results suggest that ghrelin may provide neuroprotective effect in COH retinas through activating ghrelin/GHSR-1a system, which was mediated by inhibiting retinal autophagy, ganglion cell apoptosis, and Müller cell gliosis.

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promotes immunogenic apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells, induces autophagy and inhibits STAT3 in both tumor and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eliseo, Donatella; Di Renzo, Livia; Santoni, Angela; Velotti, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oil, is a multi-target agent and exerts anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities alone or in combination with chemotherapies. Combinatorial anticancer therapies, which induce immunogenic apoptosis, autophagy and STAT3 inhibition have been proposed for long-term therapeutic success. Here, we found that DHA promoted immunogenic apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, with no toxicity on PBMCs and DCs. Immunogenic apoptosis was shown by the emission of specific DAMPs (CRT, HSP90, HMGB1) by apoptotic MM cells and the activation of their pro-apoptotic autophagy. Moreover, immunogenic apoptosis was directly shown by the activation of DCs by DHA-induced apoptotic MM cells. Furthermore, we provided the first evidence that DHA activated autophagy in PBMCs and DCs, thus potentially acting as immune stimulator and enhancing processing and presentation of tumor antigens by DCs. Finally, we found that DHA inhibited STAT3 in MM cells. STAT3 pathway, essential for MM survival, contributed to cancer cell apoptosis by DHA. We also found that DHA inhibited STAT3 in blood immune cells and counteracted STAT3 activation by tumor cell-released factors in PBMCs and DCs, suggesting the potential enhancement of the anti-tumor function of multiple immune cells and, in particular, that of DCs.

  2. PBDE-209 exposure damages learning and memory ability in rats potentially through increased autophagy and apoptosis in the hippocampus neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Du, Lili; Tang, Wenting; Kuang, Liyun; Du, Peili; Chen, Jingsi; Chen, Dunjin

    2017-03-01

    This study is to investigate the neurotoxicity of PBDE-209 during pregnancy through autophagy and apoptosis in the fetal hippocampus neuron. The autophagy protein levels of LC3-II and Beclin-1 were significantly higher in hippocampus tissue and neuron, while P62 protein were lower. Apoptosis protein Cleaved Caspase-3 and Cleaved PARP was significantly higher in PBDE dose groups and BCL-2 levels in high PBDE dose groups were significantly lower. During the Morris water maze task, the escape latency times of high PBDE dose groups were significantly longer. PBDE-209-induced autophagy leads to neurons death and inhibition of autophagy reduce PBDE-209-induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that exposure of the PBDE-209 during pregnancy increases hippocampal autophagy, decrease neuron viability, and it partly effect apoptosis induced by PBDE-209. All that may contribute to the decline of learning and memory ability in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Autophagy contributes to apoptosis in A20 and EL4 lymphoma cells treated with fluvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xu-Feng; Kim, Dong-Heui; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Kim, Cheol-Su; Song, Soon-Bong; Cai, Dong-Qing; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2013-11-08

    Convincing evidence indicates that statins stimulate apoptotic cell death in several types of proliferating tumor cells in a cholesterol-lowering-independent manner. However, the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy in lymphoma cells exposed to statins remains unclear. The objective of this study was to elucidate the potential involvement of autophagy in fluvastatin-induced cell death of lymphoma cells. We found that fluvastatin treatment enhanced the activation of pro-apoptotic members such as caspase-3 and Bax, but suppressed the activation of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in lymphoma cells including A20 and EL4 cells. The process was accompanied by increases in numbers of annexin V alone or annexin V/PI double positive cells. Furthermore, both autophagosomes and increases in levels of LC3-II were also observed in fluvastatin-treated lymphoma cells. However, apoptosis in fluvastatin-treated lymphoma cells could be blocked by the addition of 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the specific inhibitor of autophagy. Fluvastatin-induced activation of caspase-3, DNA fragmentation, and activation of LC3-II were blocked by metabolic products of the HMG-CoA reductase reaction, such as mevalonate, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). These results suggest that autophagy contributes to fluvastatin-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells, and that these regulating processes require inhibition of metabolic products of the HMG-CoA reductase reaction including mevalonate, FPP and GGPP.

  4. BMPR2 inhibition induced apoptosis and autophagy via destabilization of XIAP in human chondrosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, G; Guo, W; Ren, T; Lu, Q; Sun, Y; Liang, W; Ren, C; Yang, K; Sun, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional proteins, and their receptors (BMPRs) have crucial roles in the process of signaling. However, their function in cancer is somewhat inconsistent. It has been demonstrated that more prevalent expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) has been detected in dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas than conventional chondrosarcomas. Here, we find that BMPR2 inhibition induces apoptosis and autophagy of chondrosarcoma. We found that BMPR2 expression was correlated with the clinicopathological features of chondrosarcomas, and could predict the treatment outcome. Knockdown of BMPR2 by small interfering RNA results in growth inhibition in chondrosarcoma cells. Silencing BMPR2 promoted G2/M cell cycle arrest, induced chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis through caspase-3-dependent pathway via repression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and induced autophagy of chondrosarcoma cells via XIAP-Mdm2-p53 pathway. Inhibition of autophagy induced by BMPR2 small interfering RNA (siBMPR2) sensitized chondrosarcoma cells to siBMPR2-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that autophagy has a protective role for chondrosarcoma cells in context of siBMPR2-induced apoptotic cell death. In vivo tumorigenicity assay in mice indicated that inhibition of BMPR2 reduced tumor growth. Taken together, our results suggest that BMPR2 has a significant role in the tumorigenesis of chondrosarcoma, and could be an important prognostic marker for chondrosarcoma. BMPR2 inhibition could eventually provide a promising therapy for chondrosarcoma treatment. PMID:25501832

  5. BMPR2 inhibition induced apoptosis and autophagy via destabilization of XIAP in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, G; Guo, W; Ren, T; Lu, Q; Sun, Y; Liang, W; Ren, C; Yang, K; Sun, K

    2014-12-11

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional proteins, and their receptors (BMPRs) have crucial roles in the process of signaling. However, their function in cancer is somewhat inconsistent. It has been demonstrated that more prevalent expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) has been detected in dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas than conventional chondrosarcomas. Here, we find that BMPR2 inhibition induces apoptosis and autophagy of chondrosarcoma. We found that BMPR2 expression was correlated with the clinicopathological features of chondrosarcomas, and could predict the treatment outcome. Knockdown of BMPR2 by small interfering RNA results in growth inhibition in chondrosarcoma cells. Silencing BMPR2 promoted G2/M cell cycle arrest, induced chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis through caspase-3-dependent pathway via repression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and induced autophagy of chondrosarcoma cells via XIAP-Mdm2-p53 pathway. Inhibition of autophagy induced by BMPR2 small interfering RNA (siBMPR2) sensitized chondrosarcoma cells to siBMPR2-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that autophagy has a protective role for chondrosarcoma cells in context of siBMPR2-induced apoptotic cell death. In vivo tumorigenicity assay in mice indicated that inhibition of BMPR2 reduced tumor growth. Taken together, our results suggest that BMPR2 has a significant role in the tumorigenesis of chondrosarcoma, and could be an important prognostic marker for chondrosarcoma. BMPR2 inhibition could eventually provide a promising therapy for chondrosarcoma treatment.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic mice by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and enhancing autophagy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Lina; Qiao, Yu; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wu, Guodong; Wang, Lujing; Peng, Yahui; Dong, Xingli; Huang, Hui; Si, Lining; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jihong; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy associated with heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to its recognized role in metabolic...

  7. A synthetic ion transporter that disrupts autophagy and induces apoptosis by perturbing cellular chloride concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Nathalie; Park, Seong-Hyun; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Yoon Pyo; Park, Jinhong; Howe, Ethan N. W.; Hiscock, Jennifer R.; Karagiannidis, Louise E.; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Namkung, Wan; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gale, Philip A.; Shin, Injae

    2017-07-01

    Perturbations in cellular chloride concentrations can affect cellular pH and autophagy and lead to the onset of apoptosis. With this in mind, synthetic ion transporters have been used to disturb cellular ion homeostasis and thereby induce cell death; however, it is not clear whether synthetic ion transporters can also be used to disrupt autophagy. Here, we show that squaramide-based ion transporters enhance the transport of chloride anions in liposomal models and promote sodium chloride influx into the cytosol. Liposomal and cellular transport activity of the squaramides is shown to correlate with cell death activity, which is attributed to caspase-dependent apoptosis. One ion transporter was also shown to cause additional changes in lysosomal pH, which leads to impairment of lysosomal enzyme activity and disruption of autophagic processes. This disruption is independent of the initiation of apoptosis by the ion transporter. This study provides the first experimental evidence that synthetic ion transporters can disrupt both autophagy and induce apoptosis.

  8. Interplay of autophagy and apoptosis during murine cytomegalovirus infection of RPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Juan; Zhang, Ming; Marshall, Brendan; Smith, Sylvia; Covar, Jason; Atherton, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. However, whether autophagy is regulated by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection has not yet been investigated. The purpose of these studies was to determine how autophagy is affected by MCMV infection of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and whether there is a functional relationship between autophagy and apoptosis; and if so, how regulation of autophagy impacts apoptosis. RPE cells were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and infected with MCMV K181. The cells were cultured in medium containing rapamycin, chloroquine, or ammonium chloride. Green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) plasmid was transfected to RPE cells, and the GFP-LC3 positive puncta were counted. Electron microscopic (EM) images were taken to visualize the structure of the autophagic vacuoles. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of related proteins. Trypan blue exclusion assay was used to measure the percentage of viable cells. Although the LC3B-II levels consistently increased during MCMV infection of RPE cells, administration of chloroquine or ammonium chloride increased LC3B-II expression only at the early stage of infection (6 h post-inoculation [p.i.] and 12 h p.i.), not at or after 24 h p.i. The punctate autophagic vacuoles in the GFP-LC3 transfected RPE cells were counted using light microscopy or by EM examination, the number of autophagic vacuoles was significantly increased in the MCMV-infected RPE cells compared to the uninfected controls. Compared to untreated MCMV-infected control cells, rapamycin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the cleaved caspase 3 levels as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to total mTOR and in the ratio of phosphorylated P70S6K to total P70S6K. In contrast, chloroquine treatment resulted in a significant increase in the cleaved caspase

  9. Baicalein Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains a disastrous disease and the treatment for HCC is rather limited. Separation and identification of active compounds from traditionally used herbs in HCC treatment may shed light on novel therapeutic drugs for HCC. Methods. Cell viability and colony forming assay were conducted to determine anti-HCC activity. Morphology of cells and activity of caspases were analyzed. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and JNK were also examined. Levels of unfolded protein response (UPR markers were determined and intracellular calcium was assayed. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were used to investigate the role of UPR and autophagy in baicalein-induced cell death. Results. Among four studied flavonoids, only baicalein exhibited satisfactory inhibition of viability and colony formation of HCC cells within water-soluble concentration. Baicalein induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, possibly by downregulating prosurvival Bcl-2 family, increasing intracellular calcium, and activating JNK. CHOP was the executor of cell death during baicalein-induced ER stress while eIF2α and IRE1α played protective roles. Protective autophagy was also triggered by baicalein in HCC cells. Conclusion. Baicalein exhibits prominent anti-HCC activity. This flavonoid induces apoptosis and protective autophagy via ER stress. Combination of baicalein and autophagy inhibitors may represent a promising therapy against HCC.

  10. Nutritional Status and Cardiac Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Ahn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is necessary for the degradation of long-lasting proteins and nonfunctional organelles, and is activated to promote cellular survival. However, overactivation of autophagy may deplete essential molecules and organelles responsible for cellular survival. Lifelong calorie restriction by 40% has been shown to increase the cardiac expression of autophagic markers, which suggests that it may have a cardioprotective effect by decreasing oxidative damage brought on by aging and cardiovascular diseases. Although cardiac autophagy is critical to regulating protein quality and maintaining cellular function and survival, increased or excessive autophagy may have deleterious effects on the heart under some circumstances, including pressure overload-induced heart failure. The importance of autophagy has been shown in nutrient supply and preservation of energy in times of limitation, such as ischemia. Some studies have suggested that a transition from obesity to metabolic syndrome may involve progressive changes in myocardial inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, fibrosis, apoptosis, and myocardial autophagy.

  11. Excess iodine promotes apoptosis of thyroid follicular epithelial cells by inducing autophagy suppression and is associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Wu, Fei; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Zheng, Tingting; Bu, Ling; Mou, Xiao; Zhou, Yuepeng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Shengjun; Xiao, Yichuan

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of the autoimmune thyroid disease Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has increased in recent years, and increasing evidence supports the contribution of excess iodine intake to thyroid disease. In this study, we examined the status of autophagy and apoptosis in thyroid tissues obtained from patients with HT, and we determined the effects of excessive iodine on the autophagy and apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells (TFCs) in an attempt to elucidate the effects of excess iodine on HT development. Our results showed decreases in the autophagy-related protein LC3B-II, and increases in caspase-3 were observed in thyroid tissues from HT patients. Interestingly, the suppression of autophagy activity in TFCs was induced by excess iodine in vitro, and this process is mediated through transforming growth factor-β1 downregulation and activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, excess iodine induced autophagy suppression and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis of TFCs, which could be rescued by the activation of autophagy. Taken together, our results demonstrated that excess iodine contributed to autophagy suppression and apoptosis of TFCs, which could be important factors predisposing to increased risk of HT development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapamycin facilitates fracture healing through inducing cell autophagy and suppressing cell apoptosis in bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z-Y; Yin, J; Huo, Y-F; Yu, J; Sheng, L-X; Dong, Y-F

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the changes in cell autophagy and the molecular mechanism of rapamycin affecting the fracture healing. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the right femoral shaft fracture models, and then underwent immunofluorescence assay to detect the autophagy level in bone tissues. After model establishment, SD rats were divided into two groups, the control group and the rapamycin group (1 mg/kg/d). Respectively, at the 2nd, 4th, and 6th week, rats were randomly selected from each group for X-ray and Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) examinations to determine callus growth, immunofluorescence assay to detect the protein expression of light chain 3 II (LC3 II), immunohistochemistry to evaluate the autophagy level through detecting the expression of Beclin1 in rats, Western blotting assay to detect cell apoptosis in tissues, hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE staining) to evaluate the osteoblastic activity through count of osteoblast in bone tissue at the end of fracture, and measure the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). Significant increases were seen in protein expression of cells in bone tissues at the end of fracture. In rapamycin group, callus formation and calcification level in rats were all higher than those in control group; compared with control group, for rats in rapamycin group, cell autophagy was significantly elevated in bone tissues, while cell apoptosis at the end of fracture was reduced with a significant increase in osteoblastic activity. The expression of VEGF in rapamycin group was higher than that in control group. Rapamycin can facilitate fracture healing through inducing cell apoptosis and suppressing cell apoptosis in bone tissues.

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors VPA and TSA induce apoptosis and autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini Montani, Maria Saveria; Granato, Marisa; Santoni, Claudio; Del Porto, Paola; Merendino, Nicolò; D'Orazi, Gabriella; Faggioni, Alberto; Cirone, Mara

    2017-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are anti-neoplastic agents that are known to affect the growth of different cancer types, but their underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, we compared the effects of two HDACi, i.e., Trichostatin A (TSA) and Valproic Acid (VPA), on the induction of cell death and autophagy in pancreatic cancer-derived cells that exhibit a high metastatic capacity and carry KRAS/p53 double mutations. Cell viability and proliferation tests were carried out using Trypan blue dye exclusion, MTT and BrdU assays. FACS analyses were carried out to assess cell cycle progression, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial depolarization, while Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses were employed to detect proteins involved in apoptosis and autophagy. We found that both VPA and TSA can induce apoptosis in Panc1 and PaCa44 pancreatic cancer-derived cells by triggering mitochondrial membrane depolarization, Cytochrome c release and Caspase 3 activation, although VPA was more effective than TSA, especially in Panc1 cells. As underlying molecular events, we found that ERK1/2 was de-phosphorylated and that the c-Myc and mutant p53 protein levels were reduced after VPA and, to a lesser extent, after TSA treatment. Up-regulation of p21 and Puma was also observed, concomitantly with mutant p53 degradation. In addition, we found that in both cell lines VPA increased the pro-apoptotic Bim level, reduced the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 level and increased ROS production and autophagy, while TSA was able to induce these effects only in PaCA44 cells. From our results we conclude that both VPA and TSA can induce pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy. VPA appears have a stronger and broader cytotoxic effect than TSA and, thus, may represent a better choice for anti-pancreatic cancer therapy.

  14. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  15. Lapatinib induces autophagy, apoptosis and megakaryocytic differentiation in chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Lan Huang

    Full Text Available Lapatinib is an oral, small-molecule, dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR, or ErbB/Her in solid tumors. Little is known about the effect of lapatinib on leukemia. Using human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML K562 cells as an experimental model, we found that lapatinib simultaneously induced morphological changes resembling apoptosis, autophagy, and megakaryocytic differentiation. Lapatinib-induced apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and was attenuated by the pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, indicating a mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent pathway. Lapatinib-induced autophagic cell death was verified by LC3-II conversion, and upregulation of Beclin-1. Further, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine as well as autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1 (ATG6, ATG7, and ATG5 shRNA knockdown rescued the cells from lapatinib-induced growth inhibition. A moderate number of lapatinib-treated K562 cells exhibited features of megakaryocytic differentiation. In summary, lapatinib inhibited viability and induced multiple cellular events including apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and megakaryocytic differentiation in human CML K562 cells. This distinct activity of lapatinib against CML cells suggests potential for lapatinib as a therapeutic agent for treatment of CML. Further validation of lapatinib activity in vivo is warranted.

  16. Hongjingtian Injection Attenuates Myocardial Oxidative Damage via Promoting Autophagy and Inhibiting Apoptosis

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    Shujing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products with antioxidative activities are widely applied to prevent and treat various oxidative stress related diseases, including ischemic heart disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of those therapies are still needed to be illustrated. In this study, we characterized the cardioprotective effects of Hongjingtian Injection (HJT, an extensively used botanical drug for treating coronary heart disease. The H/R-induced profound elevation of oxidative stress was suppressed by HJT. HJT also attenuates oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, intracellular ATP contents, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Validation experiments indicated that HJT inhibited H/R-induced apoptosis and regulated the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase3. Interestingly, HJT significantly regulated the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3, Beclin, and mTOR as well as ERK and AKT. We provide evidence that the mechanism involves activation of AKT/Beclin-1, AKT, and ERK/mTOR pathway in cardiomyocyte autophagy. Histological and physiological evaluation revealed that HJT significantly decreased the infarct area of the heart, improved cardiac function, and increased the expression of LC3B in a rat model of coronary occlusion. From the obtained data, we proposed that HJT diminished myocardial oxidative damage through regulating the balance of autophagy and apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress.

  17. Osteopontin Promotes Cell Migration and Invasion, and Inhibits Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colorectal Cancer by activating the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

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    Ren-hong Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteopontin (OPN is highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC and is associated with disease progression in vivo. High levels of OPN have been demonstrated to predict low survival rates in CRC. Autophagy is a process of self-digestion, which is thought to play a significant role in carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms of OPN's effects on CRC cell autophagy have not been elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate possible mechanisms of OPN's effects on CRC autophagy. Methods: HCT116 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration and invasion ability were identified by cell counting k¡t-8 assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay, and transwell chamber invasion assay, respectively. The ratios of proteins LC3-II/LC3-I, P62, and Atg7 were analyzed by Western-blot. Expressions of Beclin-1, Atg4b, Bnip3, and Vps34, both in transcriptional and translational levels, were analyzed and compared by RT-PCR and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and co-focusing experiments were used to investigate the formation of autophagosomes. Results: The results showed that OPN can promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as inhibit cell apoptosis. It was also demonstrated that OPN could inhibit cell autophagy. Further experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect of OPN on autophagy could be reversed by blocking the p38 MAPK pathway in HCT116 cells. Conclusion: OPN is involved in HCT116 cell progression and is capable of inhibiting cell autophagy possibly by activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, implying that OPN could be a potential novel molecular therapeutic biomarker in patients with CRC.

  18. Halting pro-survival autophagy by TGFβ inhibition in bone marrow fibroblasts overcomes bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, M A; De Veirman, K; Desantis, V; Di Marzo, L; Vergara, D; Ruggieri, S; Annese, T; Nico, B; Menu, E; Catacchio, I; Ria, R; Racanelli, V; Maffia, M; Angelucci, E; Derudas, D; Fumarulo, R; Dammacco, F; Ribatti, D; Vanderkerken, K; Vacca, A

    2016-03-01

    Bortezomib (bort) has improved overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but the majority of them develop drug resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that bone marrow (BM) fibroblasts (cancer-associated fibroblasts; CAFs) from bort-resistant patients are insensitive to bort and protect the RPMI8226 and patients' plasma cells against bort-induced apoptosis. Bort triggers CAFs to produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF) β. Proteomic studies on CAFs demonstrate that bort resistance parallels activation of oxidative stress and pro-survival autophagy. Indeed, bort induces reactive oxygen species in bort-resistant CAFs and activates autophagy by increasing light chain 3 protein (LC3)-II and inhibiting p62 and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin. The small-interfering RNA knockdown of Atg7, and treatment with 3-methyladenine, restores bort sensitivity in bort-resistant CAFs and produces cytotoxicity in plasma cells co-cultured with CAFs. In the syngeneic 5T33 MM model, bort-treatment induces the expansion of LC3-II(+) CAFs. TGFβ mediates bort-induced autophagy, and its blockade by LY2109761, a selective TβRI/II inhibitor, reduces the expression of p-Smad2/3 and LC3-II and induces apoptosis in bort-resistant CAFs. A combination of bort and LY2109761 synergistically induces apoptosis of RPMI8226 co-cultured with bort-resistant CAFs. These data define a key role for CAFs in bort resistance of plasma cells and provide the basis for a novel targeted therapeutic approach.

  19. β-Elemene-induced autophagy protects human gastric cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis

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    Zhang Jingdong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anti-cancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. The mechanism by which β-elemene kills cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate the anti-tumor effect of β-elemene on human gastric cancer cells and the molecular mechanism involved. Results β-Elemene inhibited the viability of human gastric cancer MGC803 and SGC7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The suppression of cell viability was due to the induction of apoptosis. A robust autophagy was observed in the cells treated with β-elemene; it was characterized by the increase of punctate LC3 dots, the cellular morphology, and the increased levels of LC3-II protein. Further study showed that β-elemene treatment up-regulated Atg5-Atg12 conjugated protein but had little effect on other autophagy-related proteins. PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 activity was inhibited by β-elemene. Knockdown of Beclin 1 with small interfering RNA, or co-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine or chlorochine enhanced significantly the antitumor effects of β-elemene. Conclusions Our data provides the first evidence that β-elemene induces protective autophagy and prevents human gastric cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. A combination of β-elemene with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for advanced gastric cancer.

  20. Chemoresistance is associated with increased cytoprotective autophagy and diminished apoptosis in bladder cancer cells treated with the BH3 mimetic (-)-Gossypol (AT-101).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Jens; Vallo, Stefan; Rakel, Stefanie; Antonietti, Patrick; Gessler, Florian; Blaheta, Roman; Bartsch, Georg; Michaelis, Martin; Cinatl, Jindrich; Haferkamp, Axel; Kögel, Donat

    2015-04-07

    Acquired resistance to standard chemotherapy causes treatment failure in patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins has been associated with a poor chemotherapeutic response, suggesting that Bcl-2-targeted therapy may be a feasible strategy in patients with these tumors. The small-molecule pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor (-)-gossypol (AT-101) is known to induce apoptotic cell death, but can also induce autophagy through release of the pro-autophagic BH3 only protein Beclin-1 from Bcl-2. The potential therapeutic effects of (-)-gossypol in chemoresistant bladder cancer and the role of autophagy in this context are hitherto unknown. Cisplatin (5637(r)CDDP(1000), RT4(r)CDDP(1000)) and gemcitabine (5637(r)GEMCI(20), RT4(r)GEMCI(20)) chemoresistant sub-lines of the chemo-sensitive bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and RT4 were established for the investigation of acquired resistance mechanisms. Cell lines carrying a stable lentiviral knockdown of the core autophagy regulator ATG5 were created from chemosensitive 5637 and chemoresistant 5637(r)GEMCI(20) and 5637(r)CDDP(1000) cell lines. Cell death and autophagy were quantified by FACS analysis of propidium iodide, Annexin and Lysotracker staining, as well as LC3 translocation. Here we demonstrate that (-)-gossypol induces an apoptotic type of cell death in 5637 and RT4 cells which is partially inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD. Cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells exhibit enhanced basal and drug-induced autophagosome formation and lysosomal activity which is accompanied by an attenuated apoptotic cell death after treatment with both (-)-gossypol and ABT-737, a Bcl-2 inhibitor which spares Mcl-1, in comparison to parental cells. Knockdown of ATG5 and inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA had no discernible effect on apoptotic cell death induced by (-)-gossypol and ABT-737 in parental 5637 cells, but evoked a significant increase in early apoptosis and overall

  1. Targeting Pediatric Glioma with Apoptosis and Autophagy Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Asiatic acid induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic death in glioblastoma multiforme cells both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular...increased recycling of needed macronutirients to support cell survival, repair, and proliferation after stresses such as cytotoxic therapy. Through

  2. RecQL4 regulates autophagy and apoptosis in U2OS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yangmiao; Fang, Hongbo

    2016-12-01

    RecQL4, one of the 5 human RecQ helicases, is a key mediator of genomic stability and its deficiency can cause premature aging phenotypes. Here, by using CRISPR/Cas and RNAi technology, we demonstrated that autophagy level was elevated in both RecQL4 knockdown and knockout cells compared with those of the control cells. Surprisingly, mitochondrial content was increased and LC3 co-localization with mitochondria was partially lost in RecQL4 knockout cells compared with the control cells, suggesting that RecQL4 deficiency impaired mitophagic processes in U2OS cells. Furthermore, we found that knockout of RecQL4 destabilized PINK1. In addition, RecQL4 knockout cells were more susceptible to apoptosis under mitochondrial stress than the control cells. In conclusion, our findings indicated a novel role of RecQL4 in the regulation of autophagy/mitophagy in U2OS cells.

  3. Elemene injection induced autophagy protects human hepatoma cancer cells from starvation and undergoing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Keming; Hu, Chunping; Lin, Lin; Qin, Shukui; Cai, Xueting

    2014-01-01

    Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. In an in vivo experiment, we found that apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively inhibits VEGFR2, combined with elemene injection (Ele) for the treatment of H22 solid tumor in mice resulted in worse effectiveness than apatinib alone. Moreover, Ele could protect HepG2 cells from death induced by serum-free starvation. Further data on the mechanism study revealed that Ele induced protective autophagy and prevented human hepatoma cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. Proapoptosis effect of Ele was enhanced when proautophagy effect was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Above all, Ele has the effect of protecting cancer cells from death either in apatinib induced nutrient deficient environment or in serum-free induced starvation. A combination of elemene injection with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Gadd45b prevents autophagy and apoptosis against rat cerebral neuron oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guoqian; Xu, Wenming; Tong, Linyan; Li, Shuaishuai; Su, Shiceng; Tan, Xiaodan; Li, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    Autophagic (type II) cell death has been suggested to play pathogenetic roles in cerebral ischemia. Growth arrest and DNA damage response 45b (Gadd45b) has been shown to protect against rat brain ischemia injury through inhibiting apoptosis. However, the relationship between Gadd45b and autophagy in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Gadd45b on autophagy. We adopt the oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) model of rat primary cortex neurons, and lentivirus interference used to silence Gadd45b expression. Cell viability and injury assay were performed using CCK-8 and LDH kit. Autophagy activation was monitored by expression of ATG5, LC3, Beclin-1, ATG7 and ATG3. Neuron apoptosis was monitored by expression of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase3, p53 and TUNEL assay. Neuron neurites were assayed by double immunofluorescent labeling with Tuj1 and LC3B. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of Gadd45b was strongly up-regulated at 24 h after 3 h OGD treatment. ShRNA-Gadd45b increased the expression of autophagy related proteins, aggravated OGD/R-induced neuron cell apoptosis and neurites injury. ShRNA-Gadd45b co-treatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Wortmannin partly inhibited the ratio of LC3II/LC3I, and slightly ameliorated neuron cell apoptosis under OGD/R. Furthermore, shRNA-Gadd45b inhibited the p-p38 level involved in autophagy, but increased the p-JNK level involved in apoptosis. ShRNA-Gadd45b co-treatment with p38 inhibitor obviously induced autophagy. ShRNA-Gadd45b co-treatment with JNK inhibitor alleviated neuron cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our data suggested that Gadd45b inhibited autophagy and apoptosis under OGD/R. Gadd45b may be a common regulatory protein to control autophagy and apoptosis.

  5. Phycocyanin Inhibits Tumorigenic Potential of Pancreatic Cancer Cells: Role of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gaoyong; Gao, Bing; Gao, Yingnv; Yang, Xuegan; Cheng, Xiaodong; Ou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and unresponsive to current chemotherapies. Here we investigate the therapeutic potential of phycocyanin as an anti-PDA agent in vivo and in vitro. Phycocyanin, a natural product purified from Spirulina, effectively inhibits the pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Phycocyanin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptotic and autophagic cell death in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by targeting Beclin 1 using siRNA significantly suppresses cell growth inhibition and death induced by phycocyanin, whereas inhibition of both autophagy and apoptosis rescues phycocyanin-mediated cell death. Mechanistically, cell death induced by phycocyanin is the result of cross-talk among the MAPK, Akt/mTOR/p70S6K and NF-κB pathways. Phycocyanin is able to induce apoptosis of PANC-1 cell by activating p38 and JNK signaling pathways while inhibiting Erk pathway. On the other hand, phycocyanin promotes autophagic cell death by inhibiting PI3/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. Furthermore, phycocyanin promotes the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which plays an important role in balancing phycocyanin-mediated apoptosis and autosis. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that phycocyanin exerts anti-pancreatic cancer activity by inducing apoptotic and autophagic cell death, thereby identifying phycocyanin as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent. PMID:27694919

  6. Isoaaptamine Induces T-47D Cells Apoptosis and Autophagy via Oxidative Stress

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    Chih-Fung Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aaptos is a genus of marine sponge which belongs to Suberitidae and is distributed in tropical and subtropical oceans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Aaptos sp. methanolic extract resulted in the isolation of aaptamine, demethyloxyaaptamine, and isoaaptamine. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated revealing that isoaaptamine exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against breast cancer T-47D cells. In a concentration-dependent manner, isoaaptamine inhibited the growth of T-47D cells as indicated by short-(MTT and long-term (colony formation anti-proliferative assays. The cytotoxic effect of isoaaptamine was mediated through apoptosis as indicated by DNA ladder formation, caspase-7 activation, XIAP inhibition and PARP cleavage. Transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometric analysis using acridine orange dye indicated that isoaaptamine treatment could induce T-47D cells autophagy. Immunoblot assays demonstrated that isoaaptamine treatment significantly activated autophagy marker proteins such as type II LC-3. In addition, isoaaptamine treatment enhanced the activation of DNA damage (γH2AX and ER stress-related proteins (IRE1 α and BiP. Moreover, the use of isoaaptamine resulted in a significant increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS as well as in the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. The pretreatment of T-47D cells with an ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, attenuated the apoptosis and MMP disruption induced by isoaaptamine up to 90%, and these effects were mediated by the disruption of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf 2/p62 pathway. Taken together, these findings suggested that the cytotoxic effect of isoaaptamine is associated with the induction of apoptosis and autophagy through oxidative stress. Our data indicated that isoaaptamine represents an interesting drug lead in the war against breast cancer.

  7. Effects of a novel β–lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi: Parasite death involving apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis

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    Danielle Oliveira dos Anjos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β–lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β–lapachone derivative affected the T. cruzi morphology and surface topography. General plasma membrane waving and blebbing particularly on the cytostome region were observed in the R72-treated parasites. Transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed the surface damage at the cytostome opening vicinity. We also observed ultrastructural evidence of the autophagic mechanism termed macroautophagy. Some of the autophagosomes involved large portions of the parasite cytoplasm and their fusion/confluence may lead to necrotic parasite death. The remarkably enhanced frequency of autophagy triggering was confirmed by quantitating monodansylcadaverine labeling. Some cells displayed evidence of chromatin pycnosis and nuclear fragmentation were detected. This latter phenomenon was also indicated by DAPI staining of R72-treated cells. The apoptotis induction was suggested to take place in circa one-third of the parasites assessed by annexin V labeling measured by flow cytometry. TUNEL staining corroborated the apoptosis induction. Propidium iodide labeling indicate that at least 10% of the R72-treated parasites suffered necrosis within 24 h. The present data indicate that the β–lapachone derivative R72 selectively triggers T. cruzi cell death, involving both apoptosis and autophagy-induced necrosis.

  8. Effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi: Parasite death involving apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Danielle Oliveira; Sobral Alves, Eliomara Sousa; Gonçalves, Vinicius Tomaz; Fontes, Sheila Suarez; Nogueira, Mateus Lima; Suarez-Fontes, Ana Márcia; Neves da Costa, João Batista; Rios-Santos, Fabricio; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André

    2016-12-01

    Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T. cruzi morphology and surface topography. General plasma membrane waving and blebbing particularly on the cytostome region were observed in the R72-treated parasites. Transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed the surface damage at the cytostome opening vicinity. We also observed ultrastructural evidence of the autophagic mechanism termed macroautophagy. Some of the autophagosomes involved large portions of the parasite cytoplasm and their fusion/confluence may lead to necrotic parasite death. The remarkably enhanced frequency of autophagy triggering was confirmed by quantitating monodansylcadaverine labeling. Some cells displayed evidence of chromatin pycnosis and nuclear fragmentation were detected. This latter phenomenon was also indicated by DAPI staining of R72-treated cells. The apoptotis induction was suggested to take place in circa one-third of the parasites assessed by annexin V labeling measured by flow cytometry. TUNEL staining corroborated the apoptosis induction. Propidium iodide labeling indicate that at least 10% of the R72-treated parasites suffered necrosis within 24 h. The present data indicate that the β-lapachone derivative R72 selectively triggers T. cruzi cell death, involving both apoptosis and autophagy-induced necrosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell Death and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Autophagy in the Intestinal Epithelium

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    Tiago Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell death mechanisms have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and mice. Recent studies suggested that a complex crosstalk between autophagy/apoptosis, microbe sensing, and enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress in the epithelium could play a critical role in these diseases. In addition, necroptosis, a relatively novel programmed necrosis-like pathway associated with TNF receptor activation, seems to be also present in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease and in specific animal models for intestinal inflammation. This review attempts to cover new data related to cell death mechanisms and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  10. Shock Wave Therapy Promotes Cardiomyocyte Autophagy and Survival during Hypoxia

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    Ling Du

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autophagy plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. Controversy still exists regarding the effect of autophagy on ischemic/hypoxic myocardium. Cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT is an effective alternative treatment for refractory ischemic heart disease. Whether CSWT can regulate cardiomyocyte autophagy under hypoxic conditions is not clear. We established a myocardial hypoxia model using the H9c2 cell line and performed shock waves (SWs treatment to evaluate the effect of SW on autophagy. Methods: The H9c2 cells were incubated under hypoxic conditions, and SW treatment was then performed at energies of 0.02, 0.05, or 0.10 mJ/mm2. The cell viability and intracellular ATP level were examined. Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression of LC3B, AMPK, mTOR, Beclin-1, Sirt1, and HIF-1α. Autophagic vacuoles were visualized by monodansylcadaverine staining. Results: After the 24-hour hypoxic period, cardiomyocyte viability and ATP levels were decreased and autophagy was significantly increased in H9c2 cells. SW treatment with an energy of 0.05 mJ/mm2 significantly increased the cellular viability, ATP level, LC3B-II/I, and number of autophagic vacuoles. In addition, phosphorylated AMPK and Sirt1 were increased and phosphorylated mTOR and HIF-1α were decreased after SW treatment. Conclusion: SW treatment can potentially promote cardiomyocyte autophagy during hypoxia and protect cardiomyocyte function by regulating the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

  11. Metformin promotes apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma through the CEBPD-induced autophagy pathway.

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    Tsai, Hsin-Hwa; Lai, Hong-Yue; Chen, Yueh-Chiu; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Huei-Sheng; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2017-02-21

    Metformin, as an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, can activate autophagy. A study showed that metformin decreased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in diabetic patients. However, the detailed mechanism in the metformin-mediated anticancer effect remains an open question. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) has been suggested to serve as a tumor suppressor and is responsive to multiple anticancer drugs in HCC. In this study, we found that CEBPD and autophagy are involved in metformin-induced cell apoptosis in Huh7 cells. The underlying mechanisms in this process included a reduction in Src-mediated CEBPD protein degradation and an increase in CEBPD-regulated LC3B and ATG3 gene transcription under metformin treatment. We also found that AMPK is involved in metformin-induced CEBPD expression. Combined treatment with metformin and rapamycin can enhance autophagic cell death through the AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent pathway, respectively. Taken together, we provide a new insight and therapeutic approach by targeting autophagy in the treatment of HCC.

  12. Role and regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by nitric oxide in hepatic stellate cells during acute liver failure.

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    Jin, Li; Gao, Heng; Wang, JiuPing; Yang, ShuJuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, JingFeng; Yang, Yuan; Yan, TaoTao; Chen, Tianyan; Zhao, Yingren; He, Yingli

    2017-11-01

    We previously found that hepatic stellate cell activation induced by autophagy maintains the liver architecture to prevent collapse during acute liver failure. Nitric oxide has shown to induce hepatic stellate cell apoptosis. Whether and how nitric oxide is involved in acute liver failure and autophagy remains unclear. Acute liver failure patients were recruited to investigate the correlation between plasma nitric oxide levels and clinical features. Liver tissues were collected from chronic hepatitis patients by biopsy and from acute liver failure patients who had undergone liver transplantation. The expression of nitric oxide synthases and hepatic stellate cell activation (alpha-SMA), and autophagic activity (LC3) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Autophagy and apoptosis were investigated by immunoblot analysis, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry in hepatic stellate cells treated with nitric oxide donors. Plasma nitric oxide level was significantly increased in patients with acute liver failure compared to those with cirrhosis (53.60±19.74 μM vs 19.40±9.03 μM, Z=-7.384, Pfailure. At least some Nitric oxide was produced by overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthases and endothelial nitric oxide synthases, but not neuronal nitric oxide synthases in the liver tissue. In vivo observation revealed that autophagy was inhibited in hepatic stellate cells based on decreased LC3 immunostaining, and in vitro experiments demonstrated that Nitric oxide can inhibit autophagy. Moreover, nitric oxide promoted hepatic stellate cell apoptosis, which was rescued by an autophagy inducer. Increased nitric oxide synthases/ nitric oxide promotes apoptosis through autophagy inhibition in hepatic stellate cells during acute liver failure, providing a novel strategy for the treatment of patients with acute liver failure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Platycodin D induced apoptosis and autophagy in PC-12 cells through mitochondrial dysfunction pathway

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    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Zhang, Cheng; Yao, Jun-Hua; Lai, Shang-Hai; Han, Bing-Jie; Li, Wei; Tang, Bing; Wan, Dan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the in vitro cytotoxicity of platycodin D was evaluated in human PC-12, SGC-7901, BEL-7402, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines. PC-12 cells were sensitive to platycodin D treatment, with an IC50 value of 13.5 ± 1.2 μM. Morphological and comet assays showed that platycodin D effectively induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Platycodin D increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Platycodin D induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the PC-12 cell line. Platycodin D can induce autophagy. In addition, platycodin D can down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, and up-regulate the levels of Bid protein in the PC-12 cells. The results demonstrated that platycodin D induced PC-12 cell apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  14. Cell Death Control: The Interplay of Apoptosis and Autophagy in the Pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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    Kabbage, Mehdi; Williams, Brett; Dickman, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death is characterized by a cascade of tightly controlled events that culminate in the orchestrated death of the cell. In multicellular organisms autophagy and apoptosis are recognized as two principal means by which these genetically determined cell deaths occur. During plant-microbe interactions cell death programs can mediate both resistant and susceptible events. Via oxalic acid (OA), the necrotrophic phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hijacks host pathways and induces cell death in host plant tissue resulting in hallmark apoptotic features in a time and dose dependent manner. OA-deficient mutants are non-pathogenic and trigger a restricted cell death phenotype in the host that unexpectedly exhibits markers associated with the plant hypersensitive response including callose deposition and a pronounced oxidative burst, suggesting the plant can recognize and in this case respond, defensively. The details of this plant directed restrictive cell death associated with OA deficient mutants is the focus of this work. Using a combination of electron and fluorescence microscopy, chemical effectors and reverse genetics, we show that this restricted cell death is autophagic. Inhibition of autophagy rescued the non-pathogenic mutant phenotype. These findings indicate that autophagy is a defense response in this necrotrophic fungus/plant interaction and suggest a novel function associated with OA; namely, the suppression of autophagy. These data suggest that not all cell deaths are equivalent, and though programmed cell death occurs in both situations, the outcome is predicated on who is in control of the cell death machinery. Based on our data, we suggest that it is not cell death per se that dictates the outcome of certain plant-microbe interactions, but the manner by which cell death occurs that is crucial. PMID:23592997

  15. Cell death control: the interplay of apoptosis and autophagy in the pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

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    Mehdi Kabbage

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death is characterized by a cascade of tightly controlled events that culminate in the orchestrated death of the cell. In multicellular organisms autophagy and apoptosis are recognized as two principal means by which these genetically determined cell deaths occur. During plant-microbe interactions cell death programs can mediate both resistant and susceptible events. Via oxalic acid (OA, the necrotrophic phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hijacks host pathways and induces cell death in host plant tissue resulting in hallmark apoptotic features in a time and dose dependent manner. OA-deficient mutants are non-pathogenic and trigger a restricted cell death phenotype in the host that unexpectedly exhibits markers associated with the plant hypersensitive response including callose deposition and a pronounced oxidative burst, suggesting the plant can recognize and in this case respond, defensively. The details of this plant directed restrictive cell death associated with OA deficient mutants is the focus of this work. Using a combination of electron and fluorescence microscopy, chemical effectors and reverse genetics, we show that this restricted cell death is autophagic. Inhibition of autophagy rescued the non-pathogenic mutant phenotype. These findings indicate that autophagy is a defense response in this necrotrophic fungus/plant interaction and suggest a novel function associated with OA; namely, the suppression of autophagy. These data suggest that not all cell deaths are equivalent, and though programmed cell death occurs in both situations, the outcome is predicated on who is in control of the cell death machinery. Based on our data, we suggest that it is not cell death per se that dictates the outcome of certain plant-microbe interactions, but the manner by which cell death occurs that is crucial.

  16. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis

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    Yi-Chia Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine (CQ and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24 compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1 or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7. We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer.

  17. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Lin, Ji-Fan; Wen, Sheng-I; Yang, Shan-Che; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24) in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24) compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1) or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7). We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Resveratrol Couples Apoptosis with Autophagy in UVB-Irradiated HaCaT Cells

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    Vitale, Nicoletta; Kisslinger, Annamaria; Paladino, Simona; Procaccini, Claudio; Matarese, Giuseppe; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Mancini, Francesco Paolo; Tramontano, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    UVB radiation causes about 90% of non-melanoma skin cancers by damaging DNA either directly or indirectly by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skin, chronically exposed to both endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, contains a well-organised system of chemical and enzymatic antioxidants. However, increased or prolonged free radical action can overwhelm ROS defence mechanisms, contributing to the development of cutaneous diseases. Thus, new strategies for skin protection comprise the use of food antioxidants to counteract oxidative stress. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin from grape, has gained a great interest for its ability to influence several biological mechanisms like redox balance, cell proliferation, signal transduction pathways, immune and inflammatory response. Therefore, the potential of resveratrol to modify skin cell response to UVB exposure could turn out to be a useful option to protect skin from sunlight-induced degenerative diseases. To investigate into this matter, HaCaT cells, a largely used model for human skin keratinocytes, were treated with 25 or 100 µM resveratrol for 2 and 24 hours prior to UVB irradiation (10 to 100 mJ/cm2). Cell viability and molecular markers of proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy were analyzed. In HaCaT cells resveratrol pretreatment: reduces UVB-induced ROS formation, enhances the detrimental effect of UVB on HaCaT cell vitality, increases UVB-induced caspase 8, PARP cleavage, and induces autophagy. These findings suggest that resveratrol could exert photochemopreventive effects by enhancing UVB-induced apoptosis and by inducing autophagy, thus reducing the odds that damaged cells could escape programmed cell death and initiate malignant transformation. PMID:24260465

  19. Curcumin Inhibits Apoptosis of Chondrocytes through Activation ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways Induced Autophagy

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    Xiaodong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is an inflammatory disease of load-bearing synovial joints that is currently treated with drugs that exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective in treating pain, the main symptom of the disease. Consequently, there is an acute need for novel, safe, and more effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoarthritis and related arthritic diseases. Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid and the most active component in turmeric, is a biologically active phytochemical. Evidence from several recent in vitro studies suggests that curcumin may exert a chondroprotective effect through actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-catabolic activity that are critical for mitigating OA disease pathogenesis and symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the protective mechanisms of curcumin on interleukin 1β (IL-1β-stimulated primary chondrocytes in vitro. The treatment of interleukin (IL-1β significantly reduces the cell viability of chondrocytes in dose and time dependent manners. Co-treatment of curcumin with IL-1β significantly decreased the growth inhibition. We observed that curcumin inhibited IL-1β-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in chondrocytes. Curcumin can increase the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3-II, and Beclin-1 in chondrocytes. The expression of autophagy markers could be decreased when the chondrocytes were incubated with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Our results suggest that curcumin suppresses apoptosis and inflammatory signaling through its actions on the ERK1/2-induced autophagy in chondrocytes. We propose that curcumin should be explored further for the prophylactic treatment of osteoarthritis in humans and companion animals.

  20. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Mediates Autophagy and Apoptosis in Myocardial Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury.

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    Hsuan-Fu Kuo

    Full Text Available Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a multifunctional protein that exhibits anti-angiogenic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-atherogenic, and cardioprotective properties. While it was recently shown that PEDF expression is inhibited under low oxygen conditions, the functional role of PEDF in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R remains unclear. The goal of this study was to therefore investigate the influence of PEDF on myocardial H/R injury. For these analyses, PEDF-specific small interfering RNA-expressing and PEDF-expressing lentivirus (PEDF-LV vectors were utilized to knockdown or stably overexpress PEDF, respectively, within human cardiomyocytes (HCM in vitro. We noted that reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in the induction of cell death pathways, including apoptosis and autophagy in ischemic hearts. Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of PEDF resulted in a significant reduction in ROS production and attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential depletion under H/R conditions. Furthermore, PEDF inhibited the activation of a two-step apoptotic pathway in which caspase-dependent (caspase-9 and caspase-3 and caspase-independent (apoptosis inducing factor and endonuclease G, which in turn cleaves several crucial substrates including the DNA repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. Meanwhile, overexpression of PEDF also promoted autophagy, a process that is typically activated in response to H/R. Therefore, these findings suggest that PEDF plays a critical role in preventing H/R injury by modulating anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic factors and promoting autophagy.

  1. Overendocytosis of gold nanoparticles increases autophagy and apoptosis in hypoxic human renal proximal tubular cells.

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    Ding, Fengan; Li, Yiping; Liu, Jing; Liu, Lei; Yu, Wenmin; Wang, Zhi; Ni, Haifeng; Liu, Bicheng; Chen, Pingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially be used in biomedical fields ranging from therapeutics to diagnostics, and their use will result in increased human exposure. Many studies have demonstrated that GNPs can be deposited in the kidneys, particularly in renal tubular epithelial cells. Chronic hypoxic is inevitable in chronic kidney diseases, and it results in renal tubular epithelial cells that are susceptible to different types of injuries. However, the understanding of the interactions between GNPs and hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells is still rudimentary. In the present study, we characterized the cytotoxic effects of GNPs in hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells. Both 5 nm and 13 nm GNPs were synthesized and characterized using various biophysical methods, including transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. We detected the cytotoxicity of 5 and 13 nm GNPs (0, 1, 25, and 50 nM) to human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and lactate dehydrogenase release assay, but we just found the toxic effect in the 5 nm GNP-treated cells at 50 nM dose under hypoxic condition. Furthermore, the transmission electron microscopy images revealed that GNPs were either localized in vesicles or free in the lysosomes in 5 nm GNPs-treated HK-2 cells, and the cellular uptake of the GNPs in the hypoxic cells was significantly higher than that in normoxic cells. In normoxic HK-2 cells, 5 nm GNPs (50 nM) treatment could cause autophagy and cell survival. However, in hypoxic conditions, the GNP exposure at the same condition led to the production of reactive oxygen species, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM), and an increase in apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Our results demonstrate that renal tubular epithelial cells presented different responses under normoxic and hypoxic environments, which provide an important basis for understanding the risks associated with GNP

  2. Activation of autophagy at cerebral cortex and apoptosis at brainstem are differential responses to 835 MHz RF-EMF exposure.

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    Kim, Ju Hwan; Yu, Da-Hyeon; Kim, Hak Rim

    2017-03-01

    With the explosive increase in exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phones, public concerns have grown over the last few decades with regard to the potential effects of EMF exposure on the nervous system in the brain. Many researchers have suggested that RF-EMFs can effect diverse neuronal alterations in the brain, thereby affecting neuronal functions as well as behavior. Previously, we showed that long-term exposure to 835 MHz RF-EMF induces autophagy in the mice brain. In this study, we explore whether short-term exposure to RF-EMF leads to the autophagy pathway in the cerebral cortex and brainstem at 835 MHz with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 4 weeks. Increased levels of autophagy genes and proteins such as LC3B-II and Beclin1 were demonstrated and the accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes was observed in cortical neurons whereas apoptosis pathways were up-regulated in the brainstem but not in the cortex following 4 weeks of RF exposure. Taken together, the present study indicates that monthly exposure to RF-EMF induces autophagy in the cerebral cortex and suggests that autophagic degradation in cortical neurons against a stress of 835 MHz RF during 4 weeks could correspond to adaptation to the RF stress environment. However, activation of apoptosis rather than autophagy in the brainstem is suggesting the differential responses to the RF-EMF stresses in the brain system.

  3. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Protects against Spinal Cord Ischemia Reperfusion Injury-Induced Apoptosis by Blocking Autophagy

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    Lei Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of autophagy, neuroprotective mechanisms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, and their relationship in spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (SCIR was assessed. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, ischemia reperfusion (I/R, 10 mg/kg NAD+, and 75 mg/kg NAD+. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess autophagy and apoptosis. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB scores were used to assess neurological function. Expression levels of Beclin-1, Atg12-Atg5, LC3B-II, cleaved caspase 3, and Bax were upregulated in the I/R group and downregulated in the 75 mg/kg NAD+ group; p-mTOR, p-AKT, p62, and Bcl-2 were downregulated in the I/R group and upregulated in the 75 mg/kg NAD+ group. Numbers of LC3B-positive, caspase 3-positive, Bax-positive, and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased in the I/R group and decreased in the 75 mg/kg NAD+ group. The mean integrated option density of Bax increased and that of Nissl decreased in the I/R group, and it decreased and increased, respectively, in the 75 mg/kg NAD+ group. BBB scores significantly increased in the 75 mg/kg NAD+ group relative to the I/R group. No difference was observed between I/R and 10 mg/kg NAD+ groups for these indicators. Therefore, excessive and sustained autophagy aggravates SCIR; administration of NAD+ alleviates injury.

  4. REP1 Modulates Autophagy and Macropinocytosis to Enhance Cancer Cell Survival.

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    Choi, Jungwon; Kim, Hyena; Bae, Young Ki; Cheong, Heesun

    2017-08-28

    Rab escort protein 1 (REP1), a component of the Rab geranyl-geranyltransferase 2 complex, plays a role in Rab protein recruitment in proper vesicles during vesicle trafficking. In addition to having well-known tissue degenerative phenotypes in the REP1 mutant, REP1 is tightly associated with cancer development and contributes to cell growth and survival. However, the functional mechanism of REP1 in cancer progression is largely uninvestigated. Here, we show that REP1 plays a crucial role in regulating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and its downstream pathways, as well as autophagy and macropinocytosis, which are essential for cancer cell survival during metabolic stresses including starvation. REP1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment downregulates mTORC1 activity in growing media, but blocks autophagosome formation under nutrient-depleted conditions. In contrast to the mild decrease of lysosomal enzyme activity seen in REP1 depletion, in REP1 knockdown the subcellular localization of lysosomes is altered, and localization of REP1 itself is modulated by intracellular nutrient levels and mTOR activity. Furthermore, REP1 depletion increases macro pinocytosis which may be a feedback mechanism to compensate autophagy inhibition. Concomitant treatment with macropinocytosis inhibitor and REP1siRNAresults in more significant cell death than autophagy blockade with REP1 knockdown. Therefore, REP1-mediated autophagy and lysosomal degradation processes act as novel regulatory mechanisms to support cancer cell survival, which can be further investigated as a potential cancer-targeting pathway.

  5. Ophiobolin A Induces Autophagy and Activates the Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells.

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    Carlo Rodolfo

    Full Text Available Ophiobolin A, a fungal toxin from Bipolaris species known to affect different cellular processes in plants, has recently been shown to have anti-cancer activity in mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Ophiobolin A on human melanoma A375 and CHL-1 cell lines. This cellular model was chosen because of the incidence of melanoma malignant tumor on human population and its resistance to chemical treatments. Ophyobolin A strongly reduced cell viability of melanoma cells by affecting mitochondrial functionality. The toxin induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial network fragmentation, leading to autophagy induction and ultimately resulting in cell death by activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Finally, a comparative proteomic investigation on A375 cells allowed to identify several Ophiobolin A down-regulated proteins, which are involved in fundamental processes for cell homeostasis and viability.

  6. Apoptosis and autophagy in the midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M; Poprawa, Izabela; Chachulska-Zymełka, Alina

    2010-09-01

    The midgut epithelium of Acheta domesticus (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllidae), which is composed of columnar digestive cells and regenerative crypts, degenerates in two manners: necrotic and apoptotic. While necrosis was described in our previous paper, programmed cell death was the aim of the present studies. The first morphological signs of programmed cell death in midgut epithelium cells are alterations in the cytoplasm connected with shrinkage of the cells. Gradual modifications in a cell's structure cause it to be discharged into the midgut lumen, where it disintegrates. Autophagy is involved in the disintegration of organelles. The transitions of apoptotic cells are described at the ultrastructural level. Immunostaining methods were used in order to indicate the early stages of apoptosis when DNA fragmentation, which results from apoptotic signaling cascades, occurs.

  7. Cordyceps militaris and mycelial fermentation induced apoptosis and autophagy of human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-H; Kao, Y-H; Huang, K-S; Wang, C-Y; Lin, L-W

    2012-11-29

    This study is the first report that investigated the apoptosis-inducing effects of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its mycelial fermentation in human glioblastoma cells. Both fractions arrested the GBM8401 cells in the G0/G1 phase, whereas the U-87MG cells were arrested at the G2/M transitional stage. Western blot data suggested that upregulation of p53 and p21 might be involved in the disruption of cell cycle progression. Induction of chromosomal condensation and the appearance of a sub-G1 hypodipoid population further supported the proapoptogenicity, possibly through the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, and the downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and the upregulation of proapoptotic Bax protein expression. Downregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin and upregulation of Atg5 and LC3 II levels in GBM8401 cells implicated the involvement of autophagy. The signaling profiles with mycelial fermentation treatment indicated that mycelial fermentation triggered rapid phosphorylation of Akt, p38 MAPK, and JNK, but suppressed constitutively high levels of ERK1/2 in GBM8401 cells. Mycelial fermentation treatment only significantly increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but decreased constitutively high levels of Akt, ERK1/2, and JNK phosphorylation in U-87MG cells. Pretreatment with PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 prevented the mycelial fermentation-induced cytotoxicity in GBM8401 and U-87MG cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3K/Akt and MEK1 pathways in mycelial fermentation-driven glioblastoma cell apoptosis and autophagy.

  8. Blocking NF-κB nuclear translocation leads to p53-related autophagy activation and cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Song; Xing, Chun-Gen; Lin, Fang; Fan, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Kui; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor SN50 and related mechanisms of SGC7901 human gastric carcinoma cells. METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of SN50 in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis morphological changes after SN50 treatment. Activation of autophagy was monitored with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining after SN50 treatment.Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of light chain 3 (LC3). Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. Western blotting analysis were used to determine the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis and autophagy including p53, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM), LC3 and Beclin 1. We detected the effects of p53-mediated autophagy activation on the apoptosis of SGC7901 cells with the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. RESULTS: The viability of SGC7901 cells was inhibited after SN50 treatment. Inductions in the expression of apoptotic protein p53 and PUMA as well as autophagic protein DRAM, LC3 and Beclin 1 were detected with Western blotting analysis. SN50-treated cells exhibited punctuate microtubule-associated protein 1 LC3 in immunoreactivity and MDC-labeled vesicles increased after treatment of SN50 by MDC staining. Collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential Δψ were detected for 6 to 24 h after SN50 treatment. SN50-induced increases in PUMA, DRAM, LC3 and Beclin 1 and cell death were blocked by the p53 specific inhibitor pifithrin-α. CONCLUSION: The anti-tumor activity of NF-κB inhibitors is associated with p53-mediated activation of autophagy. PMID:21274377

  9. Rb deficiency accelerates progression of carcinoma of the urinary bladder in vivo and in vitro through inhibiting autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Jiao, Yong; Zhang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is known as a common cancer diagnosed across the world and results in significant mortality and morbidity rates among patients. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, as a main tumor suppressor, controls cellular responses to potentially oncogenic stimulation. Rb phosphorylation could disrupt E2F complex formation, resulting in diverse transcription factor dysfunction. In our study, we investigated how Rb is involved in controlling urinary bladder cancer progression. The results indicate that Rb expression is reduced in mice with urinary bladder tumor, and its suppression leads to urinary bladder cancer progression in vivo and in vitro. Rb mutation directly results in tumor size with lower survival rate in vivo. Rb knockdown in vitro promoted bladder tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Interestingly, Rb knockout and knockdown result in autophagy and apoptosis inhibition via suppressing p53 and caspase-3 signaling pathways, enhancing bladder cancer development in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal that Rb deficiency accelerated urinary bladder cancer progression, exposing an important role of Rb in suppressing urinary bladder cancer for treatment in the future.

  10. Inhibition of Starvation-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in ARPE-19 Cells by Taurine through Modulating the Expression of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Zhang; Shu Ren; Yuci Liu; Kun Gao; Zheng Liu; Zhou Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line) were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle’s balanced salt solution (EBSS) through starvation to induce RPE me...

  11. Characterization of apoptosis and autophagy through Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression in gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargasetia, Teresa Liliana; Shahib, Nurhalim; Martaadisoebrata, Djamhoer; Dhianawaty, Diah; Hernowo, Bethy

    2015-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is not clearly known. In this study, immunoexpression of proteins Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in trophoblastic lesions and normal trophoblastic tissue was conducted to study the mechanism of apoptotic and autophagic cell death that is expected to complete the study of GTD pathogenesis. Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression were studied on complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and normal placenta slides. The average total scores of Bcl-2 immunoexpression had a decreasing value, starting from partial hydatidiform mole (3.09), complete hydatidiform mole (2.36), invasive mole (1.18) to choriocarcinoma (0) when compared to normal placenta (6). The results showed no significant difference in Beclin-1 immunoexpression total score between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole, namely that the value of the average total score of Beclin-1 was low (2.27, 2.45 and 2.36), but on the contrary choriocarcinoma showed an increasing strong Beclin-1 expression with the average total score of 4.57. Bcl-2 expression decreases in line with the excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and leads to malignancy in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 that leads to autophagy defects in complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole shows the role of autophagy as tumor suppressor, whereas strong Beclin-1 expression shows the survival role of autophagy in choriocarcinoma. The change of Bcl-2 activity as antiapoptosis and Beclin-1 as proautophagy plays a role in pathogenesis of GTD.

  12. Characterization of apoptosis and autophagy through Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression in gestational trophoblastic disease

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    Teresa Liliana Wargasetia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD is not clearly known. Objective: In this study, immunoexpression of proteins Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in trophoblastic lesions and normal trophoblastic tissue was conducted to study the mechanism of apoptotic and autophagic cell death that is expected to complete the study of GTD pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 immunoexpression were studied on complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and normal placenta slides. Results: The average total scores of Bcl-2 immunoexpression had a decreasing value, starting from partial hydatidiform mole (3.09, complete hydatidiform mole (2.36, invasive mole (1.18 to choriocarcinoma (0 when compared to normal placenta (6. The results showed no significant difference in Beclin-1 immunoexpression total score between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole, namely that the value of the average total score of Beclin-1 was low (2.27, 2.45 and 2.36, but on the contrary choriocarcinoma showed an increasing strong Beclin-1 expression with the average total score of 4.57. Conclusion: Bcl-2 expression decreases in line with the excessive proliferation of trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and leads to malignancy in invasive mole and choriocarcinoma. The decreased expression of Beclin-1 that leads to autophagy defects in complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and invasive mole shows the role of autophagy as tumor suppressor, whereas strong Beclin-1 expression shows the survival role of autophagy in choriocarcinoma. The change of Bcl-2 activity as antiapoptosis and Beclin-1 as proautophagy plays a role in pathogenesis of GTD.

  13. Antimicrobial peptaibols, novel suppressors of tumor cells, targeted calcium-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

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    Chen Xiu-Lan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common cancers in the world which is highly chemoresistant to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, novel therapeutic targets are needed to be sought for the successful treatment of HCC. Peptaibols, a family of peptides synthesized non-ribosomally by the Trichoderma species and other fungi, exhibit antibiotic activities against bacteria and fungi. Few studies recently showed that peptaibols exerted cytotoxicity toward human lung epithelial and breast carcinoma cells. However, the mechanism involved in peptaibol-induced cell death remains poorly understood. Results Here, we showed that Trichokonin VI (TK VI, a peptaibol from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2, induced growth inhibition of HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. It did not obviously impair the viability of normal liver cells at lower concentration. Moreover, the suppression of cell viability resulted from the programmed cell death (PCD with characteristics of apoptosis and autophagy. An influx of Ca2+ triggered the activation of μ-calpain and proceeded to the translocation of Bax to mitochondria and subsequent promotion of apoptosis. On the other hand, typically morphological characteristics consistent with autophagy were also observed by punctate distribution of MDC staining and the induction of LC3-II, including extensive autophagic vacuolization and enclosure of cell organelles by these autophagosomes. More significantly, specific depletion of Bak expression by small RNA interfering (siRNA could partly attenuate TK VI-induced autophagy. However, siRNA against Bax led to increased autophagy. Conclusion Taken together, these findings showed for the first time that peptaibols were novel regulators involved in both apoptosis and autophagy, suggesting that the class of peptaibols might serve as potential suppressors of tumor cells.

  14. Cordycepin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells are independent of the estrogen receptor

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    Choi, Sunga [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, 200701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Mo [Diabetic Complications Research Center, Division of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) Integrated Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 305811, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301747 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, 200701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Cordycepin (3-deoxyadenosine), found in Cordyceps spp., has been known to have many therapeutic effects including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-aging effects. Moreover, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of cordycepin have been reported, but the mechanism causing cancer cell death is poorly characterized. The present study was designed to investigate whether the mechanisms of cordycepin-induced cell death were associated with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cells. Exposure of both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to cordycepin resulted in dose-responsive inhibition of cell growth and reduction in cell viability. The cordycepin-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with several specific features of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, TUNEL, and biochemical assays. Cordycepin also caused a dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial translocation of Bax, triggering cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases-9 and -3. Interestingly, MCF-7 cells showed autophagy-associated cell death, as observed by the detection of an autophagosome-specific protein and large membranous vacuole ultrastructure morphology in the cytoplasm. Cordycepin-induced autophagic cell death has applications in treating MCF-7 cells with apoptotic defects, irrespective of the ER response. Although autophagy has a survival function in tumorigenesis of some cancer cells, autophagy may be important for cordycepin-induced MCF-7 cell death. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that cordycepin effectively kills MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines in culture. Hence, further studies should be conducted to determine whether cordycepin will be a clinically useful, ER-independent, chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the mechanism which cordycepin-induced cell death association with

  15. Na/K Pump and Beyond: Na/K-ATPase as a Modulator of Apoptosis and Autophagy

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    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of global cancer deaths. Na/K-ATPase has been studied as a target for cancer treatment. Cardiotonic steroids (CS trigger intracellular signalling upon binding to Na/K-ATPase. Normal lung and tumour cells frequently express different pump isoforms. Thus, Na/K-ATPase is a powerful target for lung cancer treatment. Drugs targeting Na/K-ATPase may induce apoptosis and autophagy in transformed cells. We argue that Na/K-ATPase has a role as a potential target in chemotherapy in lung cancer treatment. We discuss the effects of Na/K-ATPase ligands and molecular pathways inducing deleterious effects on lung cancer cells, especially those leading to apoptosis and autophagy.

  16. Na/K Pump and Beyond: Na/K-ATPase as a Modulator of Apoptosis and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano; Ribeiro Silva, Adriana; Ignácio da Silva, Camila; Caire Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo; Burth, Patrícia

    2017-04-21

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of global cancer deaths. Na/K-ATPase has been studied as a target for cancer treatment. Cardiotonic steroids (CS) trigger intracellular signalling upon binding to Na/K-ATPase. Normal lung and tumour cells frequently express different pump isoforms. Thus, Na/K-ATPase is a powerful target for lung cancer treatment. Drugs targeting Na/K-ATPase may induce apoptosis and autophagy in transformed cells. We argue that Na/K-ATPase has a role as a potential target in chemotherapy in lung cancer treatment. We discuss the effects of Na/K-ATPase ligands and molecular pathways inducing deleterious effects on lung cancer cells, especially those leading to apoptosis and autophagy.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis and autophagy in oral cancer SSC-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimie, Alexandra Iulia; Braicu, Cornelia; Zanoaga, Oana; Pileczki, Valentina; Gherman, Claudia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Campian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major bioactive component of green tea. Our experimental data indicated that EGCG treatment suppresses cell proliferation of SSC-4 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the effect being dose- and time-dependent. In parallel was observed the activation of apoptosis and autophagy, in response to EGCG exposure in SSC-4 cells. Treatment with EGCG activates the expression of the BAD, BAK, FAS, IGF1R, WNT11, and ZEB1 genes and inhibits CASP8, MYC, and TP53. All of these results suggest that EGCG has an excellent potential to become a therapeutic compound for patients with OSCC, by inducing tumor cell death via apoptosis and autophagy.

  18. Autophagy, signaling and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavallard, Vanessa J.; Meijer, Alfred J.; Codogno, Patrice; Gual, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular pathway crucial for development, differentiation, survival and homeostasis. Autophagy can provide protection against aging and a number of pathologies such as cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiac disease and infection. Recent studies have reported new functions of autophagy in

  19. Localization of Beclin1 in mouse developing tooth germs: possible implication of the interrelation between autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Wan, Chunyan; Nie, Shuai; Jian, Shujuan; Sun, Zheyi; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study identified the appearance of autophagy in developing tooth germs, and suggested its possible association with apoptosis in odontogenesis. Beclin1 was recently indicated to play a central role in bridging autophagy and apoptosis, and occupied a key position in the process of development. This study hypothesized that Beclin1 may be involved, and act as the molecular basis of the connection between autophagy and apoptosis in odontogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of Beclin1 in odontogenesis from embryonic (E) day 13.5 to postnatal (P) day 5.5. At E stages, Beclin1 was mainly immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of the cells in the enamel organ. Meanwhile, the nucleus localization of Beclin1 was detected in part of the stellate reticulum, outer and inner enamel epithelium, especially at E16.5 and E18.5. At P stages, Beclin1 was detected in the cytoplasm of the odontoblasts, besides the dental epithelium cells. Triple immunofluorescence analysis showed the partial colocalization of Beclin1, autophagic marker LC3, or activated caspase-3 in the E14.5 tooth germs, especially the Beclin1(+)LC3(+)Caspase-3(+) cells in the PEK. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that the full-length (60 kDa) and/or cleaved (50, 37, and 35 kDa) Beclin1 in the developing tooth germs. Taken together, our findings indicate that Beclin1 is involved, and might be responsible for the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in mouse odontogenesis.

  20. Adiponectin deficiency rescues high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and autophagy loss despite persistent steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, R; Nair, S; Zhang, Y; Ren, J

    2017-09-01

    Background &aims:Low levels of adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, are associated with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis although its role in high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury and steatosis remains unclear. Here we hypothesized that APN deficiency alters fat diet-induced hepatic function. To this end, we examined the effect of APN deficiency on high-fat diet-induced hepatic injury, apoptosis and steatosis. Adult wild type and APN knockout mice were fed a low- or high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, hepatic triglycerides, steatosis, pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and autophagy were examined. High-fat feeding led to elevated body (48.2%) and liver weights (18.8%), increased levels of ALT (87.8%), serum cholesterol (104.4%), hepatic triglycerides (305.6%) and hepatic fat deposition as evidenced by Oil Red O staining, along with a reduced AST/ALT ratio and unchanged AST. Although APN knockout itself did not affect hepatic function and morphology, it reconciled fat diet-induced hepatic injury (Pfat diet intake promoted AMPK phosphorylation, p62 accumulation and apoptosis, including elevated Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, along with suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, STAT3 and JNK, and the autophagy makers Atg7, Beclin-1 and LC3B (Pfat diet intake promotes hepatic steatosis, apoptosis and interrupted autophagy. APN knockout elicits protective effect against hepatic injury possibly associated with autophagy regulation despite persistent hepatic steatosis.

  1. Alisertib Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, Autophagy and Suppresses EMT in HT29 and Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Da-Jian; Ju, Yong-Le; Wu, Jin-Hao; Ouyang, Man-Zhao; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with substantial mortality and morbidity. Alisertib (ALS) is a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor with unclear effect and molecular interactome on CRC. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular interactome and anticancer effect of ALS and explore the underlying mechanisms in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. ALS markedly arrested cells in G2/M phase in both cell lines, accompanied by remarkable alterations in the expression level of key cell cycle regulators. ALS induced apoptosis in HT29 and Caco-2 cells through mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. ALS also induced autophagy in HT29 and Caco-2 cells, with the suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. There was a differential modulating effect of ALS on p38 MAPK signaling pathway in both cell lines. Moreover, induction or inhibition of autophagy modulated basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. ALS potently suppressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. Collectively, it suggests that induction of cell cycle arrest, promotion of apoptosis and autophagy, and suppression of EMT involving mitochondrial, death receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways contribute to the cancer cell killing effect of ALS on CRC cells. PMID:26729093

  2. MiR-34a Promotes Apoptosis and Inhibits Autophagy by Targeting HMGB1 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

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    Liru Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: MiR-34a is identified as a tumor suppressor gene and involved in acute myeloid leukemia (AML development. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-34a in AML is unclear. Methods: The expression of miR-34a and HMGB1 in HL-60, THP-1 and HS-5 cells were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. Lipofectamine 2000 was used to transfect with miR-34a mimics, miR-34a inhibitor, si-HMGB1, pcDNA 3.1-HMGB1, and corresponding controls. The apoptosis and autophagy of transfected AML cells were assessed by flow cytometry and western blot, respectively. Bioinformatics software and dual luciferase reporter assay were applied to predict and verify the target of miR-34a. The effects of miR-34a mimics or si-HMGB1 on chemotherapy-induced autophagy were further explored in HL-60 cells treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA along with lysosomal protease inhibitors E64d and pepstatin A. Results: MiR-34a was lower expressed and HMGB1 mRNA and proteins were both higher expressed in HL-60 and THP-1 cells compared with that in HS-5 cells. Higher expression levels of MiR-34 and lower expression levels of HMGB1 both significantly promoted apoptosis and inhibited autophagy in HL-60 and THP-1 cells. Dual luciferase reporter system confirmed that HMGB1 was a potential target of miR-34a. Moreover, overexpression of HMGB1 dramatically reversed the promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy mediated by higher expression level of miR-34a. Higher expression level of miR-34a and lower expression level of HMGB1 both inhibited chemotherapy-induced autophagy by stimulating the LC3 conversion. Conclusion: MiR-34a promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited autophagy by targeting HMGB1. Therefore, miR-34a may be a potential promising molecular target for AML therapy.

  3. Thrombopoietin protects H9C2 cells from excessive autophagy and apoptosis in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Hua; Liang, En-Yu; Zhou, Li-Xia; Dong, Zhan-Ling; Liang, Ping; Weng, Qi-Fang; Yang, Mo

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac toxicity has been the major concern when using doxorubicin (DOX) in cancer therapy. Thrombopoietin (TPO) protects cardiac cells from DOX-induced cell damage; however, its molecular mechanism remains exclusive. The anti-autophagic and anti-apoptotic effects of TPO upon DOX treatment were studied in the cardiac H9C2 cell line, with bafilomycin A1 treatment as a positive control for autophagy inhibition. Cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay in different treatment groups. The mRNA and/or protein levels of apoptotic markers and autophagy-associated factors were detected. The mean number of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) puncta per cell was quantified to indicate autophagosomes and autolysosomes, of which the ones co-stained with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 were considered as autolysosomes. DOX treatment (5 µg/ml, 24 h) significantly impaired H9C2 cell viability compared with the control, while TPO pretreatment (10 ng/ml, 36 h) improved cell viability upon DOX treatment. DOX exposure markedly increased LC3 puncta in H9C2 cells, and TPO pretreatment reduced the number of autophagosomes, but showed no significant inhibitory effect on autolysosome formation. The autophagy inhibition by TPO upon DOX treatment was confirmed according to protein quantification of LC3-II and nucleoporin 62. TPO also suppressed autophagy-promoting protein Beclin-1, and elevated the anti-autophagic factors GATA-binding protein-4 and B cell lymphoma-2. Furthermore, TPO reduced DOX-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells, as reflected by the amount changes of caspase-3. Taken together, these results revealed that TPO has a protective role in H9C2 cells from DOX-induced autophagy as well as apoptosis, and indicated that TPO may act as a cardioprotective drug in DOX-treated patients. PMID:29403560

  4. The marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A induces p53-independent apoptosis and inhibits autophagy in urothelial carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Madanchi, Ramin; Hauschild, Jessica; Otte, Katharina; Alsdorf, Winfried H; Schumacher, Udo; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Honecker, Friedemann; Stonik, Valentin A; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild

    2017-02-01

    Advanced urothelial carcinomas represent a considerable clinical challenge as they are difficult to treat. Platinum-based combination regimens obtain response rates ranging from 40 to 70% in first-line therapy of advanced urothelial carcinoma. In the majority of cases, however, the duration of these responses is limited, and when progression occurs, the outcome is generally poor. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the anticancer effects and the mode of action of the marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A in p53-wild type and p53-deficient human urothelial carcinoma cells. Activity of frondoside A was examined in the human urothelial carcinoma cell lines RT112, RT4, HT-1197, TCC-SUP, T-24, and 486p. Effects of frondoside A on cell viability, either alone or in combination with standard cytotoxic agents were investigated, and synergistic effects were analyzed. Pro-apoptotic activity was assessed by Western blotting and FACS, alone and in combination with a caspases-inhibitor. The impact of functional p53 was investigated by siRNA gene silencing and the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. Effects on autophagy were studied using LC3B-I/II and SQSTM/p62 as markers. The unpaired Student's t-test was used for comparison of the data sets. Frondoside A shows high cytotoxicity in urothelial carcinoma cells with IC50s ranging from 0.55 to 2.33 μM while higher concentrations of cisplatin are required for comparable effects (IC50 = 2.03 ~ 5.88 μM). Induction of apoptosis by frondoside A was associated with the regulation of several pro-apoptotic factors, like caspase-3, -8, and -9, PARP, Bax, p21, DNA fragmentation, and externalization of phosphatidylserine. Remarkably, inhibition of p53 by gene silencing or pifithrin-α pretreatment, as well as caspase inhibition, did not suppress apoptotic activity of frondoside A, while cisplatin activity, in contrast, was significantly decreased

  5. Involvement of autophagy in the procedure of endoplasmic reticulum stress introduced apoptosis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from nonobese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Ji, Juan; Tan, Wei; Guo, Genkai; Xia, Yunfei; Cheng, Chun; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies showed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice exhibited the phenomenon of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of apoptosis remained largely unknown. In this study, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were evidenced in BM-MSCs from NOD mice for the first time. We found the ER stress-mediated apoptosis was supported by the up-regulation of ER stress markers including augmented phosphorylation of phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiator factor 2α as well as cleavage of caspase-3. Evidence of autophagy included the formation of the acidic vesicular organelles and increase of LC3 accumulation. Intriguingly, blockage of ER stress could reduce the apoptosis of BM-MSCs from NOD mice and alleviated accumulation of LC3, which indicated that ER stress induced apoptosis and autophagy. Furthermore, our results showed that the mechanism of ER stress-induced autophagy was associated with the decrease of p-S6 (a marker of mTOR activity). Here, we demonstrated that ER stress-induced cell death was mediated by autophagy that was partly attributed to the inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin. We report for the first time that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated apoptosis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The evidence of autophagy was also found in BM-MSCs from NOD mice, included the formation of the acidic vesicular organelles and increase of LC3 accumulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ER stress-induced cell death was mediated by autophagy that was partly attributed to the inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin. Deciphering the mechanisms of ER stress signalling involved in the apoptosis of BM-MSCs from NOD mice will help improve transplantation efficacy of BM-MSCs in type 1 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Andrographolide Analogue Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Mediated Cell Death in U937 Cells by Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

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    Deepak Kumar

    Full Text Available Current chemotherapeutic agents based on apoptosis induction are lacking in desired efficacy. Therefore, there is continuous effort to bring about new dimension in control and gradual eradication of cancer by means of ever evolving therapeutic strategies. Various forms of PCD are being increasingly implicated in anti-cancer therapy and the complex interplay among them is vital for the ultimate fate of proliferating cells. We elaborated and illustrated the underlying mechanism of the most potent Andrographolide analogue (AG-4 mediated action that involved the induction of dual modes of cell death-apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemic U937 cells.AG-4 induced cytotoxicity was associated with redox imbalance and apoptosis which involved mitochondrial depolarisation, altered apoptotic protein expressions, activation of the caspase cascade leading to cell cycle arrest. Incubation with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA decreased cytotoxic efficacy of AG-4 emphasising critical roles of caspase and Bax. In addition, AG-4 induced autophagy as evident from LC3-II accumulation, increased Atg protein expressions and autophagosome formation. Pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA suppressed the cytotoxic effect of AG-4 implying the pro-death role of autophagy. Furthermore, incubation with Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA subdued AG-4 induced autophagy and pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA curbed AG-4 induced apoptosis-implying that apoptosis and autophagy acted as partners in the context of AG-4 mediated action. AG-4 also inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR or Akt augmented AG-4 induced apoptosis and autophagy signifying its crucial role in its mechanism of action.Thus, these findings prove the dual ability of AG-4 to induce apoptosis and autophagy which provide a new perspective to it as a potential molecule targeting PCD for future cancer therapeutics.

  7. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Induces Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis through Spinster 1-Mediated lysosomal-Mitochondrial Axis and Impaired Mitophagy.

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    Yao, Xiaofeng; Sha, Shanshan; Wang, Yuexia; Sun, Xiance; Cao, Jun; Kang, Jian; Jiang, Liping; Chen, Min; Ma, Yufang

    2016-09-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and subsequently impaired autophagosome degradation was induced in HepG2 cells after treatment with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 24 h in our previous studies. We found that treatment of HepG2 cells with PFOS-induced autophagosome formation at earlier stage (6 h) of treatment in this study. The autophagosome formation inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was able to relieve PFOS-induced LMP and release of cathepsin D in HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Spinster 1, a lysosomal membrane permease, attenuated PFOS-induced LMP in HepG2 cells. We proposed that Spinster 1 might work as a specific molecule that linked autophagy with LMP. PFOS-induced collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was cathepsin D and autophagy dependent. Addition of 3-MA relieved PFOS-induced apoptosis, which was evidenced by Hoechst assay, AV/PI staining and caspase-3 activity assay. Inhibition of autophagosome formation by Atg5 siRNA attenuated PFOS-induced apoptosis. Treatment of HepG2 cells with PFOS for 24 h impaired mitophagy, as evidenced by an increase of cells with giant mitochondria and impairment of colocalization of PINK1 with light chain 3. In summary, we report that PFOS induces autophagy-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis and impairment of mitophagy, suggesting that autophagy is a primary target for PFOS toxicity. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Amiodarone as an autophagy promoter reduces liver injury and enhances liver regeneration and survival in mice after partial hepatectomy

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    Lin, Chih-Wen; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Lin, Chih-Che; Chen, Yun-Ju; Lo, Gin-Ho; Lee, Po-Huang; Kuo, Po-Lin; Dai, Chia-Yen; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chung, Wang-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2015-01-01

    The deregulation of autophagy is involved in liver regeneration. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in the regulation of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) and the development of pharmacological interventions for improved liver regeneration after PHx. We show that autophagy was activated in the early stages of liver regeneration following 70% PHx in vivo. Moreover, amiodarone was associated with a significant enhancement of autophagy, liver growth, and hepatocyte proliferation, along with reduced liver injury and the termination of liver regeneration due to decreased transforming growth factor-β1 expression after 70% PHx. The promotion of autophagy appeared to selectively increase the removal of damaged mitochondria. We also found that Atg7 knockdown or pretreatment with chloroquine aggravated the liver injury associated with 70% PHx and reduced liver growth and hepatocyte proliferation. Finally, amiodarone improved liver regeneration, survival, and liver injury after 90% PHx. In conclusion, our results indicate that autophagy plays an important role in mouse liver regeneration and that modulating autophagy with amiodarone may be an effective method of improving liver regeneration, increasing survival, and ameliorating liver injury following PHx. PMID:26515640

  9. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) resistance by PARP1 regulation on PDT-induced apoptosis with autophagy in head and neck cancer cells.

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    Kim, Jisun; Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Sangwoo; Jeon, Sangmi; Hui, Zheng; Ni, Kou; Kim, Changsu; Im, Yeonggwan; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2014-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anticancer treatment that generates excessive reactive oxygen species after photosensitizer treatments following specific wavelength irradiation. In another reports, PDT was regulated with autophagic cell death and apoptotic cell death. However, the mechanism of PDT resistance in PDT-stimulated cell death is unclear. In this study, we determined PDT resistance by autophagy and apoptosis in HP-PDT-treated oral cancer cells. Cells were treated hematoporphyrin and then irradiation with or without inhibitor. Cell lysates were checked protein expression with specific antibody. PDT resistance cells were generated with PDT repeated treatments. In HP-PDT, PDT induced autophagy through mTOR, ATG5, and LC3 in dose-dependent manners. Also, PDT at high dose induced apoptosis through caspase activation and PARP-1. Moreover, PARP-1 inhibitor protected cells against HP-PDT-induced cell death, but not by caspase inhibitor. At low dose of HP, autophagy inhibitor partially protected from HP-PDT-induced cell death. In autophagy phases, at low doses, HP-PDT regulated autophagic cell death through the inhibition of LC3II. Although autophagy inhibitor did not alter cell death directly, autophagy has associated with HP-PDT-induced apoptotic cell death by PARP-1 regulation. Taken together, HP-PDT induces apoptotic cell death with autophagy in oral cancer cells. PDT resistance is related to autophagy by PARP-1 regulation in oral cancer cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

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    Moussa, Mayssam, E-mail: Moussa-mayssam@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Lajeunesse, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lajeunesse@umontreal.ca [Research Centre in Osteoarthritis, Research Centre in Monteral University (Canada); Hilal, George, E-mail: George2266@gmail.com [Cancer and metabolism Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); El Atat, Oula, E-mail: oulaatat@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Haykal, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.haykal@hdf.usj.edu.lb [Hotel Dieu de France, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Serhal, Rim, E-mail: rim.basbous@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Chalhoub, Antonio, E-mail: Mava.o@hotmail.com [Carantina Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalil, Charbel, E-mail: charbelk3@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Alaaeddine, Nada, E-mail: Nada.aladdin@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2017-03-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  11. Brucella Melitensis 16M Regulates the Effect of AIR Domain on Inflammatory Factors, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in Mouse Macrophage through the ROS Signaling Pathway.

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    Tiansen Li

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by Brucella. Brucella can invade and persist inside host cells, which results in chronic infection. We constructed AIR interference and overexpression lentiviruses to acquire AIR interference, overexpression, and rescue stable expression cell lines. We also established a Brucella melitensis 16M-infected macrophage model, which was treated with either the vehicle control or NAC (ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Confocal laser microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, ELISA, and Western blot were used to detect inflammation, cell autophagy and apoptosis-related protein expression levels, ROS levels, and the distribution of mitochondria. It was found that after interference and overexpression of AIR, ROS release was significantly changed, and mitochondria became abnormally aggregated. B. melitensis 16M activated the NLRP3/AIM2 inflammatory complex, and induced RAW264.7 cells to secrete IL-1β and IL-18 through the ROS pathway. B. melitensis 16M also altered autophagy-related gene expression, increased autophagy activity, and induced cell apoptosis through the ROS pathway. The results showed that after B. melitensis 16M infection, ROS induced apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy while AIR inhibited autophagosome maturation and autophagy initiation. Autophagy negatively regulated the activation of inflammasomes and prevented inflammation from occurring. In addition, mitophagy could promote cell apoptosis.

  12. Ischemia preconditioning is neuroprotective in a rat cerebral ischemic injury model through autophagy activation and apoptosis inhibition

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    Xia, D.Y.; Li, W.; Qian, H.R.; Yao, S.; Liu, J.G.; Qi, X.K.

    2013-01-01

    Sublethal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful inducer of ischemic brain tolerance. However, its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this study, we chose four different IPC paradigms, namely 5 min (5 min duration), 5×5 min (5 min duration, 2 episodes, 15-min interval), 5×5×5 min (5 min duration, 3 episodes, 15-min intervals), and 15 min (15 min duration), and demonstrated that three episodes of 5 min IPC activated autophagy to the greatest extent 24 h after IPC, as evidenced by Beclin expression and LC3-I/II conversion. Autophagic activation was mediated by the tuberous sclerosis type 1 (TSC1)-mTor signal pathway as IPC increased TSC1 but decreased mTor phosphorylation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed that IPC protected against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Critically, 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, abolished the neuroprotection of IPC and, by contrast, rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, potentiated it. Cleaved caspase-3 expression, neurological scores, and infarct volume in different groups further confirmed the protection of IPC against I/R injury. Taken together, our data indicate that autophagy activation might underlie the protection of IPC against ischemic injury by inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:23903681

  13. Ischemia preconditioning is neuroprotective in a rat cerebral ischemic injury model through autophagy activation and apoptosis inhibition

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    D.Y. Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal ischemic preconditioning (IPC is a powerful inducer of ischemic brain tolerance. However, its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this study, we chose four different IPC paradigms, namely 5 min (5 min duration, 5×5 min (5 min duration, 2 episodes, 15-min interval, 5×5×5 min (5 min duration, 3 episodes, 15-min intervals, and 15 min (15 min duration, and demonstrated that three episodes of 5 min IPC activated autophagy to the greatest extent 24 h after IPC, as evidenced by Beclin expression and LC3-I/II conversion. Autophagic activation was mediated by the tuberous sclerosis type 1 (TSC1-mTor signal pathway as IPC increased TSC1 but decreased mTor phosphorylation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed that IPC protected against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R injury. Critically, 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, abolished the neuroprotection of IPC and, by contrast, rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, potentiated it. Cleaved caspase-3 expression, neurological scores, and infarct volume in different groups further confirmed the protection of IPC against I/R injury. Taken together, our data indicate that autophagy activation might underlie the protection of IPC against ischemic injury by inhibiting apoptosis.

  14. Ischemia preconditioning is neuroprotective in a rat cerebral ischemic injury model through autophagy activation and apoptosis inhibition

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    Xia, D.Y. [Department of Neurology, Navy General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Li, W. [General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Department of Neurology, Shenyang, China, Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang (China); Qian, H.R.; Yao, S.; Liu, J.G.; Qi, X.K. [Department of Neurology, Navy General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-10

    Sublethal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful inducer of ischemic brain tolerance. However, its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this study, we chose four different IPC paradigms, namely 5 min (5 min duration), 5×5 min (5 min duration, 2 episodes, 15-min interval), 5×5×5 min (5 min duration, 3 episodes, 15-min intervals), and 15 min (15 min duration), and demonstrated that three episodes of 5 min IPC activated autophagy to the greatest extent 24 h after IPC, as evidenced by Beclin expression and LC3-I/II conversion. Autophagic activation was mediated by the tuberous sclerosis type 1 (TSC1)-mTor signal pathway as IPC increased TSC1 but decreased mTor phosphorylation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed that IPC protected against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Critically, 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, abolished the neuroprotection of IPC and, by contrast, rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, potentiated it. Cleaved caspase-3 expression, neurological scores, and infarct volume in different groups further confirmed the protection of IPC against I/R injury. Taken together, our data indicate that autophagy activation might underlie the protection of IPC against ischemic injury by inhibiting apoptosis.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress could induce autophagy and apoptosis and enhance chemotherapy sensitivity in human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells by mediating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Li, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jian-Jun; Pan, Jia; Lu, Hong

    2017-06-01

    The study was designed to explore the mechanism of tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells and EC109 cells, as well as its effects on cell autophagy, apoptosis, and chemoresistance. Tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress model was established in EC9706 and EC109 cell lines. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress iconic protein GRP78. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the effect of different cisplatin and tunicamycin concentrations on survival rate of EC9706 cells and EC109 cells. Autophagy was monitored using monodansylcadaverin and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins (PERK, eIF2α, and CHOP), PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins, autophagy-related proteins (LC3-I/LC3-II, Beclin-1, and p62), and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3). Tunicamycin led to increased expression of GRP78. With tunicamycin treatment, phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α and CHOP expression increased. Meanwhile, the increase in cytolysosome was concentration and time dependent. With the increased tunicamycin concentration, there were increased expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, decreased expression of Bcl-2, and lower phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of tunicamycin and cisplatin could improve the sensitivity of EC9706 cells and EC109 cells to cisplatin; PI3K inhibitor BEZ235 could enhance cell autophagy and apoptosis and increase cell sensitivity to cisplatin.

  16. Autophagy Inhibition Enhances the Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Mangrove (Avicennia marina) Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Esau, Luke

    2015-01-10

    Aims: Avicennia marina (AM) is a widely distributed mangrove plant that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries for the treatment of a number of diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the leaf ethyl acetate extract of AM for its cytotoxic and apoptotic potential along with in-depth investigations of its mechanism of action in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Study Design: The ethyl acetate extract of leaves and stems of AM was tested against estrogen positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using various assays. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, from July 2013-June 2014. Methodology: Dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition of cancer cells was measured using MTT assay. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined using various assays: phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3/7 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell cycle analysis, autophagy, and protein expression using western blotting. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp7) was also determined using real time PCR. Results: The AM extract inhibited breast cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. We demonstrated a non-classical mode of apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells by AM extract, where ROS production altered the mitochondrial membrane potential to induce apoptosis. Breast cancer cells treated with 200 µg/ml concentration of AM extract showed increased ROS production and disrupted MMP but no PARP-1 cleavage and a marked decrease in Caspase-7 protein levels (24 and 48 h) were detected. A significant amount of autophagy was also observed at the same concentration. However, treatment of MCF-7 cells with 200 µg/ml of AM extract along with the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine, significantly increased the apoptosis from 20% to 45

  17. The scavenger protein apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM potentiates the antimicrobial response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by enhancing autophagy.

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    Lucía Sanjurjo

    Full Text Available Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM, a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis.

  18. Arsenic trioxide inhibits growth of human chondrosarcoma cells through G2/M arrest and apoptosis as well as autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guangjun; Ren, Tingting; Guo, Wei; Ren, Chongmin; Yang, Kang

    2015-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that Gli1 is expressed in chondrosarcoma but not in the normal articular cartilage tissues. Downregulating Gli1 by small interfering RNA inhibited chondrosarcoma cells growth. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been demonstrated to suppress human cancer cell growth by targeting Gli1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ATO on antineoplastic capability of chondrosarcoma cells. We found that ATO inhibited the growth of chondrosarcoma cells in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners via MTT and colony formation assays. In addition, ATO treatment induced apoptosis and promoted G2/M phase arrest in SW1353 cells as analyzed by flow cytometry assays and Western blotting. Furthermore, we observed that ATO also triggered autophagy by regulating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation. Finally, we found that ATO-mediated cell death could be averted by autophagy inhibitor. Taken together, the current study suggested that ATO had therapeutic efficacy in human chondrosarcoma cells through the promotion of G2/M arrest and induction of both apoptosis as well as autophagy. ATO administration could be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating chondrosarcomas.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated apoptosis under cadmium-induced oxidative stress is regulated by autophagy, which is sensitized by tumor suppressor p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2016-10-07

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible cytoprotective enzyme. It is often overexpressed in different types of cancers and promotes cell survival. However, the role of HO-1 and the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress in cancer cells remain undefined. Here we show that the role of HO-1 under Cd-induced oxidative stress is dependent upon autophagy, which is sensitized by the tumor suppressor p53. The sensitivity to Cd was 3.5- and 14-fold higher in p53-expressing YD8 and H460 cells than in p53-null YD10B and H1299 cells, respectively. The levels of p53 in YD8 and H460 cells decreased in a Cd concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. In both cell lines, Cd exposure resulted in caspase-3-mediated PARP-1 cleavage and the induction of CHOP, LC3-II, and HO-1, which were limited in YD10B and H1299 cells exposed to high concentrations of Cd. Cd exposure to p53-overexpressing YD10B cells enhanced Cd-induced HO-1 and LC3-II levels, whereas genetic knockdown of p53 in YD8 cells resulted in the suppression of Cd-induced levels of HO-1 and LC3-II, indicating that p53 is required in the sensing of HO-1 and induction of autophagy. The inhibition of autophagy using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for the autophagy-related gene atg5 enhanced HO-1, CHOP, and PARP-1 cleavage induced by Cd. However, transfection with HO-1 siRNA increased Cd-induced LC3-II, and suppressed the expression of CHOP and cleavage of PARP-1. Collectively, the role of HO-1 in apoptosis could be modulated by autophagy, which is sensitized by p53 expression in human cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activating Nrf-2 signaling depresses unilateral ureteral obstruction-evoked mitochondrial stress-related autophagy, apoptosis and pyroptosis in kidney.

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    Shue Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Exacerbated oxidative stress and inflammation may induce three types of programmed cell death, autophagy, apoptosis and pyroptosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO kidney. Sulforaphane activating NF-E2-related nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf-2 signaling may ameliorate UUO-induced renal damage. UUO was induced in the left kidney of female Wistar rats. The level of renal blood flow, cortical and medullary oxygen tension and reactive oxygen species (ROS was evaluated. Fibrosis, ED-1 (macrophage/monocyte infiltration, oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and pyroptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in UUO kidneys. Effects of sulforaphane, an Nrf-2 activator, on Nrf-2- and mitochondrial stress-related proteins and renal injury were examined. UUO decreased renal blood flow and oxygen tension and increased renal ROS, 3-nitrotyrosine stain, ED-1 infiltration and fibrosis. Enhanced renal tubular Beclin-1 expression started at 4 h UUO and further enhanced at 3d UUO, whereas increased Atg-5-Atg12 and LC3-II expression were found at 3d UUO. Increased renal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 and PARP fragments, apoptosis formation associated with increased caspase 1 and IL-1β expression for pyroptosis formation were started from 3d UUO. UUO reduced nuclear Nrf-2 translocation, increased cytosolic and inhibitory Nrf-2 expression, increased cytosolic Bax translocation to mitochondrial and enhanced mitochondrial Cytochrome c release into cytosol of the UUO kidneys. Sulforaphane significantly increased nuclear Nrf-2 translocation and decreased mitochondrial Bax translocation and Cytochrome c release into cytosol resulting in decreased renal injury. In conclusion, sulforaphane via activating Nrf-2 signaling preserved mitochondrial function and suppressed UUO-induced renal oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, autophagy, apoptosis and pyroptosis.

  1. Crosstalk Influence between P38MAPK and Autophagy on Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Anti-Fas Antibody/Actinomycin D in Human Hepatoma Bel-7402 Cells

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    Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study indicated that anti-Fas antibody/actinomycin D (AF/AD induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells; however, crosstalk influence between P38MAPK and autophagy on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by AF/AD in Bel-7402 cells remains unclear. Therefore, effect of AF/AD on apoptosis, autophagy, phosphorylated-P38MAPK (p-P38MAPK, and membrane potential (ΔΨm with or without the P38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA in Bel-7402 cells was investigated in the present study. The results showed that AF/AD resulted in induction of apoptosis concomitant with autophagy, upregulation of p-P38MAPK and autophagy-associated gene proteins (Atg5-Atg12 protein complex, Atg7, Atg10, Beclin-1, LC3 I, and LC3 II, and downregulation of ΔΨm in Bel-7402 cells. In contrast, SB203580 attenuated the effects of AF/AD in Bel-7402 cells. Furthermore, the findings also demonstrated that 3-MA inhibited the impact of AF/AD on autophagy, Atg5-Atg12 protein complex, Atg7, Atg10, Beclin-1, LC3 I, LC3 II, and ΔΨm, and promoted the influence of AF/AD on apoptosis and p-P38MAPK in Bel-7402 cells. Taken together, we conclude that crosstalk between P38MAPK and autophagy regulates mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by AF/AD in Bel-7402 cells.

  2. Bozepinib, a novel small antitumor agent, induces PKR-mediated apoptosis and synergizes with IFNα triggering apoptosis, autophagy and senescence

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    Marchal JA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan Antonio Marchal,1,2 Esther Carrasco,1 Alberto Ramirez,1,3 Gema Jiménez,1,2 Carmen Olmedo,4 Macarena Peran,1,3 Ahmad Agil,5 Ana Conejo-García,6 Olga Cruz-López,6 Joaquin María Campos,6 María Ángel García4,7 1Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Centre for Biomedical Research, 2Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, 3Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaén, Jaén, 4Experimental Surgery Research Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, 5Department of Pharmacology and Neurosciences Institute, Faculty of Medicine, 6Department of Pharmaceutical and Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, 7Department of Oncology, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain Abstract: Bozepinib [(RS-2,6-dichloro-9-[1-(p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1- benzoxazepin-3-yl]-9H-purine] is a potent antitumor compound that is able to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that bozepinib also has antitumor activity in colon cancer cells, showing 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 values lower than those described for breast cancer cells and suggesting great potential of this synthetic drug in the treatment of cancer. We identified that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR is a target of bozepinib, being upregulated and activated by the drug. However, p53 was not affected by bozepinib, and was not necessary for induction of apoptosis in either breast or colon cancer cells. In addition, the efficacy of bozepinib was improved when combined with the interferon-alpha (IFNα cytokine, which enhanced bozepinib-induced apoptosis with involvement of protein kinase PKR. Moreover, we report here, for the first time, that in combined therapy, IFNα induces a clear process of autophagosome formation, and prior treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, is able to

  3. Autophagy controls an intrinsic host defense to bacteria by promoting epithelial cell survival: a murine model.

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    Sun-Young Chang

    Full Text Available Cell death is a critical host response to regulate the fate of bacterial infections, innate immune responses, and ultimately, disease outcome. Shigella spp. invade and colonize gut epithelium in human and nonhuman primates but adult mice are naturally resistant to intra-gastric Shigella infection. In this study, however, we found Shigella could invade the terminal ileum of the mouse small intestine by 1 hour after infection and be rapidly cleared within 24 h. These early phase events occurred shortly after oral infection resulting in epithelial shedding, degranulation of Paneth cells, and cell death in the intestine. During this process, autophagy proceeded without any signs of inflammation. In contrast, blocking autophagy in epithelial cells enhanced host cell death, leading to tissue destruction and to inflammation, suggesting that autophagic flow relieves cellular stress associated with host cell death and inflammation. Herein we propose a new concept of "epithelial barrier turnover" as a general intrinsic host defense mechanism that increases survival of host cells and inhibits inflammation against enteric bacterial infections, which is regulated by autophagy.

  4. Overexpression of KAI1 induces autophagy and increases MiaPaCa-2 cell survival through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases

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    Wu, Chun-Yan [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Disease, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Gastroenterology, Shenyang General Hospital of PLA, 83 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan, Jun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Li, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Wang, Li-Sheng [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Guo, Xiao-Zhong, E-mail: guoxiaozhong1962@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Shenyang General Hospital of PLA, 83 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@bmi.ac.cn [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We first investigate the effects of KAI1 on autophagy in MiaPaCa-2 cells. {yields} Our findings demonstrate that KAI1 induces autophagy, which in turn inhibits KAI1-induced apoptosis. {yields} This study also supplies a possible novel therapeutic method for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using autophagy inhibitors. -- Abstract: KAI1, a metastasis-suppressor gene belonging to the tetraspanin family, is known to inhibit cancer metastasis without affecting the primary tumorigenicity by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Recent studies have shown that hypoxic conditions of solid tumors induce high-level autophagy and KAI1 expression. However, the relationship between autophagy and KAI1 remains unclear. By using transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting, we found that KAI1 can induce autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2. KAI1-induced autophagy was confirmed by the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3 and Beclin 1. KAI1 induces autophagy through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases rather than that of AKT. KAI1-induced autophagy protects MiaPaCa-2 cells from apoptosis and proliferation inhibition partially through the downregulation of poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase-3 activation.

  5. Hypoxia-induced downregulation of autophagy mediator Beclin 1 reduces the susceptibility of malignant intestinal epithelial cells to hypoxia-dependent apoptosis.

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    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Wu, Xue; Derouet, Mathieu; Haniff, Mehnaaz; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Rosen, Kirill

    2009-11-01

    Disruption of tumor blood supply causes tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia can induce cell death, but cancer cells that remain viable in the absence of oxygen often possess an increased survival potential, and tumors formed by these cells tend to grow particularly aggressively. Thus, developing approaches aimed at increasing the susceptibility of malignant cells to hypoxia-induced death represents a potentially important avenue for cancer treatment. Molecular mechanisms that control the survival of cancer cells under hypoxia are not well understood. In an effort to understand them we found that hypoxia downregulates Beclin 1, a mediator of autophagy, in malignant intestinal epithelial cells. The reversal of this downregulation promoted autophagosome accumulation, enhanced the activation of a pro-apoptotic protease caspase-9 and subsequent caspase-9-dependent activation of two other pro-apoptotic proteases caspases 3 and 7 in these cells. Furthermore, the reversal of hypoxia-induced downregulation of Beclin 1-stimulated caspase-9-dependent apoptosis of the indicated cells under hypoxia. Interestingly, we found that Beclin 1-dependent caspase-9 activation in hypoxic cells was not associated with an increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm (such release represents a frequently occurring mechanism for caspase-9 activation). We also observed that Beclin 1-dependent apoptosis of hypoxic malignant cells was independent of FADD, a mediator of death receptor signaling. We conclude that hypoxia triggers a feedback mechanism that delays apoptosis of oxygen-deprived malignant intestinal epithelial cells and is driven by hypoxia-induced Beclin 1 downregulation. Thus, approaches aimed at the disruption of this mechanism can be expected to enhance the susceptibility of such cells to hypoxia-induced apoptosis.

  6. Mst-1 deficiency promotes post-traumatic spinal motor neuron survival via enhancement of autophagy flux.

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    Zhang, Mengting; Tao, Wufan; Yuan, Zengqiang; Liu, Yaobo

    2017-10-01

    The mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1 (Mst-1) is a serine-threonine kinase and a component of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, which reacts to pathologically relevant stress and regulates cell death. However, little is known about its role in spinal cord injury. Here, we found that p-Mst-1, the activated form of Mst-1, was induced in the post-traumatic spinal motor neurons. In vivo evidence demonstrated that Mst-1 deficiency promoted post-traumatic spinal motor neuron survival, Basso mouse scale scores, and synapse survival. Moreover, we found that autophagosome formation and autolysosome degradation enhanced by Mst-1 deficiency were crucial to attenuate the death of injured spinal motor neurons. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Mst-1 deficiency promotes post-traumatic spinal motor neuron survival via enhancement of autophagy flux. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Globular Adiponectin Attenuated H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Chondrocytes by Inducing Autophagy Through the AMPK/ mTOR Pathway.

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    Hu, Junzheng; Cui, Weiding; Ding, Wenxiao; Gu, Yanqing; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis is closely related to the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Global adiponectin (gAPN), secreted from adipose tissue, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties in various cell types. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy induced by gAPN in the suppression of H2O2-induced apoptosis and the potential mechanism of gAPN-induced autophagy in chondrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce apoptotic injury in rat chondrocytes. CCK-8 assay was performed to determine the viability of cells treated with different concentrations of gAPN with or without H2O2. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was examined using JC-1 fluorescence staining assay. The autophagy inhibitors 3-MA and Bafilomycin A1 were used to treat cells and then evaluate the effect of gAPN-induced autophagy. To determine the downstream pathway, chondrocytes were preincubated with the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Beclin-1, LC3B, P62 and apoptosis-related proteins were identified by Western blot analysis. H2O2 (400 µM)-induced chondrocytes apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were attenuated by gAPN (0.5 µg/mL). gAPN increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax expression. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2 was also abolished by gAPN. Furthermore, the antiapoptotic effect of gAPN was related to gAPN-induced autophagy by increased formation of Beclin-1 and LC3B and P62 degradation. In particular, the inhibition of gAPN-induced autophagy by 3-MA prevented the protective effect of gAPN on apoptosis induced by H2O2. Moreover, gAPN increased p-AMPK expression and decreased p-mTOR expression. Compound C partly suppressed the expression of autophagy-related proteins and restored the expression of p-mTOR suppressed by gAPN. Thus, the AMPK/mTOR pathway played an important role in the induction of autophagy and protection of H2O2-induced chondrocytes apoptosis by gAPN. g

  8. Globular Adiponectin Attenuated H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Chondrocytes by Inducing Autophagy Through the AMPK/ mTOR Pathway

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    Junzheng Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chondrocyte apoptosis is closely related to the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Global adiponectin (gAPN, secreted from adipose tissue, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties in various cell types. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy induced by gAPN in the suppression of H2O2-induced apoptosis and the potential mechanism of gAPN-induced autophagy in chondrocytes. Methods: H2O2 was used to induce apoptotic injury in rat chondrocytes. CCK-8 assay was performed to determine the viability of cells treated with different concentrations of gAPN with or without H2O2. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was examined using JC-1 fluorescence staining assay. The autophagy inhibitors 3-MA and Bafilomycin A1 were used to treat cells and then evaluate the effect of gAPN-induced autophagy. To determine the downstream pathway, chondrocytes were preincubated with the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Beclin-1, LC3B, P62 and apoptosis-related proteins were identified by Western blot analysis. Results: H2O2 (400 µM-induced chondrocytes apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were attenuated by gAPN (0.5 µg/mL. gAPN increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax expression. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2 was also abolished by gAPN. Furthermore, the antiapoptotic effect of gAPN was related to gAPN-induced autophagy by increased formation of Beclin-1 and LC3B and P62 degradation. In particular, the inhibition of gAPN-induced autophagy by 3-MA prevented the protective effect of gAPN on apoptosis induced by H2O2. Moreover, gAPN increased p-AMPK expression and decreased p-mTOR expression. Compound C partly suppressed the expression of autophagy-related proteins and restored the expression of p-mTOR suppressed by gAPN. Thus, the AMPK/mTOR pathway played an important role in the induction of autophagy and protection of

  9. Toxic metals and autophagy.

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    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-11-17

    The earth's resources are finite, and it can no longer be considered a source of inexhaustible bounty for the human population. However, this realization has not been able to contain the human desire for rapid industrialization. The collateral to overusing environmental resources is the high-level contamination of undesirable toxic metals, leading to bioaccumulation and cellular damage. Cytopathological features of biological systems represent a key variable in several diseases. A review of the literature revealed that autophagy (PCDII), a high-capacity process, may consist of selective elimination of vital organelles and/or proteins that intiate mechanisms of cytoprotection and homeostasis in different biological systems under normal physiological and stress conditions. However, the biological system does survive under various environmental stressors. Currently, there is no consensus that specifies a particular response as being a dependable biomarker of toxicology. Autophagy has been recorded as the initial response of a cell to a toxic metal in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Various signaling pathways are triggered through cellular proteins and/or protein kinases that can lead to autophagy, apoptosis (or necroptosis), and necrosis. Although the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is associated with promoting tumor cell survival and/or acting as a tumor suppressive mechanism, PCDII in metal-induced toxicity has not been extensively studied. The aim of this review is to analyze the comparative cytotoxicity of metals/metalloids and nanoparticles (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and metal-NP) in cells enduring autophagy. It is noted that metals/metalloids and nanoparticles prefer ATG8/LC3 as a potent inducer of autophagy in several cell lines or animal cells. MAP kinases, death protein kinases, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and AMP kinase have been found to be the major components of autophagy induction or inhibition in the context of cellular responses to metals/metalloids and

  10. Toxoplasma gondii autophagy-related protein ATG9 is crucial for the survival of parasites in their host.

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    Nguyen, Hoa Mai; El Hajj, Hiba; El Hajj, Rana; Tawil, Nadim; Berry, Laurence; Lebrun, Maryse; Bordat, Yann; Besteiro, Sébastien

    2017-06-01

    Autophagy is a conserved, life-promoting, catabolic process involved in the recycling of nonessential cellular components in response to stress. The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an early-diverging eukaryote in which part of the autophagy machinery is not exclusively involved in a catabolic process but instead has been repurposed for an original function in organelle inheritance during cell division. This function, depending essentially on protein TgATG8 and its membrane conjugation system, is crucial for parasite survival and prevented an in depth study of autophagy in the mutants generated so far in Toxoplasma. Thus, in order to decipher the primary function of canonical autophagy in the parasites, we generated a cell line deficient for TgATG9, a protein thought to be involved in the early steps of the autophagy process. Although the protein proved to be dispensable for the development of these obligate intracellular parasites in vitro, the absence of TgATG9 led to a reduced ability to sustain prolonged extracellular stress. Importantly, depletion of the protein significantly reduced parasites survival in macrophages and markedly attenuated their virulence in mice. Altogether, this shows TgATG9 is important for the fate of Toxoplasma in immune cells and contributes to the overall virulence of the parasite, possibly through an involvement in a canonical autophagy pathway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. High systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for controlling glioblastoma. The natural flavonoids luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL) have anti-tumor activities. LUT inhibits autophagy, cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis; while SIL activates caspase-8 cascades to induce apoptosis. However, synergistic anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL in glioblastoma remain unknown. Overexpression of tumor suppressor microRNA (miR) could enhance the anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL. Here, we showed that 20 µM LUT and 50 µM SIL worked synergistically for inhibiting growth of two different human glioblastoma U87MG (wild-type p53) and T98G (mutant p53) cell lines and natural combination therapy was more effective than conventional chemotherapy (10 µM BCNU or 100 µM TMZ). Combination of LUT and SIL caused inhibition of growth of glioblastoma cells due to induction of significant amounts of apoptosis and complete inhibition of invasion and migration. Further, combination of LUT and SIL inhibited rapamycin (RAPA)-induced autophagy, a survival mechanism, with suppression of PKCα and promotion of apoptosis through down regulation of iNOS and significant increase in expression of the tumor suppressor miR-7-1-3p in glioblastoma cells. Our in vivo studies confirmed that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL in RAPA pre-treated both U87MG and T98G tumors. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented the anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis for controlling growth of different human glioblastomas in vivo.

  12. Trolline Ameliorates Liver Fibrosis by Inhibiting the NF-κB Pathway, Promoting HSC Apoptosis and Suppressing Autophagy

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    Facheng Bai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that trolline possesses various forms of pharmacological activity, including antibacterial and antiviral potency. The present paper addressed the putative hepatoprotective effects of trolline. Methods: Rats received 2 ml/kg CCl4 (mixed 1: 1 in peanut oil intragastrically twice a week for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. The animals were then treated with trolline for additional 4 weeks. Liver pathology and collagen accumulation were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining, respectively. Serum transaminase activity and collagen-related indicator level were determined by commercially available kits. NF-κB pathway activation was also examined. Moreover, the effects of trolline on hepatic stellate cell (HSC-T6 apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, and autophagy were assessed. Results: Trolline significantly alleviated CCl4-induced liver injury and notably reduced the accumulation of collagen in liver tissues. Trolline treatment also markedly decreased inflammatory cytokines levels by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. Trolline strongly inhibited HSC-T6 activation and notably induced cell apoptosis by modulating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase activity, and MMP. Moreover, trolline significantly inhibited HSC-T6 autophagy, as evidenced by the decrease in the formation of autophagic vacuoles and the number of autophagosomes, by regulating the expression levles of LC3, Beclin-1, P62, Atg 5 and 7. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that trolline ameliorates liver fibrosis, possibly by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, promoting HSCs apoptosis and suppressing autophagy.

  13. Resveratrol protects against spinal cord injury by activating autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis mediated by the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway.

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    Zhao, Haosen; Chen, Shurui; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Zipeng; Wang, Chen; Shen, Zhaoliang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wan, Zhanghui; Liu, Chang; Mei, Xifan

    2017-04-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with few effective treatments. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, has exhibited neuroprotective effects in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, the explicit effect and mechanism of resveratrol on SCI is still unclear. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the downstream protein, play key roles in metabolizing of energy, resisting of resistance, and cellular protein homeostasis. In this study, we determined the effects of resveratrol on SCI and their potential relationship with SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis. To determine the effect of resveratrol on SCI recovery, a spinal cord contusion model was employed. Rats received treatment with resveratrol or DMSO immediately following contusion. We determined that Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were significantly higher for injured rats treated with resveratrol. Nissl and HE staining revealed that resveratrol treatment significantly reduced the loss of motor neurons and lesion size in the spinal cord of injured rats when compared to vehicle-treated animals. Spinal cord tissue was assessed by Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses 7days after injury for changes in expression of SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway, autophagy and apoptosis proteins. Expression of SIRT1, p-AMPK, Beclin-1, LC3-B, and Bcl-2 was elevated in resveratrol-treated animals, whereas expression of p62, Cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) was inhibited. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons treated with resveratrol alone or in combination with Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) or EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) revealed that treatment with the inhibitors blocks the increased LC3-B expression in cells and increases the portion of TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol exerts neuroprotective effects

  14. Inhibition of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a induces autophagy and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Ren, Aishu; Qiu, Yu [Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China); Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China); Cui, Hongjuan [State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716 (China); Fu, Gang, E-mail: fg.ras@hotmail.com [Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China); Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China)

    2015-03-27

    Objective: To explore whether inhibition of H3K9 Methyltransferase G9a could exert an antitumoral effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and methods: First we checked G9a expression in two OSCC cell lines Tca8113 and KB. Next we used a special G9a inhibitor BIX01294 (BIX) to explore the effect of inhibition of G9a on OSCC in vitro. Cell growth was tested by typlan blue staining, MTT assay and Brdu immunofluorescence staining. Cell autophagy was examined by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, LC3-II immunofluorescence staining and LC3-II western blot assay. Cell apoptosis was checked by FITC Annexin-V and PI labeling, tunnel staining and caspase 3 western blot assay. Finally, the effect of inhibition of G9a on clonogenesis and tumorigenesis capacity of OSCC was analyzed by soft agar growth and xenograft model. Results: Here we showed that G9a was expressed in both Tca8113 and KB cells. Inhibition of G9a using BIX significantly reduced cell growth and proliferation in Tca8113 and KB. Inhibition of G9a induced cell autophagy with conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and cell apoptosis with the expression of cleaved caspase 3. We also found that inhibition of G9a reduced colony formation in soft agar and repressed tumor growth in mouse xenograph model. Conclusion: Our results suggested that G9a might be a potential epigenetic target for OSCC treatment. - Highlights: • Inhibition of G9a reduced cell growth and proliferation in OSCC cells. • Inhibition of G9a induces autophagy and apoptosis in OSCC cells. • Inhibition of G9a repressed tumor growth in mouse xenograph model.

  15. Ailanthone promotes human vestibular schwannoma cells apoptosis and autophagy by down-regulation of miR-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peizhen; Sun, Dechong; Jiang, Fei

    2018-01-03

    Ailanthone (AIL) is a quassinoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Ailanthus altissima. The anti-tumor activities of AIL have been reported in several cancers. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of AIL on vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Various concentration of AIL (0~1 μM) was used to treat human primary VS cells, and then cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy were assessed, respectively. Expression of miR-21 in VS cells was altered by miRNA transfection. The functional actions of AIL on miR-21 dysregulated cells were also assessed. AIL significantly reduced the viability of VS cells, and the IC50 value was 0.48 ± 0.023 μM. In response to 0.6 μM AIL, BrdU positive cell rate and CyclinD1 expression were reduced, apoptotic cell rate was increased, caspase-3 and -9 were cleaved, Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ were accumulated and p62 was down-regulated. miR21 was low expressed in AIL-treated cells, and AIL-induced apoptosis and autophagy were attenuated by miR-21 overexpression. Besides, AIL down-regulated Ras and Raf, and deactivated MEK, ERK, mTOR, and p70S6K, while the down-regulation and deactivation induced by AIL was reversed by miR-21 overexpression. To conclude, AIL inhibited VS cells proliferation, and induced apoptosis and autophagy. The anti-tumor activities of AIL in VS cells were realized possibly via down-regulation of miR-21 and blocking Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and mTOR pathways.

  16. Autophagy Regulates the Post-Translational Cleavage of BCL-2 and Promotes Neuronal Survival

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    Laura Lossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 is one of the more widely investigated anti-apoptotic protein in mammals, and its levels are critical for protecting from programmed cell death. We report here that the cellular content of BCL-2 is regulated at post-translational level along the autophagy/lysosome pathways in organotypic cultures of post-natal mouse cerebellar cortex. Specifically this mechanism appears to be effective in the cerebellar granule cells (CGCs that are known to undergo massive programmed cell death (apoptosis during post-natal maturation. By the use of specific agonists/antagonist of calcium channels at the endoplasmic reticulum it was possible to understand the pivotal role of calcium release from intracellular stores in CGC neuroprotection. The more general significance of these findings is supported by a very recent study Niemann-Pick transgenic mice.

  17. Induction of C/EBP homologous protein-mediated apoptosis and autophagy by licochalcone A in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Hai; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhao-Yu; Chai, Ke; Wang, Ya-Fang; Xu, Xiao-Huang; Wang, Xiao-Wen; Lu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Yi-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA), a flavonoid isolated from the famous Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, presents obvious anti-cancer effects. In this study, the anti-cancer effects and potential mechanisms of LCA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were studied. LCA decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase release, and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in NSCLC cells while not in human embryonic lung fibroblast cells. The expression of phosphatidylethanolamine-modified microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3-II) and formation of GFP-LC3 punta, two autophagic markers, were increased after treatment with LCA. LCA-induced LC3-II expression was increased when combined with chloroquine (CQ), while knock-down of autophagy related protein (ATG) 7 or ATG5 reversed LCA-induced LC3-II expression and GFP-LC3 punta formation, suggesting that LCA induced autophagy in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of autophagy could not reverse the LCA-induced cell viability decrease and apoptosis. In addition, LCA increased the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins, such as binding immunoglobulin protein and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Knock-down of CHOP reversed LCA-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis, and autophagy. Taken together, LCA-induced autophagic effect is an accompanied phenomenon in NSCLC cells, and CHOP is critical for LCA-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis, and autophagy. PMID:27184816

  18. Inactivated Sendai virus induces apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Huixia; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Li, Lingyu; Tan, Haiming; Cai, Xiaoyao

    2015-09-11

    Inactivated Sendai virus (HVJ-E) has shown potential anticancer efficacy in various cancer cells. However, the ability of HVJ-E to regulate cancer cell survival and death remains largely unknown. In the present study we first found that HVJ-E exhibited cytotoxic effects in the non-small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC) line A549 and cisplatin-resistant A549 cells (A549/DDP). The suppression of cell viability was due to both the activation of caspases and the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in A549 and A549/DDP human lung cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that HVJ-E could induce autophagy in NSCLC cells via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway for the first time. Inhibiting autophagy in A549/DDP cells and inducing autophagy in A549 cells enhanced HVJ-E-induced apoptosis. These findings provide a molecular basis of HVJ-E-mediated cell death and support the notion that combination treatment with autophagy modulators is an effective strategy to augment the cytotoxic effects of HVJ-E in NSCLC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rcan1-1L overexpression induces mitochondrial autophagy and improves cell survival in angiotensin II-exposed cardiomyocytes

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    Duan, Hongyan; Li, Yongqiang; Yan, Lijie; Yang, Haitao; Wu, Jintao; Qian, Peng; Li, Bing; Wang, Shanling, E-mail: shanglingwang@126.com

    2015-07-01

    Mitochondrial autophagy is an important adaptive stress response and can be modulated by various key molecules. A previous study found that the regulator of calcineurin 1-1L (Rcan1-1L) may regulate mitochondrial autophagy and cause mitochondria degradation in neurocytes. However, the effect of Rcan1-1L on cardiomyocytes has not been determined. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Rcan1-1L in angiotensin II (Ang II)-exposed human cardiomyocytes. Above all, Human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs) were exposed to 200 nmol/L Ang II for 4 days. Enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, cytochrome C release and mitochondrial permeability were observed in these cells, which were blocked by valsartan. Consistently, Ang II exposure significantly reduced cardiomyocyte viability. However, transfection of Rcan1-1L vector promoted cell viability and ameliorated the apoptosis caused by Ang II. Rcan1-1L clearly promoted mitochondrial autophagy in HACMs, with elevated autophagy protein (ATG) 5 and light chain 3 (LC3) expression. Transient mitochondrial biogenesis and reduced cytochrome C release was also induced by Rcan1-1L. Additionally, Rcan1-1L significantly inhibited calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. We thus conclude that Rcan1-1L may play a protective role in Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes through the induction of mitochondrial autophagy, and may be an alternative method of cardiac protection. - Highlights: • Transfection of Rcan1-1L into HACMs promoted cell viability and reduced apoptosis. • Transfection of Rcan1-1L promoted mitochondrial autophagy in HACMs. • Rcan1-1L inhibited the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling.

  20. Osteopontin Knockdown Inhibits αv,β3 Integrin-Induced Cell Migration and Invasion and Promotes Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells by Inducing Autophagy and Inactivating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteopontin (OPN is associated with tumor formation, progression and metastasis, and increased OPN levels have been associated with poor survival in breast cancer. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for OPN activity, and the relationships between OPN expression and clinical parameters in breast cancer. Methods: OPN mRNA and protein levels were compared in malignant and benign breast tumors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and levels in breast cancer cells were determined by PCR and western blotting. The effects of lentiviral-mediated knockdown of OPN on OPN and αv,β3 integrin expression, cell invasion and migration, autophagy and apoptosis were analyzed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Results: OPN expression increased with aggressiveness of breast cancer phenotype. OPN knockdown inhibited αv,β3 integrin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, with subsequent inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Knockdown also inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, promoted expression of the autophagy-related gene products LC3 and Beclin 1, and increased apoptosis. OPN expression was positively associated with tumor grade and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: These results suggest that knockdown of OPN may inhibit breast cancer metastasis by regulating αv,β3 integrin expression and inducing autophagy and subsequent inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, thus providing further insights into the complex mechanisms regulating tumor growth and metastasis.

  1. Multifaceted role of prohibitin in cell survival and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ping; Ouyang, Ruo-Yun; Song, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Human eukaryotic prohibitin (prohibitin-1 and prohibitin-2) is a membrane protein with different cellular localizations. It is involved in multiple cellular functions, including energy metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, and senescence. The subcellular localization of prohibitin may determine its functions. Membrane prohibitin regulate the cellular signaling of membrane transport, nuclear prohibitin control transcription activation and the cell cycle, and mitochondrial prohibitin complex stabilize the mitochondrial genome and modulate mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial biogenesis, and the mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, prohibitin can translocates into the nucleus or the mitochondria under apoptotic signals and the subcellular shuttling of prohibitin is necessary for apoptosis process. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death that is important for the maintenance of normal physiological functions. Consequently, any alteration in the content, post-transcriptional modification (i.e. phosphorylation) or the nuclear or mitochondrial translocation of prohibitin may influence cell fate. Understanding the mechanisms of the expression and regulation of prohibitin may be useful for future research. This review provides an overview of the multifaceted and essential roles played by prohibitin in the regulation of cell survival and apoptosis.

  2. Inhibiting ROS-TFEB-Dependent Autophagy Enhances Salidroside-Induced Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zeng; Tao Xiao; Anlie Cai; Weiliang Cai; Huanhuan Liu; Jingling Liu; Jie Li; Miduo Tan; Li Xie; Ying Liu; Xiangcheng Yang; Yi Long

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Autophagy modulation has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy for human chondrosarcoma, and a previous study indicated that salidroside exhibits significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, the ability of salidroside to induce autophagy and its role in human chondrosarcoma cell death remains unclear. Methods: We exposed SW1353 cells to different concentrations of salidroside (0.5, 1 and 2 mM) for 24 h. RT-PCR, Western-blotting, Immunocytofluorescence, and Luci...

  3. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates apoptosis and autophagy in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting BNIP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sainan; Xia, Yujing; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most effective compound in green tea, and possesses a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG in concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and explored the possible mechanisms involved in these effects. Methods Balb/C mice were injected with ConA (25 mg/kg) to induce acute autoimmune hepatitis, and EGCG (10 or 30 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily for 10 days before ConA injection. Serum liver enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined 2, 8, and 24 hours after the ConA administration. Results BNIP3 mediated cell apoptosis and autophagy in ConA-induced hepatitis. EGCG decreased the immunoreaction and pathological damage by reducing inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-1β. EGCG also exhibited an antiapoptotic and antiautophagic effect by inhibiting BNIP3 via the IL-6/JAKs/STAT3 pathway. Conclusion EGCG attenuated liver injury in ConA-induced hepatitis by downregulating IL-6/JAKs/STAT3/BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:26929598

  4. Cardioprotective effect of Salvianolic acid B on acute myocardial infarction by promoting autophagy and neovascularization and inhibiting apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Liu, Zhaoguo; Lu, Ying; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yayun; Ma, Zhi; Kuai, Meiyu; Sun, Xin; Sun, Shuaijun; Jing, Yi; Yu, Lizhen; Li, Yu; Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats and its potential mechanisms. The AMI model was established in rats to study the effect of Sal B on AMI. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate the pathological change in AMI rats. Immunofluorescence and TUNEL staining were used to detect autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in hearts of AMI rats, respectively. Protein expression of apoptosis-related, autophagy-related and angiogenesis-related proteins were examined by Western blot. Sal B attenuated myocardial infarction significantly compared with that of the model group. Rats administered with Sal B showed higher inhibition rate of infarction and lower infarct size than those of the model group. Moreover, Sal B decreased the serum levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde, while increased such level of superoxide dismutase significantly compared with those of the model group. Sal B inhibited the expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP, while promoted the expression of Bcl-2, LC3-II, Beclin1 and VEGF. Sal B has cardioprotective effect on AMI and Sal B may be a promising candidate for AMI treatment. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Autophagy induction enhances TDP43 turnover and survival in neuronal ALS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmada, Sami J.; Serio, Andrea; Arjun, Arpana; Bilican, Bilada; Daub, Aaron; Ando, D. Michael; Tsvetkov, Andrey; Pleiss, Michael; Li, Xingli; Peisach, Daniel; Shaw, Christopher; Chandran, Siddharthan; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have distinct clinical features but a common pathology—cytoplasmic inclusions rich in TDP43. Rare TDP43 mutations cause ALS or FTD, but abnormal TDP43 levels and localization may cause disease even if TDP43 lacks a mutation. Here we showed that individual neurons vary in their ability to clear TDP43 and are exquisitely sensitive to TDP43 levels. To measure TDP43 clearance, we developed and validated a single-cell optical method that overcomes the confounding effects of aggregation and toxicity, and discovered that pathogenic mutations significantly shorten TDP43 half-life. Novel compounds that stimulate autophagy improved TDP43 clearance and localization, and enhanced survival in primary murine neurons and in human stem cell–derived neurons and astrocytes harboring mutant TDP43. These findings indicate that the levels and localization of TDP43 critically determine neurotoxicity and show that autophagy induction mitigates neurodegeneration by acting directly on TDP43 clearance. PMID:24974230

  6. Autophagy induction by leptin contributes to suppression of apoptosis in cancer cells and xenograft model: Involvement of p53/FoxO3A axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Sang Hyun; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sung Hee; Song, Kyung; Choi, Dong Young; Lee, Eung Seok; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, a hormone mainly produced from adipose tissue, has been shown to induce proliferation of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying leptin-induced tumor progression have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in leptin-induced cancer cell proliferation using human hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Herein, we showed that leptin treatment caused autophagy induction as assessed by increase in expression of autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1, Atg5 and LC3 II, further induction of autophagosome formation and autophagic flux. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagic process by treatment with inhibitors and LC3B gene silencing blocked leptin-induced increase in cell number and suppression of apoptosis, indicating a crucial role of autophagy in leptin-induced tumor progression. Moreover, gene silencing of p53 or FoxO3A prevented leptin-induced LC3 II protein expression, suggesting an involvement of p53/FoxO3A axis in leptin-induced autophagy activation. Leptin administration also accelerated tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice, which was found to be autophagy dependent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that leptin-induced tumor growth is mediated by autophagy induction and autophagic process would be a promising target to regulate development of cancer caused by leptin production. PMID:25704884

  7. Impact of autophagy on chemotherapy and radiotherapy mediated tumor cytotoxicity: "to live or not to live"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehuo eZeng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a highly regulated cell "self-eating" pathway, is controlled by the action of over 34 autophagy-related proteins (collectively termed Atgs. Although they are fundamentally different processes, autophagy and apoptosis (type I programmed cell death, under certain circumstances, can be regulated by common signaling mediators. Current cancer therapies including chemotherapy and ionizing radiation are known to induce autophagy within tumor cells. However, autophagy plays a dual role of either pro-cell survival or pro-cell death in response to these cancer treatments, depending on the cellular context and the nature of the treatment. We review the current basic and translational cancer research literature on how autophagy impacts tumor cell survival (to live and death (not to live following treatment as well as the role of chemical mediators of autophagy.

  8. Effects of NVP-BEZ235 on the proliferation, migration, apoptosis and autophagy in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Jianxia; Tong, Yili; Yao, Jianfeng

    2016-07-01

    The phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a significant role in colorectal adenocarcinoma. NVP-BEZ235 (dactolisib) is a novel dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR. The effects of NVP-BEZ235 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma are still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the proliferation, migration, apoptosis and autophagy in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were treated with NVP-BEZ235 (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 3 µM) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Cells were also treated with NVP-BEZ235 (0.1 µM), DDP (100, 300 and 1,000 µM), and NVP-BEZ235 (0.1 µM) combined with DDP (100, 300 and 1,000 µM) respectively, and cultured for 24 h after treatment. MTT assay was utilized to evaluate the effects of NVP-BEZ235 alone or NVP-BEZ235 combined with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) on proliferation of HT-29 cells. Cell wound-scratch assay was used detect cell migration. In addition, expression of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (MAP1LC3B and LC3B) in HT-29 cells was detected by immunofluorescence at 48 h after NVP-BEZ235 (1 µM) treatment. Expression of proteins involved in cell cycle and proliferation (p-Akt, p-mTOR and cyclin D1), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (cleaved LC3B and Beclin-1) were detected by western blot analysis. NVP-BEZ235 inhibited the proliferation and migration of HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. NVP-BEZ235 decreased protein expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR and cyclin D1, and increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved LC3B and Beclin-1 as the concentrations and the incubation time of NVP-BEZ235 increased. In addition, NVP-BEZ235 and DDP had synergic effects in inhibiting cell proliferation and migration. The expression of protein involved in apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) was higher in drug combination group compared to the NVP-BEZ235 single treatment group. NVP-BEZ235

  9. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with the BH3-mimetic GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity by activating both apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Viallet, Jean; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), MGCD0103 and vorinostat, in combination with GX15-070, a BH3-mimetic, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and primary AML cells, and demonstrated that the combination has a synergistic antileukemia effect. We observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy also accounts for the observed nonapoptotic decrease of cell viability. Mechanistically, we established a role for calpain activity and ER-located caspase signaling in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis following this combination of drugs. These findings reveal that for this specific combination, autophagy plays a positive role in inducing cytotoxicity, and that the involved ER signaling networks, as well as their clinical relevance, should be further studied in both preclinical and clinical trials of leukemia and other malignancies.

  10. Autophagy is an inflammation-related defensive mechanism against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; Guirro, Maria; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Menéndez, Javier A

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response is an energy-intensive process. Consequently, metabolism is closely associated with immune function. The autophagy machinery plays a role in metabolism by providing energy but may also be used to attack invading pathogens (xenophagy). The autophagy machinery may function to protect against not only the threats of infection but also the threats of the host's own response acting on the central immunological tolerance and the negative regulation of innate and inflammatory signaling. The balance between too little and too much autophagy is critical for the survival of immune cells because autophagy is linked to type 2-cell death programmed necrosis and apoptosis. Changes in inflammatory cells are driven by extracellular signals; however, the mechanisms by which cytokines mediate autophagy regulation and govern immune cell function remain unknown. Certain cytokines increase autophagy, whereas others inhibit autophagy. The relationship between autophagy and inflammation is also important in the pathogenesis of metabolic, non-communicable diseases. Inflammation per se is not the cause of obesity-associated diseases, but it is secondary to both the positive energy balance and the specific cellular responses. In metabolic tissues, the suppression of autophagy increases inflammation with the overexpression of cytokines, resulting in an activation of autophagy. The physiological role of these apparently contradictory findings remains uncertain but exemplifies future challenges in the therapeutic modulation of autophagy in the management of disease.

  11. Autophagy inhibition promotes 5-fluorouraci-induced apoptosis by stimulating ROS formation in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Pan

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is an important option for the treatment of various cancers including lung cancer. However, tumor resistance towards cytotoxic chemotherapy has become more common. It has been reported that autophagy is one of the processes contributing to this resistance. In the present study, we found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouraci(5-FU could induce autophagy in A549 cells. 5-FU treatment could lead to the conversion of LC3 I/II, the up-regulation of Beclin-1, the down-regulation of p62 and the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs in A549 cells. Pre-treatment of cancer cells with 3-MA or siAtg7 could enhance 5-FU-induced apoptosis through the activation of caspases, and the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk rescued the cell viability reduction. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy also stimulated ROS formation and scavenging of ROS by antioxidant NAC inhibited caspase-3 activity, prevented the release of cyt-c from mitochondria and eventually rescued cancer cells from 5-FU-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that 5-FU-elicited autophagic response plays a protective role against cell apoptosis and the inhibition of autophagy could sensitize them to 5-FU-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through the stimulation of ROS formation.

  12. JNK-Bcl-2/Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak Pathway Mediates the Crosstalk between Matrine-Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis via Interplay with Beclin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is associated with drug resistance which has been a threat in chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The interconnected molecular regulators between autophagy and apoptosis serve as switching points critical to the ultimate outcome of the cell. Our study was performed to investigate the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in HCC after the treatment of matrine. Flow cytometry and TUNEL (terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay were used to detect apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Bax oligomerization and Cytochrome c release assay were performed. Immunoprecipitation and siRNA transfection were used to detect the interplay between Bcl-2/Bcl-xL,Bax, and Beclin 1. Our results showed that: (1 matrine not only activated caspase and PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, but also triggered autophagy as shown by the increased levels of LC3II, Beclin 1, and PI3KC3, and the decreased level of p62; (2 matrine treatment promoted the JNK-Bcl-2/ Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak pathway; (3 Bax was oligomerized, the mitochondrial membrane potential altered, and Cytochrome c was released subsequently; (4 Bax interacts with Beclin 1 and inhibits autophagy, which may be a new crosstalk point; and (5 finally, we showed that matrine suppressed the growth of a MHCC97L xenograft in vivo for the first time. In conclusion, the JNK-Bcl-2/Bcl-xL-Bax/Bak pathway mediates the crosstalk between matrine-induced autophagy and apoptosis via interplay with Beclin 1.

  13. Epigenetic modifications as regulatory elements of autophagy in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xinbing; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Jichun; Wang, Xian; Li, Da; Han, Weidong; Fang, Yong; Pan, Hongming

    2015-05-01

    Epigenetic modifications have been considered as hallmarks of cancer and play an important role in tumor initiation and development. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, may regulate cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). Autophagy, as a crucial cellular homeostatic mechanism, performs a dual role, having pro-survival or pro-death properties. A variety of signaling pathways including epigenetic control have been implicated in the upregulation or downregulation of autophagy. However, the role of epigenetic regulation in autophagy is still less well acknowledged. Recent studies have linked epigenetic control to the autophagic process. Some epigenetic modifiers are also involved in the regulation of autophagy and potentiate the efficacy of traditional therapeutics. Thus, understanding the novel functions of epigenetic control in autophagy may allow us to develop potential therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nupr1 Modulates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Apoptosis and Autophagy through CHOP-Trib3-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Huang, Enping; Tai, Yunchun; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xuebing; Chen, Chuanxiang; Chen, Rui; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Wang, Huijun; Xie, Wei-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illegal and widely abused psychoactive stimulant. METH exposure causes detrimental effects on multiple organ systems, primarily the nervous system, especially dopaminergic pathways, in both laboratory animals and humans. In this study, we hypothesized that Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1/com1/p8) is involved in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis and autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, we measured the expression levels of Nupr1, ER stress protein markers CHOP and Trib3, apoptosis-related protein markers cleaved-caspase3 and PARP, as well as autophagy-related protein markers LC3 and Beclin-1 in brain tissues of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, rat primary cultured neurons and the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) after METH exposure. We also determined the effects of METH exposure on the expression of these proteins after silencing Nupr1, CHOP, or Trib3 expression with synthetic small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or siRNA in vitro, and after silencing Nupr1 in the striatum of rats by injecting lentivirus containing shRNA sequence targeting Nupr1 gene to rat striatum. The results showed that METH exposure increased Nupr1 expression that was accompanied with increased expression of ER stress protein markers CHOP and Trib3, and also led to apoptosis and autophagy in rat primary neurons and in PC12 cells after 24 h exposure (3.0 mM), and in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of rats after repeated intraperitoneal injections (15 mg/kg × 8 injections at 12 h intervals). Silencing of Nupr1 expression partly reduced METH-induced apoptosis and autophagy in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Nupr1 plays an essential role in METH-caused neuronal apoptosis and autophagy at relatively higher doses and may be a potential therapeutic target in high-dose METH-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Nupr1 Modulates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Apoptosis and Autophagy through CHOP-Trib3-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is an illegal and widely abused psychoactive stimulant. METH exposure causes detrimental effects on multiple organ systems, primarily the nervous system, especially dopaminergic pathways, in both laboratory animals and humans. In this study, we hypothesized that Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1/com1/p8 is involved in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis and autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, we measured the expression levels of Nupr1, ER stress protein markers CHOP and Trib3, apoptosis-related protein markers cleaved-caspase3 and PARP, as well as autophagy-related protein markers LC3 and Beclin-1 in brain tissues of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats, rat primary cultured neurons and the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells after METH exposure. We also determined the effects of METH exposure on the expression of these proteins after silencing Nupr1, CHOP, or Trib3 expression with synthetic small hairpin RNA (shRNA or siRNA in vitro, and after silencing Nupr1 in the striatum of rats by injecting lentivirus containing shRNA sequence targeting Nupr1 gene to rat striatum. The results showed that METH exposure increased Nupr1 expression that was accompanied with increased expression of ER stress protein markers CHOP and Trib3, and also led to apoptosis and autophagy in rat primary neurons and in PC12 cells after 24 h exposure (3.0 mM, and in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of rats after repeated intraperitoneal injections (15 mg/kg × 8 injections at 12 h intervals. Silencing of Nupr1 expression partly reduced METH-induced apoptosis and autophagy in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Nupr1 plays an essential role in METH-caused neuronal apoptosis and autophagy at relatively higher doses and may be a potential therapeutic target in high-dose METH-induced neurotoxicity.

  16. Castration impairs erectile organ structure and function by inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Jin; Xu, Tian-Yuan; Xia, Lei-Lei; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Zhu, Zhao-Wei; Chen, Dong-Rui; Liu, Yue; Fan, Yong; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Min-Guang; Shen, Zhou-Jun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes and underlying mechanisms of erectile organ structure and function in castrated rats. In addition, the regulatory effects of an androgen on autophagy and apoptosis in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs), especially the regulatory effect of androgen on the BECN 1-Bcl-2 interaction, were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (30/group): control group, castration group, and castration with testosterone supplementation group. The erectile function was examined both in vivo and in vitro, by electric stimulation of the cavernous nerve and corpus cavernosum strip bath test, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay, Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were performed to determine the levels of autophagy and apoptosis, and the structural changes in corpus cavernosum. Compared with control group, the castration group showed (1) lower erectile function: lower intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio, lower systolic and diastolic capability of corporal strips, and reduced expressions of eNOS and nNOS; (2) greater fibrosis: decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio, lower expression of α-SMA, and higher expression of TGF-β1; (3) inhibited autophagy: decreased autophagosomes, lower expressions of BECN1 and LC3-II; and (4) enhanced apoptosis: higher apoptotic index and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Testosterone supplementation partially improved the effects of castration. Castration attenuates erectile function and induces corporeal fibrosis by inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis of CCSMCs in rats. Therefore, our study highlights the important role of androgens in maintaining the integrity of the structure and function of corpus cavernosum in rats through counter-regulation of autophagy and apoptosis, mainly by regulating BECN 1-Bcl-2 interaction.

  17. Anti-cell death engineering of CHO cells: co-overexpression of Bcl-2 for apoptosis inhibition, Beclin-1 for autophagy induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Ha, Tae Kwang; Park, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Gyun Min

    2013-08-01

    Genetic engineering approaches to inhibit cell death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures have been limited primarily to anti-apoptosis engineering. Recently, autophagy has received attention as a new anti-cell death engineering target in addition to apoptosis. In order to achieve a more efficient protection of cells from the stressful culture conditions, the simultaneous targeting of anti-apoptosis and pro-autophagy in CHO cells (DG44) was attempted by co-overexpressing an anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and a key regulator of autophagy pathway, Beclin-1, respectively. Co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 exhibited a longer culture period as well as higher viability during serum-free suspension culture, compared with the control (without co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1) and Bcl-2 overexpression only. In addition to the efficient inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2 overexpression, Beclin-1 overexpression successfully induced the increase in the autophagic marker protein, LC3-II, and autophagosome formation with the decrease in mTOR activity. Co-immunoprecipitation and qRT-PCR experiments revealed that the enforced expression of Beclin-1 increased Ulk1 expression and level of free-Beclin-1 that did not bind to the Bcl-2 despite the Bcl-2 overexpression. Under other stressful culture conditions such as treatment with sodium butyrate and hyperosmolality, co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 also protected the cells from cell death more efficiently than Bcl-2 overexpression only, implying the potential of autophagy induction. Taken together, the data obtained here provide the evidence that pro-autophagy engineering together with anti-apoptosis engineering yields a synergistic effect and successfully enhances the anti-cell death engineering of CHO cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Myocardial autophagy activation and suppressed survival signaling is associated with insulin resistance in fructose-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Kimberley M; Bell, James R; Young, Morag J; Ritchie, Rebecca H; Delbridge, Lea M D

    2011-06-01

    Fructose intake is linked with the increasing prevalence of insulin resistance and there is now evidence for a specific insulin-resistant cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiac-specific myocardial remodeling effects of high fructose dietary intake. Given the links between insulin signaling, reactive oxygen species generation and autophagy induction, we hypothesized that autophagy contributes to pathologic remodeling in the insulin-resistant heart, and in particular may be a feature of high fructose diet-induced cardiac phenotype. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high fructose (60%) diet or nutrient-matched control diet for 12 weeks. Systemic and myocardial insulin-resistant status was characterized. Superoxide production (lucigenin) and cellular growth and death signaling pathways were examined in myocardial tissue. Myocardial structural remodeling was evaluated by measurement of heart weight indices and histological analysis of collagen deposition (picrosirius red). Fructose-fed mice exhibited hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, but plasma insulin and blood pressure were unchanged. High fructose intake suppressed the myocardial Akt cell survival signaling coincident with increased cardiac superoxide generation (21% increase, pFructose feeding induced elevated autophagy (LC3B-II: LC3B-I ratio: 46% increase, pfructose-fed mice. We provide the first evidence that myocardial autophagy activation is associated with systemic insulin resistance, and that high level fructose intake inflicts direct cardiac damage. Upregulated autophagy is associated with elevated cardiac superoxide production, suppressed cell survival signaling and fibrotic infiltration in fructose-fed mice. The novel finding that autophagy contributes to cardiac pathology in insulin resistance identifies a new therapeutic target for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fasting increases survival to cold in FOXO, DIF, autophagy mutants and in other genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Éric; Massou, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Fasting increases survival to a severe cold stress in young and middle-aged wild-type flies, this effect being lowered or absent at old age. As an attempt to determine the mechanisms of this effect, genes involved in metabolism (dFOXO), autophagy (Atg7), innate immunity (Dif (1) ), and resistance to cold (Frost) were studied. The 12 mutant, RNAi and control lines tested in this study displayed an increased survival to cold after fasting. This shows that fasting has a robust effect on survival to cold in many genotypes, but the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. This mechanism does not seem to be linked to metabolic pathways often considered to play a critical role in ageing and longevity determinations (insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway and autophagy).

  20. Bardoxolone methyl (CDDO-Me or RTA402) induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy via PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p38 MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Peng, Li; Liu, Zheng; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Dang, Hong-Wan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment remains a challenge due to drug resistance and severe side effect, rendering the need on the development of novel therapeutics. CDDO-Me (Bardoxolone methyl), a potent Nrf2 activator and NF-κB inhibitor, is a promising candidate for cancer treatment including leukemia. However, the underlying mechanism for CDDO-Me in CML treatment is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular interactome of CDDO-Me in K562 cells using the quantitative proteomics approach stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and explore the underlying mechanisms using cell-based functional assays. A total of 1,555 proteins responded to CDDO-Me exposure, including FANCI, SRPK2, XPO5, HP1BP3, NELFCD, Na+,K+-ATPase 1, etc. in K562 cells. A total of 246 signaling pathways and 25 networks regulating cell survival and death, cellular function and maintenance, energy production, protein synthesis, response to oxidative stress, and nucleic acid metabolism were involved. Our verification experiments confirmed that CDDO-Me down-regulated Na+,K+-ATPase α1 in K562 cells, and significantly arrested cells in G2/M and S phases, accompanied by remarkable alterations in the expression of key cell cycle regulators. CDDO-Me caused mitochondria-, death receptor-dependent and ER stress-mediated apoptosis in K562 cells, also induced autophagy with the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. p38 MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways contributed to both apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing effects of CDDO-Me in K562 cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that CDDO-Me is a potential anti-cancer agent that targets cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy in the treatment of CML.

  1. Nanomaterial-induced cell death in pulmonary and hepatic cells following exposure to three different metallic materials: The role of autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jantzen, Kim; Ward, Michael B; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Juel Rasmussen, Lene; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy is the catabolic process involving the sequestration of the cytoplasm within double-membrane vesicles, which fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes in which autophagic targets are degraded. Since most endocytic routes of nanomaterial uptake converge upon the lysosome and the possibility that autophagy induction by NMs may be an attempt by the cell to self-preserve following the external challenge, this study investigated the role of autophagy following exposure to a panel of widely used metal-based NMs with high toxicity (Ag and ZnO) or low toxicity (TiO 2 ) in a pulmonary (A549) and hepatic (HepG2) cell line. The in vitro exposure to the Ag and ZnO NMs resulted in the induction of both apoptosis and autophagy pathways in both cell types. However, the progression of autophagy was blocked in the formation of the autolysosome, which coincided with morphologic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. This response was not observed following the exposure to low-toxicity TiO 2 NMs. Overall, the results show that high toxicity NMs can cause a dysfunction in the autophagy pathway which is associated with apoptotic cell death.

  2. SIRT1 protects cardiac cells against apoptosis induced by zearalenone or its metabolites α- and β-zearalenol through an autophagy-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Intidhar; Boussabbeh, Manel; Pires Da Silva, Julie; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Lemaire, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases. Besides, we demonstrate that these mycotoxins promote the activation of autophagy before the onset of apoptosis. Indeed, we observed that a short-time (6h) treatment with ZEN, α-ZOL or β-ZOL, increased the level of Beclin-1 and LC3-II and induced the accumulation of the CytoID® autophagy detection probe. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy by Chloroquine significantly increased cell death induced by ZEN, α-ZOL or β-ZOL, suggesting that the activation of autophagy serves as a cardioprotective mechanism against these mycotoxins. In addition, we found that the inhibition (EX527) or the knockdown of SIRT1 (siRNA) significantly increased apoptosis induced by ZEN or its derivatives, whereas SIRT1 activation with RSV greatly prevents the cytotoxic effects of these mycotoxins. By contrast, when autophagy was inhibited by CQ, the activation of SIRT1 by RSV had no protection against the cardiotoxicity of ZEN or its metabolites, suggesting that SIRT1 protects cardiac cells by an autophagy-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SKF-96365 activates cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of the calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT-mediated pathway.

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    Jing, Zhao; Sui, Xinbing; Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Jiang, Liming; Zhou, Yubin; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-03-28

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) inhibitors are emerging as an attractive new generation of anti-cancer drugs. Here, we report that SKF-96365, an SOCE inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. In the meantime, SKF-96365 also induces cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Mechanistically, SKF-96365 treatment inhibited the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIγ (CaMKIIγ)/AKT signaling cascade in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of CaMKIIγ or AKT abolished the effects of SKF-96365 on cancer cells, suggesting a critical role of the CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling pathway in SFK-96365-induced biological effects. Moreover, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an FDA-approved drug used to inhibit autophagy, could significantly augment the anti-cancer effect of SFK-96365 in a mouse xenograft model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling can regulate apoptosis and autophagy simultaneously in cancer cells, and the combination of the SOCE inhibitor SKF-96365 with autophagy inhibitors represents a promising strategy for treating patients with colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salidroside induces apoptosis and autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

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    Fan, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Yao; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Mingyan

    2016-12-01

    The role of salidroside in colon cancer remains unknown. Here we show that salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea, exhibited potent anti-proliferative properties in human colorectal cancer cells via inducing apoptosis and autophagy. We ascertained that salidroside exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, salidroside induced cell apoptosis, accompanied by an increase of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation, and a decrease of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression ratio. We also found that salidroside induced autophagy, evidenced by increased LC3+ autophagic vacuoles, positive acridine orange-stained cells, enhanced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, and elevation of Beclin-1. Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors [3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1 (BA)] enhanced salidroside-induced apoptosis, indicating that salidroside-mediated autophagy may protect HT29 cells from undergoing apoptotic cell death. Additionally, salidroside decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and mTOR. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 augmented the effects of salidroside on the expression of Akt and mTOR. These findings indicate that salidroside could suppress the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. This study may provide a rationale for future clinical application using salidroside as a chemotherapeutic agent for human colorectal cancer.

  5. Downregulation of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is essential for the Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yizhou; Hu, Hao; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Guoqiang; Shang, Zengfu; Yang, Xiaodong; Sun, Kang; Zhan, Shenghua; Yu, Zhengyuan; Li, Peiyao; Pan, Guofeng; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Xinguo; He, Songbing

    2016-10-03

    Increasing evidence indicates that elevated expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 gene (EZH2) in many human malignant tumors acts a significant role in the oncogenic process. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclarified. It is evident that apoptosis and autophagy of tumor cells is crucial for the tumorigenesis and progression of cancer, however, the exact role of EZH2 plays in apoptosis and autophagy has not been fully elucidated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous study found that the expression level of EZH2 was higher in CRC tumor tissues than in the paired normal tissues using immunohistochemical analysis. We also recently found that the autophagy-related gene-related protein Ambra1 plays an important role in the autophagy pathway in CRC cells. In this study, mRNA and protein expression of EZH2 in four CRC cell lines were tested at first and RKO and HCT116 cells showed the highest levels among them. Here we transfected with EZH2-shRNA, or added DZNep (an EZH2 inhibitor) to RKO and HCT116 cells in order to detect the effect of EZH2 on autophagy via determining the change of the protein expression of LC3 and Ambra1. The outcome indicated an obvious decrease of autophagy level in cells transfected with EZH2-shRNA or DZNep. We also found the apoptotic rate of cells was elevated significantly after downregulation of EZH2. In addition, compared to control group, CRC cells transfected with EZH2-shRNA or added DZNep revealed a significantly increased G1 cell cycle rate and an obvious decrease in the G2 cell cycle rate. Further analysis showed that knockdown of EZH2 induced cell-cycle arrest in CRC cells. Meanwhile, downregulation of EZH2 in CRC cells induces autophagy and apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that EZH2 plays a critical role in autophagy and apoptosis in the progression of CRC, which potentially facilitates the development of an ideal strategy for combating colorectal cancer.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis and autophagy in oral cancer SSC-4 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimie AI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra Iulia Irimie,1 Cornelia Braicu,2 Oana Zanoaga,2 Valentina Pileczki,2,3 Claudia Gherman,2,4 Ioana Berindan-Neagoe,2,4–6 Radu Septimiu Campian7 1Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, Faculty of Dental Medicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 3Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 4Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 5Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 6Department of Experimental Therapeutics MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX, USA; 7Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Medicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is the major bioactive component of green tea. Our experimental data indicated that EGCG treatment suppresses cell proliferation of SSC-4 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, the effect being dose- and time-dependent. In parallel was observed the activation of apoptosis and autophagy, in response to EGCG exposure in SSC-4 cells. Treatment with EGCG activates the expression of the BAD, BAK, FAS, IGF1R, WNT11, and ZEB1 genes and inhibits CASP8, MYC, and TP53. All of these results suggest that EGCG has an excellent potential to become a therapeutic compound for patients with OSCC, by inducing tumor cell death via apoptosis and autophagy. Keywords: oral squamous carcinoma, time dependent cell proliferation, gene expression

  7. Patulin induces pro-survival functions via autophagy inhibition and p62 accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Dong, Y; Yin, S; Zhao, C; Huo, Y; Fan, L; Hu, H

    2013-01-01

    Patulin (PAT) is one of the most common mycotoxins found in moldy fruits. Skin contact is one of the most likely exposure routes of PAT. Investigation of dermal toxicity of PAT is clearly needed and has been highlighted by WHO. In the present study, using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells as a model, we found that treatment with PAT caused an increased autophagosome accumulation. Measurements of autophagic flux demonstrated that the accumulation of autophagosomes by PAT was not directly due to enhanced autophagosome formation but due to inhibition of autophagosome degradation. Reductions in the activities of the lysosomal enzymes cathepsin B and cathepsin D by PAT might contribute to this inhibitory effect. Consistent with this, inhibition of autophagosome degradation by PAT resulted in accumulation of p62 that functioned as a pro-survival signal. The pro-survival function of p62 was found to be attributed to reactive oxygen species-mediated cytoprotective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress exerted cytoprotective effect via extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2-dependent B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2-associated agonist of cell death inhibitory phosphorylation. Given the critical role of autophagy and its substrate p62 in carcinogenesis, our findings may have important implications in PAT-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:24091665

  8. Inhibition of the autophagy flux by gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazim, Uddin Md; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Seol, Jae-Won; Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong-Kug; Lee, John-Hwa; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a primary anticancer agent and a member of the tumor necrosis factor family that selectively induces apoptosis in various tumor cells, but not in normal cells. Gingerol is a major ginger component with anti-inflammatory and anti‑tumorigenic activities. Autophagy flux is the complete process of autophagy, in which the autophagosomes are lysed by lysosomes. The role of autophagy in cell death or cell survival is controversial. A549 adenocarcinoma cells are TRAIL-resistant. In the present study, we showed that treatment with TRAIL slightly induced cell death, but gingerol treatment enhanced the TRAIL-induced cell death in human lung cancer cells. The combination of gingerol and TRAIL increased accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II and p62, confirming the inhibited autophagy flux. Collectively, our results suggest that gingerol sensitizes human lung cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the autophagy flux.

  9. Combination of graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle nanocomposites and cisplatin enhances apoptosis and autophagy in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Guo; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin (Cis) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for treating a variety of cancers, due to its ability to induce cell death in cancer cells significantly. Recently, graphene and its modified nanocomposites have gained much interest in cancer therapy, due to their unique physicochemical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination effect of Cis and a reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle nanocomposite (rGO-AgNPs) in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. We synthesized AgNPs, rGO, and rGO-AgNP nanocomposites using C-phycocyanin. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized using various analytical techniques. The anticancer properties of the Cis, rGO-AgNPs, and combination of Cis and rGO-AgNPs were evaluated using a series of cellular assays, such as cell viability, cell proliferation, LDH leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, and cellular levels of oxidative and antioxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde, glutathione, SOD, and CAT. The expression of proapoptotic, antiapoptotic, and autophagy genes were measured using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The synthesized AgNPs were well dispersed, homogeneous, and spherical, with an average size of 10 nm and uniformly distributed on graphene sheets. Cis, GO, rGO, AgNPs, and rGO-AgNPs inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of Cis and rGO-AgNPs showed significant effects on cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis. The combination of Cis and rGO-AgNPs had more pronounced effects on the expression of apoptotic and autophagy genes, and also significantly induced the accumulation of autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes, which was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Our findings substantiated rGO-AgNPs strongly potentiating Cis-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in HeLa cells, and hence rGO-AgNPs could be potentially applied to cervical cancer treatment as a powerful

  10. Autophagy-A double-edged sword in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Anja; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Büchler, Markus W; Herr, Ingrid

    2009-09-01

    Autophagy or "self-eating" digests proteins and functionless cell organelles to reuse. This cell-own recycling system attracts much attention in tumour biology. One of the major functions of autophagy is maintaining cellular homeostasis. Thus, it is constitutive active in all living cells. Damaged or dispensable proteins and organelles are removed to regulate composition and size of the cytoplasm. Many therapeutic treatments have been shown to modulate autophagy signalling although it is still unclear if autophagy represents a survival or a suicide mechanism for tumour cells. Tumour growth in response to blocked autophagy as well as tumour growth in response to induced autophagy has been described. Several recent review articles address the differential effect of autophagy manipulation to apoptosis signalling. However, less has been reported about interactions of autophagy manipulation to the outcome of cancer therapy and tumour growth. Therefore, this review tries to fill this gap. We discuss data demonstrating that cellular decisions to autophagy manipulation depend on tumour type, stage, microenvironment, autophagy initiator or inhibitor and combined tumour treatment. Finally, we come to the conclusion that further analyses are necessary before manipulation of autophagic mechanisms can find its way into tumour therapy for improved treatment of patients. 2009 UICC.

  11. The Role of AKT/mTOR Pathway in Stress Response to UV-Irradiation: Implication in Skin Carcinogenesis by Regulation of Apoptosis, Autophagy and Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Strozyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Induction of DNA damage by UVB and UVA radiation may generate mutations and genomic instability leading to carcinogenesis. Therefore, skin cells being repeatedly exposed to ultraviolet (UV light have acquired multilayered protective mechanisms to avoid malignant transformation. Besides extensive DNA repair mechanisms, the damaged skin cells can be eliminated by induction of apoptosis, which is mediated through the action of tumor suppressor p53. In order to prevent the excessive loss of skin cells and to maintain the skin barrier function, apoptotic pathways are counteracted by anti-apoptotic signaling including the AKT/mTOR pathway. However, AKT/mTOR not only prevents cell death, but is also active in cell cycle transition and hyper-proliferation, thereby also counteracting p53. In turn, AKT/mTOR is tuned down by the negative regulators being controlled by the p53. This inhibition of AKT/mTOR, in combination with transactivation of damage-regulated autophagy modulators, guides the p53-mediated elimination of damaged cellular components by autophagic clearance. Alternatively, p53 irreversibly blocks cell cycle progression to prevent AKT/mTOR-driven proliferation, thereby inducing premature senescence. Conclusively, AKT/mTOR via an extensive cross talk with p53 influences the UV response in the skin with no black and white scenario deciding over death or survival.

  12. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol-Hee [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy and Multiscreening Center for Drug Development, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: oshccw@hanmail.net [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our

  13. ERα down-regulation plays a key role in silibinin-induced autophagy and apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

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    Nan Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα has been proven to be one of the most important therapeutic targets in breast cancer over the last 30 years. Previous studies pointed out that a natural flavonoid, silibinin, induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In the present study we report that exposure of MCF-7 cells to silibinin led to cell death through the down-regulation of ERα expression. Silibinin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through up-regulation of caspase 6 due to ERα signalling repression was further boosted by ERα antagonist. Moreover, up-regulation of autophagy induced by silibinin accounted for apoptotic exacerbation, being further enhanced by ERα inhibition. Upon ERα activation, series of downstream signalling pathways can be activated. We found that silibinin reduced the expressions of Akt/mTOR and extracellular-signal-related kinase (ERK, which respectively accounted for the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. These effects were further augmented by co-treatment with ERα inhibitor. We conclude that the treatment with silibinin of ERα-positive MCF-7 cells down-regulates the expression of ERα, and subsequently mTOR and ERK signaling pathways, ERα downstream, finally resulting in induction of autophagy and apoptosis.

  14. Cantharidin Inhibits the Growth of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing Autophagy and Inducing Apoptosis in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Hong-chang Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cantharidin, a type of terpenoid secreted by the blister beetle Mylabris phalerata (Pallas, has attracted great attention in cancer therapy because of its potential anti-cancer activities. Here, we report the effects on apoptosis and autophagy in human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC cell lines after treatment with cantharidin and attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells were treated with cantharidin and cell proliferation was examined using CCK-8 and clone formation assays. The expression of apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins was detected by western blotting. Cells were infected with lentivirus carrying the Beclin-1 gene, and MDA-MB-231-beclin1 (MB231-Bec and MDA-MB-468-beclin-1(MB468-Bec cells stably expressing Beclin-1 were established. Autophagic vacuoles in cells were observed with LC3 staining using fluorescence microscopy, and apoptotic cells were detected via flow cytometry. Tumor growth was assessed by subcutaneous inoculation of TNBC cells into BALB/c nude mice. Results: Cantharidin inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, and induced cell apoptosis. Cantharidin additionally inhibited the conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II and autophagosome formation by suppressing the expression of Beclin-1. Furthermore, overexpression of Beclin-1 in TNBC cells attenuated the cytotoxicity of cantharidin. In vivo, cantharidin inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 xenografts in nude mice by suppressing autophagy and inducing apoptosis, and Beclin-1 overexpression in TNBC cells reduced the efficacy of cantharidin. Conclusions: Cantharidin inhibits autophagy by suppressing Beclin-1 expression and inducing apoptosis of TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby representing a potential strategy for the treatment of TNBC.

  15. Increased Apoptosis of Inflamed Odontoblasts Is Associated with CD47 Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H S; Pei, F; Chen, Z; Zhang, L

    2016-06-01

    Survival of odontoblasts during infection and inflammation determines prognosis of the dental pulp. CD47 is a "self"-label surface marker on viable cells. The aim of the present study is to investigate the interaction between CD47, autophagy, and apoptosis in inflamed human dental pulp and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mDPC6T cells. We identified activation of autophagy and apoptosis in the odontoblasts due to inflammation of the human dental pulp. Furthermore, downregulation of CD47 correlated with increased autophagy and apoptosis in dental pulp of the patients afflicted with either caries and/or pulpitis. We also detected colocalization of CD47 and LC3 in the inflamed odontoblasts. In addition, functional study indicated that loss of CD47 activates autophagy and increases apoptosis, indicating that CD47 plays a key role in the LPS-induced autophagy and apoptosis of odontoblasts. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  16. Ecdysone-Induced Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP52F Regulates Drosophila Midgut Histolysis by Enhancement of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Abirami; Peng, Wen-Hsin; Yu, Ya-Ting; Sang, Tzu-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The rapid removal of larval midgut is a critical developmental process directed by molting hormone ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. To date, it remains unclear how the stepwise events can link the onset of ecdysone signaling to the destruction of larval midgut. This study investigated whether ecdysone-induced expression of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP52F regulates this process. The mutation of the Ptp52F gene caused significant delay in larval midgut degradation. Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TER94), a regulator of ubiquitin proteasome system, was identified as a substrate and downstream effector of PTP52F in the ecdysone signaling. The inducible expression of PTP52F at the puparium formation stage resulted in dephosphorylation of TER94 on its Y800 residue, ensuring the rapid degradation of ubiquitylated proteins. One of the proteins targeted by dephosphorylated TER94 was found to be Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (DIAP1), which was rapidly proteolyzed in cells with significant expression of PTP52F. Importantly, the reduced level of DIAP1 in response to inducible PTP52F was essential not only for the onset of apoptosis but also for the initiation of autophagy. This study demonstrates a novel function of PTP52F in regulating ecdysone-directed metamorphosis via enhancement of autophagic and apoptotic cell death in doomed Drosophila midguts. PMID:24550005

  17. [The mechanism underlying the effects of tea polyphenol on epirubicin-induced autophagy and apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Yin, Hubin; Liu, Yan; Gou, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism by which epirubicin (EPI) induces autophagy and the mechanism by which tea polyphenol (TP) regulates EPI-induced autophagy and apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 cells weredivided into control group, EPI group, TP group and TP plus EPI group. Eight hours after corresponding treatments in different groups, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the image of autophagosomes. The expressions of autophagy-related protein LC3II and p62 in the cells were detected by Western blotting. Apoptotic cells were evaluated after EPI-treatment for 24 hours by flow cytometry combined with annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blotting was performed to determine the levels of cleaved-caspase-3 (c-caspase-3) and cleaved-PARP (c-PARP). LC3II was again tested by Western blotting 8 hours after T24 cells were treated with EPI added with autophagy pathway inhibitor chloroquine and 3-methyladenine, and moreover, the levels of LC3II and p-JNK were detected by Western blotting after T24 cells were treated with EPI combined with TP or the JNK inhibitor SP for 8 hours. Results The amount of autophagosomes and the level of LC3IIin TP plus EPI group were much lower than those in EPI group. SP reduced the level of LC3II induced by EPI. EPI increased p-JNK in a time-dependent manner. TP combined with EPI reduced the activity of JNK pathway. The apoptosis rate and the levels of c-caspase-3 and c-PARP in TP plus EPI group were much higher than those in EPI group. Conclusion TP inhibits autophagy through JNK pathway to enhance EPI-induced apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Is at the Crossroads of Autophagy, Inflammation, and Apoptosis Signaling Pathways and Participates in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

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    Jing Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disease, and its incidence is growing worldwide. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a central component of cellular functions and is involved in protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. The ER is also a sensor of both intra- and extracellular stress and thus participates in monitoring and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Therefore, the ER is one site of interaction between environmental signals and a cell’s biological function. The ER is tightly linked to autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis, and recent evidence suggests that these processes are related to the pathogenesis of DM and its complications. Thus, the ER has been considered an intersection integrating multiple stress responses and playing an important role in metabolism-related diseases including DM. Here, we review the relationship between the ER and autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis in DM to better understand the molecular mechanisms of this disease.

  19. Realgar (As4S4) nanoparticles and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) induced autophagy and apoptosis in human melanoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorek, M; Gronesova, P; Cholujova, D; Hunakova, L; Bujnakova, Z; Balaz, P; Duraj, J; Lee, T C; Sedlak, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of realgar nanoparticles and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on viability, DNA damage, proliferation, autophagy and apoptosis in the human melanoma cell lines BOWES and A375. The application of various flow cytometric methods for measurements cell viability, DNA cell cycle, mitochondrial potential, lysosomal activity, and intracellular content of glutathione was used. In addition, quantitative PCR, western blotting and multiplex bead array analyses were applied for evaluation of redox stress, autophagic flux, and cell signaling alterations.The results showed that realgar treatment of studied cells caused modulation of cell proliferation, induced a block in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and altered phosphorylation of IκB, Akt, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK kinases, as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, it appeared that induction of cell death by both realgar and ATO was dose-dependent, when lower (0.3 µM) dosage increased lysosomal activity and induced autophagy and higher (1.25 µM) concentration resulted in the appearance of apoptosis, while pan-caspase inhibitor attenuated more efficiently realgar- than ATO-induced cell death. Furthermore, low concentrations of ATO and realgar nanoparticles increased the content of intracellular glutathione and elevated γ-H2AX expression confirmed DNA damage preferentially at higher concentrations of both drugs used. Further analysis revealed slight differences in time-dependent phosphorylation pattern due to both realgar and ATO treatments, while significant differences were noticed between cell lines. In conclusion, realgar nanoparticles and ATO treatment induced dose-dependent activation of autophagy and apoptosis in both melanoma cell lines, when autophagy flux was determined at lower drug concentrations and the switch to apoptosis occurred at higher concentrations of both arsenic forms.

  20. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Autophagy and Transporter-Based Multi-Drug Resistance

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    Zhe-Sheng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All the therapeutic strategies for treating cancers aim at killing the cancer cells via apoptosis (programmed cell death type I. Defective apoptosis endow tumor cells with survival. The cell can respond to such defects with autophagy. Autophagy is a cellular process by which cytoplasmic material is either degraded to maintain homeostasis or recycled for energy and nutrients in starvation. A plethora of evidence has shown that the role of autophagy in tumors is complex. A lot of effort is needed to underline the functional status of autophagy in tumor progression and treatment, and elucidate how to tweak autophagy to treat cancer. Furthermore, during the treatment of cancer, the limitation for the cure rate and survival is the phenomenon of multi drug resistance (MDR. The development of MDR is an intricate process that could be regulated by drug transporters, enzymes, anti-apoptotic genes or DNA repair mechanisms. Reports have shown that autophagy has a dual role in MDR. Furthermore, it has been reported that activation of a death pathway may overcome MDR, thus pointing the importance of other death pathways to regulate tumor cell progression and growth. Therefore, in this review we will discuss the role of autophagy in MDR tumors and a possible link amongst these phenomena.

  2. Resveratrol-mediated apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma via the p53/AMP‑activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin autophagy signaling pathway.

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    Liu, Qingjun; Fang, Qiang; Ji, Shiqi; Han, Zhixing; Cheng, Wenlong; Zhang, Haijian

    2018-01-01

    Resveratrol, known as phytoalexin, is a natural compound. Clinical studies have revealed that resveratrol has a variety of effects including anti‑inflammatory, antivirus and tumor suppressor activities. It has been reported that it may serve an important role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) however, the molecular mechanism underlying resveratrol‑induced apoptosis in RCC is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether resveratrol could suppress RCC progression. Analysis of apoptosis demonstrated that resveratrol may act as a RCC suppressor in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. In addition, the results of the MTT and cell migration experiments revealed that resveratrol significantly decreased cell viability and migration. In addition, the expression of the anti‑apoptosis gene B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) was downregulated by resveratrol, and the expression of pro‑apoptosis gene Bcl‑2‑associated X was upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels. Resveratrol also promoted the expression of p53 and activated phospho‑AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK). The phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was inhibited and the autophagy‑associated genes, light chain 3, autophagy related (ATG)5 and ATG7, were upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, resveratrol suppressed RCC viability and migration, and promoted RCC apoptosis via the p53/AMPK/mTOR‑induced autophagy signaling pathway.

  3. Autophagy is required for IL-2-mediated fibroblast growth

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    Kang, Rui [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 (United States); Tang, Daolin, E-mail: tangd2@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 (United States); Lotze, Michael T., E-mail: lotzemt@upcm.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 (United States); Zeh III, Herbert J., E-mail: zehh@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for delivery of cytoplasmic material into the lysosomal degradation pathway to enable vesicular exocytosis. Interleukin (IL)-2 is produced by T-cells and its activity is important for immunoregulation. Fibroblasts are an immune competent cell type, playing a critical role in wound healing, chronic inflammation, and tumor development. Although autophagy plays an important role in each of these processes, whether it regulates IL-2 activity in fibroblasts is unknown. Here, we show that autophagy is required for IL-2-induced cell growth in fibroblasts. IL-2 significantly induced autophagy in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and primary lung fibroblasts. Autophagy inhibitors (e.g., 3-methylamphetamine and bafilomycin A1) or knockdown of ATG5 and beclin 1 blocked clinical grade IL-2-induced autophagy. Moreover, IL-2 induced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation in MEFs and promoted interaction between HMGB1 and beclin1, which is required for autophagy induction. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy inhibited IL-2-induced cell proliferation and enhanced IL-2-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that autophagy is an important pro-survival regulator for IL-2-induced cell growth in fibroblasts.

  4. Autophagy as a target for cancer therapy: new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carew JS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer S Carew, Kevin R Kelly, Steffan T NawrockiThe Department of Medicine and Institute for Drug Development, Cancer Therapy and Research Center at The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that eliminates cytosolic proteins, macromolecules, organelles, and protein aggregates. Activation of autophagy may function as a tumor suppressor by degrading defective organelles and other cellular components. However, this pathway may also be exploited by cancer cells to generate nutrients and energy during periods of starvation, hypoxia, and stress induced by chemotherapy. Therefore, induction of autophagy has emerged as a drug resistance mechanism that promotes cancer cell survival via self-digestion. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy enhances the activity of a broad array of anticancer agents. Thus, targeting autophagy may be a global anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of many standard of care agents. These results have led to multiple clinical trials to evaluate autophagy inhibition in combination with conventional chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the anticancer agents that have been reported to modulate autophagy and discuss new developments in autophagy inhibition as an anticancer strategy.Keywords: autophagy, chloroquine, lucanthone, cancer, apoptosis

  5. Mitochondrial impairment, apoptosis and autophagy in a rat brain as immediate and long-term effects of perinatal phencyclidine treatment - influence of restraint stress.

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    Jevtić, Gordana; Nikolić, Tatjana; Mirčić, Aleksandar; Stojković, Tihomir; Velimirović, Milica; Trajković, Vladimir; Marković, Ivanka; Trbovich, Alexander M; Radonjić, Nevena V; Petronijević, Nataša D

    2016-04-03

    Phencyclidine (PCP) acts as a non-competitive antagonist of glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Its perinatal administration to rats causes pathophysiological changes that mimick some pathological features of schizophrenia (SCH). Numerous data indicate that abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and function could be associated with the development of SCH. Mitochondrial dysfunction could result in the activation of apoptosis and/or autophagy. The aim of this study was to assess immediate and long-term effects of perinatal PCP administration and acute restraint stress on the activity of respiratory chain enzymes, expression of apoptosis and autophagy markers and ultrastructural changes in the cortex and hippocampus of the rat brain. Six groups of rats were subcutaneously treated on 2nd, 6th, 9th and 12th postnatal days (P), with either PCP (10mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl). One NaCl and one PCP group were sacrificed on P13, while other two NaCl and PCP groups were sacrificed on P70. The remaining two NaCl and PCP groups were subjected to 1h restraint stress prior sacrifice on P70. Activities of respiratory chain enzymes were assessed spectrophotometrically. Expression of caspase 3 and AIF as markers of apoptosis and Beclin 1, p62 and LC3, as autophagy markers, was assessed by Western blot. Morphological changes of cortical and hippocampal ultrastructure were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Immediate effects of perinatal PCP administration at P13 were increased activities of complex I in the hippocampus and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in the cortex and hippocampus implying mitochondrial dysfunction. These changes were followed by increased expression of apoptotic markers. However the measurement of autophagy markers at this time point has revealed decrease of this process in cortex and the absence of changes in hippocampus. At P70 the activity of complex I was unchanged while COX activity was significantly decreased in cortex and increased in

  6. Modification by Ubiquitin-Like Proteins: Significance in Apoptosis and Autophagy Pathways

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    Monde Ntwasa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls confer diverse functions on their target proteins. The modified proteins are involved in various biological processes, including DNA replication, signal transduction, cell cycle control, embryogenesis, cytoskeletal regulation, metabolism, stress response, homeostasis and mRNA processing. Modifiers such as SUMO, ATG12, ISG15, FAT10, URM1, and UFM have been shown to modify proteins thus conferring functions related to programmed cell death, autophagy and regulation of the immune system. Putative modifiers such as Domain With No Name (DWNN have been identified in recent times but not fully characterized. In this review, we focus on cellular processes involving human Ubls and their targets. We review current progress in targeting these modifiers for drug design strategies.

  7. Astrocyte Autophagy Flux Protects Neurons Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury.

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    Liu, Xue; Tian, Fengfeng; Wang, Shiquan; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Lize

    2017-11-10

    The role of autophagy varies with the type of acute brain injury. In general, autophagy mediates a clear neuroprotective effect in intoxication caused by various psychoactive agents, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal cord injury. In contrast, autophagic cell death has also been reported to actively contribute to neuronal loss in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, it still remains to be determined whether autophagy pays a cytoprotective or a cytotoxic role in stroke. Previous studies focused primarily on the role of neurons rather than the role of astrocytes in brain injury. Thus, it is unknown whether modulating the autophagy flux of astrocytes contributes to improving neuronal survival after stroke. In the current study, we investigated the time course of autophagy flux in vitro using co-cultured astrocytes and neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation which mimicked the process of ischemia/reperfusion. Autophagy flux of astrocytes was regulated by treatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, and the transduction of small interfering RNA against autophagy-related gene 5. In addition, AAV-GFAP-ATG7 was used to induce astrocyte autophagy flux in mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. We found that induction of autophagy flux of astrocytes in vitro enhanced the viability of neurons and decreased neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, induction of astrocyte autophagy flux in mice improved neurological outcomes. In contrast, inhibition of autophagy flux in astrocytes decreased the viability of neurons and increased neuronal apoptosis. These results suggest that upregulation of autophagy flux in astrocytes may contribute to endogenous neuroprotective and neurorecovery mechanisms after stroke.

  8. A tail-anchored myotonic dystrophy protein kinase isoform induces perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, autophagy, and apoptosis.

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    Ralph J A Oude Ophuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK gene and gene products have thus far mainly concentrated on the fate of length mutation in the (CTGn repeat at the DNA level and consequences of repeat expansion at the RNA level in DM1 patients and disease models. Surprisingly little is known about the function of DMPK protein products. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate here that transient expression of one major protein product of the human gene, the hDMPK A isoform with a long tail anchor, results in mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering in the perinuclear region. Clustering occurred in a variety of cell types and was enhanced by an intact tubulin cytoskeleton. In addition to morphomechanical changes, hDMPK A expression induces physiological changes like loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased autophagy activity, and leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondrial intermembrane space accompanied by apoptosis. Truncation analysis using YFP-hDMPK A fusion constructs revealed that the protein's tail domain was necessary and sufficient to evoke mitochondrial clustering behavior. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that the expression level of the DMPK A isoform needs to be tightly controlled in cells where the hDMPK gene is expressed. We speculate that aberrant splice isoform expression might be a codetermining factor in manifestation of specific DM1 features in patients.

  9. Regulation of Neutrophil Survival/Apoptosis by Mcl-1

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    Eric Milot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil granulocytes have the shortest lifespan among leukocytes in the circulation and die via apoptosis. At sites of infection or tissue injury, prolongation of neutrophil lifespan is critical for effective host defense. Apoptosis of inflammatory neutrophils and their clearance are critical control points for termination of the inflammatory response. Evasion of neutrophil apoptosis aggravates local injury and leads to persistent tissue damage. The short-lived prosurvival Bcl-2 family protein, Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1, is instrumental in controlling apoptosis and consequently neutrophil lifespan in response to rapidly changing environmental cues during inflammation. This paper will focus on multiple levels of control of Mcl-1 expression and function and will discuss targeting Mcl-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the resolution of inflammation through accelerating neutrophil apoptosis.

  10. Differential effects of concomitant use of vitamins C and E on trophoblast apoptosis and autophagy between normoxia and hypoxia-reoxygenation.

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    Tai-Ho Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concomitant supplementation of vitamins C and E during pregnancy has been reportedly associated with low birth weight, the premature rupture of membranes and fetal loss or perinatal death in women at risk for preeclampsia; however, the cause is unknown. We surmise that hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR within the intervillous space due to abnormal placentation is the mechanism and hypothesize that concomitant administration of aforementioned vitamin antioxidants detrimentally affects trophoblast cells during HR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using villous explants, concomitant administration of 50 microM of vitamins C and E was observed to reduce apoptotic and autophagic changes in the trophoblast layer at normoxia (8% oxygen but to cause more prominent apoptosis and autophagy during HR. Furthermore, increased levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in association with a decrease in the autophagy-related protein LC3-II were noted in cytotrophoblastic cells treated with vitamins C and E under standard culture conditions. In contrast, vitamin treatment decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as increased mitochondrial Bak and cytosolic LC3-II in cytotrophoblasts subjected to HR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that concomitant administration of vitamins C and E has differential effects on the changes of apoptosis, autophagy and the expression of Bcl-2 family of proteins in the trophoblasts between normoxia and HR. These changes may probably lead to the impairment of placental function and suboptimal growth of the fetus.

  11. Dihydroartemisinin potentiates the anticancer effect of cisplatin via mTOR inhibition in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells: involvement of apoptosis and autophagy

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    Feng, Xue [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Ling [Department of Brain Cognition Computing Lab, University of Kent, Kent CT2 7NZ (United Kingdom); Jiang, Hong; Jiang, Keping; Jin, Ye [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Jianhua, E-mail: zhengjianhua1115@126.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • Phosphorylation of mTOR is abnormal activation in SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells. • Downregulation of mTOR by DHA helps to sensitize the SKOV3/DDP cells to chemotherapy. • DHA has the potential of induce autophagy in cancer cells. - Abstract: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibits anticancer activity in tumor cells but its mechanism of action is unclear. Cisplatin (DDP) is currently the best known chemotherapeutic available for ovarian cancer. However, tumors return de novo with acquired resistance over time. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important kinase that regulates cell apoptosis and autophagy, and its dysregulation has been observed in chemoresistant human cancers. Here, we show that compared with control ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3), mTOR phosphorylation was abnormally activated in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3/DDP) following cisplatin monotherapy. Treatment with cisplatin combined with DHA could enhance cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition in SKOV3/DDP cells. This mechanism is at least partially due to DHA deactivation of mTOR kinase and promotion of apoptosis. Although autophagy was also induced by DHA, the reduced cell death was not found by suppressing autophagic flux by Bafilomycin A1 (BAF). Taken together, we conclude that inhibition of cisplatin-induced mTOR activation is one of the main mechanisms by which DHA dramatically promotes its anticancer effect in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

  12. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stemness in esophageal squamous cancer cells

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    Wang YY

    2015-02-01

    , cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP levels but increased the expression level of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax. Furthermore, CDDO-Me induced autophagy in both Ec109 and KYSE70 cells via suppression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. There were interactions between the autophagic and apoptotic pathways in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells subject to CDDO-Me treatment. CDDO-Me also scavenged reactive oxygen species through activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. CDDO-Me inhibited cell invasion, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and stemness in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. CDDO-Me significantly downregulated E-cadherin but upregulated Snail, Slug, and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (TCF-8/ZEB1 in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. CDDO-Me significantly decreased the expression of octamer-4, sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox-2, Nanog, and B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1, all markers of cancer cell stemness, in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CDDO-Me is a promising anticancer agent against ESCC. Further studies are warranted to explore the molecular targets, efficacy and safety of CDDO-Me in the treatment of ESCC.Keywords: CDDO-Me, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, EMT, stemness, Akt, mTOR

  13. Tenovin-6 inhibits proliferation and survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells by blocking autophagy.

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    Yuan, Hongfeng; He, Meilan; Cheng, Fan; Bai, Rosemary; da Silva, Suzane Ramos; Aguiar, Ricardo C T; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2017-02-28

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is curable but one-third of cases are refractory to therapy or relapse after initial response highlighting the urgent need for developing novel therapeutic approaches. Targeting sirtuins, particularly SIRT1 by genetic approaches or using pharmaceutical inhibitor tenovin-6, has shown promising therapeutic potential in various hematopoietic malignancies. However, it remains unknown whether these approaches are effective for DLBCL. In this study, we have found that tenovin-6 potently inhibits the proliferation and survival of DLBCL cells. Surprisingly, specific knockdown of SIRT1/2/3 has no effect on DLBCL. Mechanistically, tenovin-6 increases the level of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B)-II in a SIRT1/2/3- and p53-independent manner in DLBCL cell lines. Tenovin-6-mediated increase of LC3B-II is through inhibition of classical autophagy pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of the autophagy pathway by using other inhibitors or by knocking down key genes in the pathway impairs cell proliferation and survival of DLBCL cells. These results indicate that targeting the autophagic pathway could be a novel therapeutic strategy for DLBCL and that precaution should be taken to interpret data where tenovin-6 was used as an inhibitor of sirtuins.

  14. [6]-Gingerol induces caspase 3 dependent apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells: drug-DNA interaction and expression of certain signal genes in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debrup; Bishayee, Kausik; Ghosh, Samrat; Biswas, Raktim; Mandal, Sushil Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2012-11-05

    [6]-Gingerol, a pharmacologically important bioactive component of ginger, has been reported to have anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cancer and anti-oxidative properties, but mechanisms through which these are achieved are largely unclear. The present study focuses on apoptosis and autophagy, two key events of anti-cancer activity, in HeLa cells treated with [6]-gingerol. The treated cells showed several morphological changes, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine, degradation of DNA and increase in TUNEL positivity. Furthermore, there was depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, providing evidence of mitochondria mediated apoptosis. The expression of caspase 3 and PARP was increased in cells exposed to [6]-gingerol. Circular dichroism study for testing drug-DNA interaction with both calf thymus and nuclear DNA as target revealed that the drug had potential to bind with the nuclear DNA and induce conformational changes of DNA. The over-expression of NFkβ, AKT and Bcl2 genes in cancer cells was down-regulated by [6]-gingerol treatment. On the other hand the expression levels of TNFα, Bax and cytochrome c were enhanced in [6]-gingerol treated cells. Thus, overall results suggest that [6]-gingerol has potential to bind with DNA and induce cell death by autophagy and caspase 3 mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The SGK1 inhibitor SI113 induces autophagy, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in endometrial cancer cells.

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    Conza, Domenico; Mirra, Paola; Calì, Gaetano; Tortora, Teresa; Insabato, Luigi; Fiory, Francesca; Schenone, Silvia; Amato, Rosario; Beguinot, Francesco; Perrotti, Nicola; Ulianich, Luca

    2017-12-01

    Endometrial cancer is often characterized by PI3K/AKT pathway deregulation. Recently it has been suggested that SGK1, a serine/threonine protein kinase that shares structural and functional similarities with the AKT family, might play a role in cancer, since its expression and/or activity has been found to be deregulated in different human tumors. However, the role of SGK1 in endometrial cancer has been poorly investigated. Here, we show that SGK1 expression is increased in tissue specimens from neoplastic endometrium. The SGK1 inhibitor SI113 induced a significant reduction of endometrial cancer cells viability, measured by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. This effect was associated to the increase of autophagy, as revealed by the increase of the markers LC3B-II and beclin I, detected by both immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. SI113 treatment caused also apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells, evidenced by the cleavage of the apoptotic markers PARP and Caspase-9. Intriguingly, these effects were associated to the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers GRP78 and CHOP evaluated by both Real-Time RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis. Increased expression of SGK1 in endometrial cancer tissues suggest a role for SGK1 in this type of cancer, as reported for other malignancies. Moreover, the efficacy of SI113 in affecting endometrial cancer cells viability, possibly via endoplasmic reticulum stress activation, identifies SGK1 as an attractive molecular target for new tailored therapeutic intervention for the treatment of endometrial cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A new clerodane furano diterpene glycoside from Tinospora cordifolia triggers autophagy and apoptosis in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, P R; Qayum, Arem; Singh, Shashank K; Dutt, Prabhu; Paul, Satya; Gupta, Vivek; Verma, M K; Satti, N K; Vishwakarma, R

    2018-01-30

    treatment of colon cancer. The overall study on the bioassay guided isolation of T.cordifolia identified and isolated a new clerodane furano diterpenoid that exhibited anticancer activity via induction of mitochondria mediated apoptosis and autophagy in HCT116 cells. We have reported a promising future candidate for treating colon cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salidroside pretreatment attenuates apoptosis and autophagy during hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mice

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    Feng J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Feng,1,* Qinghui Zhang,2,* Wenhui Mo,3,* Liwei Wu,1 Sainan Li,1 Jingjing Li,1 Tong Liu,1 Shizan Xu,4 Xiaoming Fan,5 Chuanyong Guo1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Kunshan First People’s Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, JiangSu, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine of Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai, 5Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Jinshan, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI contributes to liver damage in many clinical situations, such as liver resection and liver transplantation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent salidroside (Sal on hepatic IRI in mice. The mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, Sham, Sal (20 mg/kg, IRI, IRI + Sal (10 mg/kg, and IRI + Sal (20 mg/kg. We measured liver enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and interleukin-6, and apoptosis- and autophagy-related marker proteins at 2, 8, and 24 hours after reperfusion. Components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, including P-38, jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, were also measured using an MAPK activator anisomycin to deduce their roles in hepatic IRI. Our results show that Sal safely protects hepatocytes from IRI by reducing levels of liver enzymes in the serum. These findings were confirmed by histopathology. We concluded that Sal protects hepatocytes from IRI partly by inhibiting the activation of MAPK signaling, including the phosphorylation of P38, JNK, and ERK. This ameliorates inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, and

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress/autophagy pathway is involved in diabetes-induced neuronal apoptosis and cognitive decline in mice.

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    Kong, Fei-Juan; Ma, Lei-Lei; Guo, Jun-Jie; Xu, Lin-Hao; Li, Yun; Qu, Shen

    2017-12-06

    Diabetes mellitus is a significant global public health problem depicting a rising prevalence worldwide. As a serious complication of diabetes, diabetes-associated cognitive decline is attracting increasing attention. However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully determined. Both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been reported to modulate neuronal survival and death and be associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Here, a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model and primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons were employed to investigate the possible role of ER stress and autophagy in diabetes-induced neuronal apoptosis and cognitive impairments, and further explore the potential molecular mechanisms. ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP were both enhanced in diabetic mice, as was phosphorylation of PERK, IRE1α and JNK. In addition, the results indicated an elevated level of autophagy in diabetic mice, as demonstrated by upregulated expressions of autophagy markers LC3-II, beclin 1 and downregulated level of p62, and increased formation of autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II aggregates. Meanwhile, we found that these effects could be abolished by ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate or JNK inhibitor SP600125  in vitro.  Furthermore, neuronal apoptosis of diabetic mice was attenuated by pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyrate, while aggravated by application of inhibitor of autophagy bafilomycin A1  in vitro.  These results suggest that ER stress pathway may be involved in diabetes-mediated neurotoxicity and promote the following cognitive impairments. More important, autophagy was induced by diabetes possibly through ER stress-mediated JNK pathway, which may protect neurons

  19. Lup-20(29)-en-3β,28-di-yl-nitrooxy acetate affects MCF-7 proliferation through the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoning; Yang, Lei; Feng, Gaili; Yu, Zhuli; Xiao, Minjie; Cai, Weibin; Xing, Yanmei; Bai, Shasha; Guo, Junqia; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Rong

    2018-02-14

    Betulin (BT), a pentacyclic lupine-type triterpenoid natural product, possesses antitumor activity in various types of cancers. However, its clinical development was discouraged due to its low biological activities and poor solubility. We prepared lup-20(29)-en-3β,28-di-yl-nitrooxy acetate (NBT), a derivative of BT, that was chemically modified at position 3 of ring A and C-28 by introducing a NO-releasing moiety. This study mainly explored the mechanism of NBT in treating breast cancer through the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in mitochondria. NBT possessed a potent antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanically, NBT affected cell death through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and autophagy. NBT induced cell cycle arrest in the G 0 /G 1 phase by decreasing the expression of cyclin D1. It also induced mitochondrial apoptosis by increasing the expression of Bax, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and mitochondrial membrane potential loss and leaks of cytochrome c (Cyt C) from mitochondria in MCF-7 cells and decreasing the expression of mitochondrial Bcl-2. We further demonstrated whether chloroquine (CQ), which inhibits the degradation of autophagosome induced by NBT, affects the proliferation of MCF-7 cells compared with NBT. The experiments inferred that the combination of NBT and CQ significantly promoted MCF-7 cell mitochondria to divide and Cyt C to be released from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, resulting in an increased apoptosis rate. The in vivo experiments showed that NBT inhibited the growth of MCF-7 tumor via the apoptosis pathway, and its effect was similar to 5-fluorouracil.

  20. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity by activating both apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Viallet, Jean; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-08-01

    Single-agent histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have limited clinical activity in human leukemia. Although the way HDACi exert their antileukemia effect is not fully understood, it is accepted that induction of apoptosis is important. We hypothesized, therefore, that combination of an HDACi with a proapoptotic agent, such as the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070, could result in enhanced antileukemia activity. We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different HDACi (MGCD0103 and vorinostat) in combination with GX15-070 in leukemia cell lines and primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. We showed that the combination had synergistic antileukemia effect both in leukemia cell lines and in primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Using molecular markers and electron microscopy, we observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy accounts for the nonapoptotic decrease in cell viability, an effect that could be inhibited by chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Finally, we established a role for calpain activity in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis by this combination. The combination of an HDACi and GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity, and the effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The combination should be studied in clinical trials of leukemia and the role of autophagy in leukemia therapy needs to be better understood. (c) 2010 AACR.

  1. Danusertib Induces Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Autophagy but Inhibits Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma (OC is one of the most common gynecological malignancies, with a poor prognosis for patients at advanced stage. Danusertib (Danu is a pan-inhibitor of the Aurora kinases with unclear anticancer effect and underlying mechanisms in OC treatment. This study aimed to examine the cancer cell killing effect and explore the possible mechanisms with a focus on proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human OC cell lines C13 and A2780cp. The results showed that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both cell lines. Danu arrested cells in G2/M phase and led to an accumulation of polyploidy through the regulation of the expression key cell cycle modulators. Danu induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and autophagy in dose and time-dependent manners. Danu suppressed PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, evident from the marked reduction in the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, contributing to the autophagy inducing effect of Danu in both cell lines. In addition, Danu inhibited EMT. In aggregate, Danu exerts potent inducing effect on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy, but exhibits a marked inhibitory effect on EMT. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway contributes, partially, to the cancer cell killing effect of Danu in C13 and A2780cp cells.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins in cell survival and apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenning, M.

    2007-01-01

    Mouse fibroblast cells overexpressing phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha [PI-TPalpha; sense PI-TPalpha (SPIalpha) cells] show a significantly increased rate of proliferation and an extreme resistance toward ultraviolet- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis. The fact that the

  3. Autophagy in Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. S. Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. During starvation, autophagy exerts a homeostatic function that promotes cell survival by recycling metabolic precursors. Additionally, autophagy can interact with other vital processes such as programmed cell death, inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms, and thereby potentially influence disease pathogenesis. Macrophages deficient in autophagic proteins display enhanced caspase-1-dependent proinflammatory cytokine production and the activation of the inflammasome. Autophagy provides a functional role in infectious diseases and sepsis by promoting intracellular bacterial clearance. Mutations in autophagy-related genes, leading to loss of autophagic function, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Furthermore, autophagy-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases that involve inflammation, including cystic fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Strategies aimed at modulating autophagy may lead to therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with inflammation.

  4. Deletion of Nlrp3 Augments Survival During Polymicrobial Sepsis by Decreasing Autophagy and Enhancing Phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliang, Jin; Batra, Sanjay; Jeyaseelan, Samithamby

    2016-01-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical player in innate immunity. Neutrophil recruitment to tissues and effective function of neutrophils are critical innate immune function to bacterial clearance. However, the role of NLRP3 in neutrophil-dependent bacterial clearance in polymicrobial sepsis is unclear. Herein, we evaluated the role of NLRP3 in polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Our results exhibit protection from death in NLRP3-deficient (Nlrp3−/−) and NLRP3 inhibitor-treated wild-type (C57Bl/6) mice. Both Nlrp3−/− and NLRP3 inhibitor-treated mice displayed lower bacterial load albeit no impairment in neutrophil recruitment to peritoneum. However, neutrophil depletion abrogated protection from death of nd NLRP3-deficient (Nlrp3−/−) mice in response to CLP. Intriguingly, Nlrp3−/− peritoneal cells (primarily neutrophils) following CLP demonstrate decreased autophagy, augmented phagocytosis and enhanced scavenger receptor (MARCO) and mannose binding leptin (MBL) expression. These findings enhance our understanding of the critical role of NLRP3 in modulating autophagy and phagocytosis in neutrophils and suggest that therapies should be targeted to modulate both autophagy and phagocytosis in neutrophils to control bacterial burden in tissues during CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:28031338

  5. Inhibition of mitotic Aurora kinase A by alisertib induces apoptosis and autophagy of human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells

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    Yuan CX

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Xiu Yuan,1,2 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2,3 Yin-Xue Yang,4 Zhi-Xu He,3 Xueji Zhang,5 Dong Wang,6 Tianxing Yang,7 Ning-Ju Wang,1 Ruan Jin Zhao,8 Shu-Feng Zhou21Department of Oncology, General Hospital Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino–US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Colorectal Surgery, General Hospital, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 5Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 6Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 7Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 8Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sarasota, FL, USAAbstract: Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and responds poorly to current chemotherapy. Alisertib (ALS is a second-generation, orally bioavailable, highly selective small-molecule inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora kinase A (AURKA. ALS has been shown to have potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies, but its role in gastric cancer treatment is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the cancer cell-killing effect of ALS on gastric cancer cell lines AGS and NCI-N78, with a focus on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution, apoptosis, and autophagy and the mechanism of action. The results showed that ALS exhibited potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, and proautophagic effects on AGS and

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Suppresses Human Herpesvirus 8 Replication and Induces ROS Leading to Apoptosis and Autophagy in Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major constituent of green tea, has been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8. In this study, we examined the role of EGCG on PEL cells in cell death and HHV8 replication. We performed trypan blue exclusion assay to assess the cell viability of PEL cells, flow cytometry analysis to examine the cell cycle distribution and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, caspase-3 activity to assay apoptosis, acridine orange staining to determine autophagy, and immunoblotting to detect the protein levels involved in apoptosis and autophagy as well as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs activation upon EGCG treatment. The expression of the HHV8 lytic gene was determined by luciferase reporter assay and reverse transcription-PCR, and viral progeny production was determined by PCR. Results revealed that EGCG induced cell death and ROS generation in PEL cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC inhibited the EGCG-induced ROS and rescued the cell from EGCG-induced cell death. Even though EGCG induced ROS generation in PEL cells, it reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells without causing HHV8 reactivation. These results suggest that EGCG may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of HHV8 infection and HHV8-associated lymphomas.

  7. Cucurbitacin B inhibits proliferation, induces G2/M cycle arrest and autophagy without affecting apoptosis but enhances MTT reduction in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhong Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of cucurbitacin B (a natural product with anti-cancer effect was studied on PC12 cells. It significantly reduced the cell number, changed cell morphology and inhibited colony formation while MTT results showed increased cell viability. Cucurbitacin B treatment increased activity of succinode hydrogenase. No alteration in the integrity of mem-brane, the release of lactic dehydrogenase, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of apoptotic proteins suggested that cucurbitacin B did not induce apoptosis. The cell cycle was remarkably arrested at G2/M phase. Furthermore, cucurbitacin B induced autophagy as evidence by accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the increase of LC3II. In addition, cucurbitacin B up-regulated the expression of p-beclin-1, p-ULK1, p-Wee1, p21 and down-regulated p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, CDC25C, CDK1, Cyclin B1. In conclusion, cucurbitacin B inhibited PC12 proliferation but caused MTT pitfall. Cucurbitacin B induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, autophagy, but not the apoptosis in PC12 cells.

  8. Gli1 inhibition suppressed cell growth and cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis as well as autophagy depending on ERK1/2 activity in human chondrosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Guo, W; Ren, T; Liang, W; Zhou, W; Lu, Q; Jiao, G; Yan, T

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli1) has been recognized as a very important nuclear executor at the distal end of the Hedgehog (Hh) signal pathway, which has crucial roles in regulating many developmental processes, such as pattern formation, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of patched 1 protein and Gli1 or constitutively active Indian Hedgehog (IHh)-parathyroid hormone-related protein signal pathway may lead to musculoskeletal tumorigenesis. However, for chondrosarcoma few studies have paid close attention to the IHh-Gli1 signal transduction cascade and more work needs to be carried out to fully elucidate Gli1 protein functions. Here we show that the IHh signal pathway was activated in chondrosarcoma, and knocking down the expression of Gli1 attenuated the disturbed IHh signal pathway, which not only suppressed cell proliferation and promoted G2/M cell cycle arrest but also enhanced cell apoptosis by downregulating Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression. Furthermore, Gli1 downregulation, not cyclopamine, induced autophagy by regulating mTOR phosphorylation, and inhibition of autophagy prevented Gli1 small interfering RNA-mediated cell death. We also demonstrated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity may mediate these antiproliferative events induced by Gli1 inhibition. These results indicate that Gli1 inhibition could ultimately provide a promising new approach for chondrosarcoma treatment. PMID:24384722

  9. Dietary Monascus adlay supplements facilitate suppression of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, apoptosis and emphysema-related PLGF in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping-Chia; Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2013-01-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may cause oxidative stress in the lung, leading to cell death and long-term injury. Monascus adlay (MA) with antioxidant components produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) with Monascus purpureus may protect lung against CS-induced lung injuries in rats. MA and lovastatin had higher antioxidant activities than either M. purpureus or adlay. CS exposure caused significant lung damage, as evidenced by higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), neutrophil infiltration, dityrosine and 4-HNE, as well as lower levels of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase expression. Lung tissues with CS exposure had higher levels of ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and emphysema-related placenta growth factor (PlGF) expressions. All CS-induced injuries were significantly suppressed by MA supplements. MA would be a beneficial nutritional therapy to ameliorate CS-induced lung injury via preserving antioxidant defense mechanisms, decreasing oxidative stress and inhibiting ER stress, autophagy, apoptosis and emphysema-related risk factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. X protein variants of the autochthonous Latin American hepatitis B virus F genotype promotes human hepatocyte death by the induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, María Mercedes; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor; Barbini, Luciana

    2017-10-15

    The hepatitis B virus X protein (HBV-X) is a multifunctional regulatory protein associated with the pathogenesis of liver disease in chronic HBV infection. Basal core promoter mutations (BCP), associated with the clinical course of chronic HBV infection, affect HBV-X at 130-131 positions. The role of these mutations on HBV-X biological activity remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the presence of different amino acids at 130-131 positions of HBV-X on the biological activity of the protein. Transient expression of wild type and mutant F1b and F4 HBV-X increased cell mortality by the induction of apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. The wild type and mutant HBV-X differentially modulate the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-X) regulatory proteins of the Bcl-2 family. Furthermore, the expression of HBV-X variants of both subgenotypes induced autophagy of human tumoral hepatocytes. In conclusion, HBV-X variants of the Latin American HBV F genotype promotes human hepatocytes death by the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The results of this work describe some of the molecular mechanisms by which HBV-X variants contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases in the infected liver and help to the biological characterization of genotype F, responsible of the majority of HBV infections in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective activity of Theobroma cacao L. phenolic extract on AML12 and MLP29 liver cells by preventing apoptosis and inducing autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlorio, Marco; Bottini, Consuelo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Martelli, Aldo; Tessitore, Luciana

    2009-11-25

    Theobroma cacao L. is known to have potential cardiovascular and cancer chemopreventive activities because of its high content of phenolic phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities. In this work, we show for the first time that cocoa inhibits drug-triggered liver cytotoxicity by inducing autophagy. Phenolic-rich extracts of both unroasted and roasted cocoa prevented Celecoxib-induced cell viability inhibition in MLP29 liver cells because of the accumulation of G1 cells and cell death. Death prevented by cocoa had hallmarks of apoptosis such as the sub-G1 peak at flow cytometry and activation of Bax expression, together with down-regulation of Bcl-2, released cytochrome c in the cytosol with activation of Caspase 3, indicating that components of the apoptotic pathway such as Bax or upstream are major targets of cocoa phytochemicals. The protective effect of cocoa against liver cytotoxicity by Celecoxib was probably accounted for by inducing the autophagic process, as shown by enhanced Beclin 1 expression and accumulation of monodansylcadaverine in autolysosomes. This fact suggests that apoptosis was prevented by inducing autophagy. Finally, considering all these findings, we suggest that cocoa can be added to the list of natural chemopreventive agents whose potential in hepatopathy prevention and therapy should be evaluated.

  12. Porphyromonas gingivalis induces autophagy in THP-1-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M H; Jeong, S Y; Na, H S; Chung, J

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway and is a possible mechanism in inflammatory disease. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by periodontal pathogens. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, activates cellular autophagy to provide a replicative niche while suppressing apoptosis in endothelial cells. However, the molecular basis for a causal relationship between P. gingivalis and autophagy is unclear. This research examines the involvement of P. gingivalis in autophagy through light chain 3 (LC3) and autophagic proteins, and the role of P. gingivalis-induced autophagy in the clearance of P. gingivalis and inflammation. To investigate the molecular mechanism of autophagy induced by P. gingivalis, PMA-differentiated THP-1-derived macrophages were infected with live P. gingivalis. The P. gingivalis increased the formation of autophagosomes in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manner, as well as autophagolysosomes. Porphyromonas gingivalis activated LC3-I/LC3-II conversion and increased the conjugation of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) -ATG12 and the expression of Beclin1. The expressions of Beclin1, ATG5-ATG12 conjugate, and LC3-II were significantly inhibited by the presence of 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. Interestingly, 3-methyladenine increased the survival of P. gingivalis and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β production. The data indicate that P. gingivalis induces autophagy in PMA-differentiated THP-1-derived macrophages and in turn, macrophages eliminate P. gingivalis through an autophagic response, which can lead to the restriction of an excessive inflammatory response by downregulating interleukin-1β production. The induction of autophagy by P. gingivalis may play an important role in the periodontal inflammatory process and serve as a target for the development of new therapies. © 2016 John Wiley

  13. Knocking down of p53 triggers apoptosis and autophagy, concomitantly with inhibition of migration on SSC-4 oral squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimie, Alexandra Iulia; Braicu, Cornelia; Pileczki, Valentina; Petrushev, Bobe; Soritau, Olga; Campian, Radu Septimiu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignancy with elevated prevalence and somber prognosis due to the fact that most of the patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. p53 has a crucial role in proliferation and apoptosis during the occurrence and development of numerous malignant tumors. The impact of mutated p53 on the development and progression of OSCC is unclear and might have therapeutic implications. Using an in vitro RNA interference experiment, we have evaluated the impact of p53 knockdown on cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and gene expression for key genes involved in apoptosis and angiogenesis. We observed that inhibiting the expression of p53 decreased the proliferation ability and induced apoptosis/autophagy in SSC-4 cells. Moreover, we observed that this has decreased migration and has blocked the expression of VEGF. In conclusion, our research provides a proof that a direct connection between p53 knockdown and OSCC cell death can be established, therefore opening new potential directions in OSCC molecular therapeutics and management.

  14. Synergistic inhibition of autophagy and neddylation pathways as a novel therapeutic approach for targeting liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Hu, Tao; Liang, Yupei; Jiang, Yanan; Pan, Yongfu; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongping; Li, Pei; Jeong, Lak Shin; Chu, Yiwei; Qi, Hui; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M; Dong, Ziming; Jia, Lijun

    2015-04-20

    Liver cancer is the second-most frequent cause of cancer death in the world and is highly treatment resistant. We reported previously that inhibition of neddylation pathway with specific NAE inhibitor MLN4924, suppressed the malignant phenotypes of liver cancer. However, during the process, MLN4924 induces pro-survival autophagy as a mechanism of drug resistance. Here, we report that blockage of autophagy with clinically-available autophagy inhibitors (e.g. chloroquine) significantly enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 on liver cancer cells by triggering apoptosis. Mechanistically, chloroquine enhanced MLN4924-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. NOXA) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, the down-regulation of NOXA expression via siRNA silencing substantially attenuated apoptosis of liver cancer cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that blockage of autophagy augmented MLN4924-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The elimination of DNA damage or blockage of ROS production significantly reduced the expression of NOXA, and thereby attenuated apoptosis and reduced growth inhibition of liver cancer cells. Moreover, blockage of autophagy enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 in an orthotopic model of human liver cancer, with induction of NOXA and apoptosis in tumor tissues. These findings provide important preclinical evidence for clinical investigation of synergistic inhibition of neddylation and autophagy in liver cancer.

  15. Decoy Receptor 3 Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis by Suppressing the Inflammatory Response and Lymphocyte Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongYu Liang

    Full Text Available Unbalanced inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis is associated with high mortality in septic patients. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic factor. Recently, DcR3 expression was found to be increased in septic patients. This study evaluated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of DcR3 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP-induced sepsis in mice.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. DcR3 Fc was intravenously injected 30 min before and 6 h after CLP. Bacterial clearance, cytokine production, histology, lymphocyte apoptosis and survival were evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the systemic effects of DcR3 in in vitro lymphocyte apoptosis regulation.Our results demonstrated that DcR3 protein treatments significantly improved survival in septic mice (p <0.05. Treatment with DcR3 protein significantly reduced the inflammatory response and decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in the thymus and spleen. Histopathological findings of the lung and liver showed milder impairment after DcR3 administration. In vitro experiments showed that DcR3 Fc inhibited Fas-FasL mediated lymphocyte apoptosis.Treatment with the DcR3 protein protects mice from sepsis by suppressing the inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis. DcR3 protein may be useful in treatment of sepsis.

  16. The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid DHA Induces Simultaneous Apoptosis and Autophagy via Mitochondrial ROS-Mediated Akt-mTOR Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells Expressing Mutant p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Shin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA induces autophagy-associated apoptotic cell death in wild-type p53 cancer cells via regulation of p53. The present study investigated the effects of DHA on PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines harboring mutant p53. Results show that, in addition to apoptosis, DHA increased the expression levels of lipidated form LC3B and potently stimulated the autophagic flux, suggesting that DHA induces both autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells expressing mutant p53. DHA led to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS, as shown by the mitochondrial ROS-specific probe mitoSOX. Similarly, pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC markedly inhibited both the autophagy and the apoptosis triggered by DHA, indicating that mitochondrial ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of DHA in mutant p53 cells. Further, DHA reduced the levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-mTOR in a concentration-dependent manner, while NAC almost completely blocked that effect. Collectively, these findings present a novel mechanism of ROS-regulated apoptosis and autophagy that involves Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells with mutant p53 exposed to DHA.

  17. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA induces simultaneous apoptosis and autophagy via mitochondrial ROS-mediated Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells expressing mutant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soyeon; Jing, Kaipeng; Jeong, Soyeon; Kim, Nayeong; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Heo, Jun-Young; Park, Ji-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Sik; Han, Jeongsu; Park, Jong-Il; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Park, Seung-Kiel; Wu, Tong; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Lim, Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces autophagy-associated apoptotic cell death in wild-type p53 cancer cells via regulation of p53. The present study investigated the effects of DHA on PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines harboring mutant p53. Results show that, in addition to apoptosis, DHA increased the expression levels of lipidated form LC3B and potently stimulated the autophagic flux, suggesting that DHA induces both autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells expressing mutant p53. DHA led to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), as shown by the mitochondrial ROS-specific probe mitoSOX. Similarly, pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) markedly inhibited both the autophagy and the apoptosis triggered by DHA, indicating that mitochondrial ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of DHA in mutant p53 cells. Further, DHA reduced the levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-mTOR in a concentration-dependent manner, while NAC almost completely blocked that effect. Collectively, these findings present a novel mechanism of ROS-regulated apoptosis and autophagy that involves Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells with mutant p53 exposed to DHA.

  18. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  19. Autophagy in photodynamic therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in ... autophagy hereafter. It is induced by inactivation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and regulated by a series of Atg proteins. It performs double roles: promotes cell .... dynamism of the metabolism of tumor cells and tissues.

  20. Chemical Inhibition of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Eric; Lin Kim, Che; Gyeom Kim, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical...... autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine...... and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125...

  1. The apoptotic effect of 1'S-1'-Acetoxychavicol Acetate (ACA enhanced by inhibition of non-canonical autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia P M Sok

    Full Text Available Autophagy plays a role in deciding the fate of cells by inducing either survival or death. 1'S-1-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA is a phenylpropanoid isolated from rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera and has been reported previously on its apoptotic effects on various cancers. However, the effect of ACA on autophagy remains ambiguous. The aims of this study were to investigate the autophagy-inducing ability of ACA in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and to determine its role as pro-survival or pro-death mechanism. Cell viability assay was conducted using MTT. The effect of autophagy was assessed by acridine orange staining, GFP-LC3 punctate formation assay, and protein level were analysed using western blot. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was performed to detect percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis by using flow cytometry. ACA inhibits the cell viability and induced formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in NSCLC cells. Acidic vesicular organelles and GFP-LC3 punctate formation were increased in response to ACA exposure in A549 and SK-LU-1 cell lines; implying occurrence of autophagy. In western blot, accumulation of LC3-II accompanied by degradation of p62 was observed, which further confirmed the full flux of autophagy induction by ACA. The reduction of Beclin-1 upon ACA treatment indicated the Beclin-1-independent autophagy pathway. An early autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyaldenine (3-MA, failed to suppress the autophagy triggered by ACA; validating the existence of Beclin-1-independent autophagy. Silencing of LC3-II using short interfering RNA (siRNA abolished the autophagy effects, enhancing the cytotoxicity of ACA through apoptosis. This proposed ACA triggered a pro-survival autophagy in NSCLC cells. Consistently, co-treatment with lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ, exerted a synergistic effect resulting in apoptosis. Our findings suggested ACA induced pro-survival autophagy through Beclin-1-independent pathway in NSCLC. Hence, targeting

  2. Dietary flavonoid fisetin targets caspase-3-deficient human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by induction of caspase-7-associated apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Tseng, Ho-Hsing; Peng, Chih-Wen; Chen, Wen-Shu; Chiu, Shu-Jun

    2012-02-01

    The outcome of producing apoptotic defects in cancer cells is the primary obstacle that limits the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer agents, and hence the development of novel agents targeting novel non-canonical cell death pathways has become an imperative mission for clinical research. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables. In this study, we investigated the potential anticancer effects of fisetin on breast cancer cells. The result showed fisetin induced higher cytotoxicity in human breast cancer MCF-7 than in MDA-MB-231 cells otherwise it did not exert any detectable cytotoxicity in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. We found fisetin can trigger a novel form of atypical apoptosis in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells, which was characterized by several apoptotic features, including plasma membrane rupture, mitochondrial depolarization, activation of caspase-7, -8 and -9, and PARP cleavage; however, neither DNA fragmentation and phosphotidylserine (PS) externalization was observed. Although p53 was also activated by fisetin, the fisetin-induced apoptosis was not rescued by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. In contrast, the fisetin-induced apoptosis was abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy by fisetin was shown as additional route to prompt anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells. These data allow us to propose that fisetin appears as a new potential anticancer agent which can be applied to develop a clinical protocol of human breast cancers.

  3. The involvement of survival signaling pathways in rubella-virus induced apoptosis

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    Cooray Samantha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rubella virus (RV causes severe congenital defects when acquired during the first trimester of pregnancy. RV cytopathic effect has been shown to be due to caspase-dependent apoptosis in a number of susceptible cell lines, and it has been suggested that this apoptotic induction could be a causal factor in the development of such defects. Often the outcome of apoptotic stimuli is dependent on apoptotic, proliferative and survival signaling mechanisms in the cell. Therefore we investigated the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-Akt survival signaling and Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK proliferative signaling during RV-induced apoptosis in RK13 cells. Increasing levels of phosphorylated ERK, Akt and GSK3β were detected from 24–96 hours post-infection, concomitant with RV-induced apoptotic signals. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt signaling reduced cell viability, and increased the speed and magnitude of RV-induced apoptosis, suggesting that this pathway contributes to cell survival during RV infection. In contrast, inhibition of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway impaired RV replication and growth and reduced RV-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the normal cellular growth is required for efficient virus production.

  4. Deficiency of Bid protein reduces sepsis-induced apoptosis and inflammation, while improving septic survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chun-Shiang; Venet, Fabienne; Chen, Yaping; Jones, Leslie N; Wilson, Douglas C; Ayala, Carol A; Ayala, Alfred

    2010-08-01

    Increased apoptotic cell death is believed to play a pathological role in patients with sepsis and experimental animals. Apoptosis can be induced by either a cell death receptor (extrinsic) or a mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway. Bid, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is thought to mediate the cross talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis; however, little is known about the action of Bid in the development of apoptosis and organ-specific tissue damage/cell death as seen in polymicrobial sepsis. Our results show that after the onset of sepsis, tBid (the active form of Bid) is significantly increased in mitochondrial fractions of the thymus, spleen, Peyer patches, and liver, and that Fas or FasL deficiency blocks Bid activation in various tissues after septic challenge. Increased Bid activation is correlated with increased active caspase-3, caspase-9, and apoptosis during sepsis. Bid-deficient mice exhibit significantly reduced apoptosis in the thymus, spleen, and Peyer patches compared with background mice after sepsis. Furthermore, Bid-deficient mice had significantly reduced systemic and local inflammatory cytokine levels and improved survival after sepsis. These data support not only the contribution of Bid to sepsis-induced apoptosis and the onset of septic morbidity/mortality, but also the existence of a bridge between extrinsic apoptotic signals, e.g., FasL:Fas, TNF:TNFR, and so on, and the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway via Bid-tBid activation during sepsis.

  5. Augmentation of the cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles by MTCP conjugation: Non-canonical apoptosis and autophagy induction in human adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines.

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    Mozdoori, Najmeh; Safarian, Shahrokh; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles are very toxic, but their agglomeration reduces their lethal cytotoxic effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that conjugation of ZnO nanoparticles via Meso-Tetra (4-Carboxyphenyl) Porphyrin (MTCP) could provide electrostatic or steric stabilization of ZnO nanoparticles and increase their cytotoxic effects. The cytotoxicity and cell death induction were assessed using two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468). The MTT results indicated that the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was significantly increased upon MTCP conjugation. Annexin/PI and real time RT-PCR results demonstrated that the ZnO-MTCP nanoparticles induced cell death via different non-canonical pathways that are under ca2+ control. Calcium signaling could regulate lysosomal dependent apoptosis and death autophagy, and killing of the two selected types of breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lutein Induces Autophagy via Beclin-1 Upregulation in IEC-6 Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

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    Chang, Chi-Jen; Lin, Ji-Fan; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Li, Hsin-Ju; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Lee, Gon-Ann; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with anti-oxidant properties. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic cellular pathway for coping with stress conditions, is responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degrades damaged organelles. We previously demonstrated that lutein can induce anti-oxidant enzymes to relieve methotrexate-induced ROS stress. We therefore hypothesized that lutein, which activates ROS-scavenging enzymes, can also induce autophagy for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrated that lutein treatment attenuated the reduction in cell viability caused by H 2 O 2 . Lutein dose-dependently induced the processing of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II, an autophagy marker protein, and accumulation of LC3-positive puncta in rat intestinal IEC-6 cells. Furthermore, (a) direct observation of autophagosome formation through transmission electron microscopy, (b) upregulation of autophagy-related genes including ATG4A, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12, and beclin-1 (BENC1), and (c) increased BECN1/Bcl-2 ratio confirmed the induction of autophagy by lutein. The results revealed that bafilomycin-A1-induced inhibition of autophagy reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis in lutein-treated cells, indicating a protective role of lutein-induced autophagy. Lutein treatment also activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-38, but had no effects on the induction of extracellular signal-related kinase or inhibition of mTOR; however, the inhibition of activated AMPK, JNK, or p-38 did not attenuate lutein-induced autophagy. Finally, increased BECN1 expression levels were detected in lutein-treated cells, and BECN1 knockdown abolished autophagy induction. These results suggest that lutein-induced autophagy was mediated by the upregulation of BECN1 in IEC-6 cells. We are the first to demonstrate that lutein induces autophagy. Elevated autophagy in lutein-treated IEC-6 cells may have a protective role

  7. Effects of Placental Ischemia Are Attenuated by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Treatment and Associated with Reduced Apoptosis and Increased Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Ma, Suling; Wang, Yaqi; Hou, Lianguo; Shi, Yun; Yao, Min; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Huifeng; Jiang, Lingling

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) during pregnancy on relieving adverse outcomes of preeclampsia and the pathologic and biochemical changes in reduction in uteroplacental perfusion (RUPP) model of rats. On day 1, 7, and 14 of pregnancy, rats in pregnant RUPP plus 1,25(OH)2D (RUPP+VD) group (n = 15) received 120 ng/100 g body weight/week of 1,25(OH)2D by subcutaneous injection, while rats in normal pregnant (n = 12) and the RUPP group (n = 14) received 1,25(OH)2D vehicle (saline solution). On day 19 of pregnancy, after measure of blood pressure and cardiac function and urine collection, rats were euthanized, and fetal and maternal serum, placenta, and heart and kidney were collected. Fetal mortality, urinary protein, glucose, and parameters for kidney function in serum were measured. We evaluated vitamin D receptor expression and pathological and ultrastructural changes in rat heart, kidney, and placenta. Levels of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, and autophagy were measured in placenta. Compared to RUPP rats, 1,25(OH)2D decreased fetal mortality, mean blood pressure, 24-h urinary protein, urine microalbumin, and hyperglycemia in RUPP+VD rats. These were consistent with the improvements of structure impairment in heart, kidney, and placenta of RUPP rat by 1,25(OH)2D. In placenta of RUPP rat, the decrease in oxidative stress and ER stress by 1,25(OH)2D treatment was accompanied by autophagy activation and apoptosis attenuation. 1,25(OH)2D plays a beneficial effect on preeclampsia at the early gestation and might be used as a potential protective agent for preeclampsia. However, the RUPP model only recapitulated the hypoxic origin of preeclampsia; further randomized controlled trial is expected to be performed for validation and evaluation.

  8. Attenuation of 7-ketocholesterol-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and autophagy by dimethyl fumarate on 158N murine oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Amira; Nury, Thomas; Karym, El-Mostafa; Vejux, Anne; Sghaier, Randa; Gondcaille, Catherine; Andreoletti, Pierre; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Debbabi, Meryam; Fromont, Agnès; Riedinger, Jean-Marc; Moreau, Thibault; Lizard, Gérard

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in several non demyelinating or demyelinating neurodegenerative diseases. Some of them, including multiple sclerosis (MS), are associated with lipid peroxidation processes leading to increased levels of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). So, the eventual protective effect of dimethylfumarate (DMF), which is used for the treatment of MS, was evaluated on 7KC-treated oligodendrocytes, which are myelin synthesizing cells. To this end, murine oligodendrocytes 158N were exposed to 7KC (25, 50μM) for 24h without or with DMF (1, 25, 50μM). The biological activities of DMF associated or not with 7KC were evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, crystal violet and MTT tests. The impact on transmembrane mitochondrial potential (ΔYm), O 2 - and H 2 O 2 production, apoptosis and autophagy was measured by microscopical and flow cytometric methods by staining with DiOC 6 (3), dihydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine 123, Hoechst 33342, and by Western blotting with the use of specific antibodies raised against uncleaved and cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, and LC3-I/II. DMF attenuates the different effects of 7KC, namely: cell growth inhibition and/or loss of cell adhesion, decrease of ΔΨm, O 2 - and H 2 O 2 overproduction, PARP and caspase-3 cleavage, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and activation of LC3-I into LC3-II. The ability of DMF to attenuate 7KC-induced reactive oxygen species overproduction, apoptosis, and autophagy on oligodendrocytes reinforces the interest for this molecule for the treatment of MS or other demyelinating diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigallocatechin gallate sensitizes cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy through stimulating AKT/STAT3 pathway and suppressing multidrug resistance 1 signaling.

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    Yuan, Chien-Han; Horng, Chi-Ting; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Chiang, Ni-Na; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Fu-An

    2017-03-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea polyphenol that presents anticancer activities in multiple cancer cells, but no available report was addressed for the underling molecular mechanism of cytotoxic impacts on drug-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG were experienced on cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cells. EGCG inhibited cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. EGCG induced CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye, acridine orange (AO) staining and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged LC3B assay, respectively. EGCG also significantly enhanced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities by caspase activity assay. EGCG markedly increased the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin-1, and LC3B-II, as well as significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2, phosphorylated AKT (Ser473) and phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 by western blotting in CAR cells. Importantly, the protein and gene expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) were dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG. Overall, downregulation of MDR1 levels and alterations of AKT/STAT3 signaling contributed to EGCG-induced apoptosis and autophagy in CAR cells. Based on these results, EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 845-855, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Autophagy, dysglycemia and myocardial infarction

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    Tian Xiao-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy has been thought as a novel cell death mechanism involving in the pathophysiological process of myocardial infarction (MI, and modulation of autophagy may be considered as a promising treatment modality for MI. Dysglycemia was associated with higher mortality in patients with MI. We hypothesize that autophagy may be a potential pathway through which dysglycemia has an impact on the outcomes of MI. In this review, we summarize the function of autophagy in the conditions of MI and the regulatory effects of dysglycemia on autophagy. Four main impacts of autophagy on MI under dysglycemia have been revealed. The first one is that autophagy limits the infarct size via inhibited mTOR. The second one is that autophagy promotes the survival of cardiomyocytes through depleted ATP. The third one is that autophagy protects cardiac myocytes from imparing by way of degradation. The last one is that autophagy maintenance of LV function through FoxO1. Therefore, the ability to modulate autophagy may represent as a potential and promising therapeutic strategy in limiting MI caused by dysglycemia. However, elucidation of precise ways of autophagy in mediating MI caused by dysglycemia, as well as when and how autophagy is manipulated remains us to research.

  11. mir-30d Regulates multiple genes in the autophagy pathway and impairs autophagy process in human cancer cells

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    Yang, Xiaojun [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China); Zhong, Xiaomin [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Tanyi, Janos L.; Shen, Jianfeng [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Xu, Congjian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Gao, Peng [Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China); Zheng, Tim M. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); DeMichele, Angela [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linzhang@mail.med.upenn.edu [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Gene set enrichment analysis indicated mir-30d might regulate the autophagy pathway. ► mir-30d represses the expression of BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2. ► BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2 are direct targets of mir-30d. ► mir-30d inhibits autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. ► mir-30d regulates the autophagy process. -- Abstract: In human epithelial cancers, the microRNA (miRNA) mir-30d is amplified with high frequency and serves as a critical oncomir by regulating metastasis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Autophagy, a degradation pathway for long-lived protein and organelles, regulates the survival and death of many cell types. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important function in epithelial tumor initiation and progression. Using a combined bioinformatics approach, gene set enrichment analysis, and miRNA target prediction, we found that mir-30d might regulate multiple genes in the autophagy pathway including BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5, and ATG2. Our further functional experiments demonstrated that the expression of these core proteins in the autophagy pathway was directly suppressed by mir-30d in cancer cells. Finally, we showed that mir-30d regulated the autophagy process by inhibiting autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the oncomir mir-30d impairs the autophagy process by targeting multiple genes in the autophagy pathway. This result will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of mir-30d in tumorigenesis and developing novel cancer therapy strategy.

  12. Activation of focal adhesion kinase by Salmonella suppresses autophagy via an Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and promotes bacterial survival in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Katherine A; Meyer, Corey B; Bouton, Amy H; Casanova, James E

    2014-06-01

    Autophagy has emerged as an important antimicrobial host defense mechanism that not only orchestrates the systemic immune response, but also functions in a cell autonomous manner to directly eliminate invading pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella have evolved adaptations to protect themselves from autophagic elimination. Here we show that signaling through the non-receptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is actively manipulated by the Salmonella SPI-2 system in macrophages to promote intracellular survival. In wild-type macrophages, FAK is recruited to the surface of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), leading to amplified signaling through the Akt-mTOR axis and inhibition of the autophagic response. In FAK-deficient macrophages, Akt/mTOR signaling is attenuated and autophagic capture of intracellular bacteria is enhanced, resulting in reduced bacterial survival. We further demonstrate that enhanced autophagy in FAK(-/-) macrophages requires the activity of Atg5 and ULK1 in a process that is distinct from LC3-assisted phagocytosis (LAP). In vivo, selective knockout of FAK in macrophages resulted in more rapid clearance of bacteria from tissues after oral infection with S. typhimurium. Clearance was correlated with reduced infiltration of inflammatory cell types into infected tissues and reduced tissue damage. Together, these data demonstrate that FAK is specifically targeted by S. typhimurium as a novel means of suppressing autophagy in macrophages, thereby enhancing their intracellular survival.

  13. Disruption of autophagy by the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 and its therapeutic implication in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, V; Pierson, S; Szwarcbart, E; Brons, N H C; Roland, O; Cherrier-De Wilde, S; Plawny, L; Van Dyck, E; Berchem, G

    2014-08-01

    Evading apoptosis is a hallmark of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and an obstacle to current chemotherapeutic approaches. Inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) has emerged as a promising strategy to induce cell death in malignant cells. We have previously reported that the HDAC inhibitor MGCD0103 induces CLL cell death by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Here, we show that MGCD0103 decreases the autophagic flux in primary CLL cells. Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, together with the activation of caspases, and to a minor extent CAPN1, resulting in cleavage of autophagy components, were involved in MGCD0103-mediated inhibition of autophagy. In addition, MGCD0103 directly modulated the expression of critical autophagy genes at the transcriptional level that may contribute to autophagy impairment. Besides, we demonstrate that autophagy is a pro-survival mechanism in CLL whose disruption potentiates cell death induced by anticancer molecules including HDAC and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. In particular, our data highlight the therapeutic potential of MGCD0103 as not only an inducer of apoptosis but also an autophagy suppressor in both combination regimens with molecules like flavopiridol, known to induce protective autophagy in CLL cells, or as an alternative to circumvent undesired immunomodulatory effects seen in the clinic with conventional autophagy inhibitors.

  14. Plumbagin elicits differential proteomic responses mainly involving cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathways in human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells

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    Qui JX

    2015-01-01

    critical role in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, and reactive oxygen species generation. The proteomic study showed substantial differences in response to PLB treatment between PC-3 and DU145 cells. PLB treatment significantly modulated the expression of critical proteins that regulate cell cycle, apoptosis, and EMT signaling pathways in PC-3 cells but not in DU145 cells. Consistently, our Western blotting analysis validated the bioinformatic and proteomic data and confirmed the modulating effects of PLB on important proteins that regulated cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, and EMT in PC-3 and DU145 cells. The data from the Western blot assay could not display significant differences between PC-3 and DU145 cells. These findings indicate that PLB elicits different proteomic responses in PC-3 and DU145 cells involving proteins and pathways that regulate cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidation/oxidation homeostasis. This is the first systematic study with integrated computational, proteomic, and functional analyses revealing the networks of signaling pathways and differential proteomic responses to PLB treatment in prostate cancer cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis using SILAC represents an efficient and highly sensitive approach to identify the target networks of anticancer drugs like PLB, and the data may be used to discriminate the molecular and clinical subtypes, and to identify new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, for prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential of quantitative proteomic analysis in the identification of new targets and biomarkers for prostate cancer.Keywords: EMT, proteomics, SILAC

  15. Perturbation of redox balance after thioredoxin reductase deficiency interrupts autophagy-lysosomal degradation pathway and enhances cell death in nutritionally stressed SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakannan, Pandian; Iqbal, Mohamed Ariff; Yeung, Albert; Thliveris, James A; Rastegar, Mojgan; Ghavami, Saeid; Eftekharpour, Eftekhar

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative damage and aggregation of cellular proteins is a hallmark of neuronal cell death after neurotrauma and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Autophagy and ubiquitin protease system are involved in degradation of protein aggregates, and interruption of their function is linked to apoptotic cell death in these diseases. Oxidative modification of cysteine groups in key molecular proteins has been linked to modification of cellular systems and cell death in these conditions. Glutathione and thioredoxin systems provide reducing protons that can effectively reverse protein modifications and promote cell survival. The central role of Thioredoxin in inhibition of apoptosis is well identified. Additionally, its involvement in initiation of autophagy has been suggested recently. We therefore aimed to investigate the involvement of Thioredoxin system in autophagy-apoptosis processes. A model of serum deprivation in SH-SY5Y was used that is associated with autophagy and apoptosis. Using pharmacological and RNA-editing technology we show that Thioredoxin reductase deficiency in this model enhances oxidative stress and interrupts the early protective autophagy and promotes apoptosis. This was associated with decreased protein-degradation in lysosomes due to altered lysosomal acidification and accumulation of autophagosomes as well as impairment in proteasome pathway. We further confirmed that the extent of oxidative stress is a determining factor in autophagy- apoptosis interplay, as upregulation of cellular reducing capacity by N-acetylcysteine prevented impairment in autophagy and proteasome systems thus promoted cell viability. Our study provides evidence that excessive oxidative stress inhibits protein degradation systems and affects the final stages of autophagy by inhibiting autolysosome maturation: a novel mechanistic link between protein aggregation and conversion of autophagy to apoptosis that can be applicable to neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016

  16. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

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    Li JP

    2015-02-01

    , but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA, and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2 and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Erk1/2 also remarkably increased the level of LC3-II in MCF7 cells. Moreover, Danu inhibited EMT in both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with upregulated E

  17. Inhibition of Autophagy Potentiates Atorvastatin-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro

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    Minyong Kang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Statins are cholesterol reduction agents that exhibit anti-cancer activity in several human cancers. Because autophagy is a crucial survival mechanism for cancer cells under stress conditions, cooperative inhibition of autophagy acts synergistically with other anti-cancer drugs. Thus, this study investigates whether combined treatment of atorvastatin and autophagy inhibitors results in enhancing the cytotoxic effects of atorvastatin, upon human bladder cancer cells, T24 and J82, in vitro. To measure cell viability, we performed the EZ-Cytox cell viability assay. We examined apoptosis by flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI and western blot using procaspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP antibodies. To examine autophagy activation, we evaluated the co-localization of LC3 and LysoTracker by immunocytochemistry, as well as the expression of LC3 and p62/sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1 by western blot. In addition, we assessed the survival and proliferation of T24 and J82 cells by a clonogenic assay. We found that atorvastatin reduced the cell viability of T24 and J82 cells via apoptotic cell death and induced autophagy activation, shown by the co-localization of LC3 and LysoTracker. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced atorvastatin-induced apoptosis in T24 and J82 cells. In sum, inhibition of autophagy potentiates atorvastatin-induced apoptotic cell death in human bladder cancer cells in vitro, providing a potential therapeutic approach to treat bladder cancer.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway-mediated apoptosis in macrophages contributes to the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Yun-Ji Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is thought to play a role in host defenses against intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, by preventing the release of intracellular components and the spread of mycobacterial infection. This study aims to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress mediated apoptosis in mycobacteria infected macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that ER stress-induced apoptosis is associated with Mtb H37Rv-induced cell death of Raw264.7 murine macrophages. We have shown that Mtb H37Rv induced apoptosis are involved in activation of caspase-12, which resides on the cytoplasmic district of the ER. Mtb infection increase levels of other ER stress indicators in a time-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of eIF2α was decreased gradually after Mtb H37Rv infection signifying that Mtb H37Rv infection may affect eIF2α phosphorylation in an attempt to survive within macrophages. Interestingly, the survival of mycobacteria in macrophages was enhanced by silencing CHOP expression. In contrast, survival rate of mycobacteria was reduced by phosphorylation of the eIF2α. Futhermore, the levels of ROS, NO or CHOP expression were significantly increased by live Mtb H37Rv compared to heat-killed Mtb H37Rv indicating that live Mtb H37Rv could induce ER stress response. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that eIF2α/CHOP pathway may influence intracellular survival of Mtb H37Rv in macrophages and only live Mtb H37Rv can induce ER stress response. The data support the ER stress pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis and persistence of mycobacteria.

  19. T-cell autophagy deficiency increases mortality and suppresses immune responses after sepsis.

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    Chih-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Although the role of autophagy in sepsis has been characterized in several organs, its role in the adaptive immune system remains to be ascertained. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in sepsis-induced T cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, using knockout mice with T cell specific deletion of autophagy essential gene Atg7.Sepsis was induced in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP model, with T-cell-specific Atg7-knockout mice compared to control mice. Autophagic vacuoles examined by electron microscopy were decreased in the spleen after CLP. Autophagy proteins LC3-II and ATG7, and autophagosomes and autolysosomes stained by Cyto-ID Green and acridine orange were decreased in CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes at 18 h and 24 h after CLP. This decrease in autophagy was associated with increased apoptosis of CD4+ and CD8+ after CLP. Moreover, mice lacking Atg7 in T lymphocytes showed an increase in sepsis-induced mortality, T cell apoptosis and loss of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, in comparison to control mice. This was accompanied by suppressed cytokine production of Th1/Th2/Th17 by CD4+ T cells, reduced phagocytosis in macrophages and decreased bacterial clearance in the spleen after sepsis.These results indicated that sepsis led to down-regulation of autophagy in T lymphocytes, which may result in enhanced apoptosis induction and decreased survival in sepsis. Autophagy may therefore play a protective role against sepsis-induced T lymphocyte apoptosis and immunosuppression.

  20. STAT3-Mediated Autophagy Dependence Identifies Subtypes of Breast Cancer where Autophagy Inhibition can be Efficacious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycotte, Paola; Gearheart, Christy M.; Barnard, Rebecca; Aryal, Suraj; Mulcahy Levy, Jean M.; Fosmire, Susan P.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Morgan, Michael J.; Porter, Christopher C.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a protein and organelle degradation pathway that is involved in diverse diseases including cancer. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy is a cell survival mechanism in tumor cells and that its inhibition especially in combination with other therapy could be beneficial but it remains unclear if all cancer cells behave the same way when autophagy is inhibited. We inhibited autophagy in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and found that some of them are dependent on autophagy for survival even in nutrient rich conditions without any additional stress while others need autophagy only when stressed. Survival under unstressed conditions is due to cell type specific autophagy regulation of STAT3 activity and this phenotype is enriched in triple negative cell lines. This autophagy-dependency affects response to therapy because autophagy inhibition reduced tumor growth in vivo in autophagy-dependent but not in autophagy-independent breast tumors while combination treatment with autophagy inhibitors and other agent was preferentially synergistic in autophagy-dependent cells. These results imply that autophagy-dependence represents a tumor cell specific characteristic where autophagy inhibition will be more effective. Moreover, our results suggest that autophagy inhibition might be a potential therapeutic strategy for triple negative breast cancers, which currently lack an effective targeted treatment. PMID:24590058

  1. Type VI collagen increases cell survival and prevents anti-beta 1 integrin-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S J; Doane, K J

    1998-05-25

    Cell-matrix interactions are important in the development of the avian cornea. Type VI collagen is present within the periocular mesenchyme prior to the migration of cells into the corneal stroma and is abundant in the mature stroma. Whether the interaction of cells with type VI collagen is essential for cellular survival in the cornea is not known. In the present study, we examined the interaction of corneal cells with type VI collagen in vitro to determine if it can increase cell proliferation and decrease apoptosis. In vivo analysis demonstrated that apoptosis occurs in the periocular region during early stages of avian corneal development, but in fully mature corneas apoptosis only occurs in the corneal epithelium and not in the stroma. In vitro analysis examined the importance of beta 1 integrin interactions with type VI collagen in mature corneal fibroblasts and the precursor cells. Using an anti-beta 1 integrin blocking antibody, CSAT, integrin/matrix interactions were disrupted. Results indicated that viability of both corneal fibroblasts and periocular mesenchyme cells was greater on type VI collagen than on type I collagen or BSA-blocked glass. In addition, less apoptosis was observed for both cell types on type VI collagen when beta 1 integrin--matrix interactions were disrupted. These data indicated that these cells require intact beta 1 interactions with type I collagen and with BSA-coated glass controls to remain viable. Thus, type VI collagen may play a role in the rescue of corneal cells from anti-beta 1 integrin-induced apoptosis by increasing cell survival, probably via a non-beta 1 integrin-dependent mechanism.

  2. Propolis augments apoptosis induced by butyrate via targeting cell survival pathways.

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    Eric Drago

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors.

  3. Propolis Augments Apoptosis Induced by Butyrate via Targeting Cell Survival Pathways

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    Drago, Eric; Bordonaro, Michael; Lee, Seon; Atamna, Wafa; Lazarova, Darina L.

    2013-01-01

    Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC), and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling) may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors. PMID:24023824

  4. The synergistic effect of everolimus and chloroquine on endothelial cell number reduction is paralleled by increased apoptosis and reduced autophagy occurrence.

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    Anna Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs, a minor subpopulation of the mononuclear cell fraction in peripheral blood, play a critical role in cancer development as they contribute to angiogenesis-mediated pathological neovascularization. In response to tumor cytokines, including VEGF, EPCs mobilize from the bone marrow into the peripheral circulation and move to the tumor bed where they incorporate into sprouting neovessels. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus (Afinitor, Novartis, a rapamycin analogue, alone or in combination with chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, one of the autophagy inhibitors, on EPCs biological functions. We found that either everolimus or chloroquine induce growth inhibition on EPCs in a dose-dependent manner after 72 h from the beginning of incubation. The combined administration of the two drugs to EPC was synergistic in inducing growth inhibition; in details, the maximal pharmacological synergism between everolimus and chloroquine in inducing growth inhibition on EPCs cells was recorded when chloroquine was administered 24 h before everolimus. Moreover, we have studied the mechanisms of cell death induced by the two agents alone or in combination on EPCs and we have found that the synergistic effect of combination on EPC growth inhibition was paralleled by increased apoptosis induction and reduced autophagy. These effects occurred together with biochemical features that are typical of reduced autophagic death such as increased co-immunoprecipitation between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2. Chloroquine antagonized the inhibition of the activity of Akt→4EBP1 axis mediated by everolimus and at the same time it blocked the feed-back activation of Erk-1/2 induced by RAD in EPCs. These data suggest a new strategy in order to block angiogenesis in tumours in which this process plays a key role in both the sustainment and spreading of cancer cells.

  5. SGK1 (glucose transport, dishevelled2 (wnt signaling, LC3/p62 (autophagy and p53 (apoptosis proteins are unaltered in Lafora disease

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    Peixiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen forms through the concerted actions of glycogen synthase (GS which elongates glycogen strands, and glycogen branching enzyme (GBE.  Lafora disease (LD is a fatal neurodegenerative epilepsy that results from neuronal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated glycogen with excessively long strands (called polyglucosans.  There is no GBE deficiency in LD.  Instead, the disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding, respectively, a phosphatase, laforin, and an E3 ubiquiting ligase, malin.   A number of experimentally derived hypotheses have been published to explain LD, including:  The SGK1 hypothesis - Phosphorylated SGK1 (pSGK1 raises cellular glucose uptake and levels, which would activate GS.  Based on observing increased pSGK1 in LD mice it was proposed that raised pSGK1 leads to polyglucosan generation through GS hyperactivation.  The Dishevelled2 hypothesis - Downregulating malin in cell culture was reported to increase levels of dishevelled2, which through the wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3 pathway would likewise overactivate GS.  The Autophagic defect hypothesis - Polyglucosans may be natural byproducts of normal glycogen metabolism.  LD mice were reported to be autophagy-defective.  LD would arise from failed autophagy leading to failed polyglucosan clearance.  Finally, the p53 hypothesis - laforin and malin were reported to downregulate p53, their absence leading to increased p53, which would activate apoptosis, leading to the neurodegeneration of LD.  In the present work we repeat key experiments that underlie these four hypotheses.  We are unable to confirm increased pSGK1, dishevelled2, or p53 in LD mice, nor the reported autophagic defects.  Our work does not support the above hypotheses in understanding this unique and severe form of epilepsy.

  6. Loss of PINK1 impairs stress-induced autophagy and cell survival.

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    Dajana Parganlija

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the ubiquitin ligase Parkin are participating in quality control after CCCP- or ROS-induced mitochondrial damage, and their dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, PINK1 expression is also induced by starvation indicating an additional role for PINK1 in stress response. Therefore, the effects of PINK1 deficiency on the autophago-lysosomal pathway during stress were investigated. Under trophic deprivation SH-SY5Y cells with stable PINK1 knockdown showed downregulation of key autophagic genes, including Beclin, LC3 and LAMP-2. In good agreement, protein levels of LC3-II and LAMP-2 but not of LAMP-1 were reduced in different cell model systems with PINK1 knockdown or knockout after addition of different stressors. This downregulation of autophagic factors caused increased apoptosis, which could be rescued by overexpression of LC3 or PINK1. Taken together, the PINK1-mediated reduction of autophagic key factors during stress resulted in increased cell death, thus defining an additional pathway that could contribute to the progression of Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations.

  7. Long-term oral administration of 5α-reductase inhibitor attenuates erectile function by inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis of smooth muscle cells in corpus cavernosum of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Guan; Wang, Xian-Jin; Shen, Zhou-Jun; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of long-term treatment of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) on erectile organ structure and function in aged rats. Thirty 16-month-old male rats were assigned to 2 groups: untreated or treated with 5ARIs. After 16 weeks, the erectile function was measured after electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. The weights and histopathologic features of the corpus cavernosum were examined. The levels of autophagy, apoptosis, and protein expression were also recorded. In the 5ARI-treatment group, the plasma and intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone concentration was lowered by 52.1% and 57.3%, respectively, and the weight of the corpus cavernosum and prostate had decreased by 22.4% and 35.6%, respectively. The in vivo erectile response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve had decreased significantly in the 5ARI-treatment group (P corpus cavernosum of the 5ARI-treatment group. Using transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, decreased autophagy, aggravated ultrastructural injury of mitochondria, and increased apoptosis were observed in the cavernous smooth muscle cells from the rats in the 5ARI-treatment group. Long-term 5ARI treatment did attenuate the erectile function of aged rats. The mechanisms might have been the decreased rate of autophagy and an increased rate of apoptosis in the cavernous smooth muscle cells, suggesting a new role for androgen in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the erectile organ. Additional studies are necessary to demonstrate the mechanisms of dihydrotestosterone in regulating the autophagy and apoptosis of the cavernous smooth muscle cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand deficiency enhances survival in murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis

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    Beyer K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Beyer,1 Laura Stollhof,1 Christian Poetschke,2 Wolfram von Bernstorff,1 Lars Ivo Partecke,1 Stephan Diedrich,1 Stefan Maier,1 Barbara M Bröker,2 Claus-Dieter Heidecke1 1Department of General, Visceral, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery, 2Institute of Immunology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, GermanyBackground: Apart from inducing apoptosis in tumor cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL influences inflammatory reactions. Murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP represents a model of diffuse peritonitis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that administration of exogenous TRAIL not only induces apoptosis in neutrophils but also enhances survival in this model. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of genetic TRAIL deficiency on the course of CASP.Methods: Peritonitis was induced in 6- to 8-week-old female TRAIL−/− mice as well as in wild-type mice. The sepsis severity score and survival of mice were monitored. Bacterial loads in blood as well as in the lymphoid organs were examined. Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was determined.Results: As early as 8 hours postinduction of CASP, TRAIL−/− mice were significantly more affected by sepsis than wild-type mice, as measured by the sepsis severity score. However, during the further course of sepsis, TRAIL deficiency led to significantly decreased sepsis severity scores, resulting in an enhanced overall survival in TRAIL−/− mice. The better survival of TRAIL−/− mice was accompanied by a decreased bacterial load within the blood. In marked contrast, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was highly increased in TRAIL−/− mice 20 hours after induction of CASP.Conclusion: Hence, exogenous and endogenous TRAIL is protective during the early phase of sepsis, while endogenous TRAIL appears to be detrimental in the later course of this disease.Keywords: CASP, mice

  9. Melatonin synergized with cyclosporine A improves cardiac allograft survival by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Hong, Tao; Shao, Mengping; Chen, Zhenghang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-09-01

    Melatonin, a widespread physiological mediator, has been demonstrated to exhibit a dose‑dependent immunoregulatory effect in vitro and in vivo, including mediating physiological circadian rhythms, neutralizing free radicals and exerting antisenescence actions. In the present study, the efficacy and mechanism of melatonin alone or in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) in prolonging heart transplantation survival was examined. Daily treatment with melatonin (200 mg/kg/day) through a gavage, significantly prolonged the survival of cardiac grafts (mean survival time, 13.4±2.4 days; n=7; Pcardiac allograft by inhibiting inflammation‑induced apoptosis. These results provide evidence for a novel therapeutic approach for future immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation.

  10. Autophagy protects gastric mucosal epithelial cells from ethanol-induced oxidative damage via mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weilong; Bai, Jie; Tian, Shaobo; Ma, Muyuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Rui; Cui, Jinyuan; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Guobin; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important cause of gastric mucosal epithelial cell injury and gastric ulcers. A number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism, has a protective effect on cell survival. However, it is not known whether autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against the toxic effects of ethanol. In the present study, gastric mucosal epithelial cells (GES-1 cells) and Wistar rats were treated with ethanol to detect the adaptive response of autophagy. Our results demonstrated that ethanol exposure induced gastric mucosal epithelial cell damage, which was accompanied by the downregulation of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of autophagy. Suppression of autophagy with pharmacological agents resulted in a significant increase of GES-1 cell apoptosis and gastric mucosa injury, suggesting that autophagy could protect cells from ethanol toxicity. Furthermore, we evaluated the cellular oxidative stress response following ethanol treatment and found that autophagy induced by ethanol inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species and degradation of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate oxidative damage induced by ethanol in gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Therefore, modifying autophagy may provide a therapeutic strategy against alcoholic gastric mucosa injury. Impact statement The effect and mechanism of autophagy on ethanol-induced cell damage remain controversial. In this manuscript, we report the results of our study demonstrating that autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against ethanol toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate ethanol-induced oxidative damage in

  11. The role of autophagy in Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kirsten; Baehrecke, Eric H

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a conserved catabolic process that targets cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy is required for cellular homeostasis and cell survival in response to starvation and stress, and paradoxically, it also plays a role in programmed cell death during development. The mechanisms that regulate the relationship between autophagy, cell survival, and cell death are poorly understood. Here we review research in Drosophila that has provided insights into the regulation of autophagy by steroid hormones and nutrient restriction and discuss how autophagy influences cell growth, nutrient utilization, cell survival, and cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Apoptosis and Autophagy Inducing Potential of Berberis aristata, Azadirachta indica, and Their Synergistic Combinations in Parental and Resistant Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pracheta; Raman, Sukanya; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Lohitesh, K.; Saini, Heena; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Paul, Atish

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and hence can be effectively overcome by a multi-constituently therapeutic strategy. Medicinal plant extracts represent a perfect example of such stratagem. However, minimal studies have been done till date that portray the effect of extraction techniques on the phyto-constituent profile of plant extracts and its impact on anticancer activity. In the present study, we have evaluated the anticancer potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis aristata root and Azadirachta indica seeds prepared by various extraction techniques in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Soxhlation extract of B. aristata (BAM-SX) and sonication extract of A. indica (AIM-SO) were most effective in inducing apoptosis in parental drug sensitive, as well as resistant cell type developed by repeated drug exposure. Generation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest preceded caspase-mediated apoptosis in HOS cells. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy enhanced cell death suggesting the cytoprotective role of autophagy. Combination studies of different methanolic extracts of BAM and AIM were performed, among which, the combination of BAM-SO and AIM-SO (BAAISO) was found to show synergism (IC50 10.27 µg/ml) followed by combination of BAM-MC and AIM-MC (BAAIMC) with respect to other combinations in the ratio of 1:1. BAAISO also showed synergism when it was added to cisplatin-resistant HOS cells (HCR). Chromatographic profiling of BAM-SX and AIM-SO by high performance thin layer chromatography resulted in identification of berberine (Rf 0.55), palmitine (Rf 0.50) in BAM-SX and azadirachtin A (Rf 0.36), azadirachtin B (Rf 0.56), nimbin (Rf 0.80), and nimbolide (Rf 0.43) in AIM-SO. The cytotoxic sensitivity obtained can be attributed to the above compounds. Our results highlight the importance of extraction technique and subsequent mechanism of action of multi-constituential B. aristata and A. indica against both sensitive and drug refractory HOS cells. PMID

  13. Depletion of autophagy-related genes ATG3 and ATG5 in Tenebrio molitor leads to decreased survivability against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindwa, Hamisi; Jo, Yong Hun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Noh, Mi Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Iksoo; Han, Yeon Soo; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Kim, Nam Jung

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in physiological and developmental processes including cell survival, death, and innate immunity. Homologues of most of 36 originally discovered autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast have been characterized in higher eukaryotes including insects. In this study, the homologues of ATG3 (TmATG3) and ATG5 (TmATG5) were isolated from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor by expressed sequence tag and RNAseq approaches. The cDNA of TmATG3 and TmATG5 comprise open-reading frame sizes of 963 and 792 bp encoding polypeptides of 320 and 263 amino acid residues, respectively. TmATG3 and TmATG5 mRNA are expressed in all developmental stages, and mainly in fat body and hemocytes of larvae. TmATG3 and TmATG5 showed an overall sequence identity of 58-95% to other insect Atg proteins. There exist clear one-to-one orthologs of TmATG3 and TmATG5 in Tribolium and that they clustered together in the gene tree. Depletion of TmATG3 and TmATG5 by RNA interference led to a significant reduction in survival ability of T. molitor larvae against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Six days post-Listeria challenge, the survival rate in the dsEGFP-injected (where EGFP is enhanced green fluorescent protein) control larvae was significantly higher (55%) compared to 4 and 3% for TmATG3 and TmATG5 double-stranded RNA injected larvae, respectively. These data suggested that TmATG3 and TmATG5 may play putative role in mediating autophagy-based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. L-3-n-Butylphthalide Activates Akt/mTOR Signaling, Inhibits Neuronal Apoptosis and Autophagy and Improves Cognitive Impairment in Mice with Repeated Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Huai, Yaping; Meng, Nan; Dong, Yanhong; Liu, Zhijuan; Qi, Qianqian; Hu, Ming; Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Lv, Peiyuan

    2017-10-01

    L-3-n-Butylphthalide (L-NBP) exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia, but its potential benefits in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (RCIR) injury remain unknown. We investigated the effect of L-NBP on cognitive impairment induced by RCIR in mice. Male C57Bl/6 mice received sham surgery or bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (3 times, 20 min each) and were orally administered preoperative L-NBP (30 mg/kg/day, 7 days), postoperative L-NBP (30 or 60 mg/kg/day, 28 days) or postoperative vehicle (28 days). Learning and memory were assessed by the Morris water maze task and step-down passive avoidance test. Nissl staining was used to identify pathologic changes in the hippocampal CA1 region. The expressions of proteins associated with signaling, apoptosis and autophagy were assessed by quantitative PCR and western blot. RCIR induced deficits in learning and memory that were alleviated by preoperative or postoperative L-NBP administration. Pathologic lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region induced by RCIR were less severe in mice treated with L-NBP. Preoperative or postoperative L-NBP administration in mice receiving RCIR promoted hippocampal expression of phospho-Akt and phospho-mTOR (suggesting activation of Akt/mTOR signaling), increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (indicating suppression of apoptosis) and reduced the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio (implying inhibition of autophagy). Preoperative or postoperative L-NBP administration also depressed hippocampal levels of beclin-1 mRNA (indicating suppression of autophagy). These findings suggest that the effect of L-NBP to alleviate learning and memory deficits in mice following RCIR may involve activation of Akt/mTOR signaling and regulation of the expressions of proteins related to apoptosis and autophagy.

  15. Effect of Lycopene and Rosmarinic Acid on Gentamicin Induced Renal Cortical Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Adult Male Albino Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Elbakary, Reda H; Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2017-06-01

    Gentamicin nephrotoxicity accounts for 10%-15% of all cases of acute renal failure. Several natural antioxidants were found to be effective against drug-induced toxicity. The possible protective effects of lycopene (Lyc) and rosmarinic acid (RA) alone or combined on gentamicin (Gen) induced renal cortical oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy were evaluated. Sixty-three rats were randomly divided into seven groups named: control, group II received RA 50 mg/kg/day, group III received Lyc 4 mg/kg/day, group IV received Gen 100 mg/kg/day, group V (RA + Gen), group VI (Lyc + Gen), and group VII (RA + Lyc + Gen). At the end of the experiment, kidney functions were estimated then the kidneys were sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. Administration of rosmarinic acid and lycopene decreased elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal malondialdehyde and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax), autophagic marker protein (LC3/B), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by gentamicin. They increased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). They also improved the histopathological changes induced by gentamicin. The combination therapy of rosmarinic acid and lycopene shows better protective effects than the corresponding monotherapy. Anat Rec, 300:1137-1149, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Aspirin-induced gastrointestinal damage is associated with an inhibition of epithelial cell autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carlos; Barrachina, Maria Dolores; Vallecillo-Hernández, Jorge; Álvarez, Ángeles; Ortiz-Masiá, Dolores; Cosín-Roger, Jesús; Esplugues, Juan Vicente; Calatayud, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin (ASA) causes gastrotoxicity by hampering the epithelial defense against luminal contents through cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since cell survival in tough conditions may depend on rescue mechanisms like autophagy, we analyzed whether epithelial cells rely on this process to defend themselves from aspirin's damaging action. Rats received a single dose of ASA (150 mg/kg, p.o.) with or without pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, and gastric injury and epithelial autophagy were evaluated 3 h later. The effects of ASA on cell viability and autophagy were also evaluated in gastric epithelial AGS cells. Basal autophagy in the gastric mucosa was inhibited by ASA as demonstrated by increased levels of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins and total LC3 and a reduced LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Similarly, ASA increased p62 and decreased LC3-II accumulation and the number of EmGFP/LC3B puncta in AGS cells. ASA activated the PI3K/Akt-GSK3-mTOR pathway, which phosphorylates ULK1 to prevent autophagy initiation, changes that were inhibited by the PI3K-inhibitor wortmannin. Autophagy inhibition seems to enhance the vulnerability of gastric epithelial cells as a combination of ASA with 3-methyladenine exacerbated rat gastric damage and AGS cell apoptosis. Our data highlight the importance of autophagy in the gastric mucosa as a protective mechanism when the epithelium is injured. In the stomach, aspirin induces mucosal damage and reduces autophagy, thus, eliminating a protective mechanism that epithelial cells could use to escape death. We hypothesize that the combination of aspirin with drugs that activate autophagy could protect against gastric damage.

  17. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Lin Chu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic 大 蒜 Dà Suàn; Allium sativum, is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  18. Neisseria gonorrhoeae survives within and modulates apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Château, Alice; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-04-01

    The human-adapted organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted infection. It readily colonizes the genital, rectal and nasalpharyngeal mucosa during infection. While it is well established that N. gonorrhoeae recruits and modulates the functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes during infection, how N. gonorrhoeae interacts with macrophages present in infected tissue is not fully defined. We studied the interactions of N. gonorrhoeae with two human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and primary monocytes, all differentiated into macrophages. Most engulfed bacteria were killed in the phagolysosome, but a subset of bacteria was able to survive and replicate inside the macrophages suggesting that those cells may be an unexplored cellular reservoir for N. gonorrhoeae during infection. N. gonorrhoeae was able to modulate macrophage apoptosis: N. gonorrhoeae induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells whereas it inhibited induced apoptosis in U937 cells and primary human macrophages. Furthermore, N. gonorrhoeae induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, suggesting a role for macrophages in recruiting polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the site of infection. These results indicate macrophages may serve as a significant replicative niche for N. gonorrhoeae and play an important role in gonorrheal pathogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Recombinant human erythropoietin increases survival and reduces neuronal apoptosis in a murine model of cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Lothar; Hempel, Casper; Penkowa, Milena

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is an acute encephalopathy with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes and localized ischaemia. In children CM induces cognitive impairment in about 10% of the survivors. Erythropoietin (Epo) has - besides of its well known...... with recombinant human Epo (rhEpo; 50-5000 U/kg/OD, i.p.) at different time points. The effect on survival was measured. Brain pathology was investigated by TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-digoxigenin nick end labelling), as a marker of apoptosis. Gene...... expression in brain tissue was measured by real time PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with rhEpo increased survival in mice with CM in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced apoptotic cell death of neurons as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain. This neuroprotective effect...

  20. Suppression of autophagy by CUB domain-containing protein 1 signaling is essential for anchorage-independent survival of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekita, Takamasa; Fujii, Satoko; Miyazawa, Yuri; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Abe, Hitosi; Sakamoto, Michiie; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    CUB (C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor, BMP1) domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) has been implicated in promoting metastasis of cancer cells through several mechanisms, including the inhibition of anoikis, which is cell death triggered by the loss of extracellular matrix interactions. However, the mechanism inhibiting cell death regulated by CDCP1 remains elusive. Inhibition of CDCP1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced the cell death of suspended cancer cells without cleaving caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis; cell death was not inhibited by a general caspase inhibitor, suggesting that the loss of CDCP1 induces caspase-independent cell death. In contrast, knockdown of CDCP1 as well as protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), a downstream effector of CDCP1, in a suspension culture of lung cancer cells resulted in marked induction of membranous microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II protein, a hallmark of autophagy, and caused the formation of an autophagosome structure visualized using green fluorescent protein-tagged LC3-II. Expression and phosphorylation of exogenous CDCP1 by Fyn kinase reduced the formation of autophagosomes and inhibited phosphorylation of CDCP1 by PP2, a Src kinase inhibitor or inhibited PKCδ by rottlerin, stimulating autophagosome formation. Moreover, death of suspended lung cancer cells induced by CDCP1 siRNA or by PKCδ siRNA was reduced by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. These results indicate that CDCP1-PKCδ signaling plays a critical role in inhibiting autophagy, which is responsible for anoikis resistance of lung cancer cells. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Resistance of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells to Nur77-induced apoptosis promotes allograft survival.

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    Ran Tao

    Full Text Available The NR4A nuclear receptor family member Nur77 (NR4A1 promotes thymocyte apoptosis during negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes, but may also function in mature extrathymic T cells. We studied the effects of over-expression of Nur77 on the apoptosis of murine peripheral T cells, including thymic-derived Foxp3+ regulatory (Treg cells. Overexpression of Nur77 in the T cell lineage decreased numbers of peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cells by approximately 80% compared to wild-type (WT mice. However, the proportions of Treg cells were markedly increased in the thymus (61% of CD4+Foxp3+ singly positive thymocytes vs. 8% in WT and secondary lymphoid organs (40-50% of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells vs. 7-8% in WT of Nur77 transgenic (Nur77Tg mice, and immunoprecipitation studies showed Nur77 was associated with a recently identified HDAC7/Foxp3 transcriptional complex. Upon activation through the T cell receptor in vitro or in vivo, Nur77Tg T cells showed only marginally decreased proliferation but significantly increased apoptosis. Fully allogeneic cardiac grafts transplanted to Nur77Tg mice survived long-term with well-preserved structure, and recipient splenocytes showed markedly enhanced apoptosis and greatly reduced anti-donor recall responses. Allografts in Nur77Tg recipients had significantly increased expression of multiple Treg-associated genes, including Foxp3, Foxp1, Tip60 and HDAC9. Allograft rejection was restored by CD25 monoclonal antibody therapy, indicating that allograft acceptance was dependent upon Treg function in Nur77Tg recipients. These data show that compared to conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells, Foxp3+ Tregs are relatively resistant to Nur77-mediated apoptosis, and that tipping the balance between the numbers of Tregs and responder T cells in the early period post-transplantation can determine the fate of the allograft. Hence, induced expression of Nur77 might be a novel means to achieve long-term allograft survival.

  2. Moderate mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition induces autophagy in HTR8/SVneo cells via O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine signaling.

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    Zhang, Qiuxia; Na, Quan; Song, Weiwei

    2017-10-01

    Autophagy, a highly regulated process with a dual role (pro-survival or pro-death), has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism whereby mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling regulates autophagy by modulating protein O-GlcNAcylation in human trophoblasts. HTR8/SVneo cells were incubated in serum-free medium for different time intervals or treated with varying doses of Torin1. Protein expression and cell apoptosis were detected by immunoblotting and flow cytometry, respectively. Short-term serum starvation or slight suppression of mTOR signaling promoted autophagy and decreased apoptosis in HTR8/SVneo cells. Conversely, prolonged serum starvation or excessive inhibition of mTOR reduced autophagy and enhanced cell apoptosis. Both serum starvation and mTOR signaling suppression reduced protein O-GlcNAcylation. Upregulation and downregulation of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels attenuated and augmented autophagy, respectively. Moderate mTOR inhibition-induced autophagy was blocked by upregulation of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Beclin1 and synaptosome associated protein 29 (SNAP29) could be O-GlcNAcylated, and that slight mTOR inhibition resulted in decreased O-GlcNAc modification of Beclin1 and SNAP29. Notably, we observed an inverse correlation between phosphorylation (Ser15) and O-GlcNAcylation of Beclin1. mTOR signaling inhibition played dual roles in regulating autophagy and apoptosis in HTR8/SVneo cells. Moderate mTOR suppression might induce autophagy via modulating O-GlcNAcylation of Beclin1 and SNAP29. Moreover, the negative interplay between Beclin1 O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation (Ser15) may be involved in autophagy regulation by mTOR signaling. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Apoptotic-like Leishmania exploit the host´s autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell-mediated parasite elimination

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    Crauwels, Peter; Bohn, Rebecca; Thomas, Meike; Gottwalt, Stefan; Jäckel, Florian; Krämer, Susi; Bank, Elena; Tenzer, Stefan; Walther, Paul; Bastian, Max; van Zandbergen, Ger

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a well-defined cellular process in which a cell dies, characterized by cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation. In parasites like Leishmania, the process of apoptosis-like cell death has been described. Moreover upon infection, the apoptotic-like population is essential for disease development, in part by silencing host phagocytes. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of how apoptosis in unicellular organisms may support infectivity remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the fate of apoptotic-like Leishmania parasites in human host macrophages. Our data showed—in contrast to viable parasites—that apoptotic-like parasites enter an LC3+, autophagy-like compartment. The compartment was found to consist of a single lipid bilayer, typical for LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). As LAP can provoke anti-inflammatory responses and autophagy modulates antigen presentation, we analyzed how the presence of apoptotic-like parasites affected the adaptive immune response. Macrophages infected with viable Leishmania induced proliferation of CD4+ T-cells, leading to a reduced intracellular parasite survival. Remarkably, the presence of apoptotic-like parasites in the inoculum significantly reduced T-cell proliferation. Chemical induction of autophagy in human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM), infected with viable parasites only, had an even stronger proliferation-reducing effect, indicating that host cell autophagy and not parasite viability limits the T-cell response and enhances parasite survival. Concluding, our data suggest that apoptotic-like Leishmania hijack the host cells´ autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overall population survival is guaranteed, explaining the benefit of apoptosis-like cell death in a single-celled parasite and defining the host autophagy pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treating Leishmaniasis. PMID:25801301

  4. Apoptotic-like Leishmania exploit the host's autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell-mediated parasite elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauwels, Peter; Bohn, Rebecca; Thomas, Meike; Gottwalt, Stefan; Jäckel, Florian; Krämer, Susi; Bank, Elena; Tenzer, Stefan; Walther, Paul; Bastian, Max; van Zandbergen, Ger

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a well-defined cellular process in which a cell dies, characterized by cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation. In parasites like Leishmania, the process of apoptosis-like cell death has been described. Moreover upon infection, the apoptotic-like population is essential for disease development, in part by silencing host phagocytes. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of how apoptosis in unicellular organisms may support infectivity remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the fate of apoptotic-like Leishmania parasites in human host macrophages. Our data showed--in contrast to viable parasites--that apoptotic-like parasites enter an LC3(+), autophagy-like compartment. The compartment was found to consist of a single lipid bilayer, typical for LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). As LAP can provoke anti-inflammatory responses and autophagy modulates antigen presentation, we analyzed how the presence of apoptotic-like parasites affected the adaptive immune response. Macrophages infected with viable Leishmania induced proliferation of CD4(+) T-cells, leading to a reduced intracellular parasite survival. Remarkably, the presence of apoptotic-like parasites in the inoculum significantly reduced T-cell proliferation. Chemical induction of autophagy in human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM), infected with viable parasites only, had an even stronger proliferation-reducing effect, indicating that host cell autophagy and not parasite viability limits the T-cell response and enhances parasite survival. Concluding, our data suggest that apoptotic-like Leishmania hijack the host cells' autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overall population survival is guaranteed, explaining the benefit of apoptosis-like cell death in a single-celled parasite and defining the host autophagy pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treating Leishmaniasis.

  5. Effects of HSP27 downregulation on PDT resistance through PDT-induced autophagy in head and neck cancer cells.

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    Kim, Jisun; Lim, Haesoon; Kim, Sangwoo; Cho, Hyejung; Kim, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces cell death in head and neck cancer through both autophagy and apoptosis. Regulation of cell death by autophagy and apoptosis is important to enhance the effects of PDT. Autophagy maintains a balance between cell death and PDT resistance. Downregulation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) induces PDT resistance in head and neck cancer cells. Furthermore, HSP70 regulates apoptosis during oxidative stress. However, the role of HSPs in PDT-induced cell death through autophagy and apoptosis is unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of HSP27 and HSP70 on PDT-induced cell death of oral cancer cells through autophagy and apoptosis. Cancer cells were treated with hematoporphyrin at varying doses, followed by irradiation at 635 nm with an energy density of 5 mW/cm2. We determined the changes in HSP expression by determining the levels of PARP-1 and LC3II in PDT-resistant cells. Furthermore, we assessed cell death signaling after downregulating HSPs by transfecting specific siRNAs. We observed that PDT decreased HSP27 expression but increased HSP70 expression in the head and neck cancer cells. Treatment of cells with LC3II and PARP-1 inhibitors resulted in upregulation of HSP70 and HSP27 expression, respectively. Downregulation of HSP27 and HSP70 induced cell death and PDT resistance through autophagy and apoptosis. Moreover, downregulation of HSP27 in PDT-resistant cells resulted in enhanced survival. These results indicate that the regulation of HSP27 and HSP70 plays a principal role in increasing the effects of PDT by inducing autophagic and apoptotic cell death.

  6. MicroRNA-181a Regulates Apoptosis and Autophagy Process in Parkinson's Disease by Inhibiting p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)/c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK) Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Yanfeng; Zhu, Xiaotun

    2017-04-02

    BACKGROUND microRNA (miR)-181a has been reported to be downregulated in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the regulatory mechanism of miR-181a on neuron apoptosis and autophagy is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of miR-181a on PD in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells were incubated with different concentrations of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) to induce the PD model. The expression of miR-181a was then analyzed. After transfection with miR-181a mimic or scramble following MPP+ treatment, the expression of autophagy protein markers (LC3II, LC3I, and Beclin 1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling proteins (p-p38, p38, p-JNK, and JNK) and cell apoptosis were detected. Furthermore, the cells were transfected with miR-181a inhibitor and cultured in the presence or absence of p38 inhibitor SB203582 or JNK inhibitor SP600125, and the cell apoptosis was tested again. RESULTS The expression of miR-181a was gradually decreased with the increase of MPP+ concentration (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). Overexpression of miR-181a significantly decreased the LC3II/LC3I ratio, Beclin 1 expression, cell apoptosis, and the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK compared to the MPP+ + miR-181a scramble group (all P<0.05). In addition, we observed that SB203582 or SP600125 showed no effects on cell apoptosis, but the effects of miR-181a inhibitor on cell apoptosis were reversed by administration of SB203582 or SP600125 compared to the scramble group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that miR-181a regulates apoptosis and autophagy in PD by inhibiting the p38 MAPK/JNK pathway.

  7. Muscadine Grape Skin Extract Induces an Unfolded Protein Response-Mediated Autophagy in Prostate Cancer Cells: A TMT-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Liza J; Rivera, Mariela; Hawsawi, Ohuod; Zou, Jin; Hudson, Tamaro; Wang, Guangdi; Zhang, Qiang; Cubano, Luis; Boukli, Nawal; Odero-Marah, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE) is derived from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia), a common red grape used to produce red wine. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) that serves as a survival mechanism to relieve ER stress and restore ER homeostasis. However, when persistent, ER stress can alter the cytoprotective functions of the UPR to promote autophagy and cell death. Although MSKE has been documented to induce apoptosis, it has not been linked to ER stress/UPR/autophagy. We hypothesized that MSKE may induce a severe ER stress response-mediated autophagy leading to apoptosis. As a model, we treated C4-2 prostate cancer cells with MSKE and performed a quantitative Tandem Mass Tag Isobaric Labeling proteomic analysis. ER stress response, autophagy and apoptosis were analyzed by western blot, acridine orange and TUNEL/Annexin V staining, respectively. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that ER stress response proteins, such as GRP78 were greatly elevated following treatment with MSKE. The up-regulation of pro-apoptotic markers PARP, caspase-12, cleaved caspase-3, -7, BAX and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic marker BCL2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis and apoptosis was visualized by increased TUNEL/Annexin V staining upon MSKE treatment. Moreover, increased acridine orange, and LC3B staining was detected in MSKE-treated cells, suggesting an ER stress/autophagy response. Finally, MSKE-mediated autophagy and apoptosis was antagonized by co-treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor. Our results indicate that MSKE can elicit an UPR that can eventually lead to apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

  8. Muscadine Grape Skin Extract Induces an Unfolded Protein Response-Mediated Autophagy in Prostate Cancer Cells: A TMT-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza J Burton

    Full Text Available Muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE is derived from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia, a common red grape used to produce red wine. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR that serves as a survival mechanism to relieve ER stress and restore ER homeostasis. However, when persistent, ER stress can alter the cytoprotective functions of the UPR to promote autophagy and cell death. Although MSKE has been documented to induce apoptosis, it has not been linked to ER stress/UPR/autophagy. We hypothesized that MSKE may induce a severe ER stress response-mediated autophagy leading to apoptosis. As a model, we treated C4-2 prostate cancer cells with MSKE and performed a quantitative Tandem Mass Tag Isobaric Labeling proteomic analysis. ER stress response, autophagy and apoptosis were analyzed by western blot, acridine orange and TUNEL/Annexin V staining, respectively. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that ER stress response proteins, such as GRP78 were greatly elevated following treatment with MSKE. The up-regulation of pro-apoptotic markers PARP, caspase-12, cleaved caspase-3, -7, BAX and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic marker BCL2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis and apoptosis was visualized by increased TUNEL/Annexin V staining upon MSKE treatment. Moreover, increased acridine orange, and LC3B staining was detected in MSKE-treated cells, suggesting an ER stress/autophagy response. Finally, MSKE-mediated autophagy and apoptosis was antagonized by co-treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor. Our results indicate that MSKE can elicit an UPR that can eventually lead to apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

  9. Hypercholesterolemia downregulates autophagy in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricz, Zoltán; Koncsos, Gábor; Rajtík, Tomáš; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Csonka, Csaba; Szobi, Adrián; Adameová, Adriana; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-23

    We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow (NORM; n = 9) or with 2% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid-enriched diet (CHOL; n = 9) for 12 weeks. CHOL rats exhibited a 41% increase in plasma total cholesterol level over that of NORM rats (4.09 mmol/L vs. 2.89 mmol/L) at the end of diet period. Animals were sacrificed, hearts were excised and briefly washed out. Left ventricles were snap-frozen for determination of markers of autophagy, mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and necroptosis by Western blot. Isolated hypercholesterolemia was associated with a significant reduction in expression of cardiac autophagy markers such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Rubicon and RAB7 as compared to controls. Phosphorylation of ribosomal S6, a surrogate marker for mTOR activity, was increased in CHOL samples. Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, increased in CHOL hearts, while no difference in the expression of necroptotic marker RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL was detected between treatments. This is the first comprehensive analysis of autophagy and programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis in hearts of hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data show that isolated hypercholesterolemia suppresses basal cardiac autophagy and that the decrease in autophagy may be a result of an activated mTOR pathway. Reduced autophagy was accompanied by increased apoptosis, while cardiac necroptosis was not modulated by isolated hypercholesterolemia. Decreased basal autophagy and elevated apoptosis may be responsible for the

  10. Quercetin-Rich Guava (Psidium guajava) Juice in Combination with Trehalose Reduces Autophagy, Apoptosis and Pyroptosis Formation in the Kidney and Pancreas of Type II Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fa; Kuo, Yen-Ting; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-03-10

    We explored whether the combination of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory guava (Psidium guajava) and trehalose treatment protects the kidney and pancreas against Type II diabetes (T2DM)-induced injury in rats. We measured the active component of guava juice by HPLC analysis. T2DM was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide and streptozotocin and combination with high fructose diets for 8 weeks. The rats fed with different dosages of guava juice in combination with or without trehalose for 4 weeks were evaluated the parameters including OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR (insulin resistance) and HOMA-β (β cell function and insulin secretion). We measured oxidative and inflammatory degrees by immunohistochemistry stain, fluorescent stain, and western blot and serum and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a chemiluminescence analyzer. High content of quercetin in the guava juice scavenged H2O2 and HOCl, whereas trehalose selectively reduced H2O2, not HOCl. T2DM affected the levels in OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, whereas these T2DM-altered parameters, except HbA1c, were significantly improved by guava and trehalose treatment. The levels of T2DM-enhanced renal ROS, 4-hydroxynonenal, caspase-3/apoptosis, LC3-B/autophagy and IL-1β/pyroptosis were significantly decreased by guava juice and trehalose. The combination with trehalose and guava juice protects the pancreas and kidney against T2DM-induced injury.

  11. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity

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    So, Keum-Young [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: seonh@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Premedicine, School of Medicine, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-23

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose–response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC{sub 50} of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC{sub 50} value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Pin1 regulated autophagy to protect cells from cadmium toxicity. • Pin1 suppression inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis. • Pin1 inhibited the function of p-Ser-GSK3αβ in autophagy regulation. • p-Ser-GSK3αβ regulated autophagy independently of Pin1.

  12. Activation of autophagy via Ca(2+)-dependent AMPK/mTOR pathway in rat notochordal cells is a cellular adaptation under hyperosmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Bo; Cao, Lu; Yin, Xiao-Fan; Yasen, Miersalijiang; Yishake, Mumingjiang; Dong, Jian; Li, Xi-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells experience hyperosmotic stress in spinal discs; however, how these cells can survive in the hostile microenvironment remains unclear. Autophagy has been suggested to maintain cellular homeostasis under different stresses by degrading the cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. Here, we explored whether autophagy is a cellular adaptation in rat notochordal cells under hyperosmotic stress. Hyperosmotic stress was found to activate autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SQSTM1/P62 expression was decreased as the autophagy level increased. Transient Ca(2+) influx from intracellular stores and extracellular space was stimulated by hyperosmotic stress. Activation of AMPK and inhibition of p70S6K were observed under hyperosmotic conditions. However, intercellular Ca(2+) chelation inhibited the increase of LC3-II and partly reversed the decrease of p70S6K. Hyperosmotic stress decreased cell viability and promoted apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy led to SQSTM1/P62 accumulation, reduced cell viability, and accelerated apoptosis in notochordal cells under this condition. These evidences suggest that autophagy induction via the Ca(2+)-dependent AMPK/mTOR pathway might occur as an adaptation mechanism for notochordal cells under hyperosmotic stress. Thus, activating autophagy might be a promising approach to improve viability of notochordal cells in intervertebral discs.

  13. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-10-23

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose-response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC50 of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC50 value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytoprotective effect of autophagy on phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Tan, Yu-Zhen; Wang, Hai-Jie; Li, Ting; He, Tao; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Clearance of the apoptotic cells by phagocytes plays pivotal roles in maintenance of tissue homeostasis, promotion of immunological tolerance and anti-inflammatory response. Recent studies show that autophagy is involved in phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells. However, contribution of autophagy to phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells by macrophages is not clearly defined. Here, we assessed cytoprotective effect of autophagy on clearance of the apoptotic cells. Apoptosis of murine splenic lymphocytes and human T-cell leukemia cells was induced with cyclophosphamide. After engulfment of the apoptotic cells, expression of Belin-1 and LC3 in macrophages was upregulated, the number of MDC-positive vesicles, LC3-positive autophagosomes and autophagic ultrastructures increased significantly. Autophagosome was fused with phagosome containing fragments of the nuclei or other debris of the apoptotic cells to form amphisome. Some cells in macrophages phagocytosing the apoptotic cells became apoptotic. After autophagy of macrophages was inhibited with 3-MA, viability and survival of macrophages reduced, phagocytosis of the apoptotic cells by macrophages deceased significantly. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays an important role in promoting clearance of the apoptotic cells by protecting macrophages from apoptosis during phagocytosis as well as degrading the contents of phagosomes via amphisome formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative stress-mediated NFκB phosphorylation upregulates p62/SQSTM1 and promotes retinal pigmented epithelial cell survival through increased autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Song

    Full Text Available p62 is a scaffolding adaptor implicated in the clearance of protein aggregates by autophagy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can either stimulate or inhibit NFκB-mediated gene expression influencing cellular fate. We studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-mediated oxidative stress and NFκB signaling on p62 expression in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and investigated its role in regulation of autophagy and RPE survival against oxidative damage. Cultured human RPE cell line ARPE-19 and primary human adult and fetal RPE cells were exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The human apolipoprotein E4 targeted-replacement (APOE4 mouse model of AMD was used to study expression of p62 and other autophagy proteins in the retina. p62, NFκB p65 (total, phosphorylated, nuclear and cytoplasmic and ATG10 expression was assessed by mRNA and protein analyses. Cellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide were measured by CM-H2DCFDA and MitoSOX staining respectively. Mitochondrial viability was determined using MTT activity. qPCR-array system was used to investigate autophagic genes affected by p62. Nuclear and cytoplasmic levels of NFκB p65 were evaluated after cellular fractionation by Western blotting. We report that p62 is up-regulated in RPE cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress and promotes autophagic activity. Depletion of endogenous p62 reduces autophagy by downregulation of ATG10 rendering RPE more susceptible to oxidative damage. NFκB p65 phosphorylation at Ser-536 was found to be critical for p62 upregulation in response to oxidative stress. Proteasome inhibition by H2O2 causes p62-NFκB signaling as antioxidant pre-treatment reversed p62 expression and p65 phosphorylation when RPE was challenged by H2O2 but not when by Lactacystin. p62 protein but not RNA levels are elevated in APOE4-HFC AMD mouse model, suggesting reduction of autophagic flux in disease conditions. Our findings suggest that p62 is necessary for RPE cytoprotection

  16. Cathepsin inhibition-induced lysosomal dysfunction enhances pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis in high glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjeong Jung

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. We previously showed that the inhibition of autophagy causes pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy is a protective mechanism for the survival of pancreatic β-cells. The current study demonstrates that treatment with inhibitors and knockdown of the lysosomal cysteine proteases such as cathepsins B and L impair autophagy, enhancing the caspase-dependent apoptosis of INS-1 cells and islets upon exposure to high concentration of glucose. Interestingly, treatment with cathepsin B and L inhibitors prevented the proteolytic processing of cathepsins B, D and L, as evidenced by gradual accumulation of the respective pro-forms. Of note, inhibition of aspartic cathepsins had no effect on autophagy and cell viability, suggesting the selective role of cathepsins B and L in the regulation of β-cell autophagy and apoptosis. Lysosomal localization of accumulated pro-cathepsins in the presence of cathepsin B and L inhibitors was verified via immunocytochemistry and lysosomal fractionation. Lysotracker staining indicated that cathepsin B and L inhibitors led to the formation of severely enlarged lysosomes in a time-dependent manner. The abnormal accumulation of pro-cathepsins following treatment with inhibitors of cathepsins B and L suppressed normal lysosomal degradation and the processing of lysosomal enzymes, leading to lysosomal dysfunction. Collectively, our findings suggest that cathepsin defects following the inhibition of cathepsin B and L result in lysosomal dysfunction and consequent cell death in pancreatic β-cells.

  17. Autophagy inhibition enhances RAD001-induced cytotoxicity in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Chia; Yang, Shan-Che; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, is known to play a central role in regulating the growth of cancer cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway enhances tumor survival and proliferation through suppressing autophagy, which sustains energy homeostasis by collecting and recycling cellular components under stress conditions. Conversely, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway such as RAD001 induce autophagy, leading to promotion of tumor survival and limited antitumor efficacy. We thus hypothesized that the use of autophagy inhibitor in combination with mTOR inhibition improves the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in bladder cancer. The cytotoxicity of RT4, 5637, HT1376, and T24 human bladder cancer cells treated with RAD001 alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), chloroquine, or hydroxychloroquine) was assessed using the WST-8 cell viability kit. The autophagy status in cells was analyzed by the detection of microtubule-associated light chain 3 form II (LC3-II), using immunofluorescent staining and Western blot. Acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation in treated cells was determined by acridine orange vital staining. Inhibition of mTOR pathway by RAD001 was monitored by using a homemade quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene array, while phospho-mTOR was detected using Western blot. Induced apoptosis was determined by measurement of caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation in cells after treatment. Advanced bladder cancer cells (5637, HT1376, and T24) were more resistant to RAD001 than RT4. Autophagy flux detected by the expression of LC3-II showed RAD001-induced autophagy. AVO formation was detected in cells treated with RAD001 and was inhibited by the addition of 3-MA or Baf A1. Cotreatment of RAD001 with autophagy inhibitors further reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Our results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of the mTOR and autophagy

  18. Elaborating the role of natural products on the regulation of autophagy and their potentials in breast cancer therapy.

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    Zhou, Xunian; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Pu, Jianxin; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2017-03-30

    Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal/vacuolar degradation system, which the inner cytoplasmic cell membrane is degraded by the lysosomal hydrolases, followed by the resulting products released back into the cytosol. It is involved in many physiological processes which are crucial for cell growth and survival. However, disturbance in the autophagic process is often associated with a variety of human diseases, such as cancer. Breast cancer is one of the most malignant tumors characterized by the imbalanced cell proliferation, apoptosis as well as disordered autophagy regulation. The alterations of autophagy related genes or protein levels in breast cancer cells also suggested a potential implication of autophagy in breast cancer development and progression. Many natural products had been reported as potential anti-cancer agents or being considered as direct or indirect sources of new chemotherapy adjuvants to enhance the efficacy or to ameliorate the side effects through the modulation of autophagy. Investigation of the underlying mechanism of these compounds could be crucial for the development of new therapeutic or chemopreventive options for breast cancer treatment. In this review, a summary of those natural products that can regulate autophagy in breast cancer will be presented and the potential value of such autophagy modulators on the development of anti-cancer drugs will be discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. A prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor, ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, induces cell autophagy and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells via up-regulation of BNIP3 and N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1.

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    Bo Han

    Full Text Available The protocatechuic acid ethyl ester ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate is an antioxidant found in the testa of peanut seeds. Previous studies have shown that ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate can effectively reduce breast cancer cell metastasis by inhibiting prolyl-hydroxylase. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and identified key regulators of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-induced esophageal cancer cell death through transcription expression profiling. Using flow cytometry analysis, we found that ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate induced S phase accumulation, a loss in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, an expression profile analysis identified 46 up- and 9 down-regulated genes in esophageal cancer KYSE 170 cells treated with ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. These differentially expressed genes are involved in several signaling pathways associated with cell cycle regulation and cellular metabolism. Consistent with the expression profile results, the transcriptional and protein expression levels of candidate genes NDRG1, BNIP3, AKR1C1, CCNG2 and VEGFA were found to be significantly increased in treated KYSE 170 cells by reverse-transcription PCR and western blot analysis. We also found that protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, BNIP3, Beclin and NDRG1 were increased and that enriched expression of BNIP3 and Beclin caused autophagy mediated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 in the treated cells. Autophagy and apoptosis were activated together in esophageal cancer cells after exposed to ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. Furthermore, knock-down of NDRG1 expression by siRNA significantly attenuated apoptosis in the cancer cells, implying that NDRG1 may be required for ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Change in Meat Quality of the Breast Muscle of Broilers Is Mediated by ROS Generation, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in the NF-κB Signal Pathway.

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    Chen, Xiangxing; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-05-17

    We investigated the relationship between meat quality and oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the breast muscle of broilers. Moreover, we explored the occurrence of apoptosis and autophagy, as well as the expression of NF-κB in these signaling pathways to provide evidence of possible oxidative damage mechanisms. The broilers received a basal diet and were randomly divided into five treatments (noninjected control, 0.75% saline-injected, and 2.5%, 5.0%, or 10.0% H2O2-injected treatments; 1.0 mL/kg in body weight). The results showed that oxidative stress induced by H2O2 had a negative effect on relative muscle weight, histomorphology, and redox status, while the underlying oxidative damage caused a decline in meat quality (decrease of pH24h, 10% H2O2 treatment; increase of shear force, 5% and 10% H2O2 treatments) of broilers. This could be attributed to the apoptosis and autophagy processes triggered by excessive reactive oxygen species that suppress the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  1. Abortive autophagy induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in cancer cells.

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    Sofie Claerhout

    Full Text Available Autophagic cell death or abortive autophagy has been proposed to eliminate damaged as well as cancer cells, but there remains a critical gap in our knowledge in how this process is regulated. The goal of this study was to identify modulators of the autophagic cell death pathway and elucidate their effects on cellular signaling and function. The result of our siRNA library screenings show that an intact coatomer complex I (COPI is obligatory for productive autophagy. Depletion of COPI complex members decreased cell survival and impaired productive autophagy which preceded endoplasmic reticulum stress. Further, abortive autophagy provoked by COPI depletion significantly altered growth factor signaling in multiple cancer cell lines. Finally, we show that COPI complex members are overexpressed in an array of cancer cell lines and several types of cancer tissues as compared to normal cell lines or tissues. In cancer tissues, overexpression of COPI members is associated with poor prognosis. Our results demonstrate that the coatomer complex is essential for productive autophagy and cellular survival, and thus inhibition of COPI members may promote cell death of cancer cells when apoptosis is compromised.

  2. Regulation of autophagy via PERK-eIF2α effectively relieve the radiation myelitis induced by iodine-125.

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    Zuozhang Yang

    Full Text Available Radiation myelitis is the most serious complication in clinical radiotherapy for spinal metastases. We previously showed that (125I brachytherapy induced apoptosis of spinal cord neurons accompanied by autophagy. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism by which (125I radiation triggered autophagy in neural cells. We found that autophagy induced by (125I radiation was involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and mainly dependent on PERK-eIF2α pathway. The expressions of LC3II, ATG12 and PI3K were significantly suppressed in PERK knockout neural cells. Meanwhile, the expressions of phosphorylated-Akt s473 and caspase3/8 all significantly increased in neural cells transfected with a PERK siRNA and which enhanced apoptosis of neurons after (125I radiation. The results were consistent with that by MTT and Annexin-FITC/PT staining. In animal model of banna pigs with radiation myelitis caused by (125I brachytherapy, we have successfully decreased PERK expression by intrathecal administration of the lentivirus vector. The apoptosis rate was significantly higher than that in control group and which deteriorated radiation myelitis of banna pigs. Thus, autophagy caused by (125I radiation was mainly as an attempt of cell survival at an early stage, but it would be a self-destructive process and promoted the process of apoptosis and necrosis radiated by (125I for more than 72 hours. The study would be useful and helpful to maximize efficiency of radiation therapy in clinical therapy.

  3. Effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress on the autophagy, apoptosis, and chemotherapy resistance of human breast cancer cells by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

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    Zhong, Jia-Teng; Yu, Jian; Wang, Hai-Jun; Shi, Yu; Zhao, Tie-Suo; He, Bao-Xia; Qiao, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Wei

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, although chemotherapy is an established therapy for breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer remain poorly understood. This study aims to explore the effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress on autophagy, apoptosis, and chemotherapy resistance in human breast cancer cells by regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to detect the cell viability of six human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-30, T47D, MDA-MB-435s, MDA-MB-453, and MDA-MB-231) treated with tunicamycin (5 µM), after which MCF-7 cells were selected for further experiment. Then, MCF-7 cells were divided into the control (without any treatment), tunicamycin (8 µ), BEZ235 (5 µ), and tunicamycin + BEZ235 groups. Cell viability of each group was testified by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Western blotting was applied to determine the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-related proteins and autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins. Monodansylcadaverine and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining were used for determination of cell autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells were divided into the control (without any treatment), tunicamycin (5 µM), cisplatin (16 µM), cisplatin (16 µM) + BEZ235 (5 µM), tunicamycin (5 µM) + cisplatin (16 µM), and tunicamycin (5 µM) + cisplatin (16 µM) + BEZ235 groups. Cell viability and apoptosis were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In MCF-7 cells treated with tunicamycin, cell viability decreased significantly, but PEAK, eIF2, and CHOP were upregulated markedly and p-PI3K, p-AKT, and p-MTOR were downregulated in dose- and time-dependent manners. In the tunicamycin

  4. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-06-09

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  5. Lipopolysaccharides may aggravate apoptosis through accumulation of autophagosomes in alveolar macrophages of human silicosis.

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    Chen, Shi; Yuan, Juxiang; Yao, Sanqiao; Jin, Yulan; Chen, Gang; Tian, Wei; Xi, Jinkun; Xu, Zhelong; Weng, Dong; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Silica dust mainly attacks alveolar macrophages (AMs) and increases the apoptosis of AMs in silicosis patients. However, it is still unclear whether autophagy is affected. Autophagy mainly has defensive functions in response to stress, contributing to cell survival in adverse conditions, and conversely it has also been implicated in cell death. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces autophagy and apoptosis in macrophages. The role of LPS in autophagy and apoptosis in AMs of silicosis patients is unknown. In this study, we collected AMs from 53 male workers exposed to silica and divided them into an observer (control) group, and stage I, II and III patient groups. We found increased levels of LC3B, SQSTM1/p62 and BECN1,whereas the phosphorylation of MTOR,and levels of LAMP2, TLR4, MYD88, TICAM1, as well as the number of lysosomes decreased with the development of silicosis. LPS stimulation triggered autophagy and increased levels of SQSTM1 in AMs. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), inhibited LPS-induced apoptosis in the AMs of silicosis patients. Moreover, 3MA reversed the LPS-induced decrease in BCL2 and the increase in BAX and CASP3 levels in AMs. These results suggest that autophagosomes accumulate in AMs during silicosis progression. LPS can induce the formation of autophagosomes through a TLR4-dependent pathway, and LPS may exacerbate the apoptosis in AMs. Blockade of the formation of autophagosomes may inhibit LPS-induced apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in AMs. These findings describe novel mechanisms that may lead to new preventive and therapeutic strategies for pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. N-Desmethyldauricine Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Apoptosis-Defective Cells via Ca(2+) Mobilization.

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    Law, Betty Y K; Mok, Simon W F; Chen, Juan; Michelangeli, Francesco; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Han, Yu; Qu, Yuan Q; Qiu, Alena C L; Xu, Su-Wei; Xue, Wei-Wei; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Jia Y; Javed, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Coghi, Paolo; Liu, Liang; Wong, Vincent K W

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy remains a significant problem in oncology. Mechanisms regulating programmed cell death, including apoptosis, autophagy or necrosis, in the treatment of cancers have been extensively investigated over the last few decades. Autophagy is now emerging as an important pathway in regulating cell death or survival in cancer therapy. Recent studies demonstrated variety of natural small-molecules could induce autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells, therefore, discovery of novel autophagic enhancers from natural products could be a promising strategy for treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancer. By computational virtual docking analysis, biochemical assays, and advanced live-cell imaging techniques, we have identified N-desmethyldauricine (LP-4), isolated from rhizoma of Menispermum dauricum DC as a novel inducer of autophagy. LP-4 was shown to induce autophagy via the Ulk-1-PERK and Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)-AMPK-mTOR signaling cascades, via mobilizing calcium release through inhibition of SERCA, and importantly, lead to autophagic cell death in a panel of cancer cells, apoptosis-defective and apoptosis-resistant cells. Taken together, this study provides detailed insights into the cytotoxic mechanism of a novel autophagic compound that targeting the apoptosis resistant cancer cells, and new implication on drug discovery from natural products for drug resistant cancer therapy.

  7. Inflammation, apoptosis, and necrosis induced by neoadjuvant fas ligand gene therapy improves survival of dogs with spontaneous bone cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Jaime F; Bellgrau, Donald; Cutter, Gary R; Lana, Susan E; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ehrhart, Ej; Wilke, Vicki L; Charles, J Brad; Munson, Sibyl; Scott, Milcah C; Pozniak, John; Carlson, Cathy S; Schaack, Jerome; Duke, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) gene therapy for cancer has shown promise in rodents; however, its efficacy in higher mammals remains unknown. Here, we used intratumoral FasL gene therapy delivered in an adenovirus vector (Ad-FasL) as neoadjuvant to standard of care in 56 dogs with osteosarcoma. Tumors from treated dogs had greater inflammation, necrosis, apoptosis, and fibrosis at day 10 (amputation) compared to pretreatment biopsies or to tumors from dogs that did not receive Ad-FasL. Survival improvement was apparent in dogs with inflammation or lymphocyte-infiltration scores >1 (in a 3-point scale), as well as in dogs that had apoptosis scores in the top 50th percentile (determined by cleaved caspase-3). Survival was no different than that expected from standard of care alone in dogs with inflammation scores ≤1 or apoptosis scores in the bottom 50th percentile. Reduced Fas expression by tumor cells was associated with prognostically advantageous inflammation, and this was seen only in dogs that received Ad-FasL. Together, the data suggest that Ad-FasL gene therapy improves survival in a subset of large animals with naturally occurring tumors, and that at least in some tumor types like osteosarcoma, it is most effective when tumor cells fail to express Fas.

  8. Neferine reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tang, Yuling; Wen, Long; Kong, Xianglong; Chen, Xuelian; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Zhiguo; Chen, Wenhang; Xiao, Chenggen; Xiao, Ping; Xiao, Xiangcheng

    2017-03-11

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents; however, its clinical use is limited by serious side effects of which nephrotoxicity is the most important. Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin is closely associated with autophagy reduction and caspase activation. In this study, we investigated whether neferine, an autophagy inducer, had a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In an in vitro cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity model, we determined that neferine was able to induce autophagy and that pretreatment with neferine not only attenuated cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis but further activated cell autophagy. This pro-survival effect was abolished by the autophagic flux inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, neferine pretreatment activated the AMPK/mTOR pathway; however, pharmacological inhibition of AMPK abolished neferine-mediated autophagy and nephroprotection against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our findings suggest for the first time the possible protective mechanism of neferine, which is crucial for its further development as a potential therapeutic agent for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of heat shock proteins in cell apoptosis

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    Arleta Kaźmierczuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is, apart from necrosis and autophagy, one of the possible cell death mechanisms eliminating needless, not normal or infected cells. This process ensures quantitative and qualitative cell control of organisms. Apoptosis is tightly regulated, it requires both activation of a large number of genes and energy input. Up-to-date two main apoptotic pathways have been recognized – external/receptor and internal, processed with the participation of mitochondria. Heat shock proteins HSPs, the molecules known from their chaperone activity and molecular conservatism, play essential functions in the course of apoptosis. Among that proteins family, i.e. HSP100, 90, 70, 60, 40 and small molecular (sHSP, there are agents mainly protective against programmed cell death. However, in some conditions some of these proteins may promote apoptosis. This review describes different key apoptotic proteins interacting with main members of HSP family and the consequence of these events for cell survival or apoptosis.

  10. Lysophosphatidic acid rescues bone mesenchymal stem cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Yun; Fan, Xue-Song; Cai, Lin; Liu, Si; Cong, Xiang-Feng; Chen, Xi

    2015-03-01

    The increase of reactive oxygen species in infracted heart significantly reduces the survival of donor mesenchymal stem cells, thereby attenuating the therapeutic efficacy for myocardial infarction. In our previous study, we demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) protects bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) against hypoxia and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. However, whether LPA protects BMSCs from H2O2-induced apoptosis was not examined. In this study, we report that H2O2 induces rat BMSC apoptosis whereas LPA pre-treatment effectively protects BMSCs from H2O2-induced apoptosis. LPA protection of BMSC from the induced apoptosis is mediated mostly through LPA3 receptor. Furthermore, we found that membrane G protein Gi2 and Gi3 are involved in LPA-elicited anti-apoptotic effects through activation of ERK1/2- and PI3 K-pathways. Additionally, H2O2 increases levels of type II of light chain 3B (LC3B II), an autophagy marker, and H2O2-induced autophagy thus protected BMSCs from apoptosis. LPA further increases the expression of LC3B II in the presence of H2O2. In contrast, autophagy flux inhibitor bafilomycin A1 has no effect on LPA's protection of BMSC from H2O2-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that LPA rescues H2O2-induced apoptosis mainly by interacting with Gi-coupled LPA3, resulting activation of the ERK1/2- and PI3 K/AKT-pathways and inhibition caspase-3 cleavage, and LPA protection of BMSCs against the apoptosis is independent of it induced autophagy.

  11. Assessment of the effect of sphingosine kinase inhibitors on apoptosis,unfolded protein response and autophagy of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells; indications for novel therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Cecilia; Evangelisti, Camilla; Teti, Gabriella; Chiarini, Francesca; Falconi, Mirella; Melchionda, Fraia; Pession, Andrea; Bertaina, Alice; Locatelli, Franco; McCubrey, James A.; Beak, Dong Jae; Bittman, Robert; Pyne, Susan; Pyne, Nigel J.; Martelli, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that is formed by the phosphorylation of sphingosine and catalysed by sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) or sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2). Sphingosine kinases play a fundamental role in many signaling pathways associated with cancer, suggesting that proteins belonging to this signaling network represent potential therapeutic targets. Over the last years, many improvements have been made in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL); however, novel and less toxic therapies are still needed, especially for relapsing and chemo-resistant patients. Here, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of SKi and ROMe, a sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor and SK2-selective inhibitor, respectively. While SKi induced apoptosis, ROMe initiated an autophagic cell death in our in vitro cell models. SKi treatment induced an increase in SK1 protein levels in Molt-4 cells, whereas it activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in Jurkat and CEM-R cells as protective mechanisms in a sub-population of T-ALL cells. Interestingly, we observed a synergistic effect of SKi with the classical chemotherapeutic drug vincristine. In addition, we reported that SKi affected signaling cascades implicated in survival, proliferation and stress response of cells. These findings indicate that SK1 or SK2 represent potential targets for treating T-ALL. PMID:25226616

  12. Retracted: Sirt3 activation attenuated oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells' apoptosis by sustaining autophagy by Luo, X, Yang, Z, Zheng, S, Cao, Y and Wu, Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The above article, published online on 05 May 2014 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbin.10291/full), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor, Sergio Schenkman, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the authors discovered that the results of section 3 in this paper were irreproducible. In addition, Zhiqiang Yang, a co-author, states conflict of interest in this paper. The authors and publisher apologize for any inconvenience. Reference Luo X, Yang Z, Zheng S, Cao Y, Wu Y (2014) Sirt3 activation attenuated oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells' apoptosis by sustaining autophagy. Cell Biol Int, https://doi.org/10.1002/cbin.10291. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. mTOR inhibition increases cell viability via autophagy induction during endoplasmic reticulum stress – An experimental and modeling study

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    Orsolya Kapuy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER trigger an adaptive ER stress response known as unfolded protein response (UPR. Depending on the severity of ER stress, either autophagy-controlled survival or apoptotic cell death can be induced. The molecular mechanisms by which UPR controls multiple fate decisions have started to emerge. One such molecular mechanism involves a master regulator of cell growth, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, which paradoxically is shown to have pro-apoptotic role by mutually interacting with ER stress response. How the interconnections between UPR and mTOR influence the dynamics of autophagy and apoptosis activation is still unclear. Here we make an attempt to explore this problem by using experiments and mathematical modeling. The effect of perturbed mTOR activity in ER stressed cells was studied on autophagy and cell viability by using agents causing mTOR pathway inhibition (such as rapamycin or metyrapone. We observed that mTOR inhibition led to an increase in cell viability and was accompanied by an increase in autophagic activity. It was also shown that autophagy was activated under conditions of severe ER stress but that in the latter phase of stress it was inhibited at the time of apoptosis activation. Our mathematical model shows that both the activation threshold and temporal dynamics of autophagy and apoptosis inducers are sensitive to variation in mTOR activity. These results confirm that autophagy has cytoprotective role and is activated in mutually exclusive manner with respect to ER stress levels.

  14. Osteoporosis and autophagy: What is the relationship?

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    Rinaldo Florencio-Silva

    Full Text Available Summary Autophagy is a survival pathway wherein non-functional proteins and organelles are degraded in lysosomes for recycling and energy production. Therefore, autophagy is fundamental for the maintenance of cell viability, acting as a quality control process that prevents the accumulation of unnecessary structures and oxidative stress. Increasing evidence has shown that autophagy dysfunction is related to several pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Moreover, recent studies have shown that autophagy plays an important role for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. For instance, in vitro and animal and human studies indicate that autophagy dysfunction in bone cells is associated with the onset of bone diseases such as osteoporosis. This review had the purpose of discussing the issue to confirm whether a relationship between autophagy dysfunction and osteoporosis exits.

  15. E2F1-Mediated Induction of NFYB Attenuates Apoptosis via Joint Regulation of a Pro-Survival Transcriptional Program.

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    Xiaolei Jiang

    Full Text Available The E2F1 transcription factor regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through the control of a considerable variety of target genes. Previous work has detailed the role of other transcription factors in mediating the specificity of E2F function. Here we identify the NF-YB transcription factor as a novel direct E2F1 target. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of NFYB knockdown on E2F1-mediated transcription identified a large group of genes that are co-regulated by E2F1 and NFYB. We also provide evidence that knockdown of NFYB enhances E2F1-induced apoptosis, suggesting a pro-survival function of the NFYB/E2F1 joint transcriptional program. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that deregulation of these NFY-dependent E2F1 target genes might play a role in sarcomagenesis as well as drug resistance.

  16. Melatonin reduces hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) induced autophagy and apoptosis: An in vivo and in vitro investigation in experimental models of neonatal HI brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingying; Wang, Zhouguang; Liu, Yanlong; Pan, Shulin; Zhang, Hao; Fang, Mingchu; Jiang, Huai; Yin, Jiayu; Zou, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhenmao; Zhang, Hongyu; Lin, Zhenlang; Xiao, Jian

    2017-07-13

    Melatonin has neuroprotective effects in many diseases, including neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin both in vivo and in vitro and associated molecular mechanisms behind these effects. Postnatal day 7 male and female rat pups were subjected to unilateral HI, melatonin was injected intraperitoneally 1h before HI and an additional six doses were administered at 24h intervals. The pups were sacrificed at 24h and 7 d after HI. Pre-treatment with melatonin significantly reduced brain damage at 7 d after HI, with 15mg/kg melatonin achieving over 30% recovery in tissue loss compared to vehicle-treated animals. Autophagy and apoptotic cell death as indicated by autophagy associated proteins, cleaved caspase 3 and Tunel staining, was significantly inhibited after melatonin treatment in vivo as well as in PC12 cells. Melatonin treatment also significantly increased the GAP43 in the cortex. In conclusion, melatonin treatment reduced neonatal rat brain injury after HI, and this appeared to be related to inhibiting autophagy as well as reducing apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extracellular administration of BCL2 protein reduces apoptosis and improves survival in a murine model of sepsis.

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    Akiko Iwata

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe sepsis and septic shock are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In experimental sepsis there is prominent apoptosis of various cell types, and genetic manipulation of death and survival pathways has been shown to modulate organ injury and survival.We investigated the effect of extracellular administration of two anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 family of intracellular regulators of cell death in a murine model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. We show that intraperitoneal injection of picomole range doses of recombinant human (rh BCL2 or rhBCL2A1 protein markedly improved survival as assessed by surrogate markers of death. Treatment with rhBCL2 or rhBCL2A1 protein significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the intestine and heart following CLP, and this was accompanied by increased expression of endogenous mouse BCL2 protein. Further, mice treated with rhBCL2A1 protein showed an increase in the total number of neutrophils in the peritoneum following CLP with reduced neutrophil apoptosis. Finally, although neither BCL2 nor BCL2A1 are a direct TLR2 ligand, TLR2-null mice were not protected by rhBCL2A1 protein, indicating that TLR2 signaling was required for the protective activity of extracellularly adminsitered BCL2A1 protein in vivo.Treatment with rhBCL2A1 or rhBCL2 protein protects mice from sepsis by reducing apoptosis in multiple target tissues, demonstrating an unexpected, potent activity of extracellularly administered BCL2 BH4-domain proteins.

  18. Metformin plays a dual role in MIN6 pancreatic β cell function through AMPK-dependent autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingling; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Xu, Zhipeng; He, Jieyu; Lin, Xiaohong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhang, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in insulin sensitive tissues such as liver, muscle and fat. However, the functional roles and the underlying mechanism of metformin action in pancreatic β cells remain elusive. Here we show that, under normal growth condition, metformin suppresses MIN6 β cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via an AMPK-dependent and autophagy-mediated mechanism. On the other hand, metformin protects MIN6 cells against palmitic acid (PA)-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that metformin plays a dual role in β cell survival and overdose of this anti-diabetic drug itself may lead to potential β cell toxicity.

  19. Aliskiren Improves Ischemia- and Oxygen Glucose Deprivation-Induced Cardiac Injury through Activation of Autophagy and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

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    Ming-Hsien Chiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor that has been effective in anti-hypertension. We investigated whether aliskiren could improve the ischemia-induced cardiac injury and whether the autophagy was involved in this effect. A myocardial infarction (MI model was created by the ligation of the left anterior coronary artery in C57J/BL6 mice. They were treated for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days with vehicle or aliskiren (25 mg/kg/day via subcutaneous injection. In vivo, the MI mice exhibited worse cardiac function by echocardiographic assessment and showed larger myocardial scarring by light microscopy, whereas aliskiren treatment reversed these effects, which were also associated with the changes in caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression as well as in the number of apoptotic cells. Aliskiren increased autophagy, as demonstrated by LC3B-II expression and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were employed as an in vitro model to examine the effects of aliskiren on apoptosis and autophagy under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD-induced injury. Aliskiren significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The beneficial effects of aliskiren were associated with decreased apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential as well as increased autophagy via increased autophagosome formation. We also found that aliskiren-induced cardiomyocyte survival occurred via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-dependent autophagy. Taken together, these results indicated that aliskiren increased cardiomyocyte survival through increased autophagosomal formation and decreased apoptosis and necrosis via modulating AMPK expression. AMPK-dependent autophagy may represent a novel mechanism for aliskiren in ischemic cardiac disease therapy.

  20. Autophagy and the nutritional signaling pathway

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    Long HE,Shabnam ESLAMFAM,Xi MA,Defa LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During their growth and development, animals adapt to tremendous changes in order to survive. These include responses to both environmental and physiological changes and autophagy is one of most important adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Autophagy is defined as an autolytic process to clear damaged cellular organelles and recycle the nutrients via lysosomic degradation. The process of autophagy responds to special conditions such as nutrient withdrawal. Once autophagy is induced, phagophores form and then elongate and curve to form autophagosomes. Autophagosomes then engulf cargo, fuse with endosomes, and finally fuse with lysosomes for maturation. During the initiation process, the ATG1/ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1 and VPS34 (which encodes a class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns 3-kinase complexes are critical in recruitment and assembly of other complexes required for autophagy. The process of autophagy is regulated by autophagy related genes (ATGs. Amino acid and energy starvation mediate autophagy by activating mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK is the energy status sensor, the core nutrient signaling component and the metabolic kinase of cells. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of autophagy regulated by nutrient signaling especially for the two important complexes, ULK1 and VPS34.

  1. Effects of propranolol in combination with radiation on apoptosis and survival of gastric cancer cells in vitro

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    Chaudhary Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN guidelines recommend radiotherapy as a standard treatment for patients with a high risk of recurrence in gastric cancer. Because gastric cancer demonstrates limited sensitivity to radiotherapy, a radiosensitizer might therefore be useful to enhance the radiosensitivity of patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated if propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor (β-AR antagonist, could enhance radiosensitivity and explored its precise molecular mechanism in gastric cancer cells. Methods Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines (SGC-7901 and BGC-823 were treated with or without propranolol and exposed to radiation. Cell viability and clonogenic survival assays were performed, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR were detected by western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Propranolol combined with radiation decreased cell viability and clonogenic survivability. Furthermore, it also induced apoptosis in both cell lines tested, as determined by Annexin V staining. In addition, treatment with propranolol decreased the level of NF-κB and, subsequently, down-regulated VEGF, COX-2, and EGFR expression. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggested that propranolol enhanced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to radiation through the inhibition of β-ARs and the downstream NF-κB-VEGF/EGFR/COX-2 pathway.

  2. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

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    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  3. High-mobility group box 1 regulates cytoprotective autophagy in a mouse spermatocyte cell line (GC-2spd) exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Z; Chen, Y; Niu, X; He, W; Song, B; Fan, D; Sun, X

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that induces a broad spectrum of toxicological effects, influences a variety of human organs, and is associated with poor semen quality and male infertility. Increasing evidence demonstrates that Cd induces testicular germ cell apoptosis in rodent animals. However, the specific effect of Cd exposure on autophagy in germ cells is poorly understood. We investigate the role of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, on Cd-evoked autophagy in a mouse spermatocyte cell line (GC-2spd). Our data have shown that autophagy was significantly elevated in GC-2spd cells exposed to Cd. Furthermore, there was a reduction in rapamycin (RAP)-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Cd exposure reduced cell viability, which is an effect that could be significantly inhibited by RAP treatment. These results indicate that autophagy appears to serve a positive function in reducing Cd-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, HMGB1 increased coincident with the processing of LC3-I to LC3-II. Thus, the upregulation of HMGB1 increases LC3-II levels. Our data suggest that HMGB1-induced autophagy appears to act as a defense/survival mechanism against Cd cytotoxicity in GC-2spd cells.

  4. Apoptosis – is it good or bad?

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    Bakir Mehić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used classification of mammalian cell death recognizes two types: apoptosis and necrosis. Autophagy, which has been proposed as a third mode of cell death allows a starving cell, or in situations when cell is deprived of growth factors, to survive. Apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis, a particular mode of cell death may predominate, depending of the injury and the type of cell. [1] One very important characteristic of all multicellular organisms is apoptosis, the controlled death of cells. In necrosis, early loss of integrity of the plasma membrane resultant with swelling of the cell and its organelles. A key morphologic feature of apoptosis is collapses of cell and its subcellular components.[2] The distinction between apoptosis and necrosis is due in part to differences in how the plasma membrane participates in these processes. In apoptosis, plasma membrane integrity persists until late in the process. In necrosis, early loss of integrity of the plasma membrane allows an influx of extracellular ions and fluid, with resultant swelling of the cell and its organelles. During that time, on the inside of cell there occurs the cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins by aspartate specific proteases, which thereby collapses subcellular components. Other characteristic features are chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and the formation of plasma membrane blebs. The type and intensity of noxious signals, ATP concentration, cell type, and other factors determine how cell death occurs. Acute myocardial ischemia induces necrosis (because the ischemia precipitates rapid and profound decreases of ATP, whereas chronic congestive heart failure induces apoptosis (with more modest and chronic decreases of ATP. The blockade of a particular pathway of cell death may not prevent the destruction of the cell but may instead recruit an alternative path: antiapoptotic caspase inhibitors cause hyperacute necrosis of hepatocytes and kidney tubular cells

  5. Autophagy inhibition enhances RAD001-induced cytotoxicity in human bladder cancer cells

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    Lin JF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Fan Lin,1 Yi-Chia Lin,2,3 Shan-Che Yang,1 Te-Fu Tsai,2,3 Hung-En Chen,2 Kuang-Yu Chou,2,3 Thomas I-Sheng Hwang2–4 1Central Laboratory, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, is known to play a central role in regulating the growth of cancer cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway enhances tumor survival and proliferation through suppressing autophagy, which sustains energy homeostasis by collecting and recycling cellular components under stress conditions. Conversely, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway such as RAD001 induce autophagy, leading to promotion of tumor survival and limited antitumor efficacy. We thus hypothesized that the use of autophagy inhibitor in combination with mTOR inhibition improves the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in bladder cancer.Materials and methods: The cytotoxicity of RT4, 5637, HT1376, and T24 human bladder cancer cells treated with RAD001 alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine (3-MA, bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, chloroquine, or hydroxychloroquine was assessed using the WST-8 cell viability kit. The autophagy status in cells was analyzed by the detection of microtubule-associated light chain 3 form II (LC3-II, using immunofluorescent staining and Western blot. Acidic vesicular organelle (AVO formation in treated cells was determined by acridine orange vital staining. Inhibition of mTOR pathway by RAD001 was monitored by using a homemade quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene array, while phospho-mTOR was detected using Western blot. Induced apoptosis was determined by measurement of caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation in cells after

  6. Born to be alive: a role for the BCL-2 family in melanoma tumor cell survival, apoptosis, and treatment

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    Rina Ashish Anvekar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The global incidence of melanoma has dramatically increased during the recent decades, yet the advancement of primary and adjuvant therapies has not kept a similar pace. The development of melanoma is often centered on cellular signaling that hyper-activates survival pathways, while inducing a concomitant blockade to cell death. Aberrations in cell death signaling not only promote tumor survival and enhanced metastatic potential, but also create resistance to anti-tumor strategies. Chemotherapeutic agents target melanoma tumor cells by inducing a form of cell death called apoptosis, which is governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The BCL-2 family is comprised of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1 and pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BAK, BAX, and BIM, and their coordinated regulation and function are essential for optimal responses to chemotherapeutics. Here we will discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of BCL-2 family function with a focus on the signaling pathways that maintain melanoma tumor cell survival. Importantly, we will critically evaluate the literature regarding how chemotherapeutic strategies directly impact on BCL-2 family function and offer several suggestions for future regimens to target melanoma and enhance patient survival.

  7. Cucurbitane Triterpenoid from Momordica charantia Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Breast Cancer Cells, in Part, through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activation

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    Jing-Ru Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the antitumor activity of the crude extract of wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. has been reported, its bioactive constituents and the underlying mechanism remain undefined. Here, we report that 3β,7β-dihydroxy-25-methoxycucurbita-5,23-diene-19-al (DMC, a cucurbitane-type triterpene isolated from wild bitter gourd, induced apoptotic death in breast cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ activation. Luciferase reporter assays indicated the ability of DMC to activate PPARγ, and pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ protected cells from DMC's antiproliferative effect. Western blot analysis indicated that DMC suppressed the expression of many PPARγ-targeted signaling effectors, including cyclin D1, CDK6, Bcl-2, XIAP, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-κB, and estrogen receptor α, and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, as manifested by the induction of GADD153 and GRP78 expression. Moreover, DMC inhibited mTOR-p70S6K signaling through Akt downregulation and AMPK activation. The ability of DMC to activate AMPK in liver kinase (LK B1-deficient MDA-MB-231 cells suggests that this activation was independent of LKB1-regulated cellular metabolic status. However, DMC induced a cytoprotective autophagy presumably through mTOR inhibition, which could be overcome by the cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Together, the ability of DMC to modulate multiple PPARγ-targeted signaling pathways provides a mechanistic basis to account for the antitumor activity of wild bitter gourd.

  8. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

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    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity and carbonyl formation. Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival following LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice following LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O2−, and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury following LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant NAC and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. PMID:22902401

  9. Autophagy protects type II alveolar epithelial cells from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xu-Guang [Center for Clinical Laboratory Medicine of PLA, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Ji, Tian-Xing [Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Xia, Yong, E-mail: gysyxy@gmail.com [Center for Clinical Laboratory Medicine of PLA, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ma, Yue-Yun, E-mail: cmbmayy@fmmu.edu.cn [Center for Clinical Laboratory Medicine of PLA, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► We investigated the protective effect of autophagy pathway against MTB infection. ► MTB-infected A549 cells had higher LDH release. ► Inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced the MTB-induced necrosis. ► Autophagy prevents apoptosis and promotes cell survival in infected cells. -- Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the autophagy signaling pathway against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in type II alveolar epithelial cells. An in vitro M. tuberculosis system was established using human A549 cells. Infection-induced changes in the expression of the autophagic marker LC3 were assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Morphological changes in autophagosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The function of the autophagy signaling pathway during infection was assessed by measuring the level of cell death and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the presence or absence of the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, effects on LDH release were assessed after the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the essential autophagosomal structural membrane protein Atg5. LC3 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells (16888.76 ± 1576.34 vs. uninfected: 12744.29 ± 1089.37; P < 0.05). TEM revealed M.tuberculosis bacilli-containing compartments that were surrounded by double membranes characteristic of the autophagic process. M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells released more LDH (1.45 ± 0.12 vs. uninfected: 0.45 ± 0.04; P < 0.05). The inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced M.tuberculosis-induced necrosis (3-MA: 75 ± 5% vs. untreated: 15 ± 1%; P < 0.05) and LDH release (3-MA: 2.50 ± 0.24 vs. untreated: 0.45 ± 0.04; Atg5 knockdown: 3.19 ± 0.29 vs. untreated: 1.28 ± 0.11; P < 0.05). Our results indicate that autophagy signaling pathway prevents apoptosis in type II alveolar epithelial cells

  10. Glucocorticoids induce autophagy in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Fan, J.; Lin, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a widespread clinical complication following glucocorticoid therapy. This irreversible damage to boneforming and resorbing cells is essential in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Autophagy is a physiological process involved in the regulation of cells ...... that in response to glucocorticoid administration, induced autophagy aids to maintain proliferation and prevent apoptosis of BMSCs. Thus, it is hypothesized that autophagy may be a novel target in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis.......Glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a widespread clinical complication following glucocorticoid therapy. This irreversible damage to boneforming and resorbing cells is essential in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Autophagy is a physiological process involved in the regulation of cells...

  11. Ethanol extract of propolis and its constituent caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation in inflammatory microenvironment by inhibiting TLR4 signal pathway and inducing apoptosis and autophagy.

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    Chang, Huasong; Wang, Yuehua; Yin, Xusheng; Liu, Xinying; Xuan, Hongzhuan

    2017-09-26

    Propolis and its major constituent - caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) have good abilities on antitumor and anti-inflammation. However, little is known about the actions of propolis and CAPE on tumor in inflammatory microenvironment, and inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development. To understand the effects and mechanisms of ethanol-extracted Chinese propolis (EECP) and its major constituent - CAPE in inflammation-stimulated tumor, we investigated their effects on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway which plays a crucial role in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line. 80% confluent breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were stimulated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Then the cells were divided for treatment by CAPE (25 μg/mL) and EECP (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), respectively. Cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) production and cell migration were measured by sulforhodamine B assay, chemical method and scratch assay. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4, TRIF, caspase 3, PARP, LC3B and p62 were investigated through western blotting. The expression of TLR4, LC3B and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) were tested by immunofluorescence microscopy assay. Treatment of different concentrations of EECP (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) and CAPE (25 μg/mL) significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated MDA-MB-231 cell line proliferation, migration and NO production. Furthermore, EECP and CAPE activated caspase3 and PARP to induce cell apoptosis, and also upregulated LC3-II and decreased p62 level to induce autophagy during the process. TLR4 signaling pathway molecules such as TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4, TRIF and NF-κB p65 were all down-regulated after EECP and CAPE treatment in LPS-stimulated MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings indicated that EECP and its major constituent - CAPE inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation in inflammatory microenvironment through activating apoptosis, autophagy and inhibiting TLR4 signaling pathway. EECP and

  12. Autophagy in filamentous fungi.

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    Pollack, Judith K; Harris, Steven D; Marten, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy is a ubiquitous, non-selective degradation process in eukaryotic cells that is conserved from yeast to man. Autophagy research has increased significantly in the last ten years, as autophagy has been connected with cancer, neurodegenerative disease and various human developmental processes. Autophagy also appears to play an important role in filamentous fungi, impacting growth, morphology and development. In this review, an autophagy model developed for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as an intellectual framework to discuss autophagy in filamentous fungi. Studies imply that, similar to yeast, fungal autophagy is characterized by the presence of autophagosomes and controlled by Tor kinase. In addition, fungal autophagy is apparently involved in protection against cell death and has significant effects on cellular growth and development. However, the only putative autophagy proteins characterized in filamentous fungi are Atg1 and Atg8. We discuss various strategies used to study and monitor fungal autophagy as well as the possible relationship between autophagy, physiology, and morphological development.

  13. Autophagy Supports Breast Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance by Regulating IL6 Secretion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maycotte, Paola; Jones, Kenneth L; Goodall, Megan L; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Thorburn, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .... The autophagy is thought to be a critical process for cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor-initiating cell maintenance but the mechanisms by which autophagy supports survival of CSCs remain poorly understood...

  14. Baicalin improves survival in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis via suppressing inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis.

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    Jiali Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An imbalance between overwhelming inflammation and lymphocyte apoptosis is the main cause of high mortality in patients with sepsis. Baicalin, the main active ingredient of the Scutellaria root, exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and even antibacterial properties in inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of baicalin on polymicrobial sepsis remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were infused with baicalin intraperitoneally at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h after CLP. Survival rates were assessed over the subsequent 8 days. Bacterial burdens in blood and peritoneal cavity were calculated to assess the bacterial clearance. Neutrophil count in peritoneal lavage fluid was also calculated. Injuries to the lung and liver were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17, in blood and peritoneum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adaptive immune function was assessed by apoptosis of lymphocytes in the thymus and counts of different cell types in the spleen. Baicalin significantly enhanced bacterial clearance and improved survival of septic mice. The number of neutrophils in peritoneal lavage fluid was reduced by baicalin. Less neutrophil infiltration of the lung and liver in baicalin-treated mice was associated with attenuated injuries to these organs. Baicalin significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines but increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine in blood and peritoneum. Apoptosis of CD3(+ T cell was inhibited in the thymus. The numbers of CD4(+, CD8(+ T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs were higher, while the number of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells was lower in the baicalin group compared with the CLP group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Baicalin improves survival of mice

  15. AUTOPHAGY IN PLASMODIUM, A MULTIFUNCTIONAL PATHWAY?

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    Adelaide U.P. Hain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a catabolic process that normally utilizes the lysosome. The far-reaching implications of this system in disease are being increasingly understood. Studying autophagy is complicated by its role in cell survival and programmed cell death and the involvement of the canonical marker of autophagy, Atg8/LC3, in numerous non-autophagic roles. The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, has conserved certain aspects of the autophagic machinery but for what purpose has long remained a mystery. Major advances have recently been gained and suggest a role for Atg8 in apicoplast maintenance, degradation of heme inside the food vacuole, and possibly trafficking of proteins or organelles outside the parasite membrane. Autophagy may also participate in programmed cell death under drug treatment or as a selective tool to limit parasite load. We review the current findings and discuss discrepancies in the field of autophagy in the Plasmodium parasite.

  16. Emerging connections between RNA and autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Lubas, Michal; Lund, Anders H

    2017-01-01

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a key catabolic process, essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival through the removal and recycling of unwanted cellular material. Emerging evidence has revealed intricate connections between the RNA and autophagy research fields. While a majority...... of studies have focused on protein, lipid and carbohydrate catabolism via autophagy, accumulating data supports the view that several types of RNA and associated ribonucleoprotein complexes are specifically recruited to phagophores (precursors to autophagosomes) and subsequently degraded in the lysosome....../vacuole. Moreover, recent studies have revealed a substantial number of novel autophagy regulators with RNA-related functions, indicating roles for RNA and associated proteins not only as cargo, but also as regulators of this process. In this review, we discuss widespread evidence of RNA catabolism via autophagy...

  17. Inhibition of autophagy induced by TSA sensitizes colon cancer cell to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Zhang, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments for clinical cancer therapy. However, its application was limited due to lack of radiosensitivity in some cancers. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a classic histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) that specifically inhibits the biochemical functions of HDAC and is demonstrated to be an active anticancer drug. However, whether it could sensitize colon cancer to radiation is not clear. Our results showed that TSA enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells as determined by CCK-8 and clonogenic survival assay. Moreover, apoptotic cell death induced by radiation was enhanced by TSA treatment. Additionally, TSA also induced autophagic response in colon cancer cells, while autophagy inhibition led to cell apoptosis and enhanced the radiosensitivity of colon cancer cells. Our data suggested that inhibition of cytoprotective autophagy sensitizes cancer cell to radiation, which might be further investigated for clinical cancer radiotherapy.

  18. Necdin enhances myoblasts survival by facilitating the degradation of the mediator of apoptosis CCAR1/CARP1.

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    Stephanie François

    Full Text Available Regeneration of muscle fibers, lost during pathological muscle degeneration or after injuries, is sustained by the production of new myofibers by means of the satellite cells. Survival of the satellite cells is a critical requirement for efficient muscle reconstitution. Necdin, a member of the MAGE proteins family, is expressed in satellite cell-derived myogenic precursors during perinatal growth and in the adult upon activation during muscle regeneration, where it plays an important role both in myoblast differentiation and survival. We show here that necdin exerts its pro-survival activity by counteracting the action of the pro-apoptotic protein Cell Cycle Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CCAR1/CARP1 that we have identified as a new molecular interactor of necdin by two-hybrid screening. Necdin is responsible for the maintenance of CCAR1 protein levels, by implementing its ubiquitination and degradation through the proteasome. Taken together, these data shed new light on the molecular mechanism of necdin anti-apoptotic activity in myogenesis.

  19. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

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    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  20. Activation of RARα induces autophagy in SKBR3 breast cancer cells and depletion of key autophagy genes enhances ATRA toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigger, D; Schläfli, A M; Garattini, E; Tschan, M P

    2015-08-27

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist, is, along with other retinoids, a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. On the one hand, preclinical studies have shown promising anticancer effects of ATRA in breast cancer; on the other hand, resistances occurred. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process that allows the degradation of bulk cellular contents. Tumor cells may take advantage of autophagy to cope with stress caused by anticancer drugs. We therefore wondered if autophagy is activated by ATRA in mammary tumor cells and if modulation of autophagy might be a potential novel treatment strategy. Indeed, ATRA induces autophagic flux in ATRA-sensitive but not in ATRA-resistant human breast cancer cells. Moreover, using different RAR agonists as well as RARα-knockdown breast cancer cells, we demonstrate that autophagy is dependent on RARα activation. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy in breast cancer cells by either genetic or pharmacological approaches resulted in significantly increased apoptosis under ATRA treatment and attenuated epithelial differentiation. In summary, our findings demonstrate that ATRA-induced autophagy is mediated by RARα in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy results in enhanced apoptosis. This points to a potential novel treatment strategy for a selected group of breast cancer patients where ATRA and autophagy inhibitors are applied simultaneously.

  1. Liver Autophagy in Anorexia Nervosa and Acute Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouane Kheloufi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic pathway for long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, is crucial for cell homeostasis, and survival under stressful conditions. During starvation, autophagy is induced in numerous organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, and promotes survival by supplying nutrients and energy. In the early neonatal period, when transplacental nutrients supply is interrupted, starvation-induced autophagy is crucial for neonates’ survival. In adult animals, autophagy provides amino acids and participates in glucose metabolism following starvation. In patients with anorexia nervosa, autophagy appears initially protective, allowing cells to copes with nutrient deprivation. However, when starvation is critically prolonged and when body mass index reaches 13 kg/m2 or lower, acute liver insufficiency occurs with features of autophagic cell death, which can be observed by electron microscopy analysis of liver biopsy samples. In acetaminophen overdose, a classic cause of severe liver injury, autophagy is induced as a protective mechanism. Pharmacological enhancement of autophagy protects against acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Autophagy is also activated as a rescue mechanism in response to Efavirenz-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. However, Efavirenz overdose blocks autophagy leading to liver cell death. In conclusion, in acute liver injury, autophagy appears as a protective mechanism that can be however blocked or overwhelmed.

  2. Urokinase mediates endothelial cell survival via induction of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prager, Gerald W; Mihaly, Judit; Brunner, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    ), but independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase pathway, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced antiapoptosis was PI3 kinase dependent. uPA-induced cell survival involved phosphorylation of p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) and the IkappaB kinase alpha that leads to nuclear factor kappa...

  3. The effect of gartanin, a naturally- occurring xanthone in mangosteen juice, on the mTOR pathway, autophagy, apoptosis and the growth of human urinary bladder cancer cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongbo; Antalek, Mitchell; Nguyen, Linda; Li, Xuesen; Tian, Xuejiao; Le, Amy; Zi, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, often referred to as “mangosteen,” is a fruit grown in Southeast Asia, and has been used for centuries as a local beverage and natural medicine. Its bioactive compounds, xanthones (i.e. gartanin, α-mangostin, etc), have reported effects on ailments ranging from skin infections and inflammation, to urinary tract infections. We demonstrate that mangosteen xanthones (i.e. gartanin and α-mangostin) at pharmacologically achievable concentrations inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines from different stages of human urinary bladder cancer. The growth inhibitory effects of gartanin in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are at least in part dependent on the existence of p53 or TSC1. Indeed, further studies have shown that gartanin treatment of bladder cancer cell lines T24 and RT4 resulted in a marked suppression of p70S6 and 4E-BP1 expression and induction of autophagy, suggesting the inhibition of the mTOR pathway. In addition, gartanin down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and activated the p53 pathway leading to apoptosis induction. Together, these results suggested that gartanin is a multiple targeting agent that is suitable for further study into its chemopreventive properties for human urinary bladder cancer. PMID:23682785

  4. Autophagy in bone: Self-eating to stay in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie; Santucci-Darmanin, Sabine; Breuil, Véronique; Camuzard, Olivier; Carle, Georges F

    2015-11-01

    Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway responsible of the elimination of damaged proteins and organelles, is now recognized as an anti-aging process. In addition to its basal role in cell homeostasis, autophagy is also a stress-responsive mechanism for survival purposes. Here, we review recent literature to highlight the autophagy role in the different bone cell types, i.e., osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. We also discuss the effects of autophagy modulators in bone physiology and of bone anabolic compounds in autophagy. Finally, we analyzed studies regarding bone cell autophagy-deficient mouse models to obtain a more general view on how autophagy modulates bone physiology and pathophysiology, particularly during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Study on the regulation of autophagy against anticancer drugs' toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiao-e; Zhu, Yi; He, Qiao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a crucial biological process in eukaryotes, which is involved in cell growth, survival and energy metabolism. It has been confirmed that autophagy mediates toxicity of anticancer drugs, especially in heart, liver and neuron. It is important to understand the function and mechanism of autophagy in anticancer drugs-induced toxicity. Given that autophagy is a double-edged sword in the maintenance of the function of heart, liver and neuron, the autophagy-mediated toxicity are very complicated in the body. We provide a review on the concept of autophagy and current status about autophagy-mediated toxicity of anticancer drugs. The knowledge is crucial in the basic study of anticancer drugs-induced toxicity, and provides some strategies for the development of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer drugs.

  6. The dual role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in modulating parthanatos and autophagy under oxidative stress in rat cochlear marginal cells of the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Yan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Zhen; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Sun, Yu; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2018-04-01

    Oxidative stress is reported to regulate several apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in auditory tissues. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can be activated under oxidative stress, which is the hallmark of parthanatos. Autophagy, which serves either a pro-survival or pro-death function, can also be stimulated by oxidative stress, but the role of autophagy and its relationship with parthanatos underlying this activation in the inner ear remains unknown. In this study, we established an oxidative stress model in vitro by glucose oxidase/glucose (GO/G), which could continuously generate low concentrations of H 2 O 2 to mimic continuous exposure to H 2 O 2 in physiological conditions, for investigation of oxidative stress-induced cell death mechanisms and the regulatory role of PARP-1 in this process. We observed that GO/G induced stria marginal cells (MCs) death via upregulation of PARP-1 expression, accumulation of polyADP-ribose (PAR) polymers, decline of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), which all are biochemical features of parthanatos. PARP-1 knockdown rescued GO/G-induced MCs death, as well as abrogated downstream molecular events of PARP-1 activation. In addition, we demonstrated that GO/G stimulated autophagy and PARP-1 knockdown suppressed GO/G-induced autophagy in MCs. Interestingly, autophagy suppression by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) accelerated GO/G-induced parthanatos, indicating a pro-survival function of autophagy in GO/G-induced MCs death. Taken together, these data suggested that PARP-1 played dual roles by modulating parthanatos and autophagy in oxidative stress-induced MCs death, which may be considered as a promising therapeutic target for ameliorating oxidative stress-related hearing disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The contribution of lysosomotropism to autophagy perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Ashoor

    Full Text Available Autophagy refers to the catabolic process in eukaryotic cells that delivers cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved process is involved in the clearance of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Consequently, autophagy is important in providing nutrients to maintain cellular function under starvation, maintaining cellular homeostasis, and promoting cell survival under certain conditions. Several pathways, including mTOR, have been shown to regulate autophagy. However, the impact of lysosomal function impairment on the autophagy process has not been fully explored. Basic lipophilic compounds can accumulate in lysosomes via pH partitioning leading to perturbation of lysosomal function. Our hypothesis is that these types of compounds can disturb the autophagy process. Eleven drugs previously shown to accumulate in lysosomes were selected and evaluated for their effects on cytotoxicity and autophagy using ATP depletion and LC3 assessment, respectively. All eleven drugs induced increased staining of endogenous LC3 and exogenous GFP-LC3, even at non toxic dose levels. In addition, an increase in the abundance of SQSTM1/p62 by all tested compounds denotes that the increase in LC3 is due to autophagy perturbation rather than enhancement. Furthermore, the gene expression profile resulting from in vitro treatment with these drugs revealed the suppression of plentiful long-lived proteins, including structural cytoskeletal and associated proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins. This finding indicates a retardation of protein turnover which further supports the notion of autophagy inhibition. Interestingly, upregulation of genes containing antioxidant response elements, e.g. glutathione S transferase and NAD(PH dehydrogenase quinone 1 was observed, suggesting activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. These gene expression changes could be related to an increase in SQSTM1/p62 resulting from autophagy deficiency. In

  8. The Contribution of Lysosomotropism to Autophagy Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Bart; Lu, Shuyan

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy refers to the catabolic process in eukaryotic cells that delivers cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved process is involved in the clearance of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Consequently, autophagy is important in providing nutrients to maintain cellular function under starvation, maintaining cellular homeostasis, and promoting cell survival under certain conditions. Several pathways, including mTOR, have been shown to regulate autophagy. However, the impact of lysosomal function impairment on the autophagy process has not been fully explored. Basic lipophilic compounds can accumulate in lysosomes via pH partitioning leading to perturbation of lysosomal function. Our hypothesis is that these types of compounds can disturb the autophagy process. Eleven drugs previously shown to accumulate in lysosomes were selected and evaluated for their effects on cytotoxicity and autophagy using ATP depletion and LC3 assessment, respectively. All eleven drugs induced increased staining of endogenous LC3 and exogenous GFP-LC3, even at non toxic dose levels. In addition, an increase in the abundance of SQSTM1/p62 by all tested compounds denotes that the increase in LC3 is due to autophagy perturbation rather than enhancement. Furthermore, the gene expression profile resulting from in vitro treatment with these drugs revealed the suppression of plentiful long-lived proteins, including structural cytoskeletal and associated proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins. This finding indicates a retardation of protein turnover which further supports the notion of autophagy inhibition. Interestingly, upregulation of genes containing antioxidant response elements, e.g. glutathione S transferase and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 was observed, suggesting activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. These gene expression changes could be related to an increase in SQSTM1/p62 resulting from autophagy deficiency. In summary, our data

  9. An anthraquinone derivative, emodin sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis through the induction of death receptors and downregulation of cell survival proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Aruljothi; Loo, Ser Yue; Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Manu, Kanjoormana A; Perumal, Ekambaram; Li, Feng; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Park, Joo-In; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Hui, Kam M; Kumar, Alan P; Sethi, Gautam

    2013-10-01

    Recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is currently under clinical trials for cancer, however many tumor cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Hence, novel agents that can alleviate TRAIL-induced resistance are urgently needed. In the present report, we investigated the potential of emodin to enhance apoptosis induced by TRAIL in HCC cells. As observed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and the externalization of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine, we found that emodin can significantly potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. When investigated for the mechanism(s), we observed that emodin can downregulate the expression of various cell survival proteins, and induce the cell surface expression of both TRAIL receptors, death receptors (DR) 4 as well as 5. In addition, emodin increased the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA decreased the induction of emodin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis. Emodin-induced induction of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as N-acetylcysteine blocked the induction of DR5 and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the knockdown of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein by siRNA significantly reduced the sensitization effect of emodin on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Overall, our experimental results clearly indicate that emodin can indeed potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, increased expression of apoptotic proteins, and ROS mediated upregulation of DR in HCC cells.

  10. Clinical application: Restoration of immune homeostasis by autophagy as a potential therapeutic target in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lemeng; Ai, Yuhang; Tsung, Allan

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis-induced lymphocyte and dendritic cell apoptosis contributes to immunosuppression, resulting in an inability to eradicate the primary infection and a propensity to acquire secondary infections. However, the inhibition of apoptosis may produce unexpected and undesirable consequences. Another cellular process, autophagy, is also activated in immune cells. There is increasing evidence to suggest that autophagy confers a protective effect in sepsis. The protective mechanisms underlying this effect include limiting apoptotic cell death and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Therefore, understanding the regulation of immune cell autophagy and apoptosis may provide insight into novel therapeutic strategies. The present review examined potential novel therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring immune homeostasis by inducing autophagy. The restoration of balance between apoptosis and autophagy may be a novel approach for improving sepsis-induced immunosuppression and decreasing susceptibility to sepsis.

  11. Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1) and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Promote Survival of Latently Infected Sensory Neurons, in Part by Inhibiting Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    α-Herpesvirinae subfamily members, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), initiate infection in mucosal surfaces. BHV-1 and HSV-1 enter sensory neurons by cell-cell spread where a burst of viral gene expression occurs. When compared to non-neuronal cells, viral gene expression is quickly extinguished in sensory neurons resulting in neuronal survival and latency. The HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT), which is abundantly expressed in latently infected neurons, inhibits apoptosis, viral transcription, and productive infection, and directly or indirectly enhances reactivation from latency in small animal models. Three anti-apoptosis genes can be substituted for LAT, which will restore wild type levels of reactivation from latency to a LAT null mutant virus. Two small non-coding RNAs encoded by LAT possess anti-apoptosis functions in transfected cells. The BHV-1 latency related RNA (LR-RNA), like LAT, is abundantly expressed during latency. The LR-RNA encodes a protein (ORF2) and two microRNAs that are expressed in certain latently infected neurons. Wild-type expression of LR gene products is required for stress-induced reactivation from latency in cattle. ORF2 has anti-apoptosis functions and interacts with certain cellular transcription factors that stimulate viral transcription and productive infection. ORF2 is predicted to promote survival of infected neurons by inhibiting apoptosis and sequestering cellular transcription factors which stimulate productive infection. In addition, the LR encoded microRNAs inhibit viral transcription and apoptosis. In summary, the ability of BHV-1 and HSV-1 to interfere with apoptosis and productive infection in sensory neurons is crucial for the life-long latency-reactivation cycle in their respective hosts. PMID:25278776

  12. Antioxidant Supplement Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Constitutive Autophagy rather than Fasting-Induced Autophagy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NAC administration leads to reduced oxidative stress and thus to decreased expression of autophagy markers in young mice. Our results reveal that NAC administration results in reduced muscle mRNA levels of several autophagy markers, including Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3, Atg9, and LAMP2. However, NAC supplement fails to block the activation of skeletal muscle autophagy in response to fasting, because fasting significantly increases the mRNA level of several autophagy markers and LC3 lipidation. We further examined the effects of NAC administration on mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in fed and 24-hour fasted mice. Our results clearly show that NAC administration depresses the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR, both of which play a predominant antioxidant role in mitochondria by reducing ROS level. In addition, we found no beneficial effect of NAC supplement on muscle mass but it can protect from muscle loss in response to fasting. Collectively, our findings indicate that ROS is required for skeletal muscle constitutive autophagy, rather than starvation-induced autophagy, and that antioxidant NAC inhibits constitutive autophagy by the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production and antioxidant capacity.

  13. The trophoblast survival capacity in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutabarat, Martina; Wibowo, Noroyono; Huppertz, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia has become the world's major maternal health problem putting a huge burden on mothers, newborns and also on the health systems. The pathogenesis of preeclampsia seems to include events in very early pregnancy affecting differentiation of placental villous trophoblast. The arising changes of the cell death spectrum from apoptosis via increased autophagy and aponecrosis to necrosis in turn induce systemic inflammation of the mother. Placental tissue samples and maternal serum samples from 40 pregnant women were collected from normal pregnancy, IUGR, early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia. Immunohistochemistry for LC3B and Beclin-1 was quantified using systematic random sampling techniques. Serum levels of LDH and other markers were assessed in serum. Expression of the autophagy markers LC3B and Beclin-1 was significantly different between groups as was the LC3B/Beclin-1 ratio. Early-onset preeclampsia and IUGR had the highest autophagy protein expression levels, while normal pregnancy and late-onset preeclampsia had the highest LC3B/Beclin-1 ratio. Early-onset preeclampsia had the highest negative correlation with free LDH as cell defect marker. Autophagy plays a critical role in the cell death spectrum and cellular survival capacity of villous trophoblast. Alterations in autophagic protein expression are involved in pathological pregnancies such as preeclampsia.

  14. Efavirenz induces neuronal autophagy and mitochondrial alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Phillip R; Fox, Howard S

    2014-11-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor in wide use for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although EFV is generally well tolerated, neuropsychiatric toxicity has been well documented. The toxic effects of EFV in hepatocytes and keratinocytes have been linked to mitochondrial perturbations and changes in autophagy. Here, we studied the effect of EFV on mitochondria and autophagy in neuronal cell lines and primary neurons. In SH-SY5Y cells, EFV induced a drop in ATP production, which coincided with increased autophagy, mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial depolarization. EFV-induced mitophagy was also detected by colocalization of mitochondria and autophagosomes and use of an outer mitochondrial membrane tandem fluorescent vector. Pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine increased the cytotoxic effect of EFV, suggesting that autophagy promotes cell survival. EFV also reduces ATP production in primary neurons, induces autophagy, and changes mitochondrial morphology. Overall, EFV is able to acutely induce autophagy and mitochondrial changes in neurons. These changes may be involved in the mechanism leading to central nervous system toxicity observed in clinical EFV use. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Autophagy in lung disease pathogenesis and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a cellular pathway for the degradation of damaged organelles and proteins, has gained increasing importance in human pulmonary diseases, both as a modulator of pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic target. In this pathway, cytosolic cargos are sequestered into autophagosomes, which are delivered to the lysosomes where they are enzymatically degraded and then recycled as metabolic precursors. Autophagy exerts an important effector function in the regulation of inflammation, and immune system functions. Selective pathways for autophagic degradation of cargoes may have variable significance in disease pathogenesis. Among these, the autophagic clearance of bacteria (xenophagy may represent a crucial host defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of sepsis and inflammatory diseases. Our recent studies indicate that the autophagic clearance of mitochondria, a potentially protective program, may aggravate the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by activating cell death programs. We report similar findings with respect to the autophagic clearance of cilia components, which can contribute to airways dysfunction in chronic lung disease. In certain diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, autophagy may confer protection by modulating proliferation and cell death. In other disorders, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis, impaired autophagy may contribute to pathogenesis. In lung cancer, autophagy has multiple consequences by limiting carcinogenesis, modulating therapeutic effectiveness, and promoting tumor cell survival. In this review we highlight the multiple functions of autophagy and its selective autophagy subtypes that may be of significance to the pathogenesis of human disease, with an emphasis on lung disease and therapeutics.

  16. Deep sea minerals prolong life span of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by compensatory augmentation of the IGF-I-survival signaling and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Pai, Pei-Ying; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lin, Jing-Ying; Wen, Su-Ying; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of deep sea minerals (DSM), such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, is known to reduce hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac-apoptosis and provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. Heart diseases develop as a lethal complication among diabetic patients usually due to hyperglycemia-induced cardiac-apoptosis that causes severe cardiac-damages, heart failure, and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we investigated the potential of DSM and its related cardio-protection to increase the life expectancy in diabetic rats. In this study, a heart failure rat model was developed by using streptozotocin (65 mg kg(-1) ) IP injection. Different doses of DSM-1× (37 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), 2× (74 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) and 3× (111 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), were administered to the rats through gavages for 4 weeks. The positive effects of DSM on the survival rate of diabetes rats were determined with respect to the corresponding effects of MgSO4 . Further, to understand the mechanism by which DSM enhances the survival of diabetic rats, their potential to regulate cardiac-apoptosis and control cardiac-dysfunction were examined. Echocardiogram, tissue staining, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting assay were used to investigate modulations in the myocardial contractile function and related signaling protein expression. The results showed that DSM regulate apoptosis and complement the cardiomyocyte proliferation by enhancing survival mechanisms. Moreover DSM significantly reduced the mortality rate and enhanced the survival rate of diabetic rats. Experimental results show that DSM administration can be an effective strategy to improve the life expectancy of diabetic subjects by improving cardiac-cell proliferation and by controlling cardiac-apoptosis and associated cardiac-dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 769-781, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Autophagy Database: an all-inclusive information resource on autophagy that provides nourishment for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Keiichi; Suzuki, Koji; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process of self-digestion generally observed in eukaryotes and has been shown to play crucial roles for survival under starvation and removal of deleterious substances. Despite great advances that have been made, many problems in mechanisms of autophagy remain unsolved. As a large number of autophagy-related proteins are identified in each species, a database that collects data, identifies their homologs in other species and makes them available will contribute to research advancement. As no such resources exist, we built the Autophagy database (http://tp-apg.genes.nig.ac.jp/autophagy) to provide basics, up-to-date information on relevant literature, and a list of autophagy-related proteins and their homologs in 41 eukaryotes. From the database, the user can search for proteins by keywords or sequences to obtain a wealth of data including functional and structural information and find possible functional homologs of proteins whose functions have been demonstrated in other species. As proteins that bind the phospholipid, phosphatidyl inositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) are essential for autophagy to proceed, we carried out an original analysis to identify probable PI3P-binding proteins, and made the list available from the database. The database is expected to give impetus to further research on autophagy by providing basic and specialized data on the subject.

  18. Enhancement of Autophagy by Simvastatin through Inhibition of Rac1-mTOR Signaling Pathway in Coronary Arterial Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Miao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Ming; Abais, Justine M.; Chen, Yang; Riebling, Christopher R.; Boini, Krishna M.; Li, Pin-Lan; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims In addition to their action of lowering blood cholesterol levels, statins modulate biological characteristics and functions of arterial myocytes such as viability, proliferation, apoptosis, survival and contraction. The present study tested whether simvastatin, as a prototype statin, enhances autophagy in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs) to thereby exert their beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that simvastatin significantly increased the autophagsome formation in CAMs. Western blot analysis confirmed that simvastatin significantly increased protein expression of typical autophagy markers LC3B and Beclin1 in these CAMs. Confocal microscopy further demonstrated that simvastatin increased fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, which was blocked by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or silencing of Atg7 genes. Simvastatin reduced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, which was reversed by Rac1-GTPase overexpression and the mTOR agonist phosphatidic acid. Moreover, both Rac1-GTPase overexpression and activation of mTOR by phosphatidic acid drastically blocked simvastatin-induced autophagosome formation in CAMs. Interestingly, simvastatin increased protein expression of a contractile phenotype marker calponin in CAMs, which was blocked by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Simvastatin markedly reduced proliferation of CAMs under both control and proatherogenic stimulation. However, this inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CAM proliferation was blocked by by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or silencing of Atg7 genes. Lastly, animal experiments demonstrated that simvastatin increased protein expression of LC3B and calponin in mouse coronary arteries. Conclusion Our results indicate that simvastatin inhibits the Rac1-mTOR pathway and thereby increases autophagy in CAMs which may stabilize CAMs in the contractile phenotype to prevent proliferation and growth of these cells. PMID

  19. Autophagy : Principles and significance in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todde, V.; Veenhuis, M; van der Klei, I.J.

    Degradation processes are important for optimal functioning of eukaryotic cells. The two major protein degradation pathways in eukaryotes are the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy. This contribution focuses on autophagy. This process is important for survival of cells during nitrogen

  20. Myosins, Actin and Autophagy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruppa, Antonina J; Kendrick‐Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-01-01

    .... In this review, we will discuss the importance of actin filament dynamics for autophagy progression and highlight the distinct requirement for three classes of myosins during different stages of the autophagy pathway...

  1. Calcium channel regulator Mid1 links TORC2-mediated changes in mitochondrial respiration to autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahakis, Ariadne; Lopez Muniozguren, Nerea; Powers, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that recycles cytoplasmic contents and is crucial for cell survival during stress. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates autophagy as part of two distinct protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. TORC1 negatively regulates autophagy according to nitrogen availability. In contrast, TORC2 functions as a positive regulator of autophagy during amino acid starvation, via its target kinase Ypk1, by repressing the activity of the calcium-dependent phosphatase cal...

  2. Role of autophagy in disease resistance and hypersensitive response-associated cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Munch, David; Bressendorff, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Ancient autophagy pathways are emerging as key defense modules in host eukaryotic cells against microbial pathogens. Apart from actively eliminating intracellular intruders, autophagy is also responsible for cell survival, for example by reducing the deleterious effects of endoplasmic reticulum...... stress. At the same time, autophagy can contribute to cellular suicide. The concurrent engagement of autophagy in these processes during infection may sometimes mask its contribution to differing pro-survival and pro-death decisions. The importance of autophagy in innate immunity in mammals is well...

  3. The Functional Role of Prion Protein (PrPC on Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Shin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PrPC plays an important role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress. However, the exact protective mechanism of PrPC is unclear. Autophagy is essential for survival, differentiation, development, and homeostasis in several organisms. Although the role that autophagy plays in neurodegenerative disease has yet to be established, it is clear that autophagy-induced cell death is observed in neurodegenerative disorders that exhibit protein aggregations. Moreover, autophagy can promote cell survival and cell death under various conditions. In this review, we describe the involvement of autophagy in prion disease and the effects of PrPC.

  4. Sirt3-Mediated Autophagy Contributes to Resveratrol-Induced Protection against ER Stress in HT22 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in neuronal survival and death. Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenol that has neuroprotective effects against many neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the potential protective effects of resveratrol in an in vitro ER stress model mimicked by tunicamycin (TM treatment in neuronal HT22 cells. We found that TM dose-dependently decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis, which were both significantly attenuated by resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol markedly reduced the expression or activation of ER stress-associated factors, including GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12. The results of immunocytochemistry and western blot showed that resveratrol promoted autophagy in TM-treated cells, as evidenced by increased LC3II puncta number, bcelin1 expression and LC3II/LC3I ratio. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine could reduce the protective effects of resveratrol. In addition, the expression of Sirt3 protein and its downstream enzyme activities were significantly increased in resveratrol-treated HT22 cells. To confirm the involvement of Sirt3-mediated mechanisms, siRNA transfection was used to knockdown Sirt3 expression in vitro. The results showed that downregulation of Sirt3 could partially prevented the autophagy and protection induced by resveratrol after TM treatment. Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of Sirt3-mediated autophagy in mediating resveratrol-induced protection against ER stress in vitro, and suggests the therapeutic values of resveratrol in ER stress-associated neuronal injury conditions.

  5. Distinct activity of the bone-targeted gallium compound KP46 against osteosarcoma cells - synergism with autophagy inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubista, Bernd; Schoefl, Thomas; Mayr, Lisa; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Heffeter, Petra; Windhager, Reinhard; Keppler, Bernhard K; Berger, Walter

    2017-04-12

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor. Although survival has distinctly increased due to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the past, patients with metastatic disease and poor response to chemotherapy still have an adverse prognosis. Hence, development of new therapeutic strategies is still of utmost importance. Anticancer activity of KP46 against osteosarcoma cell models was evaluated as single agent and in combination approaches with chemotherapeutics and Bcl-2 inhibitors using MTT assay. Underlying mechanisms were tested by cell cycle, apoptosis and autophagy assays. KP46 exerted exceptional anticancer activity at the nanomolar to low micromolar range, depending on the assay format, against all osteosarcoma cell models with minor but significant differences in IC50 values. KP46 treatment of osteosarcoma cells caused rapid loss of cell adhesion, weak cell cycle accumulation in S-phase and later signs of apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, already at sub-cytotoxic concentrations KP46 reduced the migratory potential of osteosarcoma cells and exerted synergistic effects with cisplatin, a standard osteosarcoma chemotherapeutic. Moreover, the gallium compound induced signs of autophagy in osteosarcoma cells. Accordingly, blockade of autophagy by chloroquine but also by the Bcl-2 inhibitor obatoclax increased the cytotoxic activity of KP46 treatment significantly, suggesting autophagy induction as a protective mechanism against KP46. Together, our results identify KP46 as a new promising agent to supplement standard chemotherapy and possible future targeted therapy in osteosarcoma.

  6. Autophagy as a defense strategy against stress: focus on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Roberto; Martino, Chiara; Agnello, Maria; Bosco, Liana; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is used by organisms as a defense strategy to face environmental stress. This mechanism has been described as one of the most important intracellular pathways responsible for the degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles. It can act as a cell survival mechanism if the cellular damage is not too extensive or as a cell death mechanism if the damage/stress is irreversible; in the latter case, it can operate as an independent pathway or together with the apoptotic one. In this review, we discuss the autophagic process activated in several aquatic organisms exposed to different types of environmental stressors, focusing on the sea urchin embryo, a suitable system recently included into the guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays to monitor autophagy. After cadmium (Cd) exposure, a heavy metal recognized as an environmental toxicant, the sea urchin embryo is able to adopt different defense mechanisms, in a hierarchical way. Among these, autophagy is one of the main responses activated to preserve the developmental program. Finally, we discuss the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the sea urchin embryo, a temporal and functional choice that depends on the intensity of stress conditions.

  7. Glucose Restriction Combined with Autophagy Inhibition and Chemotherapy in HCT 116 Spheroids Decreases Cell Clonogenicity and Viability Regulated by Tumor Suppressor Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroll, Monica M; LaBonia, Gabriel J; Ludwig, Katelyn R; Hummon, Amanda B

    2017-08-04

    Drug resistance is a prevalent phenomenon that decreases the efficacy of cancer treatments and contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. Weakening drug-resistant cancer cells prior to chemotherapy is a potential strategy to combat chemoresistance. One approach to damage resistant cancer cells is modulation of nutritional intake. The combination of nutrient restriction with targeted compound treatment results in pronounced molecular changes. This study provides valuable information about augmenting existing chemotherapeutic regimes with simultaneous glucose restriction and autophagy inhibition in colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we explore the chemical pathways that drive the cellular response to nutrient restriction, autophagy inhibition, and the chemotherapy irinotecan using global quantitative proteomics and imaging mass spectrometry. We determined that significant pathways were altered including autophagy and metabolism via glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and sucrose degradation. We also found that period circadian clock 2 (PER2), a tumor suppressor protein, was significantly up-regulated only when glucose was restricted with autophagy inhibition and chemotherapy. The upstream regulators of these differentially regulated pathways were determined to have implications in cancer, showing an increase in tumor suppressor proteins and a decrease in nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1) an important protein in chemoresistance. We also evaluated the phenotypic response of these cells and discovered autophagy inhibition and chemotherapy treatment increased apoptosis and decreased cell clonogenicity and viability. When glucose restriction was combined with autophagy inhibition and chemotherapy, all of the phenotypic results were intensified. In sum, our results indicate that glucose metabolism is of great importance in the ability of cancer cells to survive chemotherapy. By weakening cancer cells with glucose restriction and autophagy inhibition prior to chemotherapy

  8. p53-regulated autophagy is controlled by glycolysis and determines cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lei; Perez, Ricardo E; Davaadelger, Batzaya; Dedkova, Elena N; Blatter, Lothar A; Maki, Carl G

    2015-09-15

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis.

  9. Forms, Crosstalks, and the Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis in Autophagy

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    Leanne Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process occurring during periods of stress to ensure a cell's survival by recycling cytosolic constituents and making products that can be used in energy generation and other essential processes. Three major forms of autophagy exist according to the specific mechanism through which cytoplasmic material is transported to a lysosome. Chaperone-mediated autophagy is a highly selective form of autophagy that delivers specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. Microautophagy is a less selective form of autophagy that occurs through lysosomal membrane invaginations, forming tubes and directly engulfing cytoplasm. Finally, macroautophagy involves formation of new membrane bilayers (autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic material and deliver it to lysosomes. This review provides new insights on the crosstalks between different forms of autophagy and the significance of bilayer-forming phospholipid synthesis in autophagosomal membrane formation.

  10. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Protects Fibrosarcoma Cells from Etoposide-Induced Apoptosis through Activation of the PI3K/Akt Cell Survival Pathway1

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    Rømer, Maria U; Larsen, Lise; Offenberg, Hanne; Brünner, Nils; Lademann, Ulrik A

    2008-01-01

    High levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in tumors are associated with poor prognosis in several cancer types, and the reason for this association is not fully understood. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 has been suggested to contribute to tumor growth by protecting cancer cells from apoptosis, and we have previously shown that wild type murine fibrosarcoma cells are significantly more resistant to apoptosis induced by chemotherapy than PAI-1-deficient fibrosarcoma cells. Here, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiapoptotic function of PAI-1 focusing on the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt cell survival pathway. We demonstrate that the activation level of the Akt cell survival pathway is reduced in PAI-1-deficient cells. Inhibition of either PI3K or Akt by synthetic inhibitors sensitized the wild type but not the PAI-1-deficient cells to etoposide-induced cell death. More importantly, reintroduction of PAI-1 expression in PAI-1-deficient cells induced an increase in Akt activity and protection against etoposide-induced apoptosis. Concordantly, silencing of PAI-1 by RNA interference in wild type fibrosarcoma cells decreased the level of active Akt, and this was accompanied by a sensitization of the cells to etoposide-induced cell death. Altogether, our data suggest that PAI-1 influences sensitivity to etoposide-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway by acting upstream of PI3K and Akt. This points to PAI-1 as a possible therapeutic target in cancer diseases where PAI-1 inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. PMID:18813358

  11. Side population cells separated from A549 lung cancer cell line possess cancer stem cell-like properties and inhibition of autophagy potentiates the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin.

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    Yang, Yang; Fan, Yuxia; Qi, Yu; Liu, Donglei; Wu, Kai; Wen, Fengbiao; Zhao, Song

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumorigenesis and contribute to resistance to chemotherapy. Side population (SP) cells are thought to be enriched for CSCs in most types of human tumors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to sort SP cells using an A549 lung cancer cell line, identify the cancer stem cell-like properties of SP and determine the role of autophagy in the survival of SP cells of lung cancer. SP cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) from A549 lung cancer cells, and the CSC-like properties were verified through confocal fluorescence imaging, sphere formation assays, cell proliferation and colony formation assay, gene expression in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. The role of autophagy in the survival of SP cells was assessed by western blotting and flow cytometric analysis. A549 lung cancer cells contained 1.10% SP cells. SP cells showed higher abilities of sphere and colony formation, cell proliferation and self-renewal. Moreover, compared to non-SP, SP cells demonstrated a higher mRNA expression of stem cell markers (MDR1, ABCG2 and OCT-4). The clone formation efficiency of SP cells was significantly higher than that non-SP cells under the same conditions. Expression of autophagosomes in SP cells was markedly lower than that in non-SP cells. However, the level of autophagy in SP cells was found to be markedly increased in the presence of cisplatin. In addition, inhibition of autophagy enhanced the effects of apoptosis induced by cisplatin. SP cells from the A549 lung cancer cell line possessed the properties of CSCs and were used to investigate the further characteristics of lung CSCs. SP cells were more resistant to chemotherapy and inhibition of autophagy enhanced the effects of apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. These results may provide insight into novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Calnexin is essential for survival under nitrogen starvation and stationary phase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Dulude, Dominic; Jbel, Mehdi; Rokeach, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Cell fate is determined by the balance of conserved molecular mechanisms regulating death (apoptosis) and survival (autophagy). Autophagy is a process by which cells recycle their organelles and macromolecules through degradation within the vacuole in yeast and plants, and lysosome in metazoa. In the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, autophagy is strongly induced under nitrogen starvation and in aging cells. Previously, we demonstrated that calnexin (Cnx1p), a highly conserved transmembrane chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates apoptosis under ER stress or inositol starvation. Moreover, we showed that in stationary phase, Cnx1p is cleaved into two moieties, L_Cnx1p and S_Cnx1p. Here, we show that the processing of Cnx1p is regulated by autophagy, induced by nitrogen starvation or cell aging. The cleavage of Cnx1p involves two vacuolar proteases: Isp6, which is essential for autophagy, and its paralogue Psp3. Blocking autophagy through the knockout of autophagy-related genes (atg) results in inhibition of both, the cleavage and the trafficking of Cnx1p from the ER to the vacuole. We demonstrate that Cnx1p is required for cell survival under nitrogen-starvation and in chronological aging cultures. The death of the mini_cnx1 mutant (overlapping S_cnx1p) cells is accompanied by accumulation of high levels of reactive-oxygen species (ROS), a slowdown in endocytosis and severe cell-wall defects. Moreover, mutant cells expressing only S_Cnx1p showed cell wall defects. Co-expressing mutant overlapping the L_Cnx1p and S_Cnx1p cleavage products reverses the death, ROS phenotype and cell wall defect to wild-type levels. As it is involved in both apoptosis and autophagy, Cnx1p could be a nexus for the crosstalk between these pro-death and pro-survival mechanisms. Ours, and observations in mammalian systems, suggest that the multiple roles of calnexin depend on its sub-cellular localization and on its cleavage. The use of S. pombe should assist in further

  13. Brazilian Propolis Suppresses Angiogenesis by Inducing Apoptosis in Tube-Forming Endothelial Cells through Inactivation of Survival Signal ERK1/2.

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    Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Eguchi, Ryoji; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that propolis suppresses tumor-induced angiogenesis through tube formation inhibition and apoptosis induction in endothelial cells. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such angiogenesis suppression by propolis have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Brazilian propolis (EEBP) on two major survival signals, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt, and to elucidate whether changes in these signals were actually involved in antiangiogenic effects of the propolis. Detection by western blotting revealed that EEBP suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition by U0126 demonstrated that ERK1/2 inactivation alone was enough to inhibit tube formation and induce apoptosis. It was also shown that EEBP and U0126 similarly induced activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and lamin A/C, all of which are molecular markers of apoptosis. These results indicate that inhibition of survival signal ERK1/2, and subsequent induction of apoptosis, is a critical mechanism of angiogenesis suppression by EEBP.

  14. Effects of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP triple knockdown on prostate cancer cell susceptibility to apoptosis, cell survival and proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manipulating apoptotic resistance represents an important strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. We hypothesised that the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins may be mediating this resistance and knockdown of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP would increase sensitivity to apoptosis. METHODS: cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP where knocked down either individually or in combination using siRNA in androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells as confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Cells were then treated with TRAIL, Etoposide, or Tunicamycin, and apoptosis assessed by PI DNA staining. Apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin V labelling and measurement of PARP cleavage, and was inhibited using the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. Clonogenic assays and assessment of ID-1 expression by western blotting were used to measure recovery and proliferation. RESULTS: PC-3 are resistant to TRAIL induced apoptosis and have elevated expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP. Combined knockdown sensitised PC-3 to TRAIL induced apoptosis, but not to Etoposide or Tunicmycin, with corresponding increases in caspase activity and PARP cleavage which was inhibited by ZVAD.fmk. Triple knock down decreased proliferation which was confirmed by decreased ID-1 expression. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous knock down of the IAPs not only sensitised the PC-3 to TRAIL but also inhibited their proliferation rates and clonogenic survival. The inability to alter sensitivity to other triggers of apoptosis suggests that this effect is specific for death receptor pathways and knock down might facilitate immune-surveillance mechanisms to counter cancer progression and, in combination with therapeutic approaches using TRAIL, could represent an important treatment strategy.

  15. Effects of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP triple knockdown on prostate cancer cell susceptibility to apoptosis, cell survival and proliferation

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    Dowling Catherine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manipulating apoptotic resistance represents an important strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. We hypothesised that the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP Proteins may be mediating this resistance and knockdown of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP would increase sensitivity to apoptosis. Methods cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP where knocked down either individually or in combination using siRNA in androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells as confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Cells were then treated with TRAIL, Etoposide, or Tunicamycin, and apoptosis assessed by PI DNA staining. Apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin V labelling and measurement of PARP cleavage, and was inhibited using the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. Clonogenic assays and assessment of ID-1 expression by western blotting were used to measure recovery and proliferation. Results PC-3 are resistant to TRAIL induced apoptosis and have elevated expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP. Combined knockdown sensitised PC-3 to TRAIL induced apoptosis, but not to Etoposide or Tunicmycin, with corresponding increases in caspase activity and PARP cleavage which was inhibited by ZVAD.fmk. Triple knock down decreased proliferation which was confirmed by decreased ID-1 expression. Conclusion Simultaneous knock down of the IAPs not only sensitised the PC-3 to TRAIL but also inhibited their proliferation rates and clonogenic survival. The inability to alter sensitivity to other triggers of apoptosis suggests that this effect is specific for death receptor pathways and knock down might facilitate immune-surveillance mechanisms to counter cancer progression and, in combination with therapeutic approaches using TRAIL, could represent an important treatment strategy.

  16. Constitutive expression of the c-H-ras oncogene inhibits doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and promotes cell survival in a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooter, K.; Boersma, A. W.; Oostrum, R. G.; Burger, H.; Jochemsen, A. G.; Stoter, G.

    1995-01-01

    Drugs used in anti-cancer chemotherapy are thought to exert their cytotoxic action by induction of apoptosis. Genes have been identified which can mediate or modulate this drug-induced apoptosis, among which are c-myc, p53 and bcl-2. Since expression of oncogenic ras genes is a frequent observation in human cancer, we investigated the effects of the c-H-ras oncogene on anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by a 2 h doxorubicin exposure was measured by in situ nick translation and flow cytometry in a rat cell line (R2T24) stably transfected with the c-H-ras oncogene and in a control cell line (R2NEO) transfected only with the antibiotic resistance gene neo. Both cell lines (R2T24 and R2NEO) had nearly identical growth characteristics, including cell doubling time, distribution over the cell cycle phases and plating efficiency in soft agar. Doxorubicin exposure of the R2NEO cells led to massive induction of apoptosis. In contrast, R2T24 cells, expressing the c-H-ras oncogene, showed significantly less apoptosis after doxorubicin incubation. Doxorubicin induced approximately 3- to 5-fold less cytotoxicity in the R2T24 cells than in the R2NEO cells, as determined by clonogenic assay in soft agar. No difference was observed in intracellular doxorubicin accumulation between the two cell lines, indicating that the classical, P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance phenotype is not involved in the observed differences in drug sensitivity. In conclusion, our data show that constitutive expression of the c-H-ras oncogene suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and promotes cell survival, suggesting that human tumours with ras oncogene expression might be less susceptible to doxorubicin treatment. PMID:7880739

  17. GADD34 Keeps the mTOR Pathway Inactivated in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Related Autophagy.

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    Holczer, Marianna; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Kapuy, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    The balance of protein synthesis and proteolysis (i.e. proteostasis) is maintained by a complex regulatory network in which mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin serine/threonine kinase) pathway and unfolded protein response are prominent positive and negative actors. The interplay between the two systems has been revealed; however the mechanistic details of this crosstalk are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the elements of crosstalk during endoplasmic reticulum stress and to verify the key role of GADD34 in the connection with the mTOR pathway. Here, we demonstrate that a transient activation of autophagy is present in endoplasmic reticulum stress provoked by thapsigargin or tunicamycin, which is turned into apoptotic cell death. The transient phase can be characterized by the elevation of the autophagic marker LC3II/I, by mTOR inactivation, AMP-activated protein kinase activation and increased GADD34 level. The switch from autophagy to apoptosis is accompanied with the appearance of apoptotic markers, mTOR reactivation, AMP-activated protein kinase inactivation and a decrease in GADD34. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine shortens the transient phase, while inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin or resveratrol prolongs it. Inhibition of GADD34 by guanabenz or transfection of the cells with siGADD34 results in down-regulation of autophagy-dependent survival and a quick activation of mTOR, followed by apoptotic cell death. The negative effect of GADD34 inhibition is diminished when guanabenz or siGADD34 treatment is combined with rapamycin or resveratrol addition. These data confirm that GADD34 constitutes a mechanistic link between endoplasmic reticulum stress and mTOR inactivation, therefore promotes cell survival during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  18. The pro-survival function of p53 in HeLa cells

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    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Kim, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The rate of apoptosis and autophagy was variable with different p53 status after IR treatment of cells. The influence of p53 status on cell fate suggests a role of p53 in two fundamentally important cell biological pathways: autophagy and apoptosis. p53 coordinates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to govern cell fate. This study was done to identify p53-mediated regulation of cell's fate. Autophagy induced by IR may prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis, implying an interlink modulation between autophagy and apoptosis. The rate of apoptosis and autophagy was determined with different p53 status after IR treatment of HeLa cells in this study. Our research on IR-induced cellular responses may provide new information about fate decision between the processes of apoptosis and autophagy.

  19. Autophagy Primes Neutrophils for Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation during Sepsis.

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    Park, So Young; Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Youn, Young-Jin; Kim, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Hee; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Park, Yong Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Yousang; Lee, Suh-Young; Koh, Younsuck; Park, Myung Jae; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2017-09-01

    Neutrophils are key effectors in the host's immune response to sepsis. Excessive stimulation or dysregulated neutrophil functions are believed to be responsible for sepsis pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating functional plasticity of neutrophils during sepsis have not been fully determined. We investigated the role of autophagy in neutrophil functions during sepsis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Neutrophils were isolated from patients with sepsis and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The levels of reactive oxygen species generation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and granule release, and the autophagic status were evaluated. The effect of neutrophil autophagy augmentation was further evaluated in a mouse model of sepsis. Neutrophils isolated from patients who survived sepsis showed an increase in autophagy induction, and were primed for NET formation in response to subsequent PMA stimulation. In contrast, neutrophils isolated from patients who did not survive sepsis showed dysregulated autophagy and a decreased response to PMA stimulation. The induction of autophagy primed healthy neutrophils for NET formation and vice versa. In a mouse model of sepsis, the augmentation of autophagy improved survival via a NET-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that neutrophil autophagy primes neutrophils for increased NET formation, which is important for proper neutrophil effector functions during sepsis. Our study provides important insights into the role of autophagy in neutrophils during sepsis.

  20. Targeting Protective Autophagy Exacerbates UV-Triggered Apoptotic Cell Death

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    Shih-Hwa Chiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is activated by various stresses, including DNA damage, and previous studies of DNA damage-induced autophagy have focused on the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of autophagic response to ultraviolet (UV irradiation in A549 and H1299 cells. Our results indicated that UV induces on-rate autophagic flux in these cells. Autophagy inhibition resulting from the knockdown of beclin-1 and Atg5 reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that ATR phosphorylation was accompanied by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B II (LC3B-II expression during the early phases following UV irradiation, which is a well-established inducer of ATR. Knocking down ATR further attenuated the reduction in LC3B-II at early stages in response to UV treatment. Despite the potential role of ATR in autophagic response, reduced ATR expression does not affect autophagy induction during late phases (24 and 48 h after UV treatment. The result is consistent with the reduced ATR phosphorylation at the same time points and suggests that autophagic response at this stage is activated via a distinct pathway. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that autophagy acts as a cytoprotective mechanism against UV-induced apoptosis and that autophagy induction accompanied with apoptosis at late stages is independent of ATR activation.

  1. Autophagy in brain ischemia

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    Alicja Kost

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular process of macromolecule and organelle degradation, which plays an important role both in maintaining homeostasis and in responding to various harmful stimuli. Recent studies clearly indicate upregulation of autophagy in neurons challenged with brain ischemia. In this paper we present biosynthesis of autophagosomes as well as the role and molecular mechanisms of basal and induced neuronal autophagy. We have also reviewed recently published papers concerning the potential role of autophagy in brain ischemia. Results of both in vivo and in vitro experimental studies indicate that signaling pathways related to autophagy might become a target of new neuroprotective strategies.

  2. Suppression of p53 potentiates chemosensitivity in nutrient-deprived cholangiocarcinoma cells via inhibition of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fei; Guo, Xian-Ling; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Qiu-Dong; Li, Rong; Xu, Qing; Wei, Li-Xin

    2017-08-01

    Tumor protein p53 has been intensively studied as a major tumor suppressor. The activation of p53 is associated with various anti-neoplastic functions, including cell senescence, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. However, the role of p53 in cancer cell chemosensitivity remains unknown. Cholangiocarcinoma cell lines QBC939 and RBE were grown in full-nutrient and nutrient-deprived conditions. The cell lines were treated with 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin and the rate of cell death was determined in these and controls using Cell Counting Kit-8 and microscopy-based methods, including in the presence of autophagy inhibitor 3MA, p53 inhibitor PFT-α or siRNA against p53 or Beclin-1. The present study demonstrated that the inhibition of p53 enhanced the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in nutrient-deprived cholangiocarcinoma cells. Nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy was revealed to be inhibited following inhibition of p53. These data indicate that p53 is important for the activation of autophagy in nutrient-deprived cholangiocarcinoma cells, and thus contributes to cell survival and chemoresistance.

  3. Blocking autophagy enhances meloxicam lethality to hepatocellular carcinoma by promotion of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jingtao; Dong, Xiaofeng; Xiu, Peng; Wang, Fuhai; Liu, Ju; Wei, Honglong; Xu, Zongzhen; Liu, Feng; Li, Tao; Li, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Meloxicam, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, has been demonstrated to exert anti-tumour effects against various malignancies. However, up to now, mechanisms involved in meloxicam anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects have remained unclear. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy-associated molecules were analysed by western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. GRP78 and Atg5 knock-down by siRNA or chemical inhibition was used to investigate cytotoxic effects of meloxicam treatment on HCC cells. We found that meloxicam led to apoptosis and autophagy in HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells via a mechanism that involved ER stress. Up-regulation of GRP78 signalling pathway from meloxicam-induced ER stress was critical for activation of autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy activation attenuated ER stress-related cell death. Blocking autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Atg5 siRNA knock-down enhanced meloxicam lethality for HCC by activation of ER stress-related apoptosis. In addition, GRP78 seemed to lead to autophagic activation via the AMPK-mTOR signalling pathway. Blocking AMPK with a chemical inhibitor inhibited autophagy suggesting that meloxicam-regulated autophagy requires activation of AMPK. Our results revealed that both ER stress and autophagy were involved in cell death evoked by meloxicam in HCC cells. This inhibition of autophagy to enhance meloxicam lethality, suggests a novel therapeutic strategy against HCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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    Raffaele Cursio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury occurs during liver resection, liver transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. The main mode of liver cell death after warm and/or cold liver I-R is necrosis, but other modes of cell death, as apoptosis and autophagy, are also involved. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digesting pathway responsible for removal of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles, and malformed proteins during biosynthesis by lysosomes. Autophagy is found in normal and diseased liver. Although depending on the type of ischemia, warm and/or cold, the dynamic process of liver I-R results mainly in adenosine triphosphate depletion and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leads to both, a local ischemic insult and an acute inflammatory-mediated reperfusion injury, and results finally in cell death. This process can induce liver dysfunction and can increase patient morbidity and mortality after liver surgery and hemorrhagic shock. Whether autophagy protects from or promotes liver injury following warm and/or cold I-R remains to be elucidated. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver I-R injury focusing on both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of liver autophagy following warm and/or cold liver I-R.

  5. Autophagy and its implication in human oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Gang

    2017-02-01

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved lysosomal degradation process essential for cell physiology and human health. By regulating apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, immune response and other cellular processes, autophagy acts as a modulator of pathogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in diverse diseases. With regard to oral disease, autophagy can be problematic either when it is activated or impaired, because this process is involved in diverse functions, depending on the specific disease and its level of progression. In particular, activated autophagy functions as a cytoprotective mechanism under environmental stress conditions, which regulates tumor growth and mediates resistance to anticancer treatment in established tumors. During infections and inflammation, activated autophagy selectively delivers microbial antigens to the immune systems, and is therefore connected to the elimination of intracellular pathogens. Impaired autophagy contributes to oxidative stress, genomic instability, chronic tissue damage, inflammation and tumorigenesis, and is involved in aberrant bacterial clearance and immune priming. Hence, substantial progress in the study of autophagy provides new insights into the pathogenesis of oral diseases. This review outlines the mechanisms of autophagy, and highlights the emerging roles of this process in oral cancer, periapical lesions, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis.

  6. Uncoupling Protein 2 Regulates Palmitic Acid-Induced Hepatoma Cell Autophagy

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    Jiaxin Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is suggested to have a role in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Autophagy is an important mediator of many pathological responses. This study aims to investigate the relationship between UCP2 and hepatoma cells autophagy in palmitic acid- (PA- induced lipotoxicity. H4IIE cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA, and cell autophagy and apoptosis were examined. UCP2 expression, in association with LC3-II and caspase-3, which are indicators of cell autophagy and apoptosis, respectively,was measured. Results demonstrated that UCP2 was associated with autophagy during PA-induced hepatic carcinoma cells injury. Tests on reactive oxygen species (ROS showed that UCP2 overexpression strongly decreases PA-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Conversely, UCP2 inhibition by genipin or UCP2 mRNA silencing enhances PA-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Autophagy partially participates in this progress. Moreover, UCP2 was associated with ATP synthesis during PA-induced autophagy. In conclusion, increasing UCP2 expression in hepatoma cells may contribute to cell autophagy and antiapoptotic as result of fatty acid injury. Our results may bring new insights for potential NASH therapies.

  7. CCR9 interactions support ovarian cancer cell survival and resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion

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    Johnson Erica L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is more often used to treat ovarian cancer (OvCa, which provides modest survival advantage primarily due to chemo-resistance and up regulated anti-apoptotic machineries in OvCa cells. Therefore, targeting the mechanisms responsible for cisplatin resistance in OvCa cell may improve therapeutic outcomes. We have shown that ovarian cancer cells express CC chemokine receptor-9 (CCR9. Others have also shown that CCL25, the only natural ligand for CCR9, up regulates anti-apoptotic proteins in immature T lymphocytes. Hence, it is plausible that CCR9-mediated cell signals might be involved in OvCa cell survival and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the potential role and molecular mechanisms of CCR9-mediated inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in OvCa cells. Methods Cell proliferation, vibrant apoptosis, and TUNEL assays were performed with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25 to determine the role of the CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin resistance. In situ Fast Activated cell-based ELISA (FACE assays were performed to determine anti-apoptotic signaling molecules responsible for CCL25-CCR9 mediated survival. Results Our results show interactions between CCR9 and CCL25 increased anti-apoptotic signaling cascades in OvCa cells, which rescued cells from cisplatin-induced cell death. Specifically, CCL25-CCR9 interactions mediated Akt, activation as well as GSK-3β and FKHR phosphorylation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion. Conclusions Our results suggest the CCR9-CCL25 axis plays an important role in reducing cisplatin-induced apoptosis of OvCa cells.

  8. CCR9 interactions support ovarian cancer cell survival and resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica L; Singh, Rajesh; Johnson-Holiday, Crystal M; Grizzle, William E; Partridge, Edward E; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh

    2010-06-17

    Cisplatin is more often used to treat ovarian cancer (OvCa), which provides modest survival advantage primarily due to chemo-resistance and up regulated anti-apoptotic machineries in OvCa cells. Therefore, targeting the mechanisms responsible for cisplatin resistance in OvCa cell may improve therapeutic outcomes. We have shown that ovarian cancer cells express CC chemokine receptor-9 (CCR9). Others have also shown that CCL25, the only natural ligand for CCR9, up regulates anti-apoptotic proteins in immature T lymphocytes. Hence, it is plausible that CCR9-mediated cell signals might be involved in OvCa cell survival and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the potential role and molecular mechanisms of CCR9-mediated inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in OvCa cells. Cell proliferation, vibrant apoptosis, and TUNEL assays were performed with or without cisplatin treatment in presence or absence of CCL25 to determine the role of the CCR9-CCL25 axis in cisplatin resistance. In situ Fast Activated cell-based ELISA (FACE) assays were performed to determine anti-apoptotic signaling molecules responsible for CCL25-CCR9 mediated survival. Our results show interactions between CCR9 and CCL25 increased anti-apoptotic signaling cascades in OvCa cells, which rescued cells from cisplatin-induced cell death. Specifically, CCL25-CCR9 interactions mediated Akt, activation as well as GSK-3beta and FKHR phosphorylation in a PI3K-dependent and FAK-independent fashion. Our results suggest the CCR9-CCL25 axis plays an important role in reducing cisplatin-induced apoptosis of OvCa cells.

  9. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magariños

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  10. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Marta; Pulido, Sara; Aburto, María R; de Iriarte Rodríguez, Rocío; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  11. Radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood CD8 T lymphocytes is a novel prognostic factor for survival in cervical carcinoma patients

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    Ordonez, R.; Federico, M. [Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrin, Radiation Oncology Department, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Henriquez-Hernandez, L.A.; Pinar, B.; Lloret, M.; Lara, P.C. [Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrin, Radiation Oncology Department, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Clinical Sciences Department, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer (ICIC), Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Valenciano, A. [Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer (ICIC), Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Bordon, E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Clinical Sciences Department, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Rodriguez-Gallego, C. [Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrin, Immunology Department, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    A close relationship exists between immune response and tumor behavior. This study aimed to explore the associations between radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and clinical pathological variables. Furthermore, it assessed the role of RIA as a prognostic factor for survival in cervical carcinoma patients. Between February 1998 and October 2003, 58 consecutive patients with nonmetastatic, localized stage I-II cervical carcinoma who had been treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy were included in this study. Follow-up ended in January 2013. PBL subpopulations were isolated and irradiated with 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy then incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and the ss value, a parameter defining RIA of lymphocytes, was calculated. Mean follow-up duration was 111.92 ± 40.31 months. Patients with lower CD8 T lymphocyte ss values were at a higher risk of local relapse: Exp(B) = 5.137, confidence interval (CI) 95 % = 1.044-25.268, p = 0.044. Similar results were observed for regional relapse: Exp(B) = 8.008, CI 95 % = 1.702-37.679, p = 0.008 and disease relapse: Exp(B) = 6.766, CI 95 % = 1.889-24.238, p = 0.003. In multivariate analysis, only the CD8 T lymphocyte ss values were found to be of prognostic significance for local disease-free survival (LDFS, p = 0.049), regional disease-free survival (RDFS, p = 0.002), metastasis-free survival