WorldWideScience

Sample records for survival advantage conferred

  1. SAG-UPS attenuates proapoptotic SARM and Noxa to confer survival advantage to early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S C; Choo, W Q W; Toh, H C; Ding, J L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly cancer because of its commonly late diagnosis and limited treatment options. SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene)-dependent UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) is a key switch between immune-mediated apoptosis and overactivation-mediated protumorigenesis, prompting us to hypothesize that SAG-UPS modulates chronic inflammation-induced tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which SAG-UPS regulates death/survival of liver cancer cells. By retrospective studies, we found reciprocal expressions of anti-/proapoptotic factors: SAG/SARM and SAG/Noxa in human primary HCC tissues - the antiapoptotic SAG was significantly upregulated whereas the proapoptotic SARM and Noxa were markedly downregulated, suggesting their involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis. Upregulated SAG-UPS effectively manipulates the levels of high-molecular-weight ubiquitinated SARM and Noxa in carcinoma tissues compared with corresponding normal tissues. SAG-overexpressing HCC cell lines display reduced SARM and Noxa (but not Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-xL), suggesting that SARM and Noxa are specific substrates of SAG-dependent ubiquitination. SARM overexpression activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, reducing cell viability. SAG knockdown significantly elevated apoptosis with increased cytosolic cytochrome c, confirming SAG-mediated antiapoptosis in HCC. SAG overexpression stimulated protumorigenic cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF, but not antitumorigenic IL-12p40 and anti-inflammatory IL-10. This is consistent with higher proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF) in hepatoma compared with healthy tissues. Altogether, early stage-upregulated SAG-UPS exacerbates hepatocarcinogenesis progression, through: (1) ubiquitination-mediated degradation of proapoptotic SARM and Noxa; and (2) production of protumorigenic cytokines that induce a protumorigenic microenvironment, conferring survival advantage to HCC cells. Thus, we propose SAG-UPS to be an early

  2. Protein kinase G confers survival advantage to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency-like conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mehak Zahoor; Bhaskar, Ashima; Upadhyay, Sandeep; Kumari, Pooja; Rajmani, Raju S; Jain, Preeti; Singh, Amit; Kumar, Dhiraj; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2017-09-29

    Protein kinase G (PknG), a thioredoxin-fold-containing eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinase, is a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, required for inhibition of phagolysosomal fusion. Here, we unraveled novel functional facets of PknG during latency-like conditions. We found that PknG mediates persistence under stressful conditions like hypoxia and abets drug tolerance. PknG mutant displayed minimal growth in nutrient-limited conditions, suggesting its role in modulating cellular metabolism. Intracellular metabolic profiling revealed that PknG is necessary for efficient metabolic adaptation during hypoxia. Notably, the PknG mutant exhibited a reductive shift in mycothiol redox potential and compromised stress response. Exposure to antibiotics and hypoxic environment resulted in higher oxidative shift in mycothiol redox potential of PknG mutant compared with the wild type. Persistence during latency-like conditions required kinase activity and thioredoxin motifs of PknG and is mediated through phosphorylation of a central metabolic regulator GarA. Finally, using a guinea pig model of infection, we assessed the in vivo role of PknG in manifestation of disease pathology and established a role for PknG in the formation of stable granuloma, hallmark structures of latent tuberculosis. Taken together, PknG-mediated GarA phosphorylation is important for maintenance of both mycobacterial physiology and redox poise, an axis that is dispensable for survival under normoxic conditions but is critical for non-replicating persistence of mycobacteria. In conclusion, we propose that PknG probably acts as a modulator of latency-associated signals. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer cells by E-selectin-induced activation of the PI3K-NFκB survival axis downstream of Death receptor-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquet Éric R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells. It requires interactions between adhesion receptors on endothelial cells and their counter-receptors on cancer cells. Notably, E-selectin, a major endothelial adhesion receptor, interacts with Death receptor-3 present on metastatic colon carcinoma cells. This interaction confers metastatic properties to colon cancer cells by promoting the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells and triggering the activation of the pro-migratory p38 and pro-survival ERK pathways in the cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated further the mechanisms by which the E-selectin-activated pathways downstream of DR3 confer a survival advantage to colon cancer cells. Methods Cell survival has been ascertained by using the WST-1 assay and by evaluating the activation of the PI3 kinase/NFκB survival axis. Apoptosis has been assayed by determining DNA fragmentation by Hoechst staining and by measuring cleavage of caspases-8 and -3. DR3 isoforms have been identified by PCR. For more precise quantification, targeted PCR reactions were carried out, and the amplified products were analyzed by automated chip-based microcapillary electrophoresis on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer instrument. Results Interaction between DR3-expressing HT29 colon carcinoma cells and E-selectin induces the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, p65/RelA, the anti-apoptotic subunit of NFκB, is rapidly translocated to the nucleus in response to E-selectin. This translocation is impaired by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway increases the cleavage of caspase 8 in colon cancer cells treated with E-selectin and this effect is still further increased when both ERK and PI3K pathways are concomitantly inhibited. Intriguingly, metastatic colon cancer cell lines such as HT

  4. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprewicz, Erin K

    2015-01-01

    Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate) enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis) and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although tradeoffs in seed

  5. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Kuprewicz

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although

  6. Scatter Hoarding of Seeds Confers Survival Advantages and Disadvantages to Large-Seeded Tropical Plants at Different Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprewicz, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate) enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis) and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although tradeoffs in seed

  7. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  8. The survival advantage of olfaction in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Kenta; Pavlenkovich, Viktoryia; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2008-08-05

    Olfaction is generally assumed to be critical for survival because this sense allows animals to detect food and pheromonal cues. Although the ability to sense sex pheromones [1, 2, 3] is likely to be important for insects, the contribution of general odor detection to survival is unknown. We investigated the extent to which the olfactory system confers a survival advantage on Drosophila larvae foraging for food under conditions of limited resources and competition from other larvae.

  9. Multiple arterial grafting confers survival advantage compared to percutaneous intervention with drug-eluting stents in multivessel coronary artery disease: A propensity score adjusted analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Shahzad G; Benedetto, Umberto; Ilsley, Charles D; Amrani, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The best revascularisation strategy for multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) is still controversial. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) utilising drug eluting stents (DES) has emerged as an acceptable alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the last decade. However, multiple arterial grafting (MAG) is superior revascularisation strategy compared with conventional CABG utilising single internal mammary artery and currently there is a paucity of comparison of DES and MAG. We aimed to investigate whether MAG offers advantage over DES-PCI in MVD. A total of 6126 patients with MVD (≥ 2 vessel) underwent CABG (n = 4652) or PCI (n = 1474) at a single institution. MAG was performed in 1372 CABG cases and DES were implanted in 1222 PCI cases. Propensity score adjusted analysis was performed to investigate the potential survival advantage of MAG over PCI. Mean follow-up was 4.9 years. Risk for late death was comparable after DES-PCI and conventional CABG (HR 1.11; 95%CI 0.9 to 1.33; P = 0.25). However, DES-PCI was associated with an increased risk for late death compared to MAG (HR 1.53; 95%CI 1.08 to 2.91; P = 0.02). DES-PCI was also associated with a 3.51 fold increased risk for repeat revascularisation over MAG (95%CI 2.60 to 4.75; P compared to DES-PCI. When feasible, MAG should be strongly recommended in patients with MVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemoradiotherapy, with adjuvant surgery for local control, confers a durable survival advantage in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bass, G A

    2014-04-01

    Oesophageal cancer usually presents with systemic disease, necessitating systemic therapy. Neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy improves short-term survival, but its long-term impact is disputed because of limited accrual, treatment-protocol heterogeneity and a short follow-up of randomised trials.

  11. Survival advantages of obesity in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Abbott, Kevin C; Salahudeen, Abdulla K; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Horwich, Tamara B

    2005-03-01

    In the general population, a high body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, the effect of overweight (BMI: 25-30) or obesity (BMI: >30) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is paradoxically in the opposite direction; ie, a high BMI is associated with improved survival. Although this "reverse epidemiology" of obesity or dialysis-risk-paradox is relatively consistent in MHD patients, studies in CKD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis have yielded mixed results. Growing confusion has developed among physicians, some of whom are no longer confident about whether to treat obesity in CKD patients. A similar reverse epidemiology of obesity has been described in geriatric populations and in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Possible causes of the reverse epidemiology of obesity include a more stable hemodynamic status, alterations in circulating cytokines, unique neurohormonal constellations, endotoxin-lipoprotein interaction, reverse causation, survival bias, time discrepancies among competitive risk factors, and malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome. Reverse epidemiology may have significant clinical implications in the management of dialysis, CHF, and geriatric patients, ie, populations with extraordinarily high mortality. Exploring the causes and consequences of the reverse epidemiology of obesity in dialysis patients can enhance our insights into similar paradoxes observed for other conventional risk factors, such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol and homocysteine concentrations, and in other populations such as those with CHF, advanced age, cancer, or AIDS. Weight-gaining interventional studies in dialysis patients are urgently needed to ascertain whether they can improve survival and quality of life.

  12. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  13. The Survival Advantage: Underlying Mechanisms and Extant Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the function of memory in our evolutionary history. According to Nairne and colleagues (e.g., Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson, 2008; Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada, 2007, the best mnemonic strategy for learning lists of unrelated words may be one that addresses the same problems that our Pleistocene ancestors faced: fitness-relevant problems including securing food and water, as well as protecting themselves from predators. Survival processing has been shown to promote better recall and recognition memory than many well-known mnemonic strategies (e.g., pleasantness ratings, imagery, generation, etc.. However, the survival advantage does not extend to all types of stimuli and tasks. The current review presents research that has replicated Nairne et al.'s (2007 original findings, in addition to the research designs that fail to replicate the survival advantage. In other words, there are specific manipulations in which survival processing does not appear to benefit memory any more than other strategies. Potential mechanisms for the survival advantage are described, with an emphasis on those that are the most plausible. These proximate mechanisms outline the memory processes that may contribute to the advantage, although the ultimate mechanism may be the congruity between the survival scenario and Pleistocene problem-solving.

  14. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin eZerulla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranii, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance towards X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments.

  15. Polyploidy in haloarchaea: advantages for growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerulla, Karolin; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The investigated haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum, Haloferax mediterranei, and H. volcanii, have all been shown to be polyploid. They contain several replicons that have independent copy number regulation, and most have a higher copy number during exponential growth phase than in stationary phase. The possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea, most of which have experimental support for at least one species, are discussed. These advantages include a low mutation rate and high resistance toward X-ray irradiation and desiccation, which depend on homologous recombination. For H. volcanii, it has been shown that gene conversion operates in the absence of selection, which leads to the equalization of genome copies. On the other hand, selective forces might lead to heterozygous cells, which have been verified in the laboratory. Additional advantages of polyploidy are survival over geological times in halite deposits as well as at extreme conditions on earth and at simulated Mars conditions. Recently, it was found that H. volcanii uses genomic DNA as genetic material and as a storage polymer for phosphate. In the absence of phosphate, H. volcanii dramatically decreases its genome copy number, thereby enabling cell multiplication, but diminishing the genetic advantages of polyploidy. Stable storage of phosphate is proposed as an alternative driving force for the emergence of DNA in early evolution. Several additional potential advantages of polyploidy are discussed that have not been addressed experimentally for haloarchaea. An outlook summarizes selected current trends and possible future developments.

  16. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Sharrow

    Full Text Available Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  17. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, David J; Anderson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  18. The Ethics of Conferring Parental Advantage: A Question of Parental Liberty versus Societal Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Kessa

    2016-01-01

    In raising their children, parents confer certain advantages upon them. Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that because these parental advantages increase inequality, parents should have the right to confer only advantages that are integral to the core good of the parent-child relationship: building an intimate relationship between parent and…

  19. Sex-related time-dependent variations in post-stroke survival-evidence of a female stroke survival advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2007-01-01

    of stroke and remained so during the first month suggesting a female survival advantage. Throughout the second month the rate reversed in favour of men suggesting that women in that period are paying a 'toll' for their initial survival advantage. Hereafter, the rate steadily decreased, and after 4 months...

  20. Adaptive memory: the survival-processing memory advantage is not due to negativity or mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has highlighted the adaptive function of memory by showing that imagining being stranded in the grasslands without any survival material and rating words according to their survival value in this situation leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. Studies examining the role of emotions in causing the survival-processing memory advantage have been inconclusive, but some studies have suggested that the effect might be due to negativity or mortality salience. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared the survival scenario to a control scenario that implied imagining a hopeless situation (floating in outer space with dwindling oxygen supplies) in which only suicide can avoid the agony of choking to death. Although this scenario was perceived as being more negative than the survival scenario, the survival-processing memory advantage persisted. In Experiment 3, thinking about the relevance of words for survival led to better memory for these words than did thinking about the relevance of words for death. This survival advantage was found for concrete, but not for abstract, words. The latter finding is consistent with the assumption that the survival instructions encourage participants to think about many different potential uses of items to aid survival, which may be a particularly efficient form of elaborate encoding. Together, the results suggest that thinking about death is much less effective in promoting recall than is thinking about survival. Therefore, the survival-processing memory advantage cannot be satisfactorily explained by negativity or mortality salience.

  1. Physiological advantages of dwarfing in surviving extinctions in high-CO2 oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garilli, Vittorio; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Scuderi, Danilo; Brusca, Lorenzo; Parrinello, Daniela; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Foggo, Andy; Twitchett, Richard J.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Milazzo, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Excessive CO2 in the present-day ocean-atmosphere system is causing ocean acidification, and is likely to cause a severe biodiversity decline in the future, mirroring effects in many past mass extinctions. Fossil records demonstrate that organisms surviving such events were often smaller than those before, a phenomenon called the Lilliput effect. Here, we show that two gastropod species adapted to acidified seawater at shallow-water CO2 seeps were smaller than those found in normal pH conditions and had higher mass-specific energy consumption but significantly lower whole-animal metabolic energy demand. These physiological changes allowed the animals to maintain calcification and to partially repair shell dissolution. These observations of the long-term chronic effects of increased CO2 levels forewarn of changes we can expect in marine ecosystems as CO2 emissions continue to rise unchecked, and support the hypothesis that ocean acidification contributed to past extinction events. The ability to adapt through dwarfing can confer physiological advantages as the rate of CO2 emissions continues to increase.

  2. Significant competitive advantage conferred by meiosis and syngamy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsell, J; Wills, C

    1996-01-01

    The presumed advantages of genetic recombinations are difficult to demonstrate directly. To investigate the effects of recombination and background heterozygosity on competitive ability, we have performed serial-transfer competition experiments between isogenic sexual and asexual strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The members of these diploid pairs of strains differed only in being heterozygous (sexual) or homozygous (asexual) at the mating type or MAT locus. Competing pairs had either a completely homozygous or a heterozygous genetic background, the latter being heterozygous at many different loci throughout the genome. A round of meiotic recombination (automixis) conferred a large and statistically significant enhancement of competitive ability on sexual strains with a heterozygous genetic background. By contrast, in homozygous background competitions, meiosis decreased the sexual strains' initial relative competitive ability. In all cases, however, the sexual strains outcompeted their isogenic asexual counterparts, whether meiotic recombination had occurred or not. In some genetic backgrounds, this was due in part to an overdominance effect on competitive advantage of heterozygosity at the MAT locus. The advantage of the sexual strains also increased significantly during the course of the homozygous background competitions, particularly when meiosis had occurred. This latter effect either did not occur or was very weak in heterozygous background competitions. Overall, sexual strains with heterozygous genetic backgrounds had a significantly higher initial relative competitive ability than those with homozygous backgrounds. The advantage of mating type heterozygosity in this organism extends far beyond the ability to recombine meiotically. PMID:8570658

  3. Survival advantage of marriage in uterine cancer patients contrasts poor outcome for widows: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, William J; Stany, Michael P; Phippen, Neil T; Bunch, Kristen P; Oliver, Kate E; Tian, Chunqiao; Maxwell, G Larry; Darcy, Kathleen M; Hamilton, Chad A

    2015-02-01

    Marriage confers a survival advantage for many cancers but has yet to be evaluated in uterine cancer patients. We sought to determine whether uterine cancer survival varied by self-reported relationship status. Data were downloaded from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for women diagnosed with uterine cancer (between 1991 and 2010 in nine geographic regions). Patients with complete clinical data for analysis were categorized as married, single, widowed or other (divorced or separated). Differences in distributions were evaluated using Chi-square, exact and/or Mantel-Haenszel test. Uterine cancer survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Of 47,420 eligible patients, 56% were married, 15% were single and 19% were widows. Married vs. non-married women had a higher likelihood of having low risk (grade 1/2 endometrioid) endometrial cancer and local disease (pmarriage. This report identifies widows as a new high-risk subpopulation with significantly inferior outcomes potentially benefiting from personalized care and social support. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. An inflammation-based prognostic index predicts survival advantage after transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinato, David J; Sharma, Rohini

    2012-08-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the preferred treatment for unresectable, intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, survival after TACE can be highly variable, suggesting the need for more accurate patient selection to improve therapeutic outcome. We have explored the prognostic ability of the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a biomarker of systemic inflammation, as a predictor of survival after TACE. Fifty-four patients with a diagnosis of HCC eligible for TACE were selected. Clinicopathologic variables were collected, including demographics, tumor staging, liver functional reserve, and laboratory variables. Dynamic changes in the NLR before and after TACE were studied as predictors of survival using both a univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. Patients in whom the NLR remained stable or normalized after TACE showed a significant improvement in overall survival of 26 months compared with patients showing a persistently abnormal index (P = 0.006). Other predictors of survival on univariate analysis were Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (P = 0.05), intrahepatic spread (P = 0.01), tumor diameter > 5 cm (P = 0.02), > 1 TACE (P = 0.01), alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 (P = 0.002), and radiologic response to TACE (P analysis. Changes in alpha-fetoprotein after treatment did not predict survival. Patients with a persistently increased NLR have a worse outcome after TACE. NLR is a simple and universally available stratifying biomarker that can help identify patients with a significant survival advantage after TACE. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A test of the survival processing advantage in implicit and explicit memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Dawn M; Thomas, Brandon J; Zimmerman, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the survival processing effect (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 263-273, 2007) in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The survival effect has been well established in explicit free recall and recognition tests, but has not been evident in implicit memory tests or in cued explicit tests. In Experiment 1 of the present study, we tested implicit and explicit memory for words studied in survival, moving, or pleasantness contexts in stem completion tests. In Experiment 2, we further tested these effects in implicit and explicit category production tests. Across the two experiments, with four separate memory tasks that included a total of 525 subjects, no survival processing advantage was found, replicating the results from implicit tests reported by Tse and Altarriba (Memory & Cognition, 38, 1110-1121, 2010). Thus, although the survival effect appears to be quite robust in free recall and recognition tests, it has not been replicated in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The similar results found for the implicit and explicit tests in the present study do not support encoding elaboration explanations of the survival processing effect.

  6. Adaptive memory: determining the proximate mechanisms responsible for the memorial advantages of survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Burns, Sarah A; Hwang, Ana J

    2011-01-01

    J. S. Nairne, S. R. Thompson, and J. N. S. Pandeirada (2007) suggested that our memory systems may have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information and showed that retention of words rated for their relevance to survival is superior to that of words encoded under other deep processing conditions. The authors present 4 experiments that uncover the proximate mechanisms likely responsible. The authors obtained a recall advantage for survival processing compared with conditions that promoted only item-specific processing or only relational processing. This effect was eliminated when control conditions encouraged both item-specific and relational processing. Data from separate measures of item-specific and relational processing generally were consistent with the view that the memorial advantage for survival processing results from the encoding of both types of processing. Although the present study suggests the proximate mechanisms for the effect, the authors argue that survival processing may be fundamentally different from other memory phenomena for which item-specific and relational processing differences have been implicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Does Being a Forerunner Give an Additional Survival Advantage? Gendered Order of Migration and Survival among Immigrant Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Carollo, Angela; Mussino, Eleonora

    A substantial body of research has indicated that migrants enjoy better health and lower mortality compared to those born in the destination countries, the so called healthy migrant effect. Mortality differences in immigrants versus host population, however, differ by cause of death, country...... of birth, and the duration of stay in the host country. Recent research further suggests that a reason to migrate is an important factor explaining variations in health and survival advantage across migrant groups. If being an economic migrant plays a role in the selection process and results in better...... health outcomes compared to those who migrate for family reasons or as refugees, another aspect of migratory patterns, then order of migration is likely to be important to take into account when studying differences in health and survival across migrant groups and between the two genders. It has been...

  8. The fitness consequences of honesty: Under-signalers have a survival advantage in song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Çağlar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    How honest or reliable signaling can evolve and be maintained has been a major question in evolutionary biology. The question is especially puzzling for a particular class of signals used in aggressive interactions: threat signals. Here, we report a study on song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in which we assayed males with playbacks on their territories to quantify their aggressiveness (flights and close proximity) and aggressive signaling levels (rates of soft song, a close-range signal reliably predicting attack) and asked whether these traits affect individuals' survival on territory. We found that the effect of aggressive signaling via soft song interacted with aggressive behaviors such that there was a negative correlational selection: among males with low aggression, those males that signaled at higher levels (over-signalers) had higher survival whereas among males with high aggression those that signaled at low levels (under-signalers) survived longer. In other words, males that deviate from reliable signaling have a survival advantage. These results, along with previous research that suggested most of the deviation from reliable signaling in this system is in the form of under-signaling (high-aggression males signaling at low levels) pose a puzzle for future research on how this reliable signaling system is maintained. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. In vitro evaluation of nutrients that selectively confer a competitive advantage to lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsa, R A; Minerath, R A; Busch, M A; Tan, J; Koenig, D W

    2016-01-01

    An assay was developed that tested the ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus to outcompete a challenge of Escherichia coli in a mixed culture containing different test nutrients. Using this assay, addition of fructo-oligosaccharide to the media allowed L. acidophilus to outcompete a challenge of E. coli, whereas in a mixed culture without the prebiotic the trend was reversed. Growth curves generated for E. coli in a single culture showed that fructo-oligosaccharide did not affect growth, indicating that the carbohydrate was not toxic to E. coli. This indicates that fructo-oligosaccharides may increase the ability of beneficial microbes to outcompete a pathogenic challenge. These results were confirmed using a skin simulant model that incorporates growth of the organisms at an air-surface interface to mimic the vulvar environment. It is possible to use a co-culture assay as an in vitro screening tool to define nutrients that confer a competitive advantage to beneficial flora specific to the female urogenital tract.

  10. Immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction showed limited advantage in patient survival after stratifying by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Yu, Ke-Da; Zuo, Wen-Jia; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction is widely used in breast cancer patients for its aesthetic effect. Although several studies have casted suspicion upon the oncological safety of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy, the potential impact of different reconstruction methods on patient survival remains unclear. We identified 35,126 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared among patients who underwent mastectomy with or without immediate breast reconstruction (autologous reconstruction or implant reconstruction) using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In multivariate analysis unadjusted for family income, patients undergoing immediate postmastectomy reconstruction exhibited improved BCSS [POOLED reconstruction (any types of reconstruction): hazard ratio (HR)  =  0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.95, P = 0.001] and OS (pooled reconstruction: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.65-0.75, Padvantage in BCSS and OS compared with those undergoing mastectomy alone. When comparing between the two reconstruction methods, no significant differences were observed in either BCSS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.90-1.35, P = 0.330) or OS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.07, 95% 0.90-1.28, P = 0.424). Compared to mastectomy alone, immediate postmastectomy reconstruction had limited advantage in survival after adjusting for confounding factor of family income. Our findings, if validated in other large databases, may help to illustrate the actual effect of immediate postmastectomy reconstruction on patient survival.

  11. SpxB is a suicide gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and confers a selective advantage in an in vivo competitive colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Thompson, Claudette M; Lipsitch, Marc; Malley, Richard

    2007-09-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae dies spontaneously upon reaching stationary phase. The extent of S. pneumoniae death at stationary phase is unusual in bacteria and has been conventionally attributed to autolysis by the LytA amidase. In this study, we show that spontaneous pneumococcal death is due to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), not LytA, and that the gene responsible for H(2)O(2) production (spxB) also confers a survival advantage in colonization. Survival of S. pneumoniae in stationary phase was significantly prolonged by eliminating H(2)O(2) in any of three ways: chemically by supplementing the media with catalase, metabolically by growing the bacteria under anaerobic conditions, or genetically by constructing DeltaspxB mutants that do not produce H(2)O(2). Likewise, addition of H(2)O(2) to exponentially growing S. pneumoniae resulted in a death rate similar to that of cells in stationary phase. While DeltalytA mutants did not lyse at stationary phase, they died at a rate similar to that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we show that the death process induced by H(2)O(2) has features of apoptosis, as evidenced by increased annexin V staining, decreased DNA content, and appearance as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Finally, in an in vivo rat model of competitive colonization, the presence of spxB conferred a selective advantage over the DeltaspxB mutant, suggesting an explanation for the persistence of this gene. We conclude that a suicide gene of pneumococcus is spxB, which induces an apoptosis-like death in pneumococci and confers a selective advantage in nasopharyngeal cocolonization.

  12. Sialic acid catabolism confers a competitive advantage to pathogenic vibrio cholerae in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2009-09-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae DeltananA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment.

  13. Sialic Acid Catabolism Confers a Competitive Advantage to Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in the Mouse Intestine▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2009-01-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae ΔnanA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment. PMID:19564383

  14. OpnS, an outer membrane porin of Xenorhabdus nematophila, confers a competitive advantage for growth in the insect host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Ransome; Forst, Steven

    2009-09-01

    The gammaproteobacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila engages in a mutualistic association with an entomopathogenic nematode and also functions as a pathogen toward different insect hosts. We studied the role of the growth-phase-regulated outer membrane protein OpnS in host interactions. OpnS was shown to be a 16-stranded beta-barrel porin. opnS was expressed during growth in insect hemolymph and expression was elevated as the cell density increased. When wild-type and opnS deletion strains were coinjected into insects, the wild-type strain was predominantly recovered from the insect cadaver. Similarly, an opnS-complemented strain outcompeted the DeltaopnS strain. Coinjection of the wild-type and DeltaopnS strains together with uncolonized nematodes into insects resulted in nematode progeny that were almost exclusively colonized with the wild-type strain. Likewise, nematode progeny recovered after coinjection of a mixture of nematodes carrying either the wild-type or DeltaopnS strain were colonized by the wild-type strain. In addition, the DeltaopnS strain displayed a competitive growth defect when grown together with the wild-type strain in insect hemolymph but not in defined culture medium. The DeltaopnS strain displayed increased sensitivity to antimicrobial compounds, suggesting that deletion of OpnS affected the integrity of the outer membrane. These findings show that the OpnS porin confers a competitive advantage for the growth and/or the survival of X. nematophila in the insect host and provides a new model for studying the biological relevance of differential regulation of porins in a natural host environment.

  15. Damage control resuscitation in combination with damage control laparotomy: a survival advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Juan C; Kimonis, Katerina; Marr, Alan B; Rennie, Kelly V; Wahl, Georgia; Wells, Joel E; Islam, Tareq M; Meade, Peter; Stuke, Lance; Barbeau, James M; Hunt, John P; Baker, Christopher C; McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    Damage control laparotomy (DCL) improves outcomes when used in patients with severe hemorrhage. Correction of coagulopathy with close ratio resuscitation while limiting crystalloid forms a new methodology known as damage control resuscitation (DCR). We hypothesize a survival advantage in DCL patients managed with DCR when compared with DCL patients managed with conventional resuscitation efforts (CRE). This study is a 4-year retrospective study of all DCL patients who required >or=10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBC) during surgery. A 2-year period after institution of DCR (DCL and DCR) was compared with the preceding 2 years (DCL and CRE). Univariate analysis of continuous data was done with Student's t test followed by multiple logistic regression. One Hundred twenty-four and 72 patients were managed during the DCL and CRE and DCL and DCR time periods, respectively. Baseline patient characteristics of age, Injury Severity Score, % penetrating, blood pressure, hemoglobin, base deficit, and INR were similar between groups. There was no difference in quantity of intraoperative PRBC utilization between DCL and CRE and DCL and DCR study periods: 21.7 units versus 25.5 units (p = 0.53); however, when compared with DCL and CRE group, patients in the DCL and DCR group received less intraoperative crystalloids, 4.7 L versus 14.2 L (p = 0.009); more fresh frozen plasma (FFP), 18.2 versus 6.4 (p = 0.002); a closer FFP to PRBC ratio, 1 to 1.2 versus 1 to 4.2 (p = 0.002); platelets to PRBC ratio, 1:2.3 versus 1:5.9 (0.002); shorter mean trauma intensive care unit length of stay, 11 days versus 20 days (p = 0.01); and greater 30-day survival, 73.6% versus 54.8% (p ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 (0.05-0.33), p = 0.005). This is the first civilian study that analyses the impact of DCR in patients managed with DCL. During the DCL and DCR study period more PRBC, FFP, and platelets with less crystalloid solution was used intraoperatively. DCL and DCR were associated with

  16. DNA as a Phosphate Storage Polymer and the Alternative Advantages of Polyploidy for Growth or Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerulla, Karolin; Chimileski, Scott; Näther, Daniela; Gophna, Uri; Papke, R. Thane; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Haloferax volcanii uses extracellular DNA as a source for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. However, it can also grow to a limited extend in the absence of added phosphorous, indicating that it contains an intracellular phosphate storage molecule. As Hfx. volcanii is polyploid, it was investigated whether DNA might be used as storage polymer, in addition to its role as genetic material. It could be verified that during phosphate starvation cells multiply by distributing as well as by degrading their chromosomes. In contrast, the number of ribosomes stayed constant, revealing that ribosomes are distributed to descendant cells, but not degraded. These results suggest that the phosphate of phosphate-containing biomolecules (other than DNA and RNA) originates from that stored in DNA, not in rRNA. Adding phosphate to chromosome depleted cells rapidly restores polyploidy. Quantification of desiccation survival of cells with different ploidy levels showed that under phosphate starvation Hfx. volcanii diminishes genetic advantages of polyploidy in favor of cell multiplication. The consequences of the usage of genomic DNA as phosphate storage polymer are discussed as well as the hypothesis that DNA might have initially evolved in evolution as a storage polymer, and the various genetic benefits evolved later. PMID:24733558

  17. Investigation the Advantages of CPV for Building Integrated PV : 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Sparemberger; Piet Sonneveld; J.V. Sahedi; S. van der Craats; R.G. Catau

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this concept is a significant reduction of energy consumption in greenhouses and buildings with large facades and windows by using available solar energy. The scope of this investigation is to study the advantages of a building integrated CPV system. The basic idea is that a larger

  18. Agentic women and communal leadership: how role prescriptions confer advantage to top women leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett

    2010-03-01

    The authors contribute to the ongoing debate about the existence of a female leadership advantage by specifying contextual factors that moderate the likelihood of the emergence of such an advantage. The investigation considered whether the perceived role incongruence between the female gender role and the leader role led to a female leader disadvantage (as predicted by role congruity theory) or whether instead a female leader advantage would emerge (as predicted by double standards and stereotype content research). In Study 1, it was only when success was internally attributed that women top leaders were evaluated as more agentic and more communal than men top leaders. Study 2 showed that the favorable ratings were unique to top-level positions and further showed that the effect on agentic traits was mediated by perceptions of double standards, while the effect on communal traits was mediated by expectations of feminized management skills. Finally, Study 2 showed that top women leaders were evaluated most favorably on overall leader effectiveness, and this effect was mediated by both mediators. Our results support the existence of a qualified female leadership advantage. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Survival Advantage Associated with Decrease in Stage at Detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to document the survival advantage of lowering stage at detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. Treatment outcomes and survival were evaluated in patients with Stage IIIA and Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer treated from 2000 to 2009 at the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center (UKMCC and SEER institutions. Results. Cytoreduction to no visible disease (P<0.0001 and complete response to platinum-based chemotherapy (P<0.025 occurred more frequently in Stage IIIA than in Stage IIIC cases. Time to progression was shorter in patients with Stage IIIC ovarian cancer (17±1 months than in those with Stage II1A disease (36±8 months. Five-year overall survival (OS improved from 41% in Stage IIIC patients to 60% in Stage IIIA patients treated at UKMCC and from 37% to 56% in patients treated at SEER institutions for a survival advantage of 19% in both data sets. 53% of Stage IIIA and 14% of Stage IIIC patients had NED at last followup. Conclusions. Decreasing stage at detection from Stage IIIC to stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer is associated with a 5-year survival advantage of nearly 20% in patients treated by surgical tumor cytoreduction and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  20. Is the Survival-Processing Memory Advantage Due to Richness of Encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röer, Jan P.; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Memory for words rated according to their relevance in a grassland survival context is exceptionally good. According to Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada's (2007) evolutionary-based explanation, natural selection processes have tuned the human memory system to prioritize the processing of fitness-relevant information. The survival-processing memory…

  1. Local-regional radiotherapy and surgery is associated with a significant survival advantage in metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Bevan Hong; Vlastos, Georges; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Nguyen, Nam Phong

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a survival benefit for metastatic breast cancer patients receiving surgery of the primary tumor. We investigated whether or not adjuvant radiotherapy can improve survival. Women diagnosed between 1988 and 2003 with metastatic, histologically confirmed unilateral primary breast cancer were selected from the SEER Program. Overall survival and specific survival were computed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Treatment hazard ratios of breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy versus no surgery, and radiotherapy versus none, were computed by Cox regression adjusting for period of diagnosis, age, marital status, race, histology, grade, and hormone receptors. Of 8761 women, radiotherapy was given to 1473 of 3905 who did not undergo surgery, to 882 of 2070 who underwent breast-conserving surgery, and to 1103 of 2786 mastectomy patients. Median overall survival was: for no surgery, 14 months; for breast-conserving surgery, 23 months; and for mastectomy, 28 months (P < 0.0001). The median overall survival of radiotherapy versus none was respectively 16 vs. 13 months without surgery (P = 0.0003), 28 vs. 20 months for breast-conserving surgery patients (P < 0.0001), and 28 vs. 28 months among mastectomy patients (P = 0.895). Multivariate analysis showed relative mortality reductions of 28% by breast-conserving surgery, 42% by mastectomy, and 10% by radiotherapy. Specific survival showed comparable results. Surgery and radiotherapy were associated with a significant survival advantage. We argue that local therapy should be considered even in metastatic disease.

  2. Survival advantage from ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity in women compared to men: the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Carmen; Reinier, Kyndaron; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Ayala, Jo; Mariani, Ronald; Wittwer, Lynn; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S

    2012-09-01

    Studies evaluating a possible survival advantage from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in women have produced mixed results possibly due to a lack of comprehensive analyses. We hypothesized that race, socioeconomic status (SES), and elements of the lifetime clinical history influence gender effects and need to be incorporated within analyses of survival. Cases of SCA were identified from the ongoing, prospective, multiple-source Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (population approximately one million). Subjects included were age ≥18 years who underwent attempted resuscitation by EMS providers. Pearson's chi-square tests and independent samples t tests or analysis of variance were used for univariate comparisons. We evaluated gender and race differences in survival adjusted for age, circumstances of arrest, disease burden, and socioeconomic status using a logistic regression model predicting survival. A total of 1,296 cases had resuscitation attempted (2002-2007; mean age 65 years, male 67%). Women were older than men (68 vs. 63 years, p ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval (1.12-3.04)]. Despite older age, higher prevalence of SCA in the home, and higher rates of PEA, women had a survival advantage from ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity.

  3. An Endogenous Accelerator for Viral Gene Expression Confers a Fitness Advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Melissa [University of California, San Diego; Bolovan-Fritts, Cynthia [University of California, San Diego; Dar, Roy D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womack, Andrew [Princeton University; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Shenk, Thomas [Princeton University; Weinberger, Leor S. [University of California, San Diego

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction circuits have long been known to differentiate between signals by amplifying inputs to different levels. Here, we describe a novel transcriptional circuitry that dynamically converts greater input levels into faster rates, without increasing the final equilibrium level (i.e. a rate amplifier). We utilize time-lapse microscopy to study human herpesvirus (cytomegalovirus) infection of live cells in real time. Strikingly, our results show that transcriptional activators accelerate viral gene expression in single cells without amplifying the steady-state levels of gene products in these cells. Experiment and modeling show that rate amplification operates by dynamically manipulating the traditional gain-bandwidth feedback relationship from electrical circuit theory to convert greater input levels into faster rates, and is driven by highly self-cooperative transcriptional feedback encoded by the virus s essential transactivator, IE2. This transcriptional rate-amplifier provides a significant fitness advantage for the virus and for minimal synthetic circuits. In general, rate-amplifiers may provide a mechanism for signal-transduction circuits to respond quickly to external signals without increasing steady-state levels of potentially cytotoxic molecules.

  4. A novel mechanism for a survival advantage of vigilant individuals in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, Daniel J.; de Weerd, Harmen; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    2013-01-01

    In many animal species, vigilance is crucial for avoiding predation. In groups, however, nonvigilant individuals could benefit from the vigilance of others without any of the associated costs. In an evolutionary sense, such exploitation may be compensated if vigilant individuals have a survival

  5. Survival advantage of lanthanum carbonate for hemodialysis patients with uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Suzuki, Hajime; Hida, Miho; Suga, Takao; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanum carbonate is a non-calcium phosphate binder that is effective for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. However, it is unknown whether treatment with lanthanum affects survival. We retrospectively collected data on maintenance hemodialysis patients at 22 facilities (n = 2292) beginning in December 2008, a time point immediately prior to the commercial availability of lanthanum in Japan. We compared 3-year all-cause mortality among patients who initiated lanthanum (n = 560) and those who were not treated with lanthanum during the study period (n = 560) matched by the propensity score of receiving lanthanum. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the primary analysis. After the market introduction of lanthanum, the percentage of patients receiving the binder increased gradually to 27%. In the propensity score-matched analysis, the mortality rate for the lanthanum group was not significantly lower than the non-lanthanum group [hazard ratio (HR), 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-1.09). However, stratification by serum phosphorus disclosed significant survival benefit of lanthanum for patients with serum phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.95), but not in patients with serum phosphorus ≤6.0 mg/dL (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.55-1.84). The survival benefit of lanthanum in patients with serum phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL was consistent across subgroups and robust in different analytical approaches. Treatment with lanthanum was independently associated with a significant survival benefit in hemodialysis patients with inadequately controlled hyperphosphatemia. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Shows No Survival Advantage to Chemotherapy Alone in Stage IIIA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Seth B; Mitzman, Brian; Lutfi, Waseem; Kuchta, Kristine; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Howington, John A; Kim, Ki Wan

    2018-02-13

    For operable patients with clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer, the optimum neoadjuvant treatment strategy remains unclear. Our aim was to compare perioperative and long-term outcomes for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) alone. We queried the National Cancer Database to identify all patients with N2 and either T1-T2 non-small cell lung cancer who received either NCRT or NCT followed by lobectomy between 2006 and 2012. Patients with T3 tumors were excluded. A propensity match analysis was performed incorporating preoperative variables, and the incidence of postoperative complications, pathologic downstaging, and long-term survival were compared. In all, 1,936 patients met criteria, 745 NCT and 1,191 NCRT. The NCRT patients were younger, less likely to be treated at an academic medical center, and more likely to have adenocarcinoma. After propensity matching, patients in the NCT group showed lower 30-day mortality (1.3% versus 2.9%) and 90-day mortality (2.9% versus 6.0%), and were more likely to undergo a minimally invasive resection (25.7% versus 14.1%). The NCRT patients were more likely to have a pathologic complete response (14.2% versus 4.0%) and to be N0 at the time of resection (45.2% versus 38.7%). In the multivariable analysis, NCRT patients were at a greater risk of mortality than NCT patients (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.36). In our cohort, combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy was associated with improved pathologic downstaging but showed increased perioperative mortality with no improvement in long-term overall survival. For stage IIIA patients with smaller tumors without local invasion, chemotherapy alone may be the preferred neoadjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. TFAP2E hypermethylation was associated with survival advantage in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuo-Ming; Wang, Yibaina; Huang, Rong; Liu, Yu-Peng; Li, Xia; Hu, Fu-Lan; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Fan; Cui, Bin-Bin; Dong, Xin-Shu; Zhao, Ya-Shuang

    2014-12-01

    Hypermethylation of TFAP2E (AP-2E) is associated with the chemotherapy-resistant in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), but its implications on prognosis directly remain unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the role of AP-2E methylation status and other clinicopathologic parameters as predictors of prognosis. We detected the methylation status of AP-2E in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 311 sporadic CRC patients by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis. Log-rank tests and multivariate Cox analyses were performed to evaluate the role of AP-2E methylation status and other clinicopathologic parameters as predictors of prognosis. Hypermethylation of AP-2E was detected in 61 % (190/311) tumor tissues. It occurred more frequently in tumors in earlier stages (I/II; P = 0.02), lower levels of tumor invasion (T1-T3; P = 0.04), fewer lymph nodes involved (N0; P ratio of 0.486 (95 % CI 0.342-0.692, P advantage in patients with CRC.

  8. Mortality selection among adults in Brazil: The survival advantage of Air Force officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa di Lego

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of extreme conditions on survival has been the focus of mortality studies using military data. However, in countries at peace, the military live in favorable conditions, being positively selected with respect to health. In this type of context, military data may help to improve our understanding of mortality differentials, particularly in countries where defective vital systems are still cumbersome for mortality studies. Methods: We estimate death rates for Brazilian Air Force (BAF officers through Poisson regression models, compute life expectancies, and compare them with those of average Brazilians and people in low-mortality countries. We also examine causes of death and mortality differentials through a competing risks framework and Fine and Gray regression models. Results: BAF life expectancy is higher than that of the average Brazilian and comparable to Sweden, France, and Japan in 2000. Younger pilots have a higher risk of dying on duty when compared with other officers but experience lower mortality rates from other causes at advanced ages. Conclusions: BAF officers are a population subgroup in Brazil with a life expectancy comparable to the one in advanced societies. There is no association between mortality and place of birth, which indicates that different childhood backgrounds did not affect BAF mortality differentials later in life. Contribution: This paper takes a novel approach focusing on a specific subgroup with lower mortality rates than the general population and good-quality longitudinal information available, a rarity in developing countries. We argue that this approach can be an interesting strategy to study mortality differentials in developing countries.

  9. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  10. Correlation of Positive and Negative Reciprocity Fails to Confer an Evolutionary Advantage: Phase Transitions to Elementary Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szolnoki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavior is therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.

  11. Correlation of Positive and Negative Reciprocity Fails to Confer an Evolutionary Advantage: Phase Transitions to Elementary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-10-01

    Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavior is therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.

  12. The role of learning by a predator, Rivulus hartii, in the rare-morph survival advantage in guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, B A; Hughes, K A; Tosh, D N; Rodd, F H

    2013-12-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), where rare types are favoured by selection, can maintain diversity. However, the ecological processes that mediate NFDS are often not known. Male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exhibit extreme diversity of colour patterning and, in a previous field experiment, rare morphs had a survival advantage. Here, we test the hypothesis that predators impose NFDS because they are efficient at capturing familiar prey morphs, but are less efficient at capturing unfamiliar morphs. Over a series of trials, we presented Rivulus hartii, a natural predator of guppies, with male guppies with the same colour patterning (A trials); then, for a second series of trials, we presented the rivulus with guppies with a new colour pattern (B trials). The success of rivulus at capturing guppies on the first attack increased over successive A trials. First attack success decreased significantly for the early B trials, and then increased during successive B trials, eventually reaching the same level as in the best A trials. This experiment demonstrates that learning, perhaps through long-term search image formation, plays a role in predation success on familiar vs. unfamiliar prey morphs. These results support the hypothesis that predator learning contributes to the maintenance of the extreme male guppy polymorphism seen in nature. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Antisocial luxO Mutants Provide a Stationary-Phase Survival Advantage in Vibrio fischeri ES114.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, John H; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-12-07

    The squid light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri controls bioluminescence using two acyl-homoserine lactone pheromone-signaling (PS) systems. The first of these systems to be activated during host colonization, AinS/AinR, produces and responds to N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C(8)-AHL). We screened activity of a P(ainS)-lacZ transcriptional reporter in a transposon mutant library and found three mutants with decreased reporter activity, low C(8)-AHL output, and other traits consistent with low ainS expression. However, the transposon insertions were unrelated to these phenotypes, and genome resequencing revealed that each mutant had a distinct point mutation in luxO. In the wild type, LuxO is phosphorylated by LuxU and then activates transcription of the small RNA (sRNA) Qrr, which represses ainS indirectly by repressing its activator LitR. The luxO mutants identified here encode LuxU-independent, constitutively active LuxO* proteins. The repeated appearance of these luxO mutants suggested that they had some fitness advantage during construction and/or storage of the transposon mutant library, and we found that luxO* mutants survived better and outcompeted the wild type in prolonged stationary-phase cultures. From such cultures we isolated additional luxO* mutants. In all, we isolated LuxO* allelic variants with the mutations P41L, A91D, F94C, P98L, P98Q, V106A, V106G, T107R, V108G, R114P, L205F, H319R, H324R, and T335I. Based on the current model of the V. fischeri PS circuit, litR knockout mutants should resemble luxO* mutants; however, luxO* mutants outcompeted litR mutants in prolonged culture and had much poorer host colonization competitiveness than is reported for litR mutants, illustrating additional complexities in this regulatory circuit. Our results provide novel insight into the function of LuxO, which is a key component of pheromone signaling (PS) cascades in several members of the Vibrionaceae. Our results also contribute to an increasingly appreciated

  14. Horizontal gene transfer confers adaptive advantages to phytopathogenic fungi: a case study of catalase-peroxidase in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the exchange and stable integration of genetic material between different evolutionary lineages, is widely observed in fungi. We hypothesize that successful stabilization of HGT elements provides adaptive advantages (e.g., virulence). Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are ...

  15. Literature Review of Advantages and Disadvantages of Pre-planned Construction Projects 2013 PhD Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    The construction industry’s focus on pre-planning, with its advantages and disadvantages, has not been investigated in a literature review which gives a state of art understanding of the topic. The aim of the paper is to review related papers, to fulfill gaps in the literature which could...

  16. Minocycline prevents cerebral malaria, confers neuroprotection and increases survivability of mice during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoorv, Thittayil Suresh; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological complication arising due to Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infection. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline, has been earlier reported to have a neuroprotective role in several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline treatment on the survivability of mice during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). The currently accepted mouse model, C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, was used for the study. Infected mice were treated with an intra-peritoneal dose of minocycline hydrochloride, 45mg/kg daily for ten days that led to parasite clearance in blood, brain, liver and spleen on 7th day post-infection; and the mice survived until experiment ended (90days) without parasite recrudescence. Evans blue extravasation assay showed that blood-brain barrier integrity was maintained by minocycline. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein level and caspase activity, which is related to CM pathogenesis, was significantly reduced in the minocycline-treated group. Fluoro-Jade® C and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the brains of minocycline group revealed a decrease in degenerating neurons and absence of hemorrhages respectively. Minocycline treatment led to decrease in gene expressions of inflammatory mediators like interferon-gamma, CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2; receptors CXCR3 and CCR2; and hence decrease in T-cell-mediated cerebral inflammation. We also proved that this reduction in gene expressions is irrespective of the anti-parasitic property of minocycline. The distinct ability of minocycline to modulate gene expressions of CXCL10 and CXCR3 makes it effective than doxycycline, a tetracycline used as chemoprophylaxis. Our study shows that minocycline is highly effective in conferring neuroprotection during ECM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extensions of the Survival Advantage in Memory: Examining the Role of Ancestral Context and Implied Social Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; McFarlan, Chastity C.; Cleary, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work (e.g., Nairne & Pandeirada, 2010) has shown that words are remembered better when they have been processed for their survival value in a grasslands context than when processed in other contexts. It has been suggested that this is because human memory systems were shaped by evolution specifically to help humans survive. Thus far,…

  18. Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Chapman, Ben B.; Baktoft, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration in a fresh......The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration...... in a freshwater fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) that commonly migrates from lakes to streams during winter confers a significant survival benefit with respect to bird (cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo spp.) predation. We tagged over 2000 individual fish in two Scandinavian lakes over 4 years and monitored migratory...... behaviour using passive telemetry. Next, we calculated the predation vulnerability of fish with differing migration strategies, by recovering data from passive integrated transponder tags of fish eaten by cormorants at communal roosts close to the lakes. We show that fish can reduce their predation risk...

  19. Literature Review of Advantages and Disadvantages of Pre-planned Construction Projects 2013 PhD Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    The construction industry’s focus on pre-planning, with its advantages and disadvantages, hasnot been investigated in a literature review which gives a state of art understanding of thetopic.The aim of the paper is to review related papers, to fulfill gaps in the literature which couldbe researched further in a Ph.D. project.The review model is conducted on papers, which all support an input, processing and outputstage. 561 journal papers were found, and by the processing stages 95 A-papers w...

  20. Bevacizumab reduces the growth rate constants of renal carcinomas: a novel algorithm suggests early discontinuation of bevacizumab resulted in a lack of survival advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2008-10-01

    To hasten cancer drug development, new paradigms are needed to assess therapeutic efficacy. In a randomized phase II study in patients with renal cell carcinoma, 10 microg/kg bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) administered every 2 weeks resulted in a longer time to progression but a statistically significant difference in overall survival could not be demonstrated. We developed a novel two-phase equation to estimate concomitant rates of tumor regression (regression rate constant) and tumor growth (growth rate constant). This method allows us to assess therapeutic efficacy using tumor measurements gathered while a patient receives therapy in a clinical trial. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas were significantly lower during therapy with 10 microg/kg bevacizumab than those of tumors in patients receiving placebo. In all cohorts the tumor growth rate constants were correlated with survival. That a survival advantage was not demonstrated with bevacizumab appears to have been a result of early discontinuation of bevacizumab. Single-agent bevacizumab significantly affects the growth rate constants of renal cell carcinoma. Extrapolating from the growth rate constants, we conclude that the failure to demonstrate a survival advantage in the original study was a result of premature discontinuation of bevacizumab. The mathematical model described herein has applications to many tumor types and should aid in evaluating the relative efficacies of different therapies. Quantitating tumor growth rate constants using data gathered while patients are enrolled in a clinical trial, as in the present study, may streamline and assist in drug development.

  1. Discerning the survival advantage among patients with prostate cancer who undergo radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy: The limitations of cancer registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen B; Huo, Jinhai; Chamie, Karim; Smaldone, Marc C; Kosarek, Christopher D; Fang, Justin E; Ynalvez, Leslie A; Kim, Simon P; Hoffman, Karen E; Giordano, Sharon H; Chapin, Brian F

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the overall survival of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy versus noncancer controls to discern whether there is a survival advantage according to prostate cancer treatment and the impact of selection bias on these results. A matched cohort study was performed using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked database. In total, 34,473 patients ages 66 to 75 years were identified who were without significant comorbidity, were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, and received treatment treated with surgery or radiotherapy between 2004 and 2011. These patients were matched to a noncancer control cohort. The rates of all-cause mortality that occurred within the study period were compared. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to identify determinants associated with overall survival. Of 34,473 patients who were included in the analysis, 21,740 (63%) received radiation therapy, and 12,733 (37%) underwent surgery. There was improved survival in patients who underwent surgery (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.38) and in those who received radiotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.75) compared with noncancer controls. Overall survival improved significantly in both treatment groups, with the greatest benefit observed among patients who underwent surgery (log rank P < .001). Population-based data indicated that patients with prostate cancer who received treatment with either surgery or radiotherapy had improved overall survival compared with a cohort of matched noncancer controls. Surgery produce longer survival compared with radiation therapy. These results suggest an inherent selection-bias because of unmeasured confounding variables. Cancer 2017;123:1617-1624. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase provides a survival advantage to colorectal cancer cells via upregulation of cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Harris, Jennifer W; Mitov, Mihail I; Kim, Ji Tae; Butterfield, D Allan; Lee, Eun Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Gao, Tianyan; Evers, B Mark

    2015-08-07

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a lipogenic enzyme, is upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Increased de novo lipid synthesis is thought to be a metabolic adaptation of cancer cells that promotes survival and metastasis; however, the mechanisms for this phenomenon are not fully understood. We show that FASN plays a role in regulation of energy homeostasis by enhancing cellular respiration in CRC. We demonstrate that endogenously synthesized lipids fuel fatty acid oxidation, particularly during metabolic stress, and maintain energy homeostasis. Increased FASN expression is associated with a decrease in activation of energy-sensing pathways and accumulation of lipid droplets in CRC cells and orthotopic CRCs. Immunohistochemical evaluation demonstrated increased expression of FASN and p62, a marker of autophagy inhibition, in primary CRCs and liver metastases compared to matched normal colonic mucosa. Our findings indicate that overexpression of FASN plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis in CRC via increased oxidation of endogenously synthesized lipids. Importantly, activation of fatty acid oxidation and consequent downregulation of stress-response signaling pathways may be key adaptation mechanisms that mediate the effects of FASN on cancer cell survival and metastasis, providing a strong rationale for targeting this pathway in advanced CRC.

  3. Survival Advantage Associated with Metformin Usage in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won Il; Kim, Mi-Sook; Lim, Jung Sub; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Seo, Young Seok; Han, Chul Ju; Park, Su Cheol; Kay, Chul Seung; Kim, Myungsoo; Jang, Hong Seok; Lee, Dong Soo; Chang, Ah Ram; Park, Hae Jin

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin on the clinical outcomes of patients receiving radiotherapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. The medical records of 217 patients treated with stereotactic body or hypofractionated radiotherapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma were reviewed. Patients were divided into the metformin group (n=19) and the non-metformin group (n=198), including those with diabetes (n=29), and those without (n=169). We performed a propensity score-matching analysis comparing the two groups. In the propensity score-matched cohort (n=76), the overall survival rate of the metformin group was higher than that of the non-metformin group (2-year, 76% vs. 37%, p=0.022). The adjusted Cox proportional hazards model revealed that metformin usage was a significant factor for mortality (adjusted hazard ratio=0.361; 95% confidence interval=0.139-0.935). The use of metformin in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving radiotherapy was associated with higher overall survival. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Survival advantage of hemodialysis relative to peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Florence; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Colin, Cyrille; Villar, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease and associated congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we compare mortality risks in these patients by dialysis modality by including all patients who started planned chronic dialysis with associated congestive heart failure and were prospectively enrolled in the French REIN Registry. Survival was compared between 933 PD and 3468 hemodialysis (HD) patients using a Kaplan-Meier model, Cox regression, and propensity score analysis. The patients were followed from their first dialysis session and stratified by modality at day 90 or last modality if death occurred prior. There was a significant difference in the median survival time of 20.4 months in the PD group and 36.7 months in the HD group (hazard ratio, 1.55). After correction for confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio for death in PD compared to the HD patients remained significant at 1.48. Subgroup analyses showed that the results were not changed with regard to the New York Heart Association stage, age strata, or estimated glomerular filtration rate strata at first renal replacement therapy. The use of propensity score did not change results (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55). Thus, mortality risk was higher with PD than with HD among incident patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. These results may help guide clinical decisions and also highlight the need for randomized clinical trials.

  5. Does E-Commerce Provide a Sustained Competitive Advantage? An Investigation of Survival and Sustainability in Growth-Oriented Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises should find a new business model for their development, so as to make better use of their own advantages. At the same time, with rapid development of the economy and of science technology, the competition between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and large enterprises is inevitable, so it is very important for small and medium-sized enterprises to find better ways to improve their ability to compete. E-commerce is a new medium of commerce in this 21st century, so as to promote the quantity development of SMEs and enhance the risk management ability of enterprises. However, at present, many of China’s small and medium enterprises face many challenges in the process of electronic commerce’s development, such as, which factors hinder the performance of electronic commerce, and what aspect of enterprises should be improved? This paper is based on the above problems, using theoretical analysis and empirical research methods to explore the root of these problems and find the solutions. In the empirical section, we explore how e-commerce influences sales growth in the short- and long-term. Through analysis of e-commerce performance, we further explore the causality relationship and influence degree. The results show that: first, IT Investment is the most important factor to achieve success, what competitive advantage can be achieved largely depends on whether enterprises will effectively use the network technology; second, the expansion of the enterprise size can promote transaction volume increase of SMEs in the short term; third, internet availability has a positive effect on the trade volume of e-commerce, but the intensity is not obvious, and the effect is relatively stable.

  6. A bio-artificial renal epithelial cell system conveys survival advantage in a porcine model of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Angela J; Buffington, Deborah A; Johnston, Kimberly A; Smith, Peter L; Pino, Christopher J; Humes, H David

    2017-03-01

    Renal cell therapy using the hollow fiber based renal assist device (RAD) improved survival time in an animal model of septic shock (SS) through the amelioration of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Safety and ability of the RAD to improve clinical outcomes was demonstrated in a Phase II clinical trial, in which patients had high prevalence of sepsis. Even with these promising results, clinical delivery of cell therapy is hampered by manufacturing hurdles, including cell sourcing, large-scale device manufacture, storage and delivery. To address these limitations, the bioartificial renal epithelial cell system (BRECS) was developed. The BRECS contains human renal tubule epithelial cells derived from adult progenitor cells using enhanced propagation techniques. Cells were seeded onto trabeculated disks of niobium-coated carbon, held within cryopreservable, perfusable, injection-moulded polycarbonate housing. The study objective was to evaluate the BRECS in a porcine model of SS to establish conservation of efficacy after necessary cell sourcing and design modifications; a pre-clinical requirement to move back into clinical trials. SS was incited by peritoneal injection of E. coli simultaneous to insertion of BRECS (n=10) or control (n=15), into the ultrafiltrate biofeedback component of an extracorporeal circuit. Comparable to RAD, prolonged survival of the BRECS cohort was conveyed through stabilization of cardiac output and vascular leak. In conclusion, the demonstration of conserved efficacy with BRECS therapy in a porcine SS model represents a crucial step toward returning renal cell therapy to the clinical setting, initially targeting ICU patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The 5'-poly(A leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyesh Dhungel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The poly(A leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs. These poly(A leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. A constitutive and uninterrupted 5'-poly(A leader with 12 residues was optimal. Because the most frequent lengths of the 5'-poly(A leaders are 8-12 residues, the result suggests that the poly(A leader has been evolutionarily optimized to boost poxvirus protein production. A 5'-poly(A leader also could increase protein production in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-based expression system of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of poxviruses. Interestingly, although vaccinia virus post-replicative mRNAs do have 5'- methylated guanosine caps and can use cap-dependent translation, in vaccinia virus-infected cells, mRNA with a 5'-poly(A leader could also be efficiently translated in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation. However, the translation was not mediated through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. These results point to a fundamental mechanism poxvirus uses to efficiently translate its post-replicative mRNAs.

  8. The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Pragyesh; Cao, Shuai; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-08-01

    The poly(A) leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. A constitutive and uninterrupted 5'-poly(A) leader with 12 residues was optimal. Because the most frequent lengths of the 5'-poly(A) leaders are 8-12 residues, the result suggests that the poly(A) leader has been evolutionarily optimized to boost poxvirus protein production. A 5'-poly(A) leader also could increase protein production in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-based expression system of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of poxviruses. Interestingly, although vaccinia virus post-replicative mRNAs do have 5'- methylated guanosine caps and can use cap-dependent translation, in vaccinia virus-infected cells, mRNA with a 5'-poly(A) leader could also be efficiently translated in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation. However, the translation was not mediated through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). These results point to a fundamental mechanism poxvirus uses to efficiently translate its post-replicative mRNAs.

  9. Higher convection volume exchange with online hemodiafiltration is associated with survival advantage for dialysis patients: the effect of adjustment for body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; Canaud, Bernard; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Asci, Gulay; Locatelli, Francesco; Maduell, Francisco; Morena, Marion; Nubé, Menso J; Ok, Ercan; Torres, Ferran; Woodward, Mark; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Mortality remains high for hemodialysis patients. Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) removes more middle-sized uremic toxins but outcomes of individual trials comparing OL-HDF with hemodialysis have been discrepant. Secondary analyses reported higher convective volumes, easier to achieve in larger patients, and improved survival. Here we tested different methods to standardize OL-HDF convection volume on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with hemodialysis. Pooled individual patient analysis of four prospective trials compared thirds of delivered convection volume with hemodialysis. Convection volumes were either not standardized or standardized to weight, body mass index, body surface area, and total body water. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling from 2793 patients. All-cause mortality was reduced when the convective dose was unstandardized or standardized to body surface area and total body water; hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 0.65 (0.51-0.82), 0.74 (0.58-0.93), and 0.71 (0.56-0.93) for those receiving higher convective doses. Standardization by body weight or body mass index gave no significant survival advantage. Higher convection volumes were generally associated with greater survival benefit with OL-HDF, but results varied across different ways of standardization for body size. Thus, further studies should take body size into account when evaluating the impact of delivered convection volume on mortality end points. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Pragyesh; Cao, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    The poly(A) leader at the 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5’-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. A constitutive and uninterrupted 5’-poly(A) leader with 12 residues was optimal. Because the most frequent lengths of the 5’-poly(A) leaders are 8–12 residues, the result suggests that the poly(A) leader has been evolutionarily optimized to boost poxvirus protein production. A 5’-poly(A) leader also could increase protein production in the bacteriophage T7 promoter-based expression system of vaccinia virus, the prototypic member of poxviruses. Interestingly, although vaccinia virus post-replicative mRNAs do have 5’- methylated guanosine caps and can use cap-dependent translation, in vaccinia virus-infected cells, mRNA with a 5’-poly(A) leader could also be efficiently translated in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation. However, the translation was not mediated through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). These results point to a fundamental mechanism poxvirus uses to efficiently translate its post-replicative mRNAs. PMID:28854224

  11. Crl binds to domain 2 of σ(S) and confers a competitive advantage on a natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, Véronique; Kolb, Annie; Mayer, Claudine; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Norel, Françoise

    2010-12-01

    The RpoS sigma factor (σ(S)) is the master regulator of the bacterial response to a variety of stresses. Mutants in rpoS arise in bacterial populations in the absence of stress, probably as a consequence of a subtle balance between self-preservation and nutritional competence. We characterized here one natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty19). We show that the rpoS allele of Ty19 (rpoS(Ty19)) led to the synthesis of a σ(S)(Ty19) protein carrying a single glycine-to-valine substitution at position 282 in σ(S) domain 4, which was much more dependent than the wild-type σ(S) protein on activation by Crl, a chaperone-like protein that increases the affinity of σ(S) for the RNA polymerase core enzyme (E). We used the bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid system to demonstrate that Crl bound to residues 72 to 167 of σ(S) domain 2 and that G282V substitution did not directly affect Crl binding. However, this substitution drastically reduced the ability of σ(S)(Ty19) to bind E in a surface plasmon resonance assay, a defect partially rescued by Crl. The modeled structure of the Eσ(S) holoenzyme suggested that substitution G282V could directly disrupt a favorable interaction between σ(S) and E. The rpoS(Ty19) allele conferred a competitive fitness when the bacterial population was wild type for crl but was outcompeted in Δcrl populations. Thus, these results indicate that the competitive advantage of the rpoS(Ty19) mutant is dependent on Crl and suggest that crl plays a role in the appearance of rpoS mutants in bacterial populations.

  12. Crl Binds to Domain 2 of σS and Confers a Competitive Advantage on a Natural rpoS Mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, Véronique; Kolb, Annie; Mayer, Claudine; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Norel, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    The RpoS sigma factor (σS) is the master regulator of the bacterial response to a variety of stresses. Mutants in rpoS arise in bacterial populations in the absence of stress, probably as a consequence of a subtle balance between self-preservation and nutritional competence. We characterized here one natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty19). We show that the rpoS allele of Ty19 (rpoSTy19) led to the synthesis of a σSTy19 protein carrying a single glycine-to-valine substitution at position 282 in σS domain 4, which was much more dependent than the wild-type σS protein on activation by Crl, a chaperone-like protein that increases the affinity of σS for the RNA polymerase core enzyme (E). We used the bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid system to demonstrate that Crl bound to residues 72 to 167 of σS domain 2 and that G282V substitution did not directly affect Crl binding. However, this substitution drastically reduced the ability of σSTy19 to bind E in a surface plasmon resonance assay, a defect partially rescued by Crl. The modeled structure of the EσS holoenzyme suggested that substitution G282V could directly disrupt a favorable interaction between σS and E. The rpoSTy19 allele conferred a competitive fitness when the bacterial population was wild type for crl but was outcompeted in Δcrl populations. Thus, these results indicate that the competitive advantage of the rpoSTy19 mutant is dependent on Crl and suggest that crl plays a role in the appearance of rpoS mutants in bacterial populations. PMID:20935100

  13. Overexpression of CD97 confers an invasive phenotype in glioblastoma cells and is associated with decreased survival of glioblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Safaee

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of invasion in glioblastoma (GBM relate to differential expression of proteins conferring increased motility and penetration of the extracellular matrix. CD97 is a member of the epidermal growth factor seven-span transmembrane family of adhesion G-protein coupled receptors. These proteins facilitate mobility of leukocytes into tissue. In this study we show that CD97 is expressed in glioma, has functional effects on invasion, and is associated with poor overall survival. Glioma cell lines and low passage primary cultures were analyzed. Functional significance was assessed by transient knockdown using siRNA targeting CD97 or a non-target control sequence. Invasion was assessed 48 hours after siRNA-mediated knockdown using a Matrigel-coated invasion chamber. Migration was quantified using a scratch assay over 12 hours. Proliferation was measured 24 and 48 hours after confirmed protein knockdown. GBM cell lines and primary cultures were found to express CD97. Knockdown of CD97 decreased invasion and migration in GBM cell lines, with no difference in proliferation. Gene-expression based Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas, demonstrating an inverse relationship between CD97 expression and survival. GBMs expressing high levels of CD97 were associated with decreased survival compared to those with low CD97 (p = 0.007. CD97 promotes invasion and migration in GBM, but has no effect on tumor proliferation. This phenotype may explain the discrepancy in survival between high and low CD97-expressing tumors. This data provides impetus for further studies to determine its viability as a therapeutic target in the treatment of GBM.

  14. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  15. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  16. FTY720 exerts a survival advantage through the prevention of end-stage glomerular inflammation in lupus-prone BXSB mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Seiichiro, E-mail: andosei78102@biscuit.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Amano, Hirofumi; Amano, Eri; Minowa, Kentaro; Watanabe, Takashi; Nakano, Soichiro; Nakiri, Yutaka; Morimoto, Shinji; Tokano, Yoshiaki [Department of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Lin, Qingshun; Hou, Rong; Ohtsuji, Mareki; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Hirose, Sachiko [Department of Pathology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Takasaki, Yoshinari [Department of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    FTY720 is a novel investigational agent targeting the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors with an ability to cause immunosuppression by inducing lymphocyte sequestration in lymphoid organs. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is refractory autoimmune disease characterized by the production of a wide variety of autoantibodies and immune complex (IC)-mediated lupus nephritis. Among several SLE-prone strains of mice, BXSB is unique in terms of the disease-associated monocytosis in periphery and the reduced frequency of marginal zone B (MZ B) cells in spleen. In the present study, we examined the effect of FTY720 on lupus nephritis of BXSB mice. FTY720 treatment resulted in a marked decrease in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, in peripheral blood, and caused relocalization of marginal zone B (MZ B) cells into the follicle in the spleen. These changes did not affect the production of autoantibodies, thus IgG and C3 were deposited in glomeruli in FTY720-treated mice. Despite these IC depositions, FTY720-treated mice showed survival advantage with the improved proteinuria. Histological analysis revealed that FTY720 suppressed mesangial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. These results suggest that FTY720 ameliorates lupus nephritis by inhibiting the end-stage inflammatory process following IC deposition in glomeruli.

  17. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore hypothesi......BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore....... In a quasi-experimental study two doses before and after 9months compared with one dose of MV after 9months of age reduced mortality by 59% (25-81%). BCG-revaccination significantly enhanced BCG's effect against overall child mortality in two RCTs. In a natural experiment study of OPV campaigns over a 13......-year-period in Guinea-Bissau, each additional dose of OPV was associated with a 13% (4-21%) reduction in mortality rate. The beneficial NSEs of smallpox vaccination for survival increased significantly with the number of smallpox vaccination scars. INTERPRETATION: Revaccination with live vaccines led...

  18. Compared with radical nephrectomy, nephron-sparing surgery offers a long-term survival advantage in patients between the ages of 20 and 44 years with renal cell carcinomas (≤4 cm): an analysis of the SEER database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    Compared with radical nephrectomy (RN), partial nephrectomy (PN) decreases the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the survival advantage of PN in older patients, they have been criticized by selection bias toward the procedure owing to comorbidities. We hypothesized that long-standing effects of renal preservation would manifest in a survival advantage of a younger patient population, where selection bias owing to comorbidities is minimized. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18-registries database was queried for patients aged 20 to 44 years surgically treated between 1993 and 2003 for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ≤ 4 cm with known grade and histology. Patients with prior RCC, multiple tumors, and metastatic or locally advanced disease were excluded. The final cohorts consisted of 222 and 494 subjects treated with PN and RN, respectively. The chi-square and log-rank analyses compared patient and tumor characteristics and patient survival, respectively. There were no differences between the groups in demographics or tumor characteristics. Additionally, there was no difference in cancer-specific survival at 5 or 10 years (P = 0.34 and P = 0.1, respectively). Although there was no difference in 5-year overall survival (P = 0.07), PN offered an advantage in 10-year overall survival (P = 0.025). Present Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results analyses demonstrate that compared with RN, PN improved overall survival in patients with small, localized RCC. As expected, the survival advantage is observed late and supports the importance of long-term renal functional preservation. Although our study is limited by lack of comorbidities, the results suggest that detrimental effects of RN may have implications on overall survival in younger patients with RCC. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Adaptation and survival of plants in high stress habitats via fungal endophyte conferred stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rusty J.; Woodward, Claire; Redman, Regina S.

    2010-01-01

    From the Arctic to the Antarctic, plants thrive in diverse habitats that impose different levels of adaptive pressures depending on the type and degree of biotic and abiotic stresses inherent to each habitat (Stevens, 1989). At any particular location, the abundance and distribution of individual plant species vary tremendously and is theorized to be based on the ability to tolerate a wide range of edaphic conditions and habitat-specific stresses (Pianka, 1966). The ability of individual plant species to thrive in diverse habitats is commonly referred to as phenotypic plasticity and is thought to involve adaptations based on changes in the plant genome (Givnish, 2002; Pan et al., 2006; Robe and Griffiths, 2000; Schurr et al., 2006). Habitats that impose high levels of abiotic stress are typically colonized with fewer plant species compared to habitats imposing low levels of stress. Moreover, high stress habitats have decreased levels of plant abundance compared to low stress habitats even though these habitats may occur in close proximity to one another (Perelman et al., 2007). This is particularly interesting because all plants are known to perceive, transmit signals, and respond to abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, and salinity (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Bohnert et al., 1995). Although there has been extensive research performed to determine the genetic, molecular, and physiological bases of how plants respond to and tolerate stress, the nature of plant adaptation to high stress habitats remains unresolved (Leone et al., 2003; Maggio et al., 2003; Tuberosa et al., 2003). However, recent evidence indicates that a ubiquitous aspect of plant biology (fungal symbiosis) is involved in the adaptation and survival of at least some plants in high stress habitats (Rodriguez et al., 2008).

  20. Generic Advantages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Generic Advantages. Scalability an incremental coverage. Standardization. Business Plan Flexibility. Lifecycle Flexibility. Reliability. Service Interoperability. Changed Industry dynamics.

  1. Female Survival Advantage Relates to Male Inferiority Rather Than Female Superiority: A Hypothesis Based on the Impact of Age and Stroke Severity on 1-Week to 1-Year Case Fatality in 40,155 Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T.S.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is generally believed that differences in age, stroke characteristics, and cardiovascular risk factors account for observed sex-specific differences in stroke survival. Objectives: We aimed to study female stroke survival advantage before and after the average age of menopause, and...... hormones (testosterone), beginning in men in middle age, is the underlying cause of the gap in survival rates between men and women. Accordingly, the female survival advantage is rooted in male inferiority rather than innate female superiority. (Gend Med. 2010;7:284-295)......, and whether female survival advantage applies only to patients for whom stroke is the most likely cause of death. Methods: The Danish National Indicator Project, a registry designed to list all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark beginning in March 2001, had 40,155 registered patients as of February 2007...... until death or censoring. Case fatality (stratified by 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year) in men and women was correlated with age and stroke severity. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors was performed by means of multivariate regression analysis. Results: A total of 20,854 (51.9%) men and 19...

  2. Climate change overruns resilience conferred by temperature-dependent sex determination in sea turtles and threatens their survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Genovart, Meritxell; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R; Oro, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is the predominant form of environmental sex determination (ESD) in reptiles, but the adaptive significance of TSD in this group remains unclear. Additionally, the viability of species with TSD may be compromised as climate gets warmer. We simulated population responses in a turtle with TSD to increasing nest temperatures and compared the results to those of a virtual population with genotypic sex determination (GSD) and fixed sex ratios. Then, we assessed the effectiveness of TSD as a mechanism to maintain populations under climate change scenarios. TSD populations were more resilient to increased nest temperatures and mitigated the negative effects of high temperatures by increasing production of female offspring and therefore, future fecundity. That buffered the negative effect of temperature on the population growth. TSD provides an evolutionary advantage to sea turtles. However, this mechanism was only effective over a range of temperatures and will become inefficient as temperatures rise to levels projected by current climate change models. Projected global warming threatens survival of sea turtles, and the IPCC high gas concentration scenario may result in extirpation of the studied population in 50 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Program of the 2010 Astrobiology Science Conference: Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond, included sessions on: 50 Years of Exobiology and Astrobiology: Greatest Hits; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System I; Human Exploration, Astronaut Health; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Titan: Past, Present, and Future; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Prebiological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System II; Astrobiology in Orbit; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Science from Rio Tinto: An Acidic Environment; Can We Rule Out Spontaneous Generation of RNA as the Key Step in the Origin of Life?; How Hellish Was the Hadean Earth?; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns I; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life I; Adaptation of Life in Hostile Space Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets I: Formation and Composition; Collaborative Tools and Technology for Astrobiology; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns II; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life II; Survival, Growth, and Evolution of Microrganisms in Model Extraterrestrial Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets II: Habitability and Life; Planetary Science Decadal Survey Update; Astrobiology Research Funding; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time I; State of the Art in Life Detection; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Geochronology and Astrobiology On and Off the Earth; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time II; Origins and Evolution of Genetic Systems; Evolution of Advanced Life; Water-rich Asteroids and Moons: Composition and Astrobiological Potential; Impact Events and Evolution; A Warm, Wet

  4. Comparative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    that are typically explained from the supply-side variables, the comparative advantage of the exporting countries. A simple model is proposed and tested. The results render strong support for the relevance of supply-side factors such as natural endowments, technology, and infrastructure in explaining international...

  5. A moderately low phosphate intake may provide health benefits analogous to those conferred by UV light - a further advantage of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2003-01-01

    Although exposure to ultraviolet light is often viewed as pathogenic owing to its role in the genesis of skin cancer and skin aging, there is growing epidemiological evidence that such exposure may decrease risk for a number of more serious cancers, may have a favorable impact on blood pressure and vascular health, and may help to prevent certain autoimmune disorders - in addition to its well-known influence on bone density. Most likely, these health benefits are reflective of improved vitamin D status. Increased synthesis or intake of vitamin D can be expected to down-regulate parathyroid hormone (PTH), and to increase autocrine synthesis of its active metabolite calcitriol in certain tissues; these effects, in turn, may impact cancer risk, vascular health, immune regulation, and bone density through a variety of mechanisms. Presumably, a truly adequate supplemental intake of vitamin D - manyfold higher than the grossly inadequate current RDA - could replicate the benefits of optimal UV exposure, without however damaging the skin. Diets moderately low in bioavailable phosphate - like many vegan diets - might be expected to have a complementary impact on disease risks, inasmuch as serum phosphate suppresses renal calcitriol synthesis while up-regulating that of PTH. A proviso is that the impact of dietary phosphorus on bone health is more equivocal than that of vitamin D. Increased intakes of calcium, on the other hand, down-regulate the production of both PTH and calcitriol - the latter effect may explain why the impact of dietary calcium on cancer risk (excepting colon cancer), hypertension, and autoimmunity is not clearly positive. An overview suggests that a vegan diet supplemented with high-dose vitamin D should increase both systemic and autocrine calcitriol production while suppressing PTH secretion, and thus should represent a highly effective way to achieve the wide-ranging health protection conferred by optimal UV exposure.

  6. Survival advantage by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in locally advanced non-inflammatory breast cancer; Ueberlebensvorteil durch praeoperative Radiochemotherapie beim lokal fortgeschrittenen, nicht-inflammatorischen Brustkrebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Innokenti

    2011-07-01

    This study compares retrospectively, in terms of pathological complete response (pCR) and ten year survival rate, preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) with postoperative RCT for locally advanced or surgically in terms of breast conserving surgery or simple mastectomy unfavourable, non inflammatory breast cancers (LABC).

  7. Minimally invasive esophagectomy provides significant survival advantage compared with open or hybrid esophagectomy for patients with cancers of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Francesco; Rosato, Ernest L; Chaudhary, Asadulla; Evans, Nathaniel R; Sendecki, Jocelyn A; Keith, Scott; Chojnacki, Karen A; Yeo, Charles J; Berger, Adam C

    2015-04-01

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is increasingly being used to treat patients with cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. We previously reported that oncologic efficacy may be improved with MIE compared with open or hybrid esophagectomy (OHE). We compared survival of patients undergoing MIE and OHE. Our contemporary series of patients who underwent MIE (2008 to 2013) was compared with a cohort undergoing OHE (3-hole [n = 39], Ivor Lewis [n = 16], hybrid [n = 13], 2000 to 2013). Summary statistics were calculated by operation type; Kaplan-Meier methods were used to compare survival. Cox regression was used to assess the impact of operation type (MIE vs OHE) on mortality, adjusting for age, sex, total lymph nodes, lymph node ratio (LNR), neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and stage. The MIE (n = 104) and OHE (n = 68) groups were similar with respect to age and sex. The MIE group tended to have higher BMI, earlier stage disease, and was less likely to receive CRT. The MIE group experienced lower operative mortality (3.9% vs 8.8%, p = 0.35) and significantly fewer major complications. Five-year survival between groups was significantly different (MIE, 64%, OHE, 35%, p analysis demonstrated that patients undergoing OHE had a significantly worse survival compared with MIE independent of age, LNR, CRT, and pathologic stage (hazard ratio 2.00, p = 0.019). This study supports MIE for EC as a superior procedure with respect to overall survival, perioperative mortality, and severity of postoperative complications. Several biases may have affected these results: earlier stage in the MIE group and disparity in timing of the procedures. These results will need to be confirmed in future prospective studies with longer follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating the Fitness Advantage Conferred by Permissive Neuraminidase Mutations in Recent Oseltamivir-Resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jeff; Hooper, Kathryn A.; Petrie, Stephen; Lee, Raphael; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Reh, Lucia; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Baas, Chantal; Xue, Lumin; Vitesnik, Sophie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; McVernon, Jodie; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; McCaw, James M.; Bloom, Jesse D.; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2014-01-01

    Oseltamivir is relied upon worldwide as the drug of choice for the treatment of human influenza infection. Surveillance for oseltamivir resistance is routinely performed to ensure the ongoing efficacy of oseltamivir against circulating viruses. Since the emergence of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), the proportion of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses that are oseltamivir resistant (OR) has generally been low. However, a cluster of OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, encoding the neuraminidase (NA) H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation, was detected in Australia in 2011 amongst community patients that had not been treated with oseltamivir. Here we combine a competitive mixtures ferret model of influenza infection with a mathematical model to assess the fitness, both within and between hosts, of recent OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In conjunction with data from in vitro analyses of NA expression and activity we demonstrate that contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more capable of acquiring H275Y without compromising their fitness, than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in 2009. Furthermore, using reverse engineered viruses we demonstrate that a pair of permissive secondary NA mutations, V241I and N369K, confers robust fitness on recent H275Y A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which correlated with enhanced surface expression and enzymatic activity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 NA protein. These permissive mutations first emerged in 2010 and are now present in almost all circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1)pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide. PMID:24699865

  9. Estimating the fitness advantage conferred by permissive neuraminidase mutations in recent oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Butler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oseltamivir is relied upon worldwide as the drug of choice for the treatment of human influenza infection. Surveillance for oseltamivir resistance is routinely performed to ensure the ongoing efficacy of oseltamivir against circulating viruses. Since the emergence of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1 influenza virus (A(H1N1pdm09, the proportion of A(H1N1pdm09 viruses that are oseltamivir resistant (OR has generally been low. However, a cluster of OR A(H1N1pdm09 viruses, encoding the neuraminidase (NA H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation, was detected in Australia in 2011 amongst community patients that had not been treated with oseltamivir. Here we combine a competitive mixtures ferret model of influenza infection with a mathematical model to assess the fitness, both within and between hosts, of recent OR A(H1N1pdm09 viruses. In conjunction with data from in vitro analyses of NA expression and activity we demonstrate that contemporary A(H1N1pdm09 viruses are now more capable of acquiring H275Y without compromising their fitness, than earlier A(H1N1pdm09 viruses circulating in 2009. Furthermore, using reverse engineered viruses we demonstrate that a pair of permissive secondary NA mutations, V241I and N369K, confers robust fitness on recent H275Y A(H1N1pdm09 viruses, which correlated with enhanced surface expression and enzymatic activity of the A(H1N1pdm09 NA protein. These permissive mutations first emerged in 2010 and are now present in almost all circulating A(H1N1pdm09 viruses. Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide.

  10. Survival advantage of peritoneal dialysis relative to hemodialysis in the early period of incident dialysis patients: a nationwide prospective propensity-matched study in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Choi

    Full Text Available The impact of dialysis modality on survival is still somewhat controversial. Given possible differences in patients' characteristics and the cause and rate of death in different countries, the issue needs to be evaluated in Korean cohorts.A nationwide prospective observational cohort study (NCT00931970 was performed to compare survival between peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. A total of 1,060 end-stage renal disease patients in Korea who began dialysis between September 1, 2008 and June 30, 2011 were followed through December 31, 2011.The patients (PD, 30.6%; HD, 69.4% were followed up for 16.3 ± 7.9 months. PD patients were significantly younger, less likely to be diabetic, with lower body mass index, and larger urinary volume than HD patients. Infection was the most common cause of death. Multivariate Cox regression with the entire cohort revealed that PD tended to be associated with a lower risk of death compared to HD [hazard ratio (HR 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.36-1.08]. In propensity score matched pairs (n=278 in each modality, cumulative survival probabilities for PD and HD patients were 96.9% and 94.1% at 12 months (P=0.152 and 94.3% and 87.6% at 24 months (P=0.022, respectively. Patients on PD had a 51% lower risk of death compared to those on HD (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.97.PD exhibits superior survival to HD in the early period of dialysis, even after adjusting for differences in the patients' characteristics between the two modalities. Notably, the most common cause of death was infection in this Korean cohort.

  11. Overall survival advantage of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the perioperative management of large extremity and trunk soft tissue sarcoma; a large database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Omar; Tunceroglu, Ahmet; Chokshi, Ravi; Benevenia, Joseph; Beebe, Kathleen; Patterson, Francis; DeLaney, Thomas F

    2017-08-01

    Intergroup 9514 reported promising outcomes with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for large extremity/trunk soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS). One decade later, optimum integration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy into the perioperative management of ESTS remains to be defined. The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify 3422 patients who underwent resection for large (>8cm) high-grade STS between 2004 and 2013. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate distribution of patient and tumor related factors within treatment groups while multivariate analyses were used to determine the impact of these factors on patient outcome. The Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were utilized to evaluate overall survival according to treatment regimen, with a secondary analysis based on propensity score matching to control for prescription bias and potential confounders imbalance. Hazard ratio for death was reduced by 35% with radiotherapy and 24% with chemotherapy, compared to surgery alone. Combination therapy incorporating both modalities improved 5-yr survival (62.1%) compared to either treatment alone (51.4%). The sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy or whether they were delivered as adjuvant vs. as neoadjuvant therapy did not affect their efficacy. Age>50years, tumor size>11cm, and tumor location on the trunk/pelvis were poor prognostic factors. Our analysis suggests that adjunctive modalities are both critical in the treatment of large high-grade ESTS, improving survival when used individually and demonstrating synergy in combination, regardless of sequencing relative to each other or relative to surgery; thus providing a framework for future randomized trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  13. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...

  14. Dual role for Hox genes and Hox co-factors in conferring leg motoneuron survival and identity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myungin; Enriquez, Jonathan; Mann, Richard S

    2013-05-01

    Adult Drosophila walk using six multi-jointed legs, each controlled by ∼50 leg motoneurons (MNs). Although MNs have stereotyped morphologies, little is known about how they are specified. Here, we describe the function of Hox genes and homothorax (hth), which encodes a Hox co-factor, in Drosophila leg MN development. Removing either Hox or Hth function from a single neuroblast (NB) lineage results in MN apoptosis. A single Hox gene, Antennapedia (Antp), is primarily responsible for MN survival in all three thoracic segments. When cell death is blocked, partially penetrant axon branching errors are observed in Hox mutant MNs. When single MNs are mutant, errors in both dendritic and axon arborizations are observed. Our data also suggest that Antp levels in post-mitotic MNs are important for specifying their identities. Thus, in addition to being essential for survival, Hox and hth are required to specify accurate MN morphologies in a level-dependent manner.

  15. Significant survival advantage of high pulmonary vein index and the presence of native pulmonary artery in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries: results from preoperative computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Cen, Jianzheng; Zhuang, Jian; Zhong, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Jiahua; Liang, Changhong; Huang, Meiping

    2017-08-01

    The prognosis of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA-VSD-MAPCAs) after surgery shows substantial clinical heterogeneity and predictors for outcomes are lacking. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of preoperative cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) for survival in patients with PA-VSD-MAPCAs. We retrospectively analysed PA-VSD-MAPCA patients with preoperative CTA who underwent both right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and MAPCA unifocalization ( n  = 24) or pulmonary artery rehabilitation ( n  = 28). The end-point was overall survival. Prognostic values of CTA were assessed using Cox univariate and multivariate analyses. The significant threshold of independent parameters was calculated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. During a median follow-up of 1145 days, a total of 13 deaths were observed. Multivariate analysis identified a high pulmonary vein index (PVI) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.28; P  advantage in PA-VSD-MAPCA patients. A PVI ≥438 mm 2 /m 2 may be a reliable positive prognosticator that could improve the decision-making strategy for PA-VSD-MAPCA patients.

  16. The impact of a cold chain break on the survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed 'Conference' pears during their shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, improved detection methods and increased fresh-cut processing of produce have led to an increased number of outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. During fruit and vegetable processing, natural protective barriers are removed and tissues are cut, causing nutrient rich exudates and providing attachment sites for microbes. Consequently, fresh-cut produce is more susceptible to microbial proliferation than whole produce. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of storage temperature on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on a fresh-cut 'Conference' pear over an 8 day storage period. Pears were cut, dipped in antioxidant solution, artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, packed under modified atmospheric conditions simulating commercial applications and stored in properly refrigerated conditions (constant storage at 4 °C for 8 days) or in temperature abuse conditions (3 days at 4 °C plus 5 days at 8 °C). After 8 days of storage, both conditions resulted in a significant decrease of S. enterica populations on pear wedges. In contrast, when samples were stored at 4 °C for 8 days, L. monocytogenes populations increased 1.6 logarithmic units, whereas under the temperature abuse conditions, L. monocytogenes populations increased 2.2 logarithmic units. Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow on fresh-cut pears processed under the conditions described here, despite low pH, refrigeration and use of modified atmosphere. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Processing advantages for focused words in Korean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kember, H.; Choi, J.Y.; Cutler, A.; Barnes, J.; Brugos, A.; Shattuck-Hufnagel, S.; Veilleux, N.

    2016-01-01

    In Korean, focus is expressed in accentual phrasing. To ascertain whether words focused in this manner enjoy a processing advantage analogous to that conferred by focus as expressed in, e.g, English and Dutch, we devised sentences with target words in one of four conditions: prosodic focus,

  18. Medicare Advantage Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enrollment Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Medicare Advantage Plans A type of Medicare health plan offered ... your Part A and Part B benefits. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, ...

  19. A single amino acid change resulting in loss of fluorescence of eGFP in a viral fusion protein confers fitness and growth advantage to the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phat X.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Phani B.; Das, Subash C.; Das, Anshuman; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    2012-01-01

    Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding eGFP fused in-frame with an essential viral replication protein, the phosphoprotein P, we show that during passage in culture, the virus mutates the nucleotide C289 within eGFP of the fusion protein PeGFP to A or T, resulting in R97S/C amino acid substitution and loss of fluorescence. The resultant non-fluorescent virus exhibits increased fitness and growth advantage over its fluorescent counterpart. The growth advantage of the non-fluorescent virus appears to be due to increased transcription and replication activities of the PeGFP protein carrying the R97S/C substitution. Further, our results show that the R97S/C mutation occurs prior to accumulation of mutations that can result in loss of expression of the gene inserted at the G-L gene junction. These results suggest that fitness gain is more important for the recombinant virus than elimination of expression of the heterologous gene. PMID:22832124

  20. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    . Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  1. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  2. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  3. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  4. Genetic Immunization with CDR3-Based Fusion Vaccine Confers Protection and Long-Term Tumor-Free Survival in a Mouse Model of Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iurescia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic vaccination against idiotype is a promising strategy for immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies. We have previously shown that CDR3-based DNA immunization can induce immune response against lymphoma and explored this strategy to provide protection in a murine B-cell lymphoma model. Here we performed vaccination employing as immunogen a naked DNA fusion product. The DNA vaccine was generated following fusion of a sequence derived from tetanus toxin fragment C to the VHCDR3109−116 epitope. Induction of tumor-specific immunity as well as ability to inhibit growth of the aggressive 38C13 lymphoma and to prolong survival of vaccinated mice has been tested. We determined that DNA fusion vaccine induced immune response, elicited a strong protective antitumor immunity, and ensured almost complete long-term tumor-free survival of vaccinated mice. Our results show that CDR3-based DNA fusion vaccines hold promise for vaccination against lymphoma.

  5. Early colonoscopy confers survival benefits on colon cancer patients with pre-existing iron deficiency anemia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Lin Jerry Teng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic significance of pre-existing iron deficiency anemia (IDA and the benefits of early colonoscopy in patients with colon cancer, since these have not been clearly established to date. Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we retrieved and retrospectively reviewed the records of patients aged ≥ 55 years who were diagnosed with colon cancer between 2000 and 2005. The patient cohort was divided into two groups: patients with (n = 1,260 or without (n = 15,912 an IDA diagnosis during ≤ 18 months preceding the date of colon cancer diagnosis. We found that diabetes (27.9% vs. 20.3%, p<0.0001, cardiovascular disease (61.6% vs. 54.7%, p<0.001, and chronic kidney disease (4.6% vs. 2.2%, p<0.0001 were more common among patients with IDA than among those without IDA. The median overall survival times for patients with IDA and those without IDA were 4.6 and 5.7 years, respectively (p = 0.002. Patients who underwent colonoscopy ≤ 30 days, 31-90, and ≥ 91 days after IDA diagnosis showed median overall survival times of 5.79, 4.43, and 4.04 years, respectively (p = 0.003. Delayed colonoscopy was an independent factor associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.53; p = 0.01. In conclusion, colon cancer patients with IDA were more likely to experience comorbidities than were those without IDA. Pre-existing IDA was a poor prognostic factor in adult men and postmenopausal women who had colon cancer. Early colonoscopy could improve overall survival possibly by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment.

  6. The long-term survival benefit conferred by intermittent dobutamine infusions and oral amiodarone is greater in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy than with ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagalou, Eleftheria P; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria I; Terrovitis, John V; Nanas, Serafim N; Alexopoulos, George P; Kanakakis, John; Nanas, John N

    2006-04-04

    Intermittent dobutamine infusions (IDI) combined with oral amiodarone improve the survival of patients with end-stage congestive heart failure (CHF). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether the response to long-term treatment with IDI+amiodarone is different in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) versus idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). The prospective study population consisted of 21 patients with IHD (the IHD Group) and 16 patients with IDC (the IDC Group) who presented with decompensated CHF despite optimal medical therapy, and were successfully weaned from an initial 72-h infusion of dobutamine. They were placed on a regimen of oral amiodarone, 400 mg/day and weekly IDI, 10 microg/kg/min, for 8 h. There were no differences in baseline clinical and hemodynamic characteristics between the 2 groups. The probability of 2-year survival was 44% in the IDC Group versus 5% in the IHD Group (long-rank, P=0.004). Patients with IDC had a 77% relative risk reduction in death from all causes compared to patients with IHD (odd ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.70, P=0.007). In contrast, no underlying disease-related difference in outcomes was observed in a retrospectively analyzed historical Comparison Group of 29 patients with end stage CHF treated by standard methods. Patients with end stage CHF due to IDC derived a greater survival benefit from IDI and oral amiodarone than patients with IHD.

  7. Evolutionary advantages of polyploidy in halophilic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Several species of haloarchaea have been shown to be polyploid and thus this trait might be typical for and widespread in haloarchaea. In the present paper, nine different possible evolutionary advantages of polyploidy for haloarchaea are discussed, including low mutation rate, radiation/desiccation resistance, gene redundancy and survival over geological times and at extraterrestrial sites. Experimental indications exist for all but one of these evolutionary advantages. Several of the advantages require gene conversion, which has been shown to be present and active in haloarchaea.

  8. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  9. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  10. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  11. CONFERENCE CALENDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    .... 2nd Annual Integrated Health Conference March 20-22, 2015-Town and Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California The Integrated Health Conference provides the latest in integrative...

  12. SI - Small Scale Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Marie; Kallin Westin, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Not being part of a larger SI-organisation has both advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we try to illustrate the advantages of doing SI small scale. In a large scale SI-organisation the supervisors are often not teachers themselves and/or not familiar with the practices of a specific course. To have teaching staff supervising a SIproject completely focused on one course is favourable in many ways. The decision to introduce SI was taken by the department of Computing Science to support...

  13. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  14. Induction chemotherapy for T3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer increases the rate of complete resection but does not confer improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin L; Mulvihill, Michael S; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Speicher, Paul J; D'Amico, Thomas A; Tong, Betty C; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of induction therapy prior to an operation in patients with cT3 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients diagnosed with cT3N0M0 NSCLC from 2006 to 2011 in the National Cancer Database who were treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy were stratified by treatment strategy: an operation first versus induction chemotherapy. Propensity scores were developed and matched cohorts were generated. Short-term outcomes included margin status, 30- and 90-day mortality rates, readmission and length of stay. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier methods were performed on both the unadjusted and propensity matched cohorts. A total of 3791 cT3N0M0 patients were identified for inclusion, of which 580 (15%) were treated with induction chemotherapy. Prior to adjustment, patients treated with induction chemotherapy were younger, had a higher comorbidity burden and were more likely to have private insurance (all P  induction chemotherapy were more likely to subsequently undergo an open procedure (87.3 vs 77.8%, P  = 0.005). These patients were more likely to obtain R0 resection (93.1% vs 90.0%, P  = 0.04) and were thereby less likely to have positive margins at the time of resection (6.9% vs 10.0%, P  = 0.03). Patients who received induction therapy had higher rates of 90-day mortality (6.6% vs 3.4%) but there was no difference in long-term survival between the groups. Despite yielding increased rates of R0 resection, induction chemotherapy for cT3N0M0 NSCLC is not associated with improved survival and should not be considered routinely. Further studies are warranted to elucidate cohorts that may benefit from induction therapy.

  15. Conference Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, W. Warner, Ed.; Beckhard, Richard, Ed.

    This book, written to instruct in the use of a conference as a medium of social intercourse, is divided into four sections. Section I, which contains five articles, deals with factors to be considered in planning a conference. Specific techniques one can employ to improve a conference and several different techniques for evaluating the…

  16. Understanding Organizational Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how the distr...... of the advantage that organizations have over markets within the ABV....

  17. Acquisition of negative complement regulators by the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa expressing LigA or LigB confers enhanced survival in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica M; Fraga, Tatiana R; Breda, Leandro C D; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A; Figueira, Cláudio P; Picardeau, Mathieu; Wunder, Elsio; Ko, Albert I; Barbosa, Angela S; Isaac, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface exposed molecules present in pathogenic but not in saprophytic Leptospira species. We have previously shown that Lig proteins interact with the soluble complement regulators Factor H (FH), FH like-1 (FHL-1), FH related-1 (FHR-1) and C4b Binding Protein (C4BP). In this study, we used the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc as a surrogate host to address the specific role of LigA and LigB proteins in leptospiral complement evasion. L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB was able to acquire FH and C4BP. Bound complement regulators retained their cofactor activities of FI in the proteolytic cleavage of C3b and C4b. Moreover, heterologous expression of ligA and ligB genes in the saprophyte L. biflexa enhanced bacterial survival in human serum. Complement deposition on lig-transformed L. biflexa was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. With regard to MAC deposition, L. biflexa expressing LigA or LigB presented an intermediate profile: MAC deposition levels were greater than those found in the pathogenic L. interrogans, but lower than those observed for L. biflexa wildtype. In conclusion, Lig proteins contribute to in vitro control of complement activation on the leptospiral surface, promoting an increased bacterial survival in human serum. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. All rights reserved.

  18. Cysteine-linked dimerization of BST-2 confers anoikis resistance to breast cancer cells by negating proapoptotic activities to promote tumor cell survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahauad-Fernandez, Wadie D; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2017-03-16

    Almost all breast tumors express the antiviral protein BST-2 with 67%, 25% and 8.2% containing high, medium or low levels of BST-2, respectively. Breast tumor cells and tissues that contain elevated levels of BST-2 are highly aggressive. Suppression of BST-2 expression reprograms tumorigenic properties of cancer cells and diminishes cancer cell aggressiveness. Using structure/function studies, we report that dimerization of BST-2 through cysteine residues located in the BST-2 extracellular domain (ECD), leads to anoikis resistance and cell survival through proteasome-mediated degradation of BIM-a key proapoptotic factor. Importantly, BST-2 dimerization promotes tumor growth in preclinical breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that restoration of the ECD cysteine residues is sufficient to rescue cell survival and tumor growth via a previously unreported pathway-BST-2/GRB2/ERK/BIM/Cas3. These findings suggest that disruption of BST-2 dimerization offers a potential therapeutic approach for breast cancer.

  19. Analyzing sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida; Shahzad Khuram; Takala Josu; Bojnec Stefan; Papler Drago; Liu Yang

    2016-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sens...

  20. Surgical stress response: does endoscopic surgery confer an advantage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    "Open" surgical procedures are followed by profound changes in endocrine metabolic function and various host defense mechanisms, impaired pulmonary function, and hypoxemia. These physiologic changes are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative morbidity. Endoscopic surgery...... of postoperative pulmonary function and less hypoxemia with endoscopic operation. The slight modification of surgical stress responses by endoscopic surgery is in contrast to the common, though not universal, demonstration of less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less morbidity after endoscopic surgery....... In conclusion, endoscopic surgery has so far not been demonstrated to have important modifying effects on classic endocrine metabolic responses and only a slight inhibitory effect on various inflammatory responses, but with improved pulmonary function and less hypoxemia. More data are needed from major...

  1. Binocular advantages in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-03

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nostradamus conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; Nostradamus: Modern Methods of Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems

    2013-01-01

    This proceeding book of Nostradamus conference (http://nostradamus-conference.org) contains accepted papers presented at this event in 2012. Nostradamus conference was held in the one of the biggest and historic city of Ostrava (the Czech Republic, http://www.ostrava.cz/en), in September 2012. Conference topics are focused on classical as well as modern methods for prediction of dynamical systems with applications in science, engineering and economy. Topics are (but not limited to): prediction by classical and novel methods, predictive control, deterministic chaos and its control, complex systems, modelling and prediction of its dynamics and much more.

  3. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  4. Were there evolutionary advantages to premenstrual syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects up to 80% of women, often leading to significant personal, social and economic costs. When apparently maladaptive states are widespread, they sometimes confer a hidden advantage, or did so in our evolutionary past. We suggest that PMS had a selective advantage because it increased the chance that infertile pair bonds would dissolve, thus improving the reproductive outcomes of women in such partnerships. We confirm predictions arising from the hypothesis: PMS has high heritability; gene variants associated with PMS can be identified; animosity exhibited during PMS is preferentially directed at current partners; and behaviours exhibited during PMS may increase the chance of finding a new partner. Under this view, the prevalence of PMS might result from genes and behaviours that are adaptive in some societies, but are potentially less appropriate in modern cultures. Understanding this evolutionary mismatch might help depathologize PMS, and suggests solutions, including the choice to use cycle-stopping contraception.

  5. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  6. CONFERENCE REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    imagining. Psychology in Africa. She asserted that psychology is very important in society because it brings out human perceptions and attitudes. In a unique keynote presentation, Sean Hagen, a lecturer at UNISA who organised the conference ...

  7. 217 YAP Is Ready to Rac and Rho: Elucidation of a Novel YAP-Driven Network That Potentiates Brain Cancer Cell Dispersal and Confers Poor Survival in Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sagar R; Tippens, Nathaniel; Park, JinSeok; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Vela, Guillermo; Martinez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Margolis, Seth S; Schmidt, Susanne; Levchenko, Andre; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Molecular pathways linking cell polarization and migration to extracellular cues regulate many pathological processes, including progression of aggressive and infiltrative cancers. Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and lethal form of primary brain cancer, is characterized by its pronounced ability to disseminate into the intricate microenvironment of the human brain, confounding surgical excision and radiotherapy, leading to a median patient survival of 14 months. Progression results from defects in molecular pathways linking cell migration and invasion into surrounding tissue. However, the molecular engines are not known. Using patient-derived GBM tissues and cells, we profiled the expression of network moieties via Western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and performed live cell time-lapse microscopy, bioinformatics analyses, in vivo intracranial GBM experiments using genetic and pharmacological inhibitors to delineate a prodispersal mechanism for management and treatment of GBMs. Yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcriptional coactivator, is overexpressed and hyperactive in 78% of GBMs and 50% of metastatic tumors to the brain (P < .05). Our studies demonstrate that YAP activates a Rho-GTPase switch to potentiate migratory speed by interacting with canonical pathways through direct transcriptional control. In addition, YAP mediates a proinvasive genetic network by direct posttranslational regulation. By coupling the regulation of migration and invasion, YAP drives tumor cell dispersal in vitro and in vivo (P < .05). Hyperactivation of this YAP-driven network in GBM confers poor patient outcome in clinical biopsies and The Cancer Genome Atlas (P < .05), suggesting a new signature in clinical prognosis of this aggressive and infiltrative cancer. Targeting this network using a proprietary pharmacological inhibitor attenuates tumor dispersal and growth (P < .05). YAP can critically control cellular locomotion through direct interaction

  8. Gaining and losing competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Bellak

    2003-01-01

    Efficient policies to stimulate the competitiveness of firms require knowledge of future firm-strategies and a proper assessment of the location advantages of a country or region. Therefore, industry comparative advantage analysis needs to be complemented by firm competitive advantage analysis. This yields four hypotheses of firm strategies on the basis of the existing advantage combination. Detailed empirical analysis of a representative sample of Austrian manufacturing firms during 1990- 20...

  9. Mendel conference

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected accepted papers of Mendel conference that has been held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2015. The book contents three chapters which represent recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing and bio-inspired robotics.: Chapter 1: Evolutionary Computing, and Swarm intelligence, Chapter 2: Neural Networks, Self-organization, and Machine Learning, and Chapter3: Intelligent Image Processing, and Bio-inspired Robotics. The Mendel conference was established in 1995, and it carries the name of the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. In 2015 we are commemorating 150 years since Mendel's lectures, which he presented in Brno on February and March 1865. The main aim of the conference was to create a periodical possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange their ideas and novel research methods.  .

  10. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Conference Report: CAQD Conference 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Silver

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nestled on the banks of the river Lahn in central Germany, the 15th CAQD conference was held at Marburg. A beautiful provincial town, it is one of very few that was spared the bombings of WWII; now providing the perfect backdrop for meeting to discuss developments in qualitative technology. This was the second international conference in the series with more than 140 delegates from 14 countries, including: Canada, Brazil, Portugal, the UK, as well as Germany. Hosted by MAGMA, the Marburg Research Group for Methodology and Evaluation, in partnership with Philipps-University Marburg, CAQD prioritizes a user-focus which balances practical and methodological workshops with conference presentations. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302249

  12. Consensus conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Lassen, Jesper

    , the differing perceptions are each in their own way rooted in an argument for democratic legitimacy. We therefore argue that national interpretations of consensus conferences, and of their ability to functions as a tool for public participation, depend to a great extent on the dominant ideals of democratic...

  13. Conference Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James L., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Celebrations and special events were in order this year as the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program and NASA's Minority University Research and Education Division (MURED) both reached their 10th anniversaries. In honor of this occasion, the 2000 Annual Users' Conference held at Morris Brown College (MBC) in Atlanta, Georgia, September 11-15, 2000, was the first to be jointly hosted by MU-SPIN and MURED. It was particularly fitting that this anniversary should fall in the year 2000. The start of the new millennium propelled us to push bold new ideas and renew our commitment to minority university participation in all areas of NASA. With the theme 'Celebrating Our Tenth Year With Our Eyes on the Prize,' the conference provided a national forum for showcasing successful MU-SPIN and MURED Program (MUREP) experiences to enhance faculty/student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. Our NASA-relevant conference agenda resulted in a record-breaking 220 registered attendees. Using feedback from past participants, we designed a track of student activities closely tailored to their interests. The resulting showcase of technical assistance and best practices set a new standard for our conferences in the years to come. This year's poster session was our largest ever, with over 50 presentations from students, faculty, and teachers. Posters covered a broad range of NASA activities from 'A Study of the Spiral Galaxy M101' to 'Network Cabling Characteristics.'

  14. Conference report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    poster presentations on numerous disciplines, including: epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health, social ... The conference theme “from research to implementation” emphasised the importance of ... sustainable implementation were addressed in an honest and nuanced manner, leaving me with a sense of trouble ...

  15. CONFERENCE REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Marfo

    dinner and, at this dinner, socialization was at its best, with some music and dancing and presentation of gifts from the host university. Some members of the .... Jean Monnet, a student hostel with conference facilities where most of the participants also stayed. The third and fourth days' sessions were held at the INALCO ...

  16. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  17. SIGEF Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terceño-Gómez, Antonio; Ferrer-Comalat, Joan; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Linares-Mustarós, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the SIGEF conference, held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Girona (Spain), 06-08 July, 2015. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Scientific methods for the treatment of uncertainty in social sciences”. There are different ways for dealing with uncertainty in management. The book focuses on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. It gives a comprehensive overview of quantitative management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management in soft computing including Decision Making, Expert Systems and Forgotten Effects Theory, Forecasting Models, Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets, Modelling and Simulation Techniques, Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms and Optimization and Control. The book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be es...

  18. Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Angela; Treccani, Barbara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals in executive-control tasks, but is this what all studies actually demonstrate? The idea of a bilingual advantage may result from a publication bias favoring studies with positive results over studies with null or negative effects. To test this hypothesis, we looked at conference abstracts from 1999 to 2012 on the topic of bilingualism and executive control. We then determined which of the studies they reported were subsequently published. Studies with results fully supporting the bilingual-advantage theory were most likely to be published, followed by studies with mixed results. Studies challenging the bilingual advantage were published the least. This discrepancy was not due to differences in sample size, tests used, or statistical power. A test for funnel-plot asymmetry provided further evidence for the existence of a publication bias. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić Ivan; Becić Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Primary objective of the company is to reach the business success. Competitors have the same objective. Only the companies that really meet the consumer's needs and demands survive in the competitive struggle. The company who succeeds in it, has the possibility to achieve the competitive advantage as well. The company has to have the adequate marketing strategy in order to fulfill the marketing objectives and achieve the competitive advantage. The marketing strategy should be flexible and pro...

  20. Online commerce: advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    SNOPOK E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the online commerce. Presents the advantages and disadvantages purchases on the Internet, considered the purpose and object of. online trading. Conclusions are made about possible directions of further improvement and development of this type of commerce.

  1. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  2. Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lage Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a general framework for examining how governance choice affects competitive advantage. I argue that firms rely on assets for competing, and that these assets can be accessed by different governance structures (i.e., they can be in- or outsourced). The transaction cost economics framework is used to expose strengths and weaknesses of governance structures with respect to creating and sustaining competitive advantage. The result is a tradeoff to consider when choosing how to ...

  3. Long-term survival following coronary artery bypass grafting: off-pump versus on-pump strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Bum; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lim, Jae Wong; Hwang, Soo Kyung; Jung, Sung-Ho; Song, Hyun; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won; Choo, Suk Jung

    2014-06-03

    This study sought to compare long-term survival after off- and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although several large-scale clinical trials have compared the surgical outcomes between off- and on-pump CABG, the long-term survival has not been compared between the 2 surgical strategies in a reasonably sized cohort. We evaluated long-term survival data in 5,203 patients (age 62.9 ± 9.1 years, 1,340 females) who underwent elective isolated CABG (off-pump: n = 2,333; on-pump: n = 2,870) from 1989 through 2012. Vital statuses were validated using the Korean National Registry of Vital Statistics. Long-term survival was compared with the use of propensity scores and inverse probability weighting to adjust selection bias. Patients undergoing on-pump CABG had a higher number of distal anastomoses than those undergoing off-pump CABG (3.7 ± 1.2 vs. 3.0 ± 1.1; p compared with those undergoing on-pump CABG. In subgroup analyses, on-pump CABG conferred survival benefits in most demographic, clinical, and anatomic subgroups compared with off-pump CABG. In patients undergoing elective isolated CABG, on-pump strategy conferred a long-term survival advantage compared with off-pump strategy. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Advantages of proteins being disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  5. EGC Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschard, Gilbert; Pinaud, Bruno; Venturini, Gilles; Zighed, Djamel; Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management

    This book is a collection of representative and novel works done in Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Clustering and Classification that were originally presented in French at the EGC'2012 Conference held in Bordeaux, France, on January 2012. This conference was the 12th edition of this event, which takes place each year and which is now successful and well-known in the French-speaking community. This community was structured in 2003 by the foundation of the French-speaking EGC society (EGC in French stands for ``Extraction et Gestion des Connaissances'' and means ``Knowledge Discovery and Management'', or KDM). This book is intended to be read by all researchers interested in these fields, including PhD or MSc students, and researchers from public or private laboratories. It concerns both theoretical and practical aspects of KDM. The book is structured in two parts called ``Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining'' and ``Classification and Feature Extraction or Selection''. The first part (6 chapters) deals with...

  6. NATO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, W

    1975-01-01

    The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe­ matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange­ ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di­ rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco­ logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu­ tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key­ note address of Dr....

  7. Advantages of robotics in benign gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Mireille; Kim, Jin Hee; Scheib, Stacey; Patzkowsky, Kristin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature and discuss the advantages of robotics in benign gynecologic surgery. Minimally invasive surgery has become the preferred route over abdominal surgery. The laparoscopic or robotic approach is recommended when vaginal surgery is not feasible. Thus far, robotic gynecologic surgery data have demonstrated feasibility, safety, and equivalent clinical outcomes in comparison with laparoscopy and better clinical outcomes compared with laparotomy. Robotics was developed to overcome challenges of laparoscopy and has led to technological advantages such as improved ergonomics, visualization with three-dimensional capabilities, dexterity and range of motion with instrument articulation, and tremor filtration. To date, applications of robotics in benign gynecology include hysterectomy, myomectomy, endometriosis surgery, sacrocolpopexy, adnexal surgery, tubal reanastomosis, and cerclage. Though further data are needed, robotics may provide additional benefits over other approaches in the obese patient population and in higher complexity cases. Challenges that arose in the earlier adoption stage such as the steep learning curve, costs, and operative times are becoming more optimized with greater experience, with implementation of robotics in high-volume centers and with improved training of surgeons and robotic teams. Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, albeit still in its infancy where technical advantages compared with laparoscopic single-site surgery are still unclear, may provide a cost-reducing option compared with multiport robotics. The cost may even approach that of laparoscopy while still conferring similar perioperative outcomes. Advances in robotic technology such as the single-site platform and telesurgery, have the potential to revolutionize the field of minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of robotic surgery in benign

  8. Performances of Self-Awareness used to explain the Evolutionary Advantages of Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Menant, Christophe R.

    2004-01-01

    The question about evolution of consciousness has been addressed so far as possible selectional advantage related to consciousness ("What evolutionary advantages, if any, being conscious might confer on an organism ? "). But evidencing an adaptative explanation of consciousness has proven to be very difficult. Reason for that being the complexity of consciousness. We take here a different approach on subject by looking at possible selectional advantages related to the performance of Self ...

  9. Competitive advantage of independent small businesses in Soweto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small businesses in Soweto face increasing competition from large retail chains located in shopping malls. In order to survive and grow, small business owners need to identify and focus on the competitive advantage they have over competing businesses. The aim of this article is to explore the various sources of a ...

  10. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  11. Information Technology: Tomorrow's Advantage Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Stephen; Keen, Peter

    This textbook is designed for a one-semester introductory course in which the goal is to give students a foundation in the basics of information technology (IT). It focuses on how the technology works, issues relating to its use and development, how it can lend personal and business advantages, and how it is creating a globally networked society.…

  12. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  13. Power laws and comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    Using a comprehensive international trade data set we document empirical Power Laws (PLs) for the distribution of the interaction between countries as measured by revealed comparative advantage. Using the recently developed estimator by Gabaix and Ibragimov (2011), we find strong evidence in favour

  14. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  15. Report on the 13th conference on "Strategies for Survival: collections, data, institutions" of the Groupe des Cartothécaires de LIBER, 3-7 September, Helsinki, Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleet

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of being an inauspicious 13th conference, this was a successful and highly enjoyable gathering of map curators, which - despite a close encounter with a Helsinki tram! - managed to avoid any mishaps or disasters. Our Finnish Organising Committee provided a well-organised, interesting programme with considerable good-humour and kindness, allowing an excellent base for our discussions and talks. As usual there was a varied spread of people, issues and subjects brought together, both practical and theoretical, historical and contemporary, reflecting the diverse nature of European map libraries. This report is a somewhat personal and abbreviated account of the conference, summarising the main issues of the various papers, providing an introduction to them, and highlighting general trends. Eight of the papers are being published in this issue of the LIBER Quarterly.

  16. Collaborative Student Leadership Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan L; LaFramboise, Louise M; Cosimano, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    In April 2008, the New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) Program launched a collaborative initiative between the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. One of the main goals of this initiative was to provide leadership development through structured activities for NCIN scholars. In order to meet this goal, 3 participating NCIN schools came together to plan and conduct a collaborative student-focused, scholar-led leadership conference for accelerated nursing students. Admittedly, collaboration among institutions of higher education is sometimes not a standard practice. Although sharing the common goal of preparing future nurses to provide high-quality care, many schools of nursing often compete for scarce resources including recruitment of faculty and students, securing clinical placements, and new graduates and alumni compete for jobs. However, there are advantages to sharing financial and intellectual resources in order to ensure a richer educational experience for NCIN scholars and for all accelerated nursing students. Using the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation monies awarded for our Legacy Project, 3 NCIN program liaisons overseeing accelerated nursing programs in Nebraska met to discuss the advantages and disadvantages related to planning and conducting a collaborative student leadership activity for NCIN scholars and their peer-accelerated nursing students. The program liaisons wanted to establish common goals for the endeavor and ensure the use of approaches that would foster leadership development of the NCIN scholars and establish mechanisms by which the group would create a collaborative environment. Although the 3 collaborating colleges were and continue to be competitors for prospective accelerated students, the benefit of collaborating on a joint leadership development project for the NCIN scholars and their peers was clear. Program liaisons recognized that this opportunity would strengthen leadership development and

  17. MUSME Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of MUSME 2014, held at Huatulco in Oaxaca, Mexico, October 2014. Topics include analysis and synthesis of mechanisms; dynamics of multibody systems; design algorithms for mechatronic systems; simulation procedures and results; prototypes and their performance; robots and micromachines; experimental validations; theory of mechatronic simulation; mechatronic systems; and control of mechatronic systems. The MUSME symposium on Multibody Systems and Mechatronics was held under the auspices of IFToMM, the International Federation for Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, and FeIbIM, the Iberoamerican Federation of Mechanical Engineering. Since the first symposium in 2002, MUSME events have been characterised by the way they stimulate the integration between the various mechatronics and multibody systems dynamics disciplines, present a forum for facilitating contacts among researchers and students mainly in South American countries, and serve as a joint conference for the ...

  18. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  19. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  20. Parenting Advantage in the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    What determines the value an MNC's headquarters adds to its own affiliates? In this paper, we shed light on this question by linking the embeddedness view of the multinational corporation to the literature on parenting advantage. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing....... Furthermore, this relationship is stronger when the subsidiary itself is strongly embedded. We discuss implications for the MNC literature, embeddedness research, and the literature on parenting and headquarters' roles...

  1. Survival and sustainability. Environmental concerns in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekcekus, Hueseyin; Tuerker, Umut [Near East Univ., Nicosia, North Cyprus (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; LaMoreaux, James W. (eds.) [P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The International Conference on Environment: Survival and Sustainability, held at the Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus 19-24 February 2007, dealt with environmental threats and proposed solutions at all scales. The 21 themes addressed by the conference fell into four broad categories; Threats to Survival and Sustainability; Technological Advances towards Survival and Sustainability; Activities and Tools for Social Change; Defining Goals for Sustainable Societies. Activities and tools that move the society towards greater sustainability were emphasized at the conference. These included environmental law and ethics, environmental knowledge, technology and information systems, media, environmental awareness, education and lifelong learning, the use of literature for environmental awareness, the green factor in politics, international relations and environmental organizations. The breadth of the issues addressed at the conference made clear the need for greatly increased interdisciplinary and international collaboration the survival and sustainability concept. The exchanges at the conference represent a step in this direction. (orig.)

  2. Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seestrom, S.J.

    1993-10-06

    The conference began with an introductory lecture by Bunakov. It is very appropriate that this workshop be held in Dubna as Bunakov reminded us that the experiments that motivated the current interest in the study of symmetry violation with neutrons were started here at Dubna by Alfimenkov, Pikelner, and collaborators. Bunakov discussed the fact that is the complexity of the compound nucleus that leads to large enhancement of parity violation near P-resonances and to the possibility of using statistical models to relate the measured parity violation to more-fundamental quantities. He also pointed out that it is a rare case in which complexity aids us. Bunakov did not point out that this is an example of another rare phenomena -- where theory has predicted correctly in advance the parity violating effects seen near p-resonances. As long ago as 1969, Karmanov and Lobov first predicted an enhancement of {gamma}-ray circular polarization near p-resonances. Sushkov and Flambaum later predicted asymmetries P {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2} for p-resonances and suggested {sup 117}Sn, {sup 139}La, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U for study. Bunakov and Gudkov developed a theory describing the energy dependence of parity-violating effects over a large energy range. This theory predicted random signs for the parity-violating asymmetries.

  3. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more an...

  4. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  5. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  6. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more and more important. Accordingly, it may freely be said that the choice, i.e. the movement of marketing channels represents one of the strategic decisions which has to be made by a company management and which will subsequently very significantly influence the functioning and efficacy of not only the system of distribution, but also the entire business transactions.

  7. Competitive advantage and competitive dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding competitors means locating and defining their main elements. The first element is participants - companies that compete and create a network of rivalry. Apart from our company it includes other participants in the market (investors, consumers, distributors, providers and producers of substitute and complementary products. The other element is additional value - net profit and loss which every competitor brings to the others. Measuring of additional value requires measurement of value for every single company, and then comparing it with situation without that company. The third element is the rules which create a structure and a system in which the battle is proceeded. The rules may be written (laws, contracts or non-written (habits, culture, spoken deals. The forth element is tactics - maneuvers of the company in creating profit and competitive advantage. Four main tactics are prevent, attack, discourage and react. The fifth element is the bounders of the market competitors.

  8. Building a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes cross-industrial best practices and future trends in the context of the contemporary resource based competitive advantage model of the firm. It identifies key managerial levers, tools and systems that can be used to build and sustain a Hi-Technology company’s core competences in order to facilitate a more innovative, collaborative 21st century corporate culture. A qualitative and quantitative assessment is made of how a firm’s leadership, human capital management, organizational culture, design and systems can all collectively merge to create a more dynamic and responsive organization which is far more adept at building unique resources and capabilities, which can then be leveraged to create new market opportunities with high competitive entry barriers.

  9. Conference this! Lead Pipers compare conference experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As library travel budgets are increasingly slashed around the country, it’s a tough time for conference-going. In this group post, we compare notes about the conferences we’ve attended, which have been our favorites, and why. We hope this will generate creative ideas on good conferences (online or in-person to look forward to, and maybe offer [...

  10. Comparative Advantages of Spin-off Firms: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Uzunca

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As predicted by evolutionary economics, historical antecedents matter when it comes to the relationship between survival of entrants and organizational capabilities. Spinoff firms provide an exemplary case of such relationship where the founders’ pre-entry capabilities that are inherited from the parent firm increases their survival chances. Looking closer and deeper to the evolutionary spinoff success mechanisms, I examine three specific genetic features which make spinoff firms more advantageous compared to other entrants; namely 1 Genotype: Transfer of blueprint, 2 Phenotype: Organizational learning, and 3 Memes: Informal relations and social capital. A detailed theoretical analysis of each mechanism prevails how they function and provide sustainable competitive advantage to spinoff firms. Testable hypotheses are provided about each mechanism.

  11. When semantics aids phonology: A processing advantage for iconic word forms in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyard, Lotte; Stoppard, Emily; Snudden, Dee; Cappa, Stefano F; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Iconicity is the non-arbitrary relation between properties of a phonological form and semantic content (e.g. "moo", "splash"). It is a common feature of both spoken and signed languages, and recent evidence shows that iconic forms confer an advantage during word learning. We explored whether iconic forms conferred a processing advantage for 13 individuals with aphasia following left-hemisphere stroke. Iconic and control words were compared in four different tasks: repetition, reading aloud, auditory lexical decision and visual lexical decision. An advantage for iconic words was seen for some individuals in all tasks, with consistent group effects emerging in reading aloud and auditory lexical decision. Both these tasks rely on mapping between semantics and phonology. We conclude that iconicity aids spoken word processing for individuals with aphasia. This advantage is due to a stronger connection between semantic information and phonological forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, J P; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Lyan, Bernard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Characterization of nutrients that promote the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help to develop ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (ethanolamine utilization) gene cluster. In contrast, the eut gene cluster is absent in the genome of most species constituting the mammalian gut microbiota. Furthermore, the eutB gene (encoding a subunit of the enzyme that catalyses the release of ammonia from EA) is poorly expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli. Accordingly, EA is consumed by EHEC but is poorly metabolized by endogenous microbiota of the bovine small intestine, including commensal E. coli. Interestingly, the capacity to utilize EA as a nitrogen source confers a growth advantage to E. coli O157:H7 when the bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. These data demonstrate that EHEC strains take advantage of a nitrogen source that is not consumed by the resident microbiota, and suggest that EA represents an ecological niche favouring EHEC persistence in the bovine intestine.

  13. INNOVATION AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Nikolić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in management can be defined as a set of activities undertaken by the organization, and are a source for new products or production processes. The development of enterprises and organizations are mainly related to the existence of innovation. Innovation is the commercialization of new ideas or converting it into a specific product, process or service, as well as of competitive advantages in management. Contemporary business environment characterized by high volatility, uncertainty and risk to a company or organization to survive in such an environment, it is necessary to continually invest in research and development and innovation activities. Companies and organizations are trying to combine their existing resources and capabilities and to use them in the new, the best way possible. For those of their activity are derived and innovation are born innovative organization. Innovation is something that is related to the concept of the entrepreneur-manager who strives to always observe the changes, respond to them and accept a high level of risk, and uses it as an option in their operations. But in addition, large companies are precisely those that have the ability and the necessary financial resources to implement innovations.

  14. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29... addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences. The...

  15. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment.

  16. The Latent Absolute Advantage Of The Comparative Advantage In Theories Of International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thuong Lang

    2011-01-01

    The absolute advantage and comparative advantage are the basic concepts of the international economics. Up till now, the popular understanding about them is that absolute advantage is the special case of the comparative advantage. This view has been dominant in all books related to the field of international economics. However, the comparative advantage by nature is the absolute advantage. Generally, comparative advantage is only particular case of absolute advantage. In other words, comparat...

  17. Strategic investment, multimarket interaction and competitive advantage: An application to the natural gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ritz, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a game-theoretic analysis of multimarket competition with strategic capacity investments, motivated by recent developments in international natural gas markets. It studies the competitive implications of heterogeneity in firm structure arising from asset specificity. A single-market focus confers advantage even in the absence of superior value or cost. Lower costs and a sharper organizational focus are self-enforcing in generating competitive advantage. This establishes a ...

  18. Climate Science Conference

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the Second Annual Pacific Northwest Climate Science Conference. This two day, regional conference included a panel...

  19. Post-diagnosis aspirin use and overall survival in patients with melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, Saleh; Wallace, Kristin; Li, Hong; Lautenschlaeger, Tim; Li, Zihai

    2018-01-06

    Mouse studies show that tumor-derived prostaglandins and platelets promote melanoma progression and immune-evasion. Determine if aspirin confers longer survival in patients with melanoma. A retrospective cohort study of 1,522 patients at Indiana University Health (IUH) diagnosed with melanoma between 2000 and 2014 and followed up through September, 2016. Aspirin use was associated with longer overall survival in univariate analysis and after controlling for age, sex, stage, and treatment modalities (HR 0.58, 95% CI [0.45-0.75]). Aspirin use was not associated with survival in patients with in situ and stage I melanoma, but was associated with better survival in stages II (HR 0.45, 95% CI [0.24-0.82]) and III (HR 0.57, 95% CI [0.34-0.96]). No statistical significance was observed in stage IV patients (HR 0.55, 95% CI [0.27-1.13]). In turn, patients using aspirin before diagnosis were less likely to be diagnosed in stages III or IV disease. Observational study. Aspirin could provide a survival advantage in melanoma. Clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of aspirin are warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fake/Bogus Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezvani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major sci...... scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails....

  1. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  2. A multidisciplinary clinic approach improves survival in ALS: a comparative study of ALS in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James; Byrne, Susan; Heverin, Mark; Tobin, Katy; Dick, Alison; Donaghy, Colette; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive debilitating neurodegenerative disease, with a life expectancy of 3-5 years from first symptom. There is compelling evidence that those who attend a multidisciplinary clinic experience improved survival. The purpose of the study was to explore the survival of patients with ALS ascertained through population-based Registers in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI), and to determine whether centralisation of services confers advantage compared with community-based care supported by a specialist care worker. The island of Ireland is divided into two countries, RoI and NI, each with an independent healthcare system. Both countries have population-based ALS Registers with full ascertainment. Data from all 719 incident ALS cases from Ireland and NI, diagnosed between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2010, were used in the analysis. A survival benefit was identified for patients who attended the multidisciplinary ALS clinic in the RoI. (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.71, p<0.001). This difference was preserved following multivariate analysis. A trend towards improved survival was noted for patients with ALS from NI when compared with RoI patients who did not attend a multidisciplinary clinic. Centralised multidisciplinary care confers a survival advantage for patients with ALS and is superior to devolved community-based care. We propose that multiple decision-making processes within a multidisciplinary setting lead to an enriched set of clinical encounters for the patient and carer that enhances clinical outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Low RPS14 expression in MDS without 5q - aberration confers higher apoptosis rate of nucleated erythrocytes and predicts prolonged survival and possible response to lenalidomide in lower risk non-5q- patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyun; Li, Xiao; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng; Chang, Chunkang; He, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Haploinsufficiency of the ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) has been identified as a causal factor in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with isolated del (5q). This study was carried out to investigate RPS14 expression in MDS without 5q deletion and the role of lower expressed RPS14 plays in pathogenesis and the prognosis and lenalidomide-response predicting of non-5q-MDS. The expression level of RPS14 transcription was detected in 156 MDS patients without 5q-. The apoptosis of bone marrow (BM) nucleated erythrocytes was also analyzed. Furthermore, patient prognosis with lower or normal RPS14 expression was analyzed, and the role of RPS14 expression in lenalidomide-response prediction was evaluated. The reduced RPS14 expression occurred in 83 of 156 (53.2%) non-5q-patients. Patients with RPS14 lower expression presented higher platelet counts in the peripheral blood compared with RPS14 normal patients (P = 0.012). The lower RPS14 expression status was inversely correlated with increased apoptosis ratio in nucleated erythrocytes from BM (r = -0.54, P = 0.013). Patients with lower RPS14 expression have a higher 2-yr survival probability than normal RPS14 cases in the international prognosis scoring system (IPSS) lower risk group (90.8% vs. 71.7%; P = 0.018). A multivariate analysis showed RPS14 expression status was an independent predictor for survival in lower risk MDS patients without 5q deletion. Twelve patients were treated with lenalidomide. Five of seven patients achieved an erythroid response in the lower RPS14 expression group (5/7, 71.4%), compared with zero responses in the five normal RPS14 patients (P = 0.018). Lower RPS14 expression in MDS patients without 5q deletion is associated with increased apoptosis of nucleated erythrocytes in lower risk MDS. Additionally, lower RPS14 predicts prolonged survival and possible response to lenalidomide in lower risk MDS patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  5. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  6. Competitive Advantage Provided by Bacterial Motility in the Formation of Nodules by Rhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Peter; Bergman, Kostia

    1981-01-01

    The effect of motility on the competitive success of Rhizobium meliloti in nodule production was investigated. A motile strain formed more nodules than expected when mixed at various unfavorable ratios with either flagellated or nonflagellated nonmotile derivatives. We conclude that motility confers a selective advantage on rhizobia when competing with nonmotile strains. PMID:7298580

  7. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...

  8. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  9. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  10. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...... are active professionals in search of inspiration, and they also want to share knowledge with their peers at the conference. A theory of the conference as a forum for mutual inspiration and human co-flourishing is proposed, as are four design principles for a learning conference: 1. Presentations must...

  11. Angiopoietin-1 promotes cardiac and skeletal myocyte survival through integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallabrida, Susan M; Ismail, Nesreen; Oberle, Julianne R; Himes, Blanca E; Rupnick, Maria A

    2005-03-04

    Cardiac myocyte loss, regardless of insult, can trigger compensatory myocardial remodeling leading to heart failure. Identifying mediators of cardiac myocyte survival may advance clinical efforts toward myocardial preservation. Angiopoietin-1 limits ischemia-induced cardiac injury. This benefit is ascribed to angiogenesis because the receptor, tie2, is largely endothelial-specific. We propose that direct, non-tie2 interactions of angiopoietin-1 on cardiac myocytes contribute to this cardioprotection. We found that mouse C2C12 skeletal myocytes lack tie2, yet dose-dependently adhered to angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 similarly to laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin, and more than to collagen-I, -III, and -IV. Adhesion was divalent cation-mediated (Mn2+, Ca2+, not Mg2+), blocked with EDTA/EGTA, RGD-based peptides, and select integrin subunit antibodies. Similar findings were obtained with human skeletal myocytes (HSMs) and freshly isolated rat neonatal cardiac myocytes (NCMs). Furthermore, angiopoietin-1 conferred significant survival advantage exceeding that of most cell matrices, which was not fully explained by differences in cell adhesion. Angiopoietin-1 promoted survival of serum-starved C2C12, HSM, and NCM (MTT, trypan blue) and prevented taxol-induced apoptosis (caspase-3). Immobilized and soluble angiopoietin-1 phosphorylated Akt(S473) and MAPK(p42/44), (not FAK(Y397)) in C2C12 more than in endothelial cells and more than did angiopoietin-2 or cell matrices. EDTA, RGD-based peptides, and some integrin antibodies blocked these responses. Angiopoietin-1 activated HSM and NCM Akt(S473) and MAPK(p42/44) survival pathways. We propose that this novel function contributes to developmental and cardioprotective actions of angiopoietin-1 presently attributed to vascular effects alone. Angiopoietin-1 may prove therapeutically valuable in cardiac remodeling by supporting myocyte viability and preserving pump function. The full text of this article is available online at

  12. Heterozygote advantage fails to explain the high degree of polymorphism of the MHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, R.J.; Borghans, J.A.M.; Boven, M.

    2004-01-01

    homozygous individuals. Whether or not heterozygote advantage is sufficient to account for a high degree of polymorphism is controversial, however. Using mathematical models we studied the degree of MHC polymorphism arising when heterozygote advantage is the only selection pressure. We argue that existing...... that a high degree of polymorphism can only be accounted for if the different MHC alleles confer unrealistically similar fitnesses. This conclusion was confirmed by stochastic simulations, including mutation, genetic drift, and a finite population size. Heterozygote advantage on its own is insufficient...

  13. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  14. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  15. Conference proceedings ISES 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Malmkvist, Jens

    The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers.......The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers....

  16. The proline rich domain of p53 is dispensable for MGMT-dependent DNA repair and cell survival following alkylation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Katherine; Yang, Mao; Dillon, Christopher P; Samson, Leona L; Green, Douglas R

    2017-11-01

    In addition to promoting cell death and senescence, p53 also has important cellular survival functions. A mutant p53, lacking a proline-rich domain (p53ΔP), that is deficient in controlling both cell death and cell cycle arrest, was employed to determine the biological means by which p53 mediates survival upon DNA damage. While p53ΔP and p53-/- cells were equally resistant to many DNA damaging agents, p53ΔP cells showed an exquisite resistance to high doses of the alkylating agent Diazald (N-Methyl-N-(p-tolylsulfonyl)nitrosamide), as compared to cells completely deficient for p53 function. We determined that p53ΔP was capable of transcribing the repair gene, MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) after irradiation or alkylation damage, resulting in DNA repair and cell survival. Consistent with these observations, p53ΔP mice show enhanced survival after IR relative to p53-/- mice. Suppression or deletion of MGMT expression in p53ΔP cells inhibited DNA repair and survival after alkylation damage, whereas MGMT overexpression in p53-deficient cells facilitated DNA repair and conferred survival advantage. This study shows that when cell death and cell cycle arrest pathways are inhibited, p53 can still mediate MGMT-dependent repair, to promote cell survival upon DNA damage.

  17. Germline mutations of BRCA1 gene exon 11 are not associated with platinum response neither with survival advantage in patients with primary ovarian cancer: understanding the clinical importance of one of the biggest human exons. A study of the Tumor Bank Ovarian Cancer (TOC) Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Desislava; Ruscito, Ilary; Olek, Sven; Richter, Rolf; Hellwag, Alexander; Türbachova, Ivana; Woopen, Hannah; Baron, Udo; Braicu, Elena Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid

    2016-09-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 gene have been reported in up to 20 % of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Distinct clinical characteristics have been attributed to this special EOC population. We hypothesized that mutations in different BRCA1 gene exons may differently affect the clinical course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a large cohort of primary EOCs, the clinical impact of mutations in BRCA1 gene exon 11, the largest exon of the gene sequence encoding the 60 % of BRCA1 protein. Two hundred sixty-three primary EOC patients, treated between 2000 and 2008 at Charité University Hospital of Berlin, were included. Patients' blood samples were obtained from the Tumor Ovarian Cancer (TOC) Network ( www.toc-network.de ). Direct sequencing of BRCA1 gene exon 11 was performed for each patient to detect mutations. Based on their BRCA1 exon 11 mutational status, patients were compared regarding clinico-pathological variables and survival. Mutations in BRCA1 exon 11 were found in 18 out of 263 patients (6.8 %). Further 10/263 (3.8 %) cases showed variants of uncertain significance (VUS). All exon 11 BRCA1-positive tumors (100 %) were Type 2 ovarian carcinomas (p = 0.05). Age at diagnosis was significantly younger in Type 2 exon 11 mutated patients (p = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, BRCA1 exon 11 mutational status was not found to be an independent predictive factor for optimal cytoreduction, platinum response, or survival. Mutations in BRCA1 gene exon 11 seem to predispose women to exclusively develop a Type 2 ovarian cancer at younger age. Exon 11 BRCA1-mutated EOC patients showed distinct clinico-pathological features but similar clinical outcome with respect to sporadic EOC patients.

  18. Scheduling EURO-k Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Pisinger, David; Vigo, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    EURO-k conferences are among the largest Operations Research conferences in the world, typically including more than 2000 presentations. As opposed to many other conferences, EURO-k conferences are hierarchically organized, and the conference schedule should reflect this structure to make...

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Continuity Management

    OpenAIRE

    K. Venclova; H. Urbancova; H. Vostra Vydrova

    2013-01-01

    In current global economics the application of Business Continuity Management is the prerequisite for sustainable competitive advantage in an organization. Business Continuity Management is a managerial which identifies the potential impact of losses in an organization. The aim of this paper is to identify and critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of deploying Business Continuity Management in an organization on the basis of seven criteria. The strongest advantage of B...

  20. Revealed Comparative Advantage in the Internal Market

    OpenAIRE

    Widgrén, Mika

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates comparative advantage and its development across selected Asian, American and European countries between 1996 and 2002. In doing so, we calculate the Balassa index of revealed comparative advantage using industry data at the HS 4-digit level. The major part of the analysis concentrates on the factor intensities of the sample countries’ comparative advantage and the overlap between them in the Internal Market. The paper shows that there is clearly some convergence in te...

  1. Logistics as a Competitive Warfighting Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Logistics as a Competitive Warfighting Advantage October 20, 2016 MajGen Arnold Punaro, USMC(ret), Chair Mr. Bill Phillips Mr. John...real war fighting advantage – Diverse, distributed, and adaptive to the military operational requirements – Responsive, global reach – Process...of the spear,” and give the U.S. a qualitative advantage over our adversaries…it is necessary that DoD optimize the use of resources and maximize the

  2. Comparative Advantage, Trade and Labour Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Busse

    2002-01-01

    This paper empirically explores the relationship between labour standards and comparative advantage. Focusing on unskilled-labour-intensive goods and core labour standards, the results show that the effects of low standards depend on the type of standard: Weaker basic union rights are associated with a stronger comparative advantage. Forced and child labour also lead to an increase in the endowment of unskilled labour, and hence improve comparative advantage in unskilled-labour-intensive good...

  3. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the full text or extended abstracts of papers number 61- to number 114

  4. Conference scene: 2nd cancer epigenetics conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra L

    2013-04-01

    The GTC Cancer Summit: Novel Approaches to Drug Discovery was divided into two parallel tracks: the 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference, and the Protein Kinases and Drug Design Conference. The 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference focused on exciting changes in drug discovery that include an unprecedented private and public collaboration on drug discovery in epigenetics through the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), which has led to several major breakthroughs including: the development of small-molecule inhibitors that interfere with protein interactions, especially bromodomain-containing protein acetylation readers; the indirect but successful targeting of the elusive MYC oncogene; and the identification of epigenetic drugs that are disease-specific. Also reported were the development of clinically useful DNA methylation assays; cell, peptide and protein arrays for testing antibody- and protein-binding specificity; and tools for chromatin capture and DNA modification analysis. Several groups reported on the lack of specificity of some commercial, but unnamed, antibodies used for epigenetic studies.

  5. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  6. The Vision Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the design, planning and mangement of a creative conference is presented. A case study illustrates the theoretical concepts.......The concept of the design, planning and mangement of a creative conference is presented. A case study illustrates the theoretical concepts....

  7. Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintas, O.; Chen, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Dressler, F.; Ekici, E.; Kargl, Frank; Shigeno, H.; Dietzel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we would like to welcome you to the third edition of the IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (IEEE VNC 2011) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. IEEE VNC is a unique conference sponsored by both the IEEE Communications Society and the IEEE Intelligent

  8. ICCK Conference Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, William H. [MIT

    2013-05-28

    The 7th International Conference on Chemical Kinetics (ICCK) was held July 10-14, 2011, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, MA, hosted by Prof. William H. Green of MIT's Chemical Engineering department. This cross-disciplinary meeting highlighted the importance of fundamental understanding of elementary reactions to the full range of chemical investigations. The specific conference focus was on elementary-step kinetics in both the gas phase and in condensed phase. The meeting provided a unique opportunity to discuss how the same reactive species and reaction motifs manifest under very different reaction conditions (e.g. atmospheric, aqueous, combustion, plasma, in nonaqueous solvents, on surfaces.). The conference featured special sessions on new/improved experimental techniques, improved models and data analysis for interpreting complicated kinetics, computational kinetics (especially rate estimates for large kinetic models), and a panel discussion on how the community should document/archive kinetic data. In the past, this conference had been limited to homogeneous gas-phase and liquid-phase systems. This conference included studies of heterogeneous kinetics which provide rate constants for, or insight into, elementary reaction steps. This Grant from DOE BES covered about half of the subsidies we provided to students and postdocs who attended the conference, by charging them reduced-rate registration fees. The complete list of subsidies provided are listed in Table 1 below. This DOE funding was essential to making the conference affordable to graduate students, and indeed the attendance at this conference was higher than at previous conferences in this series. Donations made by companies provided additional subsidies, leveraging the DOE funding. The conference was very effective in educating graduate students and important in fostering scientific interactions, particularly between scientists studying gas phase and liquid phase

  9. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  10. Home advantage in the Commonwealth Games | Ramchandani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Research examining the phenomenon of home advantage in international multi-sport competitions is limited to the Olympic Games. This paper investigates the prevalence of home advantage in the Commonwealth Games. The paper also explores the relative impact of travel on performance in the ...

  11. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  12. The Persistence of Wives' Income Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Recent reports using cross-sectional data indicate an increase in the percentage of wives who outearn their husbands, yet we know little about the persistence of wives' income advantage. The present analyses utilize the 1990-1994 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 3,481) to examine wives' long-term earnings advantage.…

  13. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategic Positioning for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organizational learning is increasingly being considered as one of the fundamental sources of competitive advantage within the context of strategic management. However, most literature has not clearly linked organizational learning with sustainable competitive advantage. This paper, therefore, explores and discusses the ...

  15. Competitive advantage, what does it really mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan; Hongjue Yan

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage is probably the most popular business concept today (Mooney, 2007). This article aims to investigate critically the discourse on competitive advantage, as expressed by business literature, by locating its meanings in the public higher education sector. This research reveals

  16. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  17. Bilateral Advantages in Subitizing With Visual Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Campbell G; Howe, Piers D L

    2015-01-01

    Performance on a range of visual-processing tasks has been shown to improve when information is split bilaterally across the left and right visual hemifields rather than being restricted to a single visual hemifield. However, a recent study by Delvenne et al. found no such bilateral advantage for subitizing, which is our ability to rapidly and accurately enumerate small quantities of objects. This finding is particularly surprising, as it contradicts the prediction of FINgers of INSTantiation theory that subitizing should benefit from bilateral presentation. Our study investigated the issue by determining if there are any circumstances where a bilateral advantage for subitization occurs. Contrary to Delvenne et al., we found that subitizing could show bilateral advantages, but only when the display was backward-masked. We discuss these findings in relation to how the rate of encoding and the time available for this encoding may affect bilateral advantages in subitizing. A general model is proposed under which bilateral advantages could be explained.

  18. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the foreword, technical program, the author index and of the papers (1-60) presented at the conference.

  19. To conference or not to conference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP), the International Urogynaecology ... subject, of treatments or techniques they would never use, and why, or of treatments, interventions or tests which they ... colleagues recounted advice given over conference coffee – the one of obligatory consent for laparoscopy ...

  20. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  1. Self-Advantage in the Online World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Yang

    Full Text Available In the current research, screen name was employed to explore the possible cognitive advantage for self-related online material. The results showed that one's own screen name and real name were detected faster than famous names in both visual search and discrimination tasks. In comparison, there was no difference in visual search speed for the two kinds of self-related names. These findings extend self-advantage from the physical world to the virtual online environment and confirm its robustness. In addition, the present findings also suggest that familiarity might not be the determining factor for self-advantage.

  2. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  3. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Thursday, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    so please take maximum advantage of this opportunity. And if there is anything that the conference committee, whose names are listed in the program...19880 Engaging the DoD Enterprise to Protect U.S. Military Technical Advantage : Joint Acquisition Protection and Exploitation Cell Update u Mr...weeks) Webapp Starts (7/2 – 7/16) webshell, 862 filemanager, 761 v- apps , 575 matlab, 78 paraview, 60 jms, 33 bp3i, 20 sentri, 1 webshell filemanager v

  4. Supply Chain Management Practices, Competitive Advantage and Organizational Performance: A Confirmatory Factor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwinder Singh; Sandhu, H.S.; B.A. Metri; Rajinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain is the process of continuous flow of products or services from source to the destination. Supply chain management has become an effective tool now a day to survive in this competitive world. Organizations do their best to harvest profits by adopting better supply chain management practices for competitive advantage and organizational performance. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the relationship among supply chain practices, competitive advantage, and organiza...

  5. Current and effective advantages of femto phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashvin; Jacob, Soosan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose is to review the current and effective advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). FLACS has advantages over manual phacoemulsification in its precision, and predictability and may be especially advantageous in difficult situations such as shallow anterior chamber, subluxated cataracts, white cataracts, and so on. However, the femtosecond capsulorhexis may not be as strong as a manual rhexis. Laser-induced miosis is also a potential disadvantage. There may be increased surgeon confidence and patient satisfaction with FLACS and it may be friendlier to the internal structures of the eye. However, it is not superior to manual phacoemulsification in terms of primary outcomes such as visual and refractive outcomes or overall complications. Further refinements in technology may be needed to give it distinct advantages over manual phacoemulsification and to make it the norm in cataract surgery.

  6. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  7. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  8. Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary objective of the company is to reach the business success. Competitors have the same objective. Only the companies that really meet the consumer's needs and demands survive in the competitive struggle. The company who succeeds in it, has the possibility to achieve the competitive advantage as well. The company has to have the adequate marketing strategy in order to fulfill the marketing objectives and achieve the competitive advantage. The marketing strategy should be flexible and properly implemented to fulfill the expected results. The best solution is developing the credible strategies. Researching of the strategic marketing literature, the authors have noted down that the greater attention is given to the formulation than the implementation of the marketing strategy. In this text, focus is on the research of the marketing strategy implementation as a significant factor of the competitive advantage. The traditional concept of the marketing strategy implementation is taken into consideration first, as well as the risks the enterprise is facing with in that case. Thereafter, the testing and developing of the credible marketing strategy is represented, as well as the problems the enterprise is facing with in the implementation. Finally, the executive skills and control are analyzed as important factors of the successful implementation of the marketing strategy. .

  9. Deconstructing the Theory of Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard Schumacher

    2013-01-01

    This article critically examines the theory of comparative advantage, which underlies the wide-spread support of worldwide trade liberalisations. Both the classical and neoclassical formulations of it are shortly discussed and its essential assumptions are scrutinised. These include the international immobility of capital and labour, balanced trade, the existence of an adjustment mechanism which is responsible for the transformation of comparative production advantages into absolute price adv...

  10. Advantages and risks in service standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Zoltán

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the advantages and risks in standardizing services, there can be no clear-cut answer concerning the strategy to be followed. Exploiting advantages in the long run is only worth it for a provider of a service that is able to build up a powerful brand image. However, the more successful a service concept, the stronger the temptation to imitation. The success of imitators will sooner or later bring about multibrand loyalty.

  11. Comparative Advantage and the Location of Production

    OpenAIRE

    Forslid, Rikard; Wooton, Ian

    1999-01-01

    We return to a familiar topic in international trade, comparative advantage, introducing it into a model of economic geography. We provide a clear counterexample to the familiar result that trade liberalization leads to increased industrial concentration. Instead, lower trade costs may lead to a dispersion of production. As trade barriers diminish, agglomerative forces weaken, leaving room for other influences on the location of production. When a pattern of comparative advantage exists, inte...

  12. General Conceptual View on Resource Advantage Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Yalcin

    2010-01-01

    In order to continue for an organization to exist it needs to finance itself for its own resource on the other hand service with considering consumers need and expectations by present them lowest price and highest quality also. Under these conditions these kind of organizations need to analyze the behaviour (nature) of the rival organizations and position themselves accordingly in order to get advantage on the rival organizations. In this study, a general conceptual view on resource advantage...

  13. Overview of research in the ADVANTAGE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Cosovic, Mirsad; Kalalas, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The European Marie Curie Project ADVANTAGE (Advanced Communications and Information processing in smart grid systems) was launched in 2014. It represents a major inter-disciplinary research project into the topic of Smart Grid technology. A key aspect of the project is to bring together and train...... in the project. The major research focus of the ADVANTAGE project is on advancing technologies for the smart grid, providing architectural solutions and developing innovative information and communications technology (ICT) solutions to support its operation....

  14. Mastering Tacit Corridors for Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glisby, Martin; Holden, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    to serious misappreciation by managers, but understanding it for what it is can give firms a key edge that the authors term knowledge advantage. Here, they use case-study data from four international firms to introduce a model that makes use of the concepts of tacit corridors and coupling. Tacit corridors....... Knowledge advantage is the art of mastering tacit corridors through the context-sensitive application of coupling...

  15. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competiti...

  16. MOLDOVA: MISSED ADVANTAGES OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Vasiljevna Fokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to potentially missed advantages of Eurasian integration (EAEU for Moldova. Special attention is given to the branches in which the country could get evident advantages including agriculture, power engineering, external trade ties with the EAEU countries. Possible positive effects of Eurasian integration in solution of the Transnistrian problem, in the sphere of labour migration and other fields are also shown.

  17. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  18. 2011 Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Survivability Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    weapons complex: the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Program (1998), and the Plutonium Stabilization and Handling System Project at Hanford...Prototype • Atmospheric chemistry • 64-bit & multi-core computing • CB small scale testing Portfolio Objective: Enable the prediction of hazard area size...detection of CB materials –point & standoff 3. Chemistry & Bioscience of CB Warfare – Fully understand agent properties (persistence

  19. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  20. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  1. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    little support amongst serious students of learning. The professional conference as a forum for knowledge sharing is in dire need of a new learning theory and a more enlightened practice. The notion of human flourishing is offered as basis for theory, and four simple design principles for the so-called......The typical one-day conference attended by managers or professionals in search of inspiration is packed with PowerPoint presentations and offers little opportunity for involvement or knowledge sharing. Behind the conventional conference format lurks the transfer model of learning, which finds...... “learning conference” are proposed: People go to conferences to 1. get concise input, 2. interpret it in the light of their ongoing concerns, 3. talk about their current projects and 4. meet the other attendees and be inspired by them. Six practical techniques that induce attendees to do these things...

  2. Photos of the conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta  Åhman is the photographer of the series of pictures from the conference, also for the cover photo of the full paper edition showing Kongsvold Mountain Hut and Biological Station.

  3. Ranking Operations Management conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  4. The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Glick-Bauer; Ming-Chin Yeh

    2014-01-01

    This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan g...

  5. Screening ethnically diverse human embryonic stem cells identifies a chromosome 20 minimal amplicon conferring growth advantage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amps, K.; Andrews, P.W.; Anyfantis, G.; Armstrong, L.; Avery, S.; Baharvand, H.; Baker, J.; Baker, D.; Munoz, M. N.; Beil, S.; Benvenisty, N.; Ben-Yosef, D.; Biancotti, J. C.; Bosman, A.; Brena, R. M.; Brison, D.; Caisander, G.; Camarasa, M. V.; Chen, J. M.; Chiao, E.; Choi, Y. M.; Choo, E.; Collins, D.; Colman, A.; Crook, J. M.; Daley, G. Q.; Dalton, A.; De Sousa, P. A.; Denning, C.; Downie, J.; Dvořák, P.; Hampl, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 12 (2011), s. 1132-1144 ISSN 1087-0156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : comparative genomic hybridization * copy number variation * human es cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 23.268, year: 2011

  6. Folate cycle enzyme MTHFD1L confers metabolic advantages in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derek; Xu, Iris Ming-Jing; Chiu, David Kung-Chun; Lai, Robin Kit-Ho; Tse, Aki Pui-Wah; Lan Li, Lynna; Law, Cheuk-Ting; Tsang, Felice Ho-Ching; Wei, Larry Lai; Chan, Cerise Yuen-Ki; Wong, Chun-Ming; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin; Wong, Carmen Chak-Lui

    2017-05-01

    Cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose and glutamine, which provide macromolecules and antioxidants that sustain rapid cell division. Metabolic reprogramming in cancer drives an increased glycolytic rate that supports maximal production of these nutrients. The folate cycle, through transfer of a carbon unit between tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments, produces other metabolites that are essential for cell growth, including nucleotides, methionine, and the antioxidant NADPH. Here, using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a cancer model, we have observed a reduction in growth rate upon withdrawal of folate. We found that an enzyme in the folate cycle, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L), plays an essential role in support of cancer growth. We determined that MTHFD1L is transcriptionally activated by NRF2, a master regulator of redox homeostasis. Our observations further suggest that MTHFD1L contributes to the production and accumulation of NADPH to levels that are sufficient to combat oxidative stress in cancer cells. The elevation of oxidative stress through MTHFD1L knockdown or the use of methotrexate, an antifolate drug, sensitizes cancer cells to sorafenib, a targeted therapy for HCC. Taken together, our study identifies MTHFD1L in the folate cycle as an important metabolic pathway in cancer cells with the potential for therapeutic targeting.

  7. Associations with rhizosphere bacteria can confer an adaptive advantage to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Cara H; Samuel, Buck S; Bush, Jenifer; Ausubel, Frederick M

    Host-associated microbiomes influence host health. However, it is unclear whether genotypic variations in host organisms influence the microbiome in ways that have adaptive consequences for the host. Here, we show that wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana differ in their ability to associate with the root-associated bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, with consequences for plant fitness. In a screen of 196 naturally occurring Arabidopsis accessions we identified lines that actively suppress Pseudomonas growth under gnotobiotic conditions. We planted accessions that support disparate levels of fluorescent Pseudomonads in natural soils; 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing revealed that accession-specific differences in the microbial communities were largely limited to a subset of Pseudomonadaceae species. These accession-specific differences in Pseudomonas growth resulted in enhanced or impaired fitness that depended on the host's ability to support Pseudomonas growth, the specific Pseudomonas strains present in the soil and the nature of the stress. We suggest that small host-mediated changes in a microbiome can have large effects on host health.

  8. 53rd Annual Fuze Conference - Next Generation Fuzing - Maximum Advantage for the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    Detonators •Capacitors •Switches •Switch Tubes •Rectifiers •Programmers • Neutron Generators •Reservoirs •Stronglinks •Batteries •Timers •Spin...sensor for air burst round • Trigger between 90 and 150 G • Current snap dome sensor too large and inaccurate • New contact switch must be low

  9. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-09-01

    1. Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. 2. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. 3. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). 4. SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. 5. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species' resilience in the face of global change. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  10. Advantage: Disadvantaged Gifted. Presentations from the Third National Conference on Disadvantaged Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others

    The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…

  11. Warning signals confer advantage to prey in competition with predators: bumblebees steal nests from insectivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Piotr G; Cho, Hyun Jun; Song, Soo Rim; Kang, Chang Ku; Lee, Sang-Im

    2013-08-01

    Aposematic (warning) signals of prey help predators to recognize the defended distasteful or poisonous prey that should be avoided. The evolution of aposematism in the context of predation has been in the center of modern ecology for a long time. But, the possible roles of aposematic signals in other ecological contexts have been largely ignored. Here we address the role of aposematic signals in competition between prey and predators. Bumblebees use visual and auditory aposematic signals to warn predators about their defenses. For 2 years, we observed competition for nestboxes between chemically defended insects, Bombus ardens (and possibly also Bombus ignitus), and cavity nesting birds (Parus minor and Poecile varius). Bumblebees settled in 16 and 9 % of nestboxes (in 2010 and 2011 breeding seasons, respectively) that contained bird nests at the advanced stage of nest building or at the stage of egg laying. Presence of bumblebees prevented the birds from continuing the breeding activities in the nestboxes, while insects took over the birds' nests (a form of kleptoparasitism). Playback experiments showed that the warning buzz by bumblebees contributed to the success in ousting the birds from their nests. This demonstrates that aposematic signals may be beneficial also in the context of resource competition.

  12. Does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine Vincetoxicum rossicum (Apocynaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Megan L; Barney, Jacob N; Averill, Kristine M; Mohler, Charles L; Ditommaso, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. Vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. More than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. For evaluating the potential consequences of polyembryony on invasiveness, V. rossicum plants derived from seeds of three embryonic classes-singlets, doublets, and triplets (one, two, and three seedlings per seed, respectively)-were paired in all combinations intraspecifically and with the co-occurring native herbs Solidago canadensis and Asclepias syriaca in a greenhouse study. Vincetoxicum rossicum biomass was 25-55% greater and follicle production 55-100% greater under intraspecific competition compared with interspecific competition. However, within a competitive environment, follicle production varied little. Regardless of competitive environment, V. rossicum originating from seeds with a greater number of embryos typically performed no better than plants arising from seed with fewer embryos (singlets = doublets = triplets)-except intraspecifically where doublets outperformed singlets, and with S. canadensis where triplets outperformed singlets. Our findings suggest that overall performance and fitness of V. rossicum is higher in monocultures than in mixed stands and that its ability to invade new habitats may not be attributable to the production of polyembryonic seeds.

  13. Plant root proliferation in nitrogen-rich patches confers competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D.; Hodge, A.; Griffiths, B. S.; Fitter, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Plants respond strongly to environmental heterogeneity, particularly below ground, where spectacular root proliferations in nutrient-rich patches may occur. Such 'foraging' responses apparently maximize nutrient uptake and are now prominent in plant ecological theory. Proliferations in nitrogen-rich patches are difficult to explain adaptively, however. The high mobility of soil nitrate should limit the contribution of proliferation to N capture. Many experiments on isolated plants show only a weak relation between proliferation and N uptake. We show that N capture is associated strongly with proliferation during interspecific competition for finite, locally available, mixed N sources, precisely the conditions under which N becomes available to plants on generally infertile soils. This explains why N-induced root proliferation is an important resource-capture mechanism in N-limited plant communities and suggests that increasing proliferation by crop breeding or genetic manipulation will have a limited impact on N capture by well-fertilized monocultures.

  14. 2nd SUMO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the conference proceedings of the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) conference 2014, Berlin. The included research papers cover a wide range of topics in traffic planning and simulation, including open data, vehicular communication, e-mobility, urban mobility, multimodal traffic as well as usage approaches. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.  

  15. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  16. 14th International Conference on Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Timotin, D; Vasilescu, F-H

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 the Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy (formerly the Department of Mathematics of INCREST) and the Faculty of Mathematics (formerly the Faculty of Sciences) of the University ofTimi~oara have organized several Con­ ferences on Operator Theory. These Conferences were held yearly in Timi~oara (or in Timi~oara and Herculane) and beginning with 1985 they were held in Bucharest (1985,1986), in Timi~oara (1988) and in Predeal (1990). At the beginning, these Conferences answered the need of a part of the Romanian Mathematical Community ofexploring other forms of survival, after the dissolution of the Institute of Mathematics in 1975. Soon, these meetings evolved to International Conferences with a broad participation and where important results in Operator Theory and Operator Algebras and their interplay with Complex Function Theory, Differential Equations, Mathematical Physics, System Theory, etc. were presented. The 14th Conference on Operator Theory was held between June 1st and June 5th...

  17. Jaundice: an important, poorly recognized risk factor for diminished survival in patients with adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Steven M; Gao, Feng; Sanford, Dominic; Linehan, David C; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan; Carpenter, Danielle H; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Phillips, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Jaundice impairs cellular immunity, an important defence against the dissemination of cancer. Jaundice is a common mode of presentation in pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between preoperative jaundice and survival in patients who have undergone resection of such tumours. Methods: Thirty possible survival risk factors were evaluated in a database of over 400 resected patients. Univariate analysis was used to determine odds ratio for death. All factors for which a P-value of jaundice, age, positive node status, poor differentiation and lymphatic invasion were significant indicators of poor outcome in multivariate analysis. Absence of jaundice was a highly favourable prognostic factor. Interaction emerged between jaundice and nodal status. The benefit conferred by the absence of jaundice was restricted to patients in whom negative node status was present. Five-year overall survival in this group was 66%. Jaundiced patients who underwent preoperative stenting had a survival advantage. Conclusions: Preoperative jaundice is a negative risk factor in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Additional studies are required to determine the exact mechanism for this effect. PMID:23600768

  18. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.

  19. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... they generate relational rents (interorganizational competitive advantage) from this alliance? Based on this case study, we will propose some implications for the R&D collaboration between Chinese and Scandinavian countries. Also, the case will help us to test and enrich the existing theories...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....

  20. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  1. Thoracoscopic versus robotic approaches: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    The overall advantages of thoracoscopy over thoracotomy in terms of patient recovery have been fairly well established. The use of robotics, however, is a newer and less proven modality in the realm of thoracic surgery. Robotics offers distinct advantages and disadvantages in comparison with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic technology is now used for a variety of complex cardiac, urologic, and gynecologic procedures including mitral valve repair and microsurgical treatment of male infertility. This article addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of a variety of thoracic operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Australian coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Almost 600 people attended this year's Australian Coal Conference on Queensland's Gold Coast. The article reports on issues raised at the conference which included the effects of globalisation and the difficulties of raising funds faced by the coal industry and environmental issues. A life cycle analysis of coal's emissions compared to other fuels, released at the conference had demonstrated that coal was a legitimate part of the world's future energy mix. Conference speakers included Michael Pinnock, Queensland Mining Council Chief Executive Officer, Dr Louis Wibberley and Rich Gazzard of BHP, Robin Batterham, the Australian Governments Chief Scientist, Mark Vale, Federal Minister for Trade, Tony Armor of EPRI, Daren Fooks, Clayton Utz Lawyers, Ron Knapp, Chief Executive of the World Coal Institute and Andrew Tucker, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Highlights of their addresses are given. Winners of the five research awards presented by the Australian Coal Association at the conference are reported. 11 photos.

  3. 2nd Bozeman Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, John

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of papers delivered by the partici­ pants at the second Conference on Computation and Control held at Mon­ tana State University in Bozeman, Montana from August 1-7, 1990. The conference, as well as this proceedings, attests to the vitality and cohesion between the control theorist and the numerical analyst that was adver­ tised by the first Conference on Computation and Control in 1988. The proceedings of that initial conference was published by Birkhiiuser Boston as the first volume of this same series entitled Computation and Control, Proceedings of the Bozeman Conference, Bozeman, Montana, 1988. Control theory and numerical analysis are both, by their very nature, interdisciplinary subjects as evidenced by their interaction with other fields of mathematics and engineering. While it is clear that new control or es­ timation algorithms and new feedback design methodologies will need to be implemented computationally, it is likewise clear that new problems in computation...

  4. The Temporal Limits of Technological Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    technological advantage in this case, but that would seemingly disregard the environment . Using Michael Horowitz’s Adoption-Capacity Theory, Germany had...tempo and a reliance on technologies designed for the bipolar environment . This also explains the slow reaction to developing anti-access capabilities...understands the complexity of the military technology environment . “Military research 8 Barry R

  5. and Below-ground Competitive Advantages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Some of these benefits are attributable to 54% greater light penetration to the legume understorey observed with MBILI (+20.934 LUX averaged throughout the day), an obvious aboveground advantage. MBILI also resulted in greater Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE), particularly by maize, because side-dressing applications ...

  6. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  7. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... acceptance by SBA lenders or good geographical dispersion. Throughout its history, Community Express has had... technical assistance is not normally part of their lending model. Eventually, less than 5% of SBA's active... Program Overview The Community Advantage Pilot Program (CA Pilot Program) will allow mission oriented...

  8. Strategic Positioning for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, it deals with how organizational learning process can be used to develop knowledge resources and capabilities that lead to sustainable competitive advantage. The main method used is analysis and integration of theories to develop a conceptual model. This paper proposes that, through organizational ...

  9. Relative Advantage: Strength for Favorable Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    289. 92A commonly used code- word for the foreign-built air defense network. It is simply Iraq spelled backwards. 93Richard Hallion, Storm Over...are interconnected. The implication is that the Department of Defense, writ large, must integrate the concept of relative advantage and its connection

  10. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.R.; Oosterhaven, J.

    This paper shows-that the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), ranging from 0 to infinity, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean larger than its expected value of 1, while its distribution strongly depends on the number of

  11. Advantages of the production contractor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisvold, K.M. [Golar-Nor Offshore, Trondheim (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some thoughts on the Production Contractor concept. It starts with an attempt to define the prerequisites for such contractorship to exist and develop, going on to examine the considerations that the oil company and the contractor respectively have to go through, and finally trying to summarize what emerges as the advantages of production contracting. Examples are given to emphasize particular points

  12. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Alex R.

    2001-01-01

    This article shows that the distribution of the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), which runs from 0 to 8, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean without a useful interpretation, while its distribution depends on the number of

  13. Structural change in OECD comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Inklaar, Robert; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In the post-war period, the goods composition of trade in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries has changed considerably. We analyze the evolution of comparative advantage using a detailed trade data set and a new analytical tool: the Harmonic Mass index (HM index),

  14. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agricultural products dominate Tanzania's comparative advantage for both years, although minerals assume the first rank in 2011. Specifically, 70% of the product groups are agricultural, with the rest being mineral products. These findings suggest that no structural transformation has occurred in the Tanzanian economy ...

  15. [The advantage of multidisciplinary treatment of presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouccara, Didier; Madjlessi, Arach; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Attributable to the ageing of the hearing system, presbycusis presents a wide variability in the general population. Early detection is necessary in order to be able to provide the patient with a suitable hearing aid. Collaboration between otolaryngologists and geriatricians proves to be advantageous as a consultation for a memory complaint may be the opportunity to detect presbycusis and vice versa.

  16. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

    2016-01-01

    Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

  17. Clinical advantages of new peritoneal dialysis solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.; van Westrhenen, Roos; Zweers, Machteld M.; Struijk, Dirk G.

    2002-01-01

    A review is given of the various mechanisms by which conventional glucose/lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solutions can induce damage to the peritoneal membrane. The potential advantages of newly developed dialysis solutions and the results of recent studies on their use in patients are discussed

  18. (dis)advantage and affirmative action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to ...

  19. Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenthin, David

    2004-01-01

    To be consistently profitable, a construction company must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients and other stakeholders are placing increasing pressure on companies to decrease those accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the "pre-qualification" or "request for proposal" stages of the procurement process. Are high accident rates and the associated costs just a part of business? Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. Is it possible for projects with low accident rates to use it as a competitive advantage? Is the value added by safety just a temporary or parity issue, or does a successful safety program offer significant advantage to the company and the client? This article concludes that in the case of a high-risk industry, such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety program can promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a choice the company can make.

  20. Business Intelligence Solutions for Gaining Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence is the process for increasing the competitive advantage of a company by intelligent use of available data in decision-making. Only a revolutionary Business Intelligence solution, like the proposed portal-based, can solve the complex issues faced when evaluating decision support applications and ensures the availability of any business-critical information.

  1. Conferences and Family Reunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sutherland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional associations and conferences have similarities with and differences from families and family reunions. This comparison can illustrate some ways professional associations can approach the integration of new members and the planning of conferences in order to facilitate membership development and leadership renewal. Unlike family reunions, professional conferences are not closed events that require a shared culture in order to fully participate; they are events that should show the constant change and development of practice that is representative of the profession – for both members and non-members. Some of the topics explored in the article are: making it easy for outsiders to contribute, considering the tastes of new members, making it easy to volunteer in a meaningful way, and remembering who the future of the organization is. These simple considerations will assist in opening professional associations to new participants and help them to maintain their relevance and vitality over time.

  2. Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Jung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheon [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gladyshev, Vadim N. [Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kim, Hwa-Young, E-mail: hykim@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-12

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. {sup 75}Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 30-fold higher K{sub m} than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. - Highlights: • The first characterization of a selenoprotein Trx is presented. • The selenoenzyme Trx exhibits 10-fold higher catalytic activity than Cys homologues. • Se utilization in Trx is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by Sec residue.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex I upregulation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with increased survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Sekar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that high MHCI expression confers improved overall and recurrence free survival in patients with clear cell RCC and could serve as an important prognostic tool in identifying high-risk patients.

  4. International conference, ICPRAM 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, J; Fred, Ana; Pattern recognition : applications and methods : revised selected papers

    2013-01-01

    This edited book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the First International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPRAM 2012), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 6 to 8 February, 2012, sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in cooperation with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) and Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning (PASCAL2). The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested on the areas of Pattern Recognition, both from theoretical and application perspectives.

  5. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  6. Clinical conferences for physicians: Who sets the agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumova, T R; Safina, A F; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    companies. Seventeen conferences were held during official working hours, in the first half of the day. Not only the logo of the pharmaceutical companies was printed on invitation tickets, but there was also an advert of the promoted pharmaceutical brand.Nine conference invitations contained invitation to dinner. In one of the invitations to a conference on neuroscience it was written: "dinner under the unforgettable music". Two conference invitations contained invitation to a lunch. Programs of 20 conferences (which were included) listed guest lecturers, coming from the leading medical universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Opinion leaders' involvement: some of the leading experts acted as speakers from 4 to 7 conferences a month in this sample conference invitations package of a regular polyclinic physician. In 2012-2013 health practitioners were invited to attend medical conferences regularly, at least 2 times a month, with November being the busiest month. The keynote speakers were the opinion leaders from the local medical educational institutions and visitors from Moscow and St. Petersburg; their involvement with the conferences was repetitive. Governmental institutions jointly with big pharma were responsible for organisation of these conferences and attracting audience.Limitations of these observations:Unfortunately, the information on printed-paper conference invitations was not complete because not all tickets have survived. From the interview with the physician we know that in addition to these printed on paper invitations there were many invitations and alerts sent out by e-mail, SMS messages and personal phone calls, making the regularity of these conferences much higher. The physician, who kindly provided this information to us, asked not to be named or thanked in any public presentation of the results of these analyses.

  7. Survival advantage of siblings and spouses of centenarians in 20th-century Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Jarry

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.

  8. Survival with an asymmetrical brain: advantages and disadvantages of cerebral lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2005-08-01

    Recent evidence in natural and semi-natural settings has revealed a variety of left-right perceptual asymmetries among vertebrates. These include preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as searching for food, agonistic responses, or escape from predators in animals as different as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. There are obvious disadvantages in showing such directional asymmetries because relevant stimuli may be located to the animal's left or right at random; there is no a priori association between the meaning of a stimulus (e.g., its being a predator or a food item) and its being located to the animal's left or right. Moreover, other organisms (e.g., predators) could exploit the predictability of behavior that arises from population-level lateral biases. It might be argued that lateralization of function enhances cognitive capacity and efficiency of the brain, thus counteracting the ecological disadvantages of lateral biases in behavior. However, such an increase in brain efficiency could be obtained by each individual being lateralized without any need to align the direction of the asymmetry in the majority of the individuals of the population. Here we argue that the alignment of the direction of behavioral asymmetries at the population level arises as an "evolutionarily stable strategy" under "social" pressures occurring when individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with the behavior of other asymmetrical organisms of the same or different species.

  9. The Agility Advantage: A Survival Guide for Complex Enterprises and Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Street Journal, that the frequency with which the events of August 2007 were a once in 10,000 years occurrence. Taleb observed that we had not one...traditional requirements and with Black Swans. Of the remaining six risk areas, 6 and 9 are associated with events that occur with high frequency . These...www.mindef.gov.sg/ saft i/pointer/back/journals/2001/ Vol27_4/8.htm). Chapter 8 121 An Information Age Military technical book just like any thick computer

  10. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013... to the webcast. The Capitol Connection provides technical support for webcasts and offers the option...

  11. Is There a Right Ear Advantage in Congenital Aural Atresia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert; Hubbard, Matthew; Kesser, Bradley W

    2016-12-01

    To compare speech/language development and academic progress between children with right versus left congenital aural atresia (CAA). Case control survey and review of audiometric data. Tertiary care academic practice. Children with unilateral CAA. Demographic and audiometric data; rates of grade retention, use of any hearing or learning resource, and behavioral problems. No significant differences in grade retention rate, utilization of amplification, speech language therapy, use of an individualized education program, or frequency modulated system were found between children with right versus left CAA. Children with left CAA were significantly more likely to be enrolled in special education programs (p = 0.026). Differences in reported communication problems approached significance with more difficulty noted in the right ear group (p = 0.059). Left CAA patients were also more likely to have reported behavioral problems (p = 0.0039). Contrary to the hypothesis that a normal hearing right ear confers a language advantage in patients with unilateral hearing loss, children with left CAA (normal right ear) were statistically more likely to be enrolled in a special education program and have behavioral problems. Reported communication problems were more common in right CAA patients, but this did not reach statistical significance. No differences were found in use of amplification, frequency modulated system, individualized education program, or grade retention. Further investigation of both the clinical implications and underlying psychoacoustics of unilateral hearing loss and the identification and habilitation of "at risk" unilateral hearing loss children is warranted.

  12. [Internet research methods: advantages and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tien, Yueh-Hsuan

    2009-12-01

    Compared to traditional research methods, using the Internet to conduct research offers a number of advantages to the researcher, which include increased access to sensitive issues and vulnerable / hidden populations; decreased data entry time requirements; and enhanced data accuracy. However, Internet research also presents certain challenges to the researcher. In this article, the advantages and challenges of Internet research methods are discussed in four principle issue areas: (a) recruitment, (b) data quality, (c) practicality, and (d) ethics. Nursing researchers can overcome problems related to sampling bias and data truthfulness using creative methods; resolve technical problems through collaboration with other disciplines; and protect participant's privacy, confidentiality and data security by maintaining a high level of vigilance. Once such issues have been satisfactorily addressed, the Internet should open a new window for Taiwan nursing research.

  13. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES ENTERPRISES IN KOOPERATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mikitiuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of new approaches to the definition of competitive advantage requires different ways to implement them according to market conditions. These paths can be cooperative relations entities that are implemented in the competitive advantage of enterprises in the new stage of development of a competitive society. The result of the interaction of small businesses with industrial and economic structures is the formation and development of such forms of cooperation entities as subcontracting, franchising, leasing, venture finance. The content of these forms is to integrate (interlacing of the functional areas of business including production of functional form is subcontracting relationships, forms of supply – franchising, industrial and financial shape – leasing as a form of innovative functional integration relations is venture financing.

  14. [OPEN LAPAROSCOPY--ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the safety of penetrating technique in laparoscopy, persist for more than four decades and still does not approach the scientifically valid decision about what method to use: closed with a Veress needle laparoscopic surgery; open laparoscopy; direct placement of troakar without prior to insufflation, visual entry methods. We're meant to look at the advantages and disadvantages of the laparoscopic approach, which we use in the Clinic of Gynaecology of the Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria, having conducted a search in the literature and Medline from the year in which it was introduced (1971) to present. The open laparoscopy is the only method that offers a precisely controlled entrance into the abdominal cavity, with low traumas, without serious vascular and organ injuries. The advantages of this procedure are that with proper practice, it takes less time and can be used in all possible situations with low intraoperative risk, even after previous abdominal operations.

  15. Sustainability in organizations: advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Josende Paz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently seeking to adopt sustainable policies and practices, causing a greater search for and use of sustainable models. This article therefore aims to evaluate the advantages of using sustainability principles in organizations, as well as to detect the main difficulties in implementing a sustainable model, identifying the existence of the principles described by Oliveira et al. (2012 and other authors. Bibliographic research was used to understand the “state of the art” in relation to sustainability in organizations, and the data was collected from articles published in journals in the last eight years. The importance of sustainability to organizations, better financial performance, stimulus for innovation, better management and the involvement of stakeholders in their processes were all evident as advantages of using this methodology. Finally, the following challenges were identified: the need for an investigation into the organization’s maturity in the use of sustainable methods and preparation of human resources for organizational change.

  16. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  17. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  18. 2008 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-22

    General Michael M. Brogan Combat Vehicles Conference Marine Corps Systems Command 21 October 2008 2 MCSC •LAV •AAV •Tank •HMMWV/ ECV •MRAP PEO LS...34,226 Total 56,649 1985 IOC 1996 M1114 armored HMMWV Limited Production 2006 M1100 series begins fielding scalable armor 2009-10 ECV II

  19. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  20. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  1. Leader Training Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Detroit.

    The purpose of this conference was to prepare key people in the field of education to function as inservice education leaders in their respective settings. It called for participants to learn what the MOREL inservice education program is and what it hopes to accomplish, to identify the role and functions of the inservice education leader, and to…

  2. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... Evening meal events for Governors, held in connection with Board meetings, must not cost more per person than 2.625 times the applicable meal allowance. The Chair of the Board must authorize any exception to the provision of this paragraph. Overnight stays related to events (other than conferences and ...

  3. Microbicides 2006 conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGowan Ian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current HIV/AIDS statistics show that women account for almost 60% of HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV prevention tools such as male and female condoms, abstinence and monogamy are not always feasible options for women due to various socio-economic and cultural factors. Microbicides are products designed to be inserted in the vagina or rectum prior to sex to prevent HIV acquisition. The biannual Microbicides conference took place in Cape Town, South Africa from 23–26 April 2006. The conference was held for the first time on the African continent, the region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The conference brought together a record number of 1,300 scientists, researchers, policy makers, healthcare workers, communities and advocates. The conference provided an opportunity for an update on microbicide research and development as well as discussions around key issues such as ethics, acceptability, access and community involvement. This report discusses the current status of microbicide research and development, encompassing basic and clinical science, social and behavioural science, and community mobilisation and advocacy activities.

  4. Creating collaborative advantage through students' quality circles

    OpenAIRE

    Ennals, Richard; KOKSAL, Hayal

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has played a pioneering role in the Quality movement in both industry and education, providing sound foundations for current development processes. Students’ Quality Circles, or Imece Circles, have provided a focus in Turkey and internationally. In the context of Knowledge Society and Knowledge Economy, new forms of work organisation offer collaborative advantage.\\ud \\ud Keywords: collaboration, empowerment, Imece, Quality, social capital, Students’ Quality Circles

  5. Research Resource Allocation and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Longmire, Jim; Winkelmann, Donald

    1987-01-01

    Agncultural research managers are under increasing pressure to JUStify thetr dec1s10ns 111e empirical analysis of comparative advantage offers considerable potential to provide more precise mformatmn to research resource managers for their dec1s10ns. In this paper, the potential applications of domestic resource cost analysis to issues of research resource allocation are discussed. Three case studies undertaken by CIMMYT economists on issues of wheat research m Mexico, Ecuador, and Thailand a...

  6. Coating-removal techniques: Advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Wayne E.

    1994-07-01

    The removal of radioactive and nonradio-active coatings from various surfaces is a subject of increasing interest for a variety of reasons, including remaining life assessment, nondestructive evaluation of structural integrity, and life extension through the adoption of new surface-modification methods. This review summarizes the state of the art in coating-removal technologies, presenting their advantages and limitations. The methods covered include laser ablation, microwaves, flashlamps, ice, CO2, and plastic blast media.

  7. Comparative advantage in Bangladesh crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    "This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...

  8. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...... in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture....

  9. Online shopping: some advantages and shortcomings

    OpenAIRE

    Sammer, Aleksandra; Malkova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    As we live in the century of rapid development of information technologies, it is very difficult to meet people who haven't heard of online shopping. Hundreds of thousands of Internet users daily resort to services of virtual shops. Internet trade gains steam both in Russia, and all around the world. This paper overviews some advantages and shortcomings of online shopping over shopping malls. Time and money saving possibilities, wide range of goods, convenient delivery and method of payment, ...

  10. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Strings conference is an annual event that brings the entire string theory community together. Since the 1980s, it has grown to be the largest and most important conference in the field. The aim is to review recent developments in string theory and to stimulate scientific exchanges among the participants. This is the second Strings conference organised in Beijing, after Strings 2006. Following the tradition, besides scientific talks, the conference will also include some public lectures open to a general audience.

  11. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  12. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  13. Demonstration of quantum advantage in machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus P.; Ryan, Colm A.; Cross, Andrew W.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Smolin, John A.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Johnson, Blake R.

    2017-04-01

    The main promise of quantum computing is to efficiently solve certain problems that are prohibitively expensive for a classical computer. Most problems with a proven quantum advantage involve the repeated use of a black box, or oracle, whose structure encodes the solution. One measure of the algorithmic performance is the query complexity, i.e., the scaling of the number of oracle calls needed to find the solution with a given probability. Few-qubit demonstrations of quantum algorithms, such as Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover, have been implemented across diverse physical systems such as nuclear magnetic resonance, trapped ions, optical systems, and superconducting circuits. However, at the small scale, these problems can already be solved classically with a few oracle queries, limiting the obtained advantage. Here we solve an oracle-based problem, known as learning parity with noise, on a five-qubit superconducting processor. Executing classical and quantum algorithms using the same oracle, we observe a large gap in query count in favor of quantum processing. We find that this gap grows by orders of magnitude as a function of the error rates and the problem size. This result demonstrates that, while complex fault-tolerant architectures will be required for universal quantum computing, a significant quantum advantage already emerges in existing noisy systems.

  14. Transnasal endoscopy: Technical considerations, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Mustafa; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is an upper endoscopy method which is performed by the nasal route using a thin endoscope less than 6 mm in diameter. The primary goal of this method is to improve patient tolerance and convenience of the procedure. TNE can be performed without sedation and thus eliminates the risks associated with general anesthesia. In this way, TNE decreases the cost and total duration of endoscopic procedures, while maintaining the image quality of standard caliber endoscopes, providing good results for diagnostic purposes. However, the small working channel of the ultra-thin endoscope used for TNE makes it difficult to use for therapeutic procedures except in certain conditions which require a thinner endoscope. Biopsy is possible with special forceps less than 2 mm in diameter. Recently, TNE has been used for screening endoscopy in Far East Asia, including Japan. In most controlled studies, TNE was found to have better patient tolerance when compared to unsedated endoscopy. Nasal pain is the most significant symptom associated with endoscopic procedures but can be reduced with nasal pretreatment. Despite the potential advantage of TNE, it is not common in Western countries, usually due to a lack of training in the technique and a lack of awareness of its potential advantages. This paper briefly reviews the technical considerations as well as the potential advantages and limitations of TNE with ultra-thin scopes. PMID:24567791

  15. Survival rates as a guide to implanted cardioverter-defibrillator replacement strategies for device recalls--adding statistical insight to clinical intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Lorne J; Massel, David; Krahn, Andrew D; Skanes, Allan C; Yee, Raymond; Klein, George J

    2007-02-01

    Recalls and advisories of implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have become an unfortunate reality of cardiac rhythm management. With a paucity of data available on which to base replacement decisions, our goal is to model the potential risks and benefits of ICD generator replacement. The estimated risks are varied through a wide range to determine the potential range of outcomes. Using initial estimates of risk derived from real data on 2915 advisory devices from 17 implanting centers, a decision analysis and Markov model were used to estimate survival according to device replacement decision. Survival rates at 5 years with and without device replacement were estimated at 60.38% and 60.66%, respectively. This difference was not significantly different on comparative analysis, using variability determined by Monte Carlo simulation. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses are presented, demonstrating the minimal effect of varying estimates of risk. Only variation in risk of device failure had a differential effect on survival, with a survival benefit at 7 years if annual risk of device failure is at least 1.8%. Little differential effect on survival was demonstrated by variation of estimates of arrhythmia risk, nonarrhythmic mortality, and postprocedure infection rate. Survival rates with a generator replacement or nonreplacement strategy in response to ICD recalls are similar and decrease nearly in parallel over time. The main factor with differential effect on survival is risk of device failure, although the level of this risk required to confer a survival advantage to a replacement strategy is quite large.

  16. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  17. Injuries and home advantage in the NFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    In the first decade of this century players in the National Football League, the NFL community, fans, even the public at large, became aware that multiple concussions, heretofore considered inconsequential, could have devastating consequences later in life. Since 1978, each one of the 32 teams in the NFL plays 16 games in the regular season. In the 25 years from 1978 to 2004 home advantage in the regular season tended to increase with Game Number (1-16). Then in the following decade (2005-2014) it changed direction and tended clearly to decrease. The change in direction was highly reliable statistically. The result reported in this paper is an association in time between two striking events, a new consciousness regarding the long-term consequences of concussions in football, and a change in the course of home advantage in the regular season. The paper then advances a possible explanation for this association. The home advantage may be equally well treated as an away disadvantage, the disadvantage being that away players tend to feel on the defensive, that both the hometown crowd and the officials are against them. Injuries put players on both teams on the defensive. The higher the percentage of players on a team who are injured or playing hurt (injury prevalence) the less likely it is that as-yet-uninjured players will adopt an attacking style of play. Injury prevalence increases linearly with Game Number. It turns out, however, that formal considerations require that injury prevalence be the same or close to it for teams playing at home and teams playing away. Therefore, the away disadvantage in total defensiveness (defensiveness due to playing away plus defensiveness due to injury) starts at 1 in the first game of the season, decreases steeply at first, and then decelerates as it approaches .5. This downward course of the away disadvantage in total defensiveness leads directly to a corresponding downward course of the home advantage in game outcome (by the

  18. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  19. Survival of the fittest: positive selection of CD4+ T cells expressing a membrane-bound fusion inhibitor following HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kimpel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although a variety of genetic strategies have been developed to inhibit HIV replication, few direct comparisons of the efficacy of these inhibitors have been carried out. Moreover, most studies have not examined whether genetic inhibitors are able to induce a survival advantage that results in an expansion of genetically-modified cells following HIV infection. We evaluated the efficacy of three leading genetic strategies to inhibit HIV replication: 1 an HIV-1 tat/rev-specific small hairpin (sh RNA; 2 an RNA antisense gene specific for the HIV-1 envelope; and 3 a viral entry inhibitor, maC46. In stably transduced cell lines selected such that >95% of cells expressed the genetic inhibitor, the RNA antisense envelope and viral entry inhibitor maC46 provided the strongest inhibition of HIV-1 replication. However, when mixed populations of transduced and untransduced cells were challenged with HIV-1, the maC46 fusion inhibitor resulted in highly efficient positive selection of transduced cells, an effect that was evident even in mixed populations containing as few as 1% maC46-expressing cells. The selective advantage of the maC46 fusion inhibitor was also observed in HIV-1-infected cultures of primary T lymphocytes as well as in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. These results demonstrate robust inhibition of HIV replication with the fusion inhibitor maC46 and the antisense Env inhibitor, and importantly, a survival advantage of cells expressing the maC46 fusion inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Evaluation of the ability of genetic inhibitors of HIV-1 replication to confer a survival advantage on genetically-modified cells provides unique information not provided by standard techniques that may be important in the in vivo efficacy of these genes.

  20. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...... Architectural expressions never seen before. 3 Material savings of more than 50 %. 4 Energy and CO2 savings of more than 50 %. 5 No Scaffolding and cheaper moulds. 6 Improved durability. 7 Extreme thermal insulation. 8 Better indoor-climate. 9 User friendly operation and maintenance. 10 Increased safety...

  1. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Agostinho; Cadenas, José; Dourado, António; Madani, Kurosh; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the sixth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2014), held in Rome, Italy, from 22 to 24 October 2014. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 210 submissions, from 51 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 15% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience in...

  2. Energy Conferences and Symposia; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, J.H.; Simpson, W.F. Jr. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Energy Conferences and Symposia, a monthly publication, was instituted to keep scientists, engineers, managers, and related energy professionals abreast of meetings sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by other technical associations. Announcements cover conference, symposia, workshops, congresses, and other formal meetings pertaining to DOE programmatic interests. Complete meeting information, including title, sponsor, and contact, is presented in the main section, which is arranged alphabetically by subject area. Within a subject, citations are sorted by beginning data of the meeting. New listings are indicated by a bullet after the conference number and DOE-sponsored conferences are indicated by a star. Two indexes are provided for cross referencing conference information. The Chronological Index lists conference titles by dates and gives the subject area where complete information they may be found. The Location Index is alphabetically sorted by the city where the conference will be held.

  3. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  4. Indico CONFERENCE tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Manzoni, Alex Marc

    2017-01-01

    This short tutorial explains how to create a CONFERENCE in indico and how to handle abstracts and registration forms, in detail: Timestamps: 1:01 - Programme  2:28 - Call for abstracts  11:50 - Abstract submission  13:41 - Abstract Review 15:41 - The Judge's Role 17:23 - Registration forms' creation 23:34 - Candidate participant's registration/application 25:54 - Customisation of Indico pages - Layout 28:08 - Customisation of Indico pages - Menus 29:47 - Configuring Event reminders and import into calendaring tools   See HERE a recent presentation by Pedro about the above steps in the life of an indico CONFERENCE event.

  5. Mississippi Climate & Hydrology Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawford, R.; Huang, J.

    2002-05-01

    The GEWEX Continental International Project (GCIP), which started in 1995 and completed in 2001, held its grand finale conference in New Orleans, LA in May 2002. Participants at this conference along with the scientists funded through the GCIP program are invited to contribute a paper to a special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). This special JGR issue (called GCIP3) will serve as the final report on scientific research conducted by GCIP investigators. Papers are solicited on the following topical areas, but are not limited to, (1) water energy budget studies; (2) warm season precipitation; (3) predictability and prediction system; (4) coupled land-atmosphere models; (5) climate and water resources applications. The research areas cover observations, modeling, process studies and water resources applications.

  6. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  7. XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Abousahl, Said; Plastino, Wolfango

    2016-01-01

    This book, comprising contributions presented at the XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference, examines important aspects of international cooperation aimed at enhancing nuclear safety, security, safeguards (the “3S”), and non-proliferation, thereby assisting in the development and maintenance of the verification regime and progress toward a nuclear weapon-free world. The Conference served as a forum where eminent scientists, diplomats, and policymakers could compare national perspectives and update international collaborations. The book opens by addressing the political, institutional, and legal dimensions of the 3S and non-proliferation; current challenges are discussed and attempts made to identify possible solutions and future improvements. Subsequent sections consider scientific developments that can contribute to increased effectiveness in the implementation of international regimes, particularly in critical areas, technology foresight, and the ongoing evaluation of current capabilities. The closing sections d...

  8. UKSG Annual Conference 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Dutta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available UKSG offered four free places for students to attend the 2012 Conference, made possible with generous support from Elsevier, whose contribution is very much appreciated. Those eligible to apply were students enrolled on Library & Information and Publishing degree courses, and the successful applicants were (Ieft to right as photographed against the River Clyde: Stuart Lawson (University of Brighton, Jennifer Lovatt (Oxford Brookes University, Gopal Dutta (University of Sheffield and Lydia Lantzsch (Oxford Brookes University. The four have allowed us to take a peek at the diaries they kept during the conference. The extracts below give us a flavour of the event including the plenary and breakout sessions, the debates and the stamina of those who kept the dancing going!

  9. 2013 APPLEPIES Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. A wide spectrum of application domains are covered, from automotive to space and from health to security, and special attention is devoted to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication, and control. The book is based on the 2013 APPLEPIES Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas covered by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean, and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green, and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and th...

  10. 7th IAASS Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rongier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The 7th IAASS Conference, “Space Safety is No Accident” is an invitation to reflect and exchange information on a number of topics in space safety and sustainability of national and international interest. The conference is also a forum to promote mutual understanding, trust and the widest possible international cooperation in such matters. The once exclusive “club” of nations with autonomous sub-orbital and orbital space access capabilities is becoming crowded with fresh and ambitious new entrants. New commercial spaceports are starting operations and others are being built. In the manned spaceflight arena a commercial market is becoming a tangible reality with suborbital spaceflights and government use of commercial services for cargo and crew transportation to orbit. Besides the national ambitions in space, the international cooperation both civil and commercial is also gaining momentum. In the meantime robotic space exploration will accelerate and with it the need to internationally better regulat...

  11. Surgical fusion of early onset severe scoliosis increases survival in Rett syndrome: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Torode, Ian; Wong, Kingsley; Ellaway, Carolyn; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; Mcphee, Bruce I; Cundy, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Scoliosis is a common comorbidity in Rett syndrome and spinal fusion may be recommended if severe. We investigated the impact of spinal fusion on survival and risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Rett syndrome. Data were ascertained from hospital medical records, the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, a longitudinal and population-based registry, and from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Death Index database. Cox regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the effects of spinal surgery on survival and severe respiratory infection respectively in 140 females who developed severe scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥45°) before adulthood. After adjusting for mutation type and age of scoliosis onset, the rate of death was lower in the surgery group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.74; p=0.009) compared to those without surgery. Rate of death was particularly reduced for those with early onset scoliosis (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.52; p=0.002). There was some evidence to suggest that spinal fusion was associated with a reduction in risk of severe respiratory infection among those with early onset scoliosis (risk ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.03; p=0.06). With appropriate cautions, spinal fusion confers an advantage to life expectancy in Rett syndrome. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  12. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA CENUŞE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating a single European currency has, undoubtedly two great advantages: on the one hand, lower transaction costs resulting from exchanging various national currencies and, on the other hand, removing the uncertainty arising from these exchanges. Mugur Isarescu, the Governor of the NBR, has recently said that the adoption of the euro in 2014 could not be possible, if inflation does not drop a sustainable level in 2010 and 2011. He noted that current experience with the inflation and devaluation of the national currency shows that reducing inflation without improving other indicators is counterproductive. The problem of estimating the main advantages of a single currency and of a monetary union in general is that it is difficult to clearly distinguish them from those resulting from other aspects of economic integration. The success of a monetary integration requires a certain degree of coordination of macroeconomic policies. It is unanimously agreed that if countries cooperate with each other, together they shall have better results than in the case they do not cooperate. In budgetary process local authorities have the right to establish, observe, control, follow and charge municipal taxes. In this process they also have to report local budgets implementation and rectification.

  13. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  14. MCUR1-mediated mitochondrial calcium signaling facilitates cell survival of hepatocellular carcinoma via ROS-dependent P53 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jinliang; Ren, Tingting; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hui; Yuan, Peng; Zhu, Jianjun; Wu, Yousheng; Huang, Qichao; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Lele; Li, Jibin; Zhang, Hongxin; Yang, Hushan

    2017-09-22

    Levels of the Mitochondrial Calcium uniporter regulator 1 (MCUR1) increases during development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis is remodeled and its functional roles remains limited in cancers, especially in HCC. MCUR1 was frequently upregulated in HCC cells to enhance the Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria in a MCU-dependent manner, which significantly facilitated cell survival by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptosis, and thus contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients. In vivo assay confirmed these results, indicating that forced expression of MCUR1 significantly increased the fraction of Ki67-positive cells and reduced the positive TUNEL staining in xenograft tumors, while decreased MCUR1 expression was associated with impaired growth capacity of HCC cells in nude mice. The survival advantage conferred by MCUR1-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was majorly caused by elevated mitochondrial ROS production and subsequent AKT/MDM2- mediated P53 degradation, which regulated the expression of apoptosis-related molecules BAX and BCL-2 and cell cycle-related molecules P21, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E. Treatment with mitochondrial Ca2+-buffering protein parvalbumin significantly suppressed the growth of HCC cells. Conclusions & Innovation: Our study provides evidence supporting a possible tumor-promoting role for MCUR1-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and uncovers a mechanism that links remodeling of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis to cancer cell survival, which suggests a potential novel therapeutic target for HCC.

  15. Concomitant vs. Comparative Advantages: Sufficient vs. Necessary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaningam, Carl D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the concomitant advantages case in academic debate. Examines the distinction between concomitant and comparative advantages and the implications of this distinction for concomitant advantages as a form of argument. (PD)

  16. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  17. Conference on Logical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic

    1993-01-01

    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  18. Relevance Vector Machine for Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaee, Farkhondeh; Sheikhzadeh, Hamid; Mahabadi, Samaneh Eftekhari

    2016-03-01

    An accelerated failure time (AFT) model has been widely used for the analysis of censored survival or failure time data. However, the AFT imposes the restrictive log-linear relation between the survival time and the explanatory variables. In this paper, we introduce a relevance vector machine survival (RVMS) model based on Weibull AFT model that enables the use of kernel framework to automatically learn the possible nonlinear effects of the input explanatory variables on target survival times. We take advantage of the Bayesian inference technique in order to estimate the model parameters. We also introduce two approaches to accelerate the RVMS training. In the first approach, an efficient smooth prior is employed that improves the degree of sparsity. In the second approach, a fast marginal likelihood maximization procedure is used for obtaining a sparse solution of survival analysis task by sequential addition and deletion of candidate basis functions. These two approaches, denoted by smooth RVMS and fast RVMS, typically use fewer basis functions than RVMS and improve the RVMS training time; however, they cause a slight degradation in the RVMS performance. We compare the RVMS and the two accelerated approaches with the previous sparse kernel survival analysis method on a synthetic data set as well as six real-world data sets. The proposed kernel survival analysis models have been discovered to be more accurate in prediction, although they benefit from extra sparsity. The main advantages of our proposed models are: 1) extra sparsity that leads to a better generalization and avoids overfitting; 2) automatic relevance sample determination based on data that provide more accuracy, in particular for highly censored survival data; and 3) flexibility to utilize arbitrary number and types of kernel functions (e.g., non-Mercer kernels and multikernel learning).

  19. Integrated management systems. Advantages and disadvantages; difficulties and recommendations in the process of implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Wysokińska-Senkus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations are constantly looking for methods to improve their efficiency and to guarantee them a competitive advantage, sustainable profitable growth and ability to survive in a turbulent environment. An increasing popularity of implementation of certified management systems has been noticed. The most often integrated management system are eg. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 18001. The paper presents the conditions for the implementation of an integrated management system (IMS, the characteristics of the most integrated management systems, the advantages and disadvantages of integration and the difficulties in the implementation of IMS and recommendations regarding the effectiveness of the integration of IMS.

  20. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  1. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eFliessbach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

  2. Optical advantages in retinal scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan

    2000-06-01

    Virtual Retinal DisplayTM technology is a retinal scanning display (RSD) technology being developed at Microvision, Inc., for a variety of applications including microdisplays. An RSD scans a modulated light beam onto a viewer's retina to produce a perceived image. Red, green and blue light sources, such as lasers, laser diodes or LEDs combine with Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs to make the RSD very well suited for head-worn and helmet-mounted displays (HMD). This paper compares the features of RSD technology to other display technologies such as the cathode ray tubes or matrix-based displays for HMD and other wearable display applications, and notes important performance advantages due to the number of pixel- generating elements. Also discussed are some fundamental optical limitations for virtual displays used in the HMD applications.

  3. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  4. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  5. Hydrodynamic advantages of swimming by salp chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Weihs, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Salps are marine invertebrates comprising multiple jet-propelled swimming units during a colonial life-cycle stage. Using theory, we show that asynchronous swimming with multiple pulsed jets yields substantial hydrodynamic benefit due to the production of steady swimming velocities, which limit drag. Laboratory comparisons of swimming kinematics of aggregate salps (Salpa fusiformis and Weelia cylindrica) using high-speed video supported that asynchronous swimming by aggregates results in a smoother velocity profile and showed that this smoother velocity profile is the result of uncoordinated, asynchronous swimming by individual zooids. In situ flow visualizations of W. cylindrica swimming wakes revealed that another consequence of asynchronous swimming is that fluid interactions between jet wakes are minimized. Although the advantages of multi-jet propulsion have been mentioned elsewhere, this is the first time that the theory has been quantified and the role of asynchronous swimming verified using experimental data from the laboratory and the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic advantages and vulnerabilities in brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminera, Alexandra K; Jandial, Rahul; Termini, John

    2017-10-23

    Metabolic adaptations permit tumor cells to metastasize to and thrive in the brain. Brain metastases continue to present clinical challenges due to rising incidence and resistance to current treatments. Therefore, elucidating altered metabolic pathways in brain metastases may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of aggressive disease. Due to the high demand for glucose in the brain, increased glycolytic activity is favored for energy production. Primary tumors that undergo Warburg-like metabolic reprogramming become suited to growth in the brain microenvironment. Indeed, elevated metabolism is a predictor of metastasis in many cancer subtypes. Specifically, metabolic alterations are seen in primary tumors that are associated with the formation of brain metastases, namely breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. Because of this selective pressure, inhibitors of key metabolic factors may reduce tumor cell viability, thus exploiting metabolic pathways for cancer therapeutics. This review summarizes the metabolic advantages and vulnerabilities of brain metastases.

  8. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Williams

    Full Text Available The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker, and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals.

  9. Chalazion surgery: advantages of a subconjunctival approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Moreira, Elisabete; Nogueira, Ana; Santos, Paulo; Azevedo, Filomena

    2009-09-01

    The meibomian glands, present within the tarsus, produce an oily fluid which is part of the tear film. The obstruction of this gland is common, and results in a meibomian cyst or chalazion. Initially, a chalazion may spontaneously resolve, or respond to conservative measures such as warm compresses and topical antibiotics. However, sometimes the lesion becomes persistent and prominent, leading to visual and aesthetic problems, requiring a surgical solution. We report a 23-year-old man, with a right lower eyelid chalazion, persisting for more than 1 year, refractory to local measures that was submitted to surgical correction via the subconjunctival approach. This report emphasizes the advantages of this technique, namely the fast and simple procedure, with an excellent cosmetic result.

  10. [Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A

    1997-12-03

    The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated.

  11. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-09-18

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies.

  12. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  13. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  14. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  15. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN A NANOTECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Radan UNGUREANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The value chain analysis is one of the most important methods for understanding the industrial world. The main task of the value chain that links producers and buyers consists in understanding where or how exactly the value added is generated. In the case of products incorporating nanotechnology, most of them are still in the trial phase into laboratories, but there are some examples of good practices where nanoproducts discovered their way to the market. This paper tries to present two cases of value chains for nanotechnologies applied to textiles by identifying the competitive advantages and focusing on getting some answers for a better understanding of the entire process from production to the final user.

  16. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Wherton, Joe; Shaw, Sara; Byrne, Emma; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Ramoutar, Seendy; Gutteridge, Charles; Hodkinson, Isabel; Collard, Anna; Morris, Joanne

    2016-01-29

    Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrolevel). The study is based in 2 contrasting clinical settings (diabetes and cancer) in a National Health Service (NHS) acute trust in London, UK. Main data sources are: microlevel--audio, video and screen capture to produce rich multimodal data on 45 remote consultations; mesolevel--interviews, ethnographic observations and analysis of documents within the trust; macrolevel--key informant interviews of national-level stakeholders and document analysis. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. City Road and Hampstead NHS Research Ethics Committee, 9 December 2014, reference 14/LO/1883. We plan outputs for 5 main audiences: (1) academics: research publications and conference presentations; (2) service providers: standard operating procedures, provisional operational guidance and key safety issues; (3) professional bodies and defence societies: summary of relevant findings to inform guidance to members; (4) policymakers: summary of key findings; (5) patients and carers: 'what to expect in your virtual consultation'. The research literature on video consultations is sparse. Such consultations offer potential advantages to patients (who are spared the cost and inconvenience of travel) and the healthcare system (eg, they may be more cost-effective), but fears have been expressed that they may be clinically risky and/or less acceptable to patients or staff, and they bring significant technical, logistical and regulatory challenges. We

  17. Conference Report: The First ATLAS.ti User Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine C. Evers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report on the First ATLAS.ti User Conference shares our impressions and experiences as longstanding ATLAS.ti users and trainers about the First ATLAS.ti User Conference in Berlin 2013. The origins, conceptual principles and development of the program are outlined, the conference themes discussed and experiences shared. Finally, the future of the program is discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401197

  18. Conference Report: 5th Annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Ziegler; Mark Lewis Richardson

    2009-01-01

    The 5th annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy took place in Savannah, Georgia on October 3-4, 2008. Since its inception, this conference has drawn participants from across the United States and even a few from abroad. Jointly sponsored by the Zach S. Henderson Library, the Department of Writing and Linguistics, the College of Education, and the Center for Continuing Education at Georgia Southern University, the conference offers both theoretical and practical discussions of the c...

  19. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Dourado, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the fifth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2013), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 20 to 22 September 2013. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 111 submissions, from 30 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, only 24 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 22%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after ...

  20. Joint US/German Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gulledge, Thomas; Jones, Albert

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains selected and refereed contributions that were presented at the conference on "Recent Developments and New Perspectives of Operations Research in the Area of Production Planning and Control" in Hagen/Germany, 25. - 26. June 1992. This conference was organized with the cooperation of the FernuniversiHit Hagen and was jointly hosted by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Operations Research (DGOR)" and the "Manufacturing Special Interest Group of the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA-SIGMA)". For the organization of the conference we received generous financial support from the sponsors listed at the end of this volume. We wish to express our appreciation to all supporters for their contributions. This conference was the successor of the JOInt ORSA/DGOR-conference in Gaithersburg/Maryland, USA, on the 30. and 31. July 1991. Both OR-societies committed themselves in 1989 to host joint conferences on special topics of interest from the field of operations research. This goal ...

  1. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.

  2. 14th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2007-01-01

    This is the 14th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  3. 15th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    This is the 15th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocooler Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  4. FASEB Science Research Conference on Ion Channel Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-02

    PHOTO The group photo will be taken during the Monday morning coffee break. Each conference participant will have access to a free full resolution...from across the world. Please take full advantage of the speaker presentations, abstract short talks, poster sessions, meet the expert, and networking...myocardial potassium channel diversity, regulation and remodeling Jeanne Nerbonne ( Wash . U.) 9:15 p.m. – 9:45 p.m. Structure of a mammalian

  5. 2nd UNet conference

    CERN Document Server

    Menasche, Daniel; Sabir, Essaïd; Pellegrini, Francesco; Benjillali, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers the proceedings of the 2nd UNet conference, held in Casablanca May 30 - June 1, 2016. It presents new trends and findings in hot topics related to ubiquitous computing/networking, covered in three tracks and three special sessions: Main Track 1: Context-Awareness and Autonomy Paradigms Track Main Track 2: Mobile Edge Networking and Virtualization Track Main Track 3: Enablers, Challenges and Applications Special Session 1: Smart Cities and Urban Informatics for Sustainable Development Special Session 2: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles From Theory to Applications Special Session 3: From Data to Knowledge: Big Data applications and solutions.

  6. Networks Technology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Keiji K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The papers included in these proceedings represent the most interesting and current topics being pursued by personnel at GSFC's Networks Division and supporting contractors involved in Space, Ground, and Deep Space Network (DSN) technical work. Although 29 papers are represented in the proceedings, only 12 were presented at the conference because of space and time limitations. The proceedings are organized according to five principal technical areas of interest to the Networks Division: Project Management; Network Operations; Network Control, Scheduling, and Monitoring; Modeling and Simulation; and Telecommunications Engineering.

  7. LEAP 1992: Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    We present a summary of the many new results in antiproton ({bar p}) physics presented at the LEAP `92 conference, in the areas of meson spectroscopy, {bar N}N scattering, annihilation and spin observables, strangeness and charm production, {bar N} annihilation in nuclei, atomic physics with very low energy {bar p}`s, the exploration of fundamental symmetries and interactions with {bar p} (CP, T, CPT, gravitation), and the prospects for new {bar p} facilities at ultralow energies or energies above the LEAR regime ({ge} 2 GeV/c).

  8. LEAP 1992: Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    We present a summary of the many new results in antiproton ([bar p]) physics presented at the LEAP '92 conference, in the areas of meson spectroscopy, [bar N]N scattering, annihilation and spin observables, strangeness and charm production, [bar N] annihilation in nuclei, atomic physics with very low energy [bar p]'s, the exploration of fundamental symmetries and interactions with [bar p] (CP, T, CPT, gravitation), and the prospects for new [bar p] facilities at ultralow energies or energies above the LEAR regime ([ge] 2 GeV/c).

  9. Proceedings: pellet fuels conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-12-31

    The conference brought together professionals from the process- engineered-fuels (PEF), utility, paper, plastics, and boiler industries. Although the last two decades have produced technical breakthroughs, efforts to advance PEF must now focus on increasing commercial breakthroughs. Successful commercialization will depend on increasing supplier, consumer, and regulator confidence and support by demonstrating the performance and value of PEF products. Speakers provided updates on how PEF technology is evolving with respect to technical, economic, and regulatory challenges. Actions critical toward full commercialization of PEF were then considered. Discussion groups addressed materials sourcing, fuel processing and transportation, combustion, and ash handling.

  10. Dynamical Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gils, S; Hoveijn, I; Takens, F; Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries in dynamical systems, "KAM theory and other perturbation theories", "Infinite dimensional systems", "Time series analysis" and "Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis" were the main topics of the December 1995 Dynamical Systems Conference held in Groningen in honour of Johann Bernoulli. They now form the core of this work which seeks to present the state of the art in various branches of the theory of dynamical systems. A number of articles have a survey character whereas others deal with recent results in current research. It contains interesting material for all members of the dynamical systems community, ranging from geometric and analytic aspects from a mathematical point of view to applications in various sciences.

  11. 4th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, George; Knox, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Cryocoolers 4 proceedings archives the contributions of leading international experts at the 4th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Easton, Maryland on September 25-26, 1986. About 170 people attended the conference representing 11 countries, 14 universities, 21 government laboratories and 60 industrial companies. Thirty-one papers were presented describing advancements and applications of cryocoolers in the temperature range below 80K. This year's conference was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland, and the conference proceedings reproduced here was published by them.

  12. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  13. 16th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Cryocoolers 16 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 16th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 17-20, 2010. The program of this conference consisted of 116 papers; of these, 89 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  14. Challenges in the estimation of Net SURvival: The CENSUR working survival group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, R

    2016-10-01

    Net survival, the survival probability that would be observed, in a hypothetical world, where the cancer of interest would be the only possible cause of death, is a key indicator in population-based cancer studies. Accounting for mortality due to other causes, it allows cross-country comparisons or trends analysis and provides a useful indicator for public health decision-making. The objective of this study was to show how the creation and formalization of a network comprising established research teams, which already had substantial and complementary experience in both cancer survival analysis and methodological development, make it possible to meet challenges and thus provide more adequate tools, to improve the quality and the comparability of cancer survival data, and to promote methodological transfers in areas of emerging interest. The Challenges in the Estimation of Net SURvival (CENSUR) working survival group is composed of international researchers highly skilled in biostatistics, methodology, and epidemiology, from different research organizations in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Slovenia, and Canada, and involved in French (FRANCIM) and European (EUROCARE) cancer registry networks. The expected advantages are an interdisciplinary, international, synergistic network capable of addressing problems in public health, for decision-makers at different levels; tools for those in charge of net survival analyses; a common methodology that makes unbiased cross-national comparisons of cancer survival feasible; transfer of methods for net survival estimations to other specific applications (clinical research, occupational epidemiology); and dissemination of results during an international training course. The formalization of the international CENSUR working survival group was motivated by a need felt by scientists conducting population-based cancer research to discuss, develop, and monitor implementation of a common methodology to analyze net survival in order

  15. Is obesity an advantage in patients with colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Zafar, S Yousuf; Grothey, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Obesity/higher BMI appears to be important determinants in the development of colon cancer as well as in predicting outcomes in the adjuvant setting in these patients. These associations seem to be stronger for men and tend to be 'J-shaped', with worse outcomes in both lower and upper BMI categories than in the middle categories. How this factors in the metastatic setting is less clear. A recent pooled analysis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving bevacizumab in the first-line setting observed that patients with the lowest BMI had the lowest median overall survival. An incremental BMI increase of 5 kg/m(2) led to actually a decrease in the risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.911 [95% CI, 0.879-0.944]). The observed association does not necessarily mean that obesity is an advantage for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. More likely, it is conceivable that, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with a lower BMI, the effects of cancer-related cachexia may be more deleterious than the potential adverse events related to a higher BMI. In patients already diagnosed with metastatic disease, studying how body weight affects tumor biology and treatment-related decisions are important considerations.

  16. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  17. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  18. The advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Dede Nursan

    2004-01-01

    A powerful reflex of the infant in the weeks following birth is sucking. Breastfed babies benefit from both the nutrition in mother's milk and the satisfaction of their sucking instinct. Babies that can not be breastfed due to various reasons may satisfy their sucking instinct by using pacifiers. Pacifier use and digit sucking are believed to be harmless habits. In many places of the world, and especially in developing countries, pacifier use in early childhood is very common. It is said that pacifier use eases the baby and satisfies its sucking instinct. It has been reported in several studies that pacifier use reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The most important risks of this non-nutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the possibility of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other problems encountered with pacifier use. Parents may hesitate to use pacifiers for their babies and consult nurses or midwives on this issue. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use are discussed with the aim of providing guidance to nurses and midwives working in the field of pediatrics and infant health.

  19. Advantage of hole stimulus in rivalry competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qianli; Cui, Ding; Zhou, Ke; Chen, Lin; Ma, Yuanye

    2012-01-01

    Mounting psychophysical evidence suggests that early visual computations are sensitive to the topological properties of stimuli, such as the determination of whether the object has a hole or not. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hole feature took some advantages during conscious perception. In this study, we investigate whether there exists a privileged processing for hole stimuli during unconscious perception. By applying a continuous flash suppression paradigm, the target was gradually introduced to one eye to compete against a flashed full contrast Mondrian pattern which was presented to the other eye. This method ensured that the target image was suppressed during the initial perceptual period. We compared the initial suppressed duration between the stimuli with and without the hole feature and found that hole stimuli required less time than no-hole stimuli to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise. These results suggest the hole feature could be processed in the absence of awareness, and there exists a privileged detection of hole stimuli during suppressed phase in the interocular rivalry.

  20. Advantage of hole stimulus in rivalry competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianli Meng

    Full Text Available Mounting psychophysical evidence suggests that early visual computations are sensitive to the topological properties of stimuli, such as the determination of whether the object has a hole or not. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hole feature took some advantages during conscious perception. In this study, we investigate whether there exists a privileged processing for hole stimuli during unconscious perception. By applying a continuous flash suppression paradigm, the target was gradually introduced to one eye to compete against a flashed full contrast Mondrian pattern which was presented to the other eye. This method ensured that the target image was suppressed during the initial perceptual period. We compared the initial suppressed duration between the stimuli with and without the hole feature and found that hole stimuli required less time than no-hole stimuli to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise. These results suggest the hole feature could be processed in the absence of awareness, and there exists a privileged detection of hole stimuli during suppressed phase in the interocular rivalry.

  1. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure.

  2. BILATERAL COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES: INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This studytried tolook more closely at market integration, through export prices channel, inIndonesiaandMalaysia. Severalpreviousstudiestendtorejectthe existence oflawofoneprice(LOP. The law of one price (LOP states that price a given product should be the same in different parts of the world if valued in common currency. However, empirical studies uniformly shows LOP does not describe most markets. Someimportantfactorsthat are consideredinstrumentalin this regardaretransportation costsandprice stickiness. However, there isone characteristicthat is oftenoverlookedin the discussion ofLOP, namelychanges incomparative advantage. The specific objectiveofthispaperis to look atcomparative advantagecorrelationbetween the two countriesandtheir effect onpriceconvergence. Correlationof both selected commodities –using therankspearman's test -indicates the nature ofthemutualsubstitutionof productsthatcarrythe possibility of"price competition" so thatthe pricepointtoconvergeto one another. Tests on theexportprice ofsomeselected productsinboth countriesindicatedthe occurrence ofpriceconvergence, seen from thetwoanalytical techniques: σconvergenceandco-integrationusingJohansen's test. This conclusion is generated by attempted to control the "identical assumption" is to examines prices for similar products (homogeneous using SITC 3-digit, which is produced from the "same" or close locations, with the export destination to the same trading partner

  3. THE ADVANTAGES OF WTO COMMERCIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The WTO was created in 1995 with the propose to encourage and regulate trade between its member states. The primary objective of the WTO was and still is to create economic growth and encourage free trade among nations. This aspect was disputed between specialists: some say that the WTO creates economic opportunities and that its positive impact extends beyond just economic benefits by creating an international framework of political stability, offering a solid foundation for promoting international peace by encouraging good political relations among member nations and providing a solid dispute resolution process, while others say it is disfavors lower class citizens, limiting their opportunities for social and economic mobility, is only widening the global income gap between the wealthy and poor: as the rich get richer, the poor get poorer and it favors prosperous countries and multinational corporations, while preventing smaller and poorer countries from having a fair shot of engaging in open market trades and exchanges. In this paper we will stop only to emphasize the advantages of the WTO commercial system, following that in a future work to approach also the disadvantages of this commercial system.

  4. Micro growth slows; early converts gain advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, W.D.

    1986-03-03

    The drilling industry recession has stopped expansions and slowed new microcomputing projects. But firms already are inching up the learning curve, gaining a competitive advantage over latecomers and smaller firms unable to afford new directions. Rather than enjoying widespread, universal acceptance, micros are filling a few specific niches in drilling. They serve companies too small for real-time, mainframe links and too big to manage all their business and engineering on paper. Where micros have made inroads in drilling, they are performing many useful services, becoming indispensable in daily operations. But where micros have not yet been adopted, their application seems further away than it did several years ago. Current drilling economics overshadow progress in computing. The drilling industry has experienced 4 years of serious recession. Over this period, activity slumped as petroleum prices declined. Profits evaporated. Most drilling companies were already in dire straits when the downturn accelerated in 1986. Service companies have begun yet another round of painful retrenchment. So even minor capital expenditures or expansions are beyond the hopes of most drilling-related firms in 1986. Yet microcomputing remains a growing part of drilling. For now, growth is concentrated in better-off companies.

  5. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  6. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience.

  7. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  8. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  9. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented. The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided.

  10. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts a selective advantage in planarian adult stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P Hollenbach

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS leads to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal and other types of cancer and is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Loss of MMR function results in a mutator phenotype that likely underlies its role in tumorigenesis. However, loss of MMR also results in the elimination of a DNA damage-induced checkpoint/apoptosis activation barrier that may allow damaged cells to grow unchecked. A fundamental question is whether loss of MMR provides pre-cancerous stem cells an immediate selective advantage in addition to establishing a mutator phenotype. To test this hypothesis in an in vivo system, we utilized the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea which contains a significant population of identifiable adult stem cells. We identified a planarian homolog of human MSH2, a MMR gene which is mutated in 38% of LS cases. The planarian Smed-msh2 is expressed in stem cells and some progeny. We depleted Smed-msh2 mRNA levels by RNA-interference and found a striking survival advantage in these animals treated with a cytotoxic DNA alkylating agent compared to control animals. We demonstrated that this tolerance to DNA damage is due to the survival of mitotically active, MMR-deficient stem cells. Our results suggest that loss of MMR provides an in vivo survival advantage to the stem cell population in the presence of DNA damage that may have implications for tumorigenesis.

  11. Seven-day human biological rhythms: An expedition in search of their origin, synchronization, functional advantage, adaptive value and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinberg, Alain E; Dejardin, Laurence; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2017-01-01

    This fact-finding expedition explores the perspectives and knowledge of the origin and functional relevance of the 7 d domain of the biological time structure, with special reference to human beings. These biological rhythms are displayed at various levels of organization in diverse species - from the unicellular sea algae of Acetabularia and Goniaulax to plants, insects, fish, birds and mammals, including man - under natural as well as artificial, i.e. constant, environmental conditions. Nonetheless, very little is known about their derivation, functional advantage, adaptive value, synchronization and potential clinical relevance. About 7 d cosmic cycles are seemingly too weak, and the 6 d work/1 d rest week commanded from G-d through the Laws of Mosses to the Hebrews is too recent an event to be the origin in humans. Moreover, human and insect studies conducted under controlled constant conditions devoid of environmental, social and other time cues report the persistence of 7 d rhythms, but with a slightly different (free-running) period (τ), indicating their source is endogenous. Yet, a series of human and laboratory rodent studies reveal certain mainly non-cyclic exogenous events can trigger 7 d rhythm-like phenomena. However, it is unknown whether such triggers unmask, amplify and/or synchronize previous non-overtly expressed oscillations. Circadian (~24 h), circa-monthly (~30 d) and circannual (~1 y) rhythms are viewed as genetically based features of life forms that during evolution conferred significant functional advantage to individual organisms and survival value to species. No such advantages are apparent for endogenous 7 d rhythms, raising several questions: What is the significance of the 7 d activity/rest cycle, i.e. week, storied in the Book of Genesis and adopted by the Hebrews and thereafter the residents of nearby Mediterranean countries and ultimately the world? Why do humans require 1 d off per 7 d span? Do 7 d rhythms bestow functional

  12. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  13. Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-09-07

    When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. 20. AINSE plasma science and technology conference. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 20th AINSE plasma science and technology conference was held at Flinders University of South Australia on 13-14 February 1995. Topics under discussion included plasma physics studies, current status of rotamak devices, plasma processing and material studies. The handbook contains the conference program, 54 abstracts and a list of participants.

  15. Kallikreins 5, 6 and 10 differentially alter pathophysiology and overall survival in an ovarian cancer xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pépin

    Full Text Available Human tissue kallikreins (KLKs are members of a multigene family of serine proteases aberrantly expressed in many cancer types. In ovarian cancer, 12 KLKs are upregulated, and of those KLK5, 6 and 10 have been the focus of investigations into new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, little is known about the contributions of KLK5, 6 and 10 to ovarian cancer pathophysiology.In this study, a panel of 13 human ovarian cancer cell lines was screened by ELISA for secretion of KLK5, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 14. The ES-2 cell line, devoid of these kallikreins, was transfected with expression vectors of KLK5, 6 and 10 individually or in pairs. Co-expression of KLK5, 6 and 10 was correlated with lessened aggressivity of ovarian cancer cell lines as defined by reduced colony formation in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice. ES-2 clones overexpressing KLK5, 10/5, 10/6, 5/6 made significantly fewer colonies in soft agar. When compared to control mice, survival of mice injected with ES-2 clones overexpressing KLK10, 10/5, 10/6, 5/6 was significantly longer, while KLK6 was shorter. All groups displaying a survival advantage also differed quantitatively and qualitatively in their presentation of ascites, with both a reduced incidence of ascites and an absence of cellular aggregates within those ascites. The survival advantage conferred by KLK10 overexpression could be recapitulated with the exogenous administration of a recombinant KLK10. In conclusion, these findings indicate that KLK5, 6 and 10 may modulate the progression of ovarian cancer, and interact together to alter tumour pathophysiology. Furthermore, results support the putative role of KLK10 as a tumour suppressor and suggest it may hold therapeutic potential in ovarian cancer.

  16. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    -Russian International Centre was demonstrated. By the high standards of the reports presented, as well as by its overall organization, the second Seminar met the standards of an international conference. Reviews of state-of-the-art developments in materials science were given by leading scientists from Moscow and from the Lorraine region. The three days of the seminar were structured into four main themes: Functional Materials Coatings, Films and Surface Engineering Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies The Environment and three Round Table discussions: Defining practical means of carrying out Franco-Russian collaborations in technology transfer and innovation Materials science ARCUS: Lorraine-Russian collaboration in materials science and the environment 32 oral and 25 poster presentations within four sections were given by a total of 110 participants. NAMES 2007, the 3rd Franco-Russian Seminar on New Achievements in Materials and Environmental Sciences, took place in Metz, France on 7-9 November 2007. The conference highlights fundamentals and development of the five main themes connected to the Lorraine-Russia ARCUS project with possible extension to other topics. The five main subjects included in the ARCUS project are: Bulk-surface-interface material sciences Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies Environment and natural resources Plasma physics—ITER project Vibrational dynamics The first, second and third NAMES conferences were financially supported by the following organizations: Ambassade de France à Moscou Communauté Urbaine du Grand Nancy Région Lorraine Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine Université de Metz Université Henry Poincaré CNRS ANVAR Federal Agency on Science and Innovations of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Moscow Committee on Science and Technologies Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys (Technological University) The 4th conference is supported by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of

  17. Annual conference SAEE 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Technical and economic challenges of a 1 t CO{sub 2} society was the topic addressed by the 2008 annual conference of the Swiss Association for Energy Economics. One tonne of carbon dioxide per head and year as a long-term energy strategy is the theme of a presentation made by professor Konstantin Boulouchos from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. Professor Dr. Rainhard Madlener from the Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behaviour in Aachen, Germany, took a look at the one-ton CO{sub 2} vision as a focus for technical development. Professor Thomas F. Rutherford from the ETH presented an economic analysis of one-ton CO{sub 2} scenarios. Eduard Schumacher, former Chairman of the Board at the IWB utility in Basel, Switzerland, presented examples of how energy policy can be implemented, using the IWB's activities as an example. Hansruedi Kunz, Head of the Energy Department in the Building Department of the Canton of Zurich discussed the chances offered and the problems posed by the implementation of measures that are to lead to the meeting of energy visions for the year 2050. A podium and discussion session completed the conference

  18. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…

  19. Calendar of Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    8 - 18 August 1996 International Summer School on Plasma Physics and Technology La Jolla, CA, USA Contact: Mr V Stefan, Institute for Advanced Physics Studies, PO Box 2964, La Jolla, CA 92038, USA. Tel +1-619-456-5737. 26 - 30 August 1996 Joint Varenna - Lausanne International Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 2 - 5 September 1996 EU - US Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Further information: G Gorini, ISPP, 16 Via Celoria, I-20133 Milano, Italy. Tel +39-2-2392637, Fax +39-2-2392205, E-mail ggorini@mi.infn.it. Administrative contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 9 - 13 September 1996 International Conference on Plasma Physics Nagoya, Japan Contact: Conference Secretariat, c/o Prof. Hiromu Momota, National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan. Tel +81-52-789-4260, Fax +81-52-789-1037, E-mail icpp96@nifs.ac.jp. Abstract deadline: 31 March 1996. 16 - 20 September 1996 19th Symposium on Fusion Technology Lisbon, Portugal Contact: Professor Carlos Varandas, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Fax +351-1-8417819, E-mail cvarandas@cfn.ist.utl.pt. General information will be available via WWW with URL http://www.cfn.ist.utl.pt. 25 - 29 September 1996 Summer University of Plasma Physics Garching, Germany Contact: Ms Ch Stahlberg, Max-Planck-Institut für PlasmaPhysik, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany. Tel +49-89-3299-2232, Fax +49-89-3299-1001. 11 - 15 November 1996 38th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, APS Denver, CO, USA Contact: Dr Richard Hazeltine, University of Texas, Institute for Fusion Studies, RLM 11.314, Austin, TX

  20. LOOKING BEYOND COST LEADERSHIP AND DIFFERENTIATION IN THE QUEST FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian – Liviu Vele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current business environment, shaped by significant changes in the consumers’ behavior and, also, by a decrease in the demand for products and services, has influenced the way in which the companies are organized and managed, making the quest for sustainable competitive advantages top priority. The companies that will be able to provide customers with superior products and services will have the highest chances of survival. While it is true that times of economic crises causes a large number of companies to exit the market, it is also true that those who manage to adapt and gain sustainable competitive advantages will not only survive, but will be able to fill in the gaps left by their competitors and thus to increase their business. This article wishes to provide a theoretical perspective on the possible sources of sustainable competitive advantages, besides Michael Porter’s cost leadership and differentiation strategies. Following this, we will show how technological innovation, time, efficient use of the resources and designing the best organizational structure can be used as sources to gain sustainable competitive advantages.

  1. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  2. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadvar, Hossein, E-mail: jadvar@usc.edu; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2014-01-15

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  3. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  5. National and International Library Collaboration: Necessity, Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of cooperation between research library associations can be demonstrated quite clearly. Where cooperation becomes essential is where there is a common cause to champion or an initiative to pursue for the common good. Thanks in part to the power of information communications technology, research is becoming increasingly international in scope. The members of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research teams are frequently drawn from across the world. Correspondingly, scholarly publishing (especially in medicine and the sciences is dominated by a few multinational publishers. In this context, issues that play a vital role in global scholarly communication - such as copyright, journal pricing, the managing of datasets, digital preservation and open access - are issues for the research library community everywhere in the world. Certainly there are many challenges at the local or regional level. However there are definite roles that research library associations can play most effectively at the national or international level. It is clear that by sharing expertise, building partnerships and alliances, it is possible to address common issues much more effectively than when working alone. What is special is that potentially the most powerful form of cooperation is advocacy at the national and international levels. It is essential for research library associations to work together at the political level to move their agenda forward. Examples are lobbying about copyright legislation (nationally, or within the EC or at WIPO; or promoting the cause of Open Access. The unique value of LIBER is to provide a forum and a platform for European research library associations to explore and benefit from cooperation and their shared strength.

  6. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  7. SPECIAL REPORT: Creating Conference Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel F. Peden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Capturing video at a conference is easy. Doing it so the product is useful is another matter. Many subtle problems come into play so that video and audio obtained can be used to create a final product. This article discusses what the author learned in the two years of shooting and editing video for Code4Lib conference.

  8. Building Bridges through Scientific Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Getting together to exchange ideas, forge collaborations, and disseminate knowledge is a long-standing tradition of scientific communities. How conferences are serving the community, what their current challenges are, and what is in store for the future of conferences are the topics covered...

  9. SLA at 100: Conference Preview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    When School Library Association (SLA) convenes its annual conference in Washington, DC, June 14-17, 2009, the association will be celebrating its 100th birthday. This occasion allows for grand gestures--the SLA Salutes! Awards and Leadership Reception will be held in the Library of Congress's Great Hall. The conference also draws upon Washington…

  10. Solar energy conference, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-24

    The conference attendance, publicity and press coverage, brochure mailing, presentations, displays, exhibitors, management seminar checklist, and seminar evaluation by attendees are presented. Also included are the proposal for funding of the conference, the list of attendees, keynote speeches, agenda, and feedback questionnaire. (MHR)

  11. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... commitment to work with recommendations of the Conference. The Conference wound up with the remarks by the. Chairman. President Jonathan, like many of the regimes before him, saw the inherent weaknesses and contradictions in the governing constitution, upon which his government had based its ...

  12. 1st International Conference on Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kalyagin, Valery; Pardalos, Panos

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of contributions from the "First International Conference in Network Analysis," held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, on December 14-16, 2011. The remarkable diversity of fields that take advantage of Network Analysis makes the endeavor of gathering up-to-date material in a single compilation a useful, yet very difficult, task. The purpose of this volume is to overcome this difficulty by collecting the major results found by the participants and combining them in one easily accessible compilation. Network analysis has become a major research topic over the last several years. The broad range of applications that can be described and analyzed by means of a network is bringing together researchers, practitioners and other scientific communities from numerous fields such as Operations Research, Computer Science, Transportation, Energy, Social Sciences, and more. The contributions not only come from different fields, but also cover a broad range of topics relevant to the...

  13. 2017 Gordon Conference on Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States)

    2017-11-14

    The DOE award was for a 2017 Gordon Research conference on Superconductivity (GRC). The objective of GRC is to interchange the information about the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the area of superconductivity and to select most perspective directions for future research in this area.The goal of the Gordon Conference on Superconductivity is to present and discuss the latest results in the field of modern superconductivity, discuss new ideas and new directions of research in the area. It is a long-standing tradition of the Gordon conference on Superconductivity that the vast majority of participants are junior scientists. Funding for the conference would primarily be used to support junior researchers, particularly from under-represented groups. We had more 10 female speakers, some of them junior researchers, and some funding was used to support these speakers. The conference was held together with Gordon Research Seminar on Superconductivity, where almost all speakers and participants were junior scientists.

  14. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  15. 28th Linear Accelerator Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, Alberto; McCausey, Amy; Schaa, Volker R W

    2017-01-01

    The 28th Linear Accelerator Conference, LINAC 16, to take place at the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center in East Lansing, Michigan, on 25-30 September 2016. This conference is the main bi-yearly gathering for the world-wide community of linac specialists. It provides a unique opportunity to hear about the latest advances of projects and developments concerning hadron and lepton linacs, and their applications. In the tradition of previous LINAC conferences, plenary sessions including invited speakers are scheduled every day. Poster sessions will be held on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday afternoons. There will also be two special events on Sunday, 25 September 2016, namely a student poster session and an evening reception for registrants and their companions at the Kellogg Hotel and Conference Center. Participants are also warmly invited to join an outing to Lake Michigan and the beautiful surroundings on Wednesday afternoon, and to visit the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams on Friday afternoon, after the formal...

  16. Slugtests in fractured aquifers - advantages and caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The hydraulic characterisation of fractured aquifers is a challenge due to the large contrast between conductive fractures and a relative low conductive rock matrix. Depending on the type of problem, spanning from water resources issues at catchment scale to contaminant transport at local, borehole scale, different methodological approaches are required. The employment of slugtests as a characterisation method has a major advantage above classical pumping tests since they provide information also for the lower end of the permeability spectrum and are less logistically demanding. However, the volume of investigation of slugtests is generally small and limited to the immediate borehole area. The application of slug tests to fractured systems was investigated by Barker and Black (1983); Dougherty and Babu (1984) and Karasaki et al. (1988). Barker and Black (1983) pointed out the non-uniqueness of type curves with re¬spect to determining reservoir parameters, apart from hydraulic conductivity and sto¬rage coefficients. The unknowns in¬clude fissure densities, apertures and the hy¬draulic parameters of the rock matrix. They found that the Cooper method syste¬matically overestimates aquifer transmis-sivities by a factor of up to three. This figure however applies to a fairly homogeneously fissured aquifer such as the English Chalk. Dougherty and Babu (1984) examined in detail the effects of partial penetration, dif¬ferent skin factors and mass exchange coef-ficients in a double porosity system. They did however not present any parameter estimation solu¬tion. Karasaki et al. (1988) developed type curves for heterogeneous aquifer systems and came to the conclusion that "slug tests suffer problems of non-uniqueness to a greater ex¬tent than other well tests". In this paper, this aspect of non-uniqueness is addressed in detail, based on slugtest data in a fractured and karstified aquifer from the Swabian Alb in the SW of Germany, explanations and models of

  17. The advantage of knowing the talker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela; Gehani, Namita; Wright, Richard; McCloy, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Many audiologists have observed a situation where a patient appears to understand something spoken by his or her spouse or a close friend but not the same information spoken by a stranger. However, it is not clear whether this observation reflects choice of communication strategy or a true benefit derived from the talker's voice. The current study measured the benefits of long-term talker familiarity for older individuals with hearing impairment in a variety of listening situations. In Experiment 1, we measured speech recognition with familiar and unfamiliar voices when the difficulty level was manipulated by varying levels of a speech-shaped background noise. In Experiment 2, we measured the benefit of a familiar voice when the background noise was other speech (informational masking). A group of 31 older listeners with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss participated in the study. Fifteen of the participants served as talkers and 16 as listeners. In each case, the talker-listener pair for the familiar condition represented a close, long-term relationship (spouse or close friend). Speech-recognition scores were compared using controlled stimuli (low-context sentences) recorded by the study talkers. The sentences were presented in quiet and in two levels of speech-spectrum noise (Experiment 1) as well as in multitalker babble (Experiment 2). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare performance between the familiar and unfamiliar talkers, within and across conditions. Listeners performed better when speech was produced by a talker familiar to them, whether that talker was in a quiet or noisy environment. The advantage of the familiar talker was greater in a more adverse listening situation (i.e., in the highest level of background noise) but was similar for speech-spectrum noise and multitalker babble. The present data support a frequent clinical observation: listeners can understand their spouse better than a stranger. This effect was

  18. Highlights from the 9th Cachexia Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Nicole; von Haehling, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    This article highlights updates of pathways as well as pre-clinical and clinical studies into the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 9th Cachexia Conference held in Berlin, Germany, December 2016. This year, some interesting results from clinical trials and different new therapeutic targets were shown. This article presents the biological and clinical significance of different markers and new diagnostic tools and cut-offs of detecting skeletal muscle wasting. Effective treatments of cachexia and wasting disorders are urgently needed in order to improve the patients' quality of life and their survival. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  19. Tooth survival after root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Medline, the Cochrane Library, hand searches of the International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics, Dental Traumatology (& Endodontics) and bibliographies of all relevant articles and review articles. Unpublished studies were identified by searching abstracts and conference proceedings. Personal contacts were used to identify ongoing or unpublished studies. Two reviewers independently assessed and selected the studies with disagreements being resolved by discussion. Clinical studies of RCTx on more than 30 teeth and of at least six-month duration, where the success was based on survival of tooth and the proportion of teeth surviving was given, or could be calculated from the raw data, were included. Data were extracted by two reviewers independently using custom-designed forms. The weighted pooled proportion of teeth surviving after treatment and the combined effects (expressed as odds ratio) of clinical factors on tooth survival were estimated using fixed and random effects meta-analyses using DerSimonean and Laird's methods. The survival data were pooled into three groups based on the duration after treatment: 2 or 3 years; 4 or 5 years; and 8, 9 or 10 years. Statistical heterogeneity amongst the studies was assessed by Cochran's (Q) test. Of the 31 articles identified, 14 studies were included. The majority (10) were retrospective. The reported survival is shown in Table 1. Substantial differences in study characteristics were found to hinder effective direct comparison of findings. Evidence for the effect of prognostic factors on tooth survival was weak. Based on the data available for meta-analysis, four conditions were found to significantly improve tooth survival. In descending order of influence, the conditions increasing observed proportion of survival were as follows: (i) a crown restoration after RCTx; (ii) tooth having both mesial and distal proximal contacts; (iii

  20. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  1. COMPDYN 2011 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Fragiadakis, Michalis; Plevris, Vagelis; Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering v.2

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an insight on advanced methods and concepts for the design and analysis of structures against earthquake loading. This second volume is a collection of 28 chapters written by leading experts in the field of structural analysis and earthquake engineering. Emphasis is given on current state-of-the-art methods and concepts in computing methods and their application in engineering practice. The book content is suitable for both practicing engineers and academics, covering a wide variety of topics in an effort to assist the timely dissemination of research findings for the mitigation of seismic risk. Due to the devastating socioeconomic consequences of seismic events, the topic is of great scientific interest and is expected to be of valuable help to scientists and engineers. The chapters of this volume are extended versions of selected papers presented at the COMPDYN 2011 conference, held in the island of Corfu, Greece, under the auspices of the European Community on Computational Methods in Ap...

  2. Stardust Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Minisci, Edmondo; Summerer, Leopold; McGinty, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Space debris and asteroid impacts pose a very real, very near-term threat to Earth. In order to help study and mitigate these risks, the Stardust program was formed in 2013. This training and research network was devoted to developing and mastering techniques such as removal, deflection, exploitation, and tracking. This book is a collection of many of the topics addressed at the Final Stardust Conference, describing the latest in asteroid monitoring and how engineering efforts can help us reduce space debris. It is a selection of studies bringing together specialists from universities, research institutions, and industry, tasked with the mission of pushing the boundaries of space research with innovative ideas and visionary concepts. Topics covered by the Symposium: Orbital and Attitude Dynamics Modeling Long Term Orbit and Attitude Evolution Particle Cloud Modeling and Simulation Collision and Impact Modelling and Simulation, Re-entry Modeling and Simulation Asteroid Origins and Characterization Orbit and A...

  3. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  4. International Logistics Science Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hompel, Michael; Meier, J

    2014-01-01

    The importance of logistics in all its variations is still increasing. New technologies emerge, new planning methods and algorithms are developed, only to face a market with a growing complexity and the need of weighting monetary costs against ecological impact. Mastering these challenges requires a scientific viewpoint on logistics, but always with applications in mind. This volume presents up-to-date logistics research in all its diversity and interconnectedness. It grew out of the “International Logistics Science Conference” (ILSC) held in Dortmund in September 2013, bringing together leading scientists and young academics from nine different countries. The conference was jointly organized by the “Efficiency Cluster Logistics” and the “Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics”. The Program Committee used a double blind review process to choose the 12 strongest contributions, which were then grouped in four areas: - Sustainability logistics, including electric mobility, smart inform...

  5. The Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.

  6. International Conference UMC 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Rasing, Theo; Chantrell, Roy

    2015-01-01

    This volume on Ultrafast Magnetism is a collection of articles presented at the international “Ultrafast Magnetization Conference” held at the Congress Center in Strasbourg, France, from October 28th to November 1st, 2013. This first conference, which is intended to be held every two years, received a wonderful attendance and gathered scientists from 27 countries in the field of Femtomagnetism, encompassing many theoretical and experimental research subjects related to the spins dynamics in bulk or nanostructured materials. The participants appreciated this unique opportunity for discussing new ideas and debating on various physical interpretations of the reported phenomena. The format of a single session with many oral contributions as well as extensive time for poster presentations allowed researchers to have a detailed overview of the field. Importantly, one could sense that, in addition to studying fundamental magnetic phenomena, ultrafast magnetism has entered in a phase where applied physics and eng...

  7. Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications

    2014-01-01

    By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical applications and nano-technologies. The chapters of this volume are based on the revised and extended versions of the selected scientific papers from amongst 255 original contributions that have been accepted to be presented within the program of the distinguished international ECCOMAS conference. It reflects state-of-the-art in the advances of multibody dynamics, providing excellent insight in the recen...

  8. Nostradamus conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guanrong; Rössler, Otto; Snasel, Vaclav; Abraham, Ajith; Nostradamus 2013: Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Complex Systems

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of behavior of the dynamical systems, analysis and modeling of its structure is vitally important problem in engineering, economy and science today. Examples of such systems can be seen in the world around us and of course in almost every scientific discipline including such “exotic” domains like the earth’s atmosphere, turbulent fluids, economies (exchange rate and stock markets), population growth, physics (control of plasma), information flow in social networks and its dynamics, chemistry and complex networks. To understand such dynamics and to use it in research or industrial applications, it is important to create its models. For this purpose there is rich spectra of methods, from classical like ARMA models or Box Jenkins method to such modern ones like evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy logic, fractal geometry, deterministic chaos and more. This proceeding book is a collection of the accepted papers to conference Nostradamus that has been held in Ostrava, Czech Republic. P...

  9. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa, Gaasterand [UCSD; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    This special issue comprises the papers accepted for presentation at the 19th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, joint with the 10th European Conference on Computational Biology, an official conference of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org). ISMB/ECCB 2011 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2011/) will take place in Vienna, Austria, from July 17 through July 19, 2011; preceded during July 14–16 by eight 1- or 2- day Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings, three satellite meetings and nine half-day tutorials; and followed by two additional satellite meetings. The 48 papers in this volume were selected from 258 submitted papers. Submitted papers were assigned to 13 areas. Area Chairs led each topic area by selecting their area's program committee and overseeing the reviewing process. Many Area Chairs were new compared to 2010, and two completely new areas were added in 2011, ‘Data Visualization’ and ‘Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics’. Six papers for which Area Chairs were in conflict were reviewed under a ‘Conflicts Management’ section headed by the Proceedings Chairs; one such paper was accepted in ‘Bioimaging’. Areas, co-chairs and acceptance information are listed in Table 1. Compared to prior years, five mature topic areas had steady submissions, ‘Evolution and Comparative Genomics’, ‘Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics’, ‘Protein Structure and Function’, ‘Sequence Analysis’, ‘Text Mining’. Two areas newer to ISMB were underrepresented this year, ‘Bioimaging’ and ‘Disease Models and Epidemiology’. One area doubled, ‘Applied Bioinformatics’, renamed from last year's ‘Other Bioinformatics Applications’; and one tripled, ‘Protein Interactions and Molecular Networks’. Across the areas, 326 members of the bioinformatics community provided reviews. Most papers received three reviews and several received four or more. There was

  10. To survive or to slay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The ecological relevance of allelopathy is highly debated due to the lack of phytotoxic concentrations of allelochemical in natural field conditions. Most of the putative allelochemicals are exuded at low concentrations, and subsequently undergo rapid chemical and biological degradation in soil matrices. At sub-toxic concentrations, due to hormesis effect, these compounds could possibly have a stimulatory effect on plant growth. Many of the suggested allelopathic compounds are chelants and can complex-with and mobilize metal ions in soil. These complexation reactions will detoxify the compound, but will increase the chemical-nutrient-foraging ability of the donor plant. The concentration in which these compounds are exuded matches with other similar secondary metabolites facilitating plant nutrient acquisition. Irrespective of whether the implicated PSMs facilitate donor plant in chemical nutrient-foraging or in poisoning the neighbors, the conferred advantage translates in terms of resource availability—in first case the donor enjoys uncontested nutrient uptake efficiency, where as in the latter the donor gain an uncontested access to resources. This further reaffirms the notion that resource competition and allelopathy are inextricable. Since most of the secondary metabolites could mobilize nutrients from soil, along with its phytotoxic effect, complementary self-facilitation roles of these compounds should be investigated. PMID:19820349

  11. Conference Report: 5th Annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ziegler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The 5th annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy took place in Savannah, Georgia on October 3-4, 2008. Since its inception, this conference has drawn participants from across the United States and even a few from abroad. Jointly sponsored by the Zach S. Henderson Library, the Department of Writing and Linguistics, the College of Education, and the Center for Continuing Education at Georgia Southern University, the conference offers both theoretical and practical discussions of the complex issues involved in teaching students how to find, interpret and use information in emerging electronic technologies against the backdrop of one of America’s loveliest cities.

  12. Computational Biology Support: RECOMB Conference Series (Conference Support)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Waterman

    2006-06-15

    This funding was support for student and postdoctoral attendance at the Annual Recomb Conference from 2001 to 2005. The RECOMB Conference series was founded in 1997 to provide a scientific forum for theoretical advances in computational biology and their applications in molecular biology and medicine. The conference series aims at attracting research contributions in all areas of computational molecular biology. Typical, but not exclusive, the topics of interest are: Genomics, Molecular sequence analysis, Recognition of genes and regulatory elements, Molecular evolution, Protein structure, Structural genomics, Gene Expression, Gene Networks, Drug Design, Combinatorial libraries, Computational proteomics, and Structural and functional genomics. The origins of the conference came from the mathematical and computational side of the field, and there remains to be a certain focus on computational advances. However, the effective use of computational techniques to biological innovation is also an important aspect of the conference. The conference had a growing number of attendees, topping 300 in recent years and often exceeding 500. The conference program includes between 30 and 40 contributed papers, that are selected by a international program committee with around 30 experts during a rigorous review process rivaling the editorial procedure for top-rate scientific journals. In previous years papers selection has been made from up to 130--200 submissions from well over a dozen countries. 10-page extended abstracts of the contributed papers are collected in a volume published by ACM Press and Springer, and are available at the conference. Full versions of a selection of the papers are published annually in a special issue of the Journal of Computational Biology devoted to the RECOMB Conference. A further point in the program is a lively poster session. From 120-300 posters have been presented each year at RECOMB 2000. One of the highlights of each RECOMB conference is a

  13. Travel service exports as comparative advantage in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johan Fourie

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper provides a snapshot of South Africa’s comparative performance in service exports, using a new measure of revealed comparative advantage, the normalised revealed comparative advantage (NRCA...

  14. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14-20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  15. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  16. Impact of dialysis modality on the survival of patients with end-stage renal disease and prior stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liu, Yao-Lung; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), 8-16 % had a history of stroke at dialysis initiation. We used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to evaluate whether peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) confers a survival advantage for patients with incident ESRD and prior stroke. We identified 975 patients undergoing PD and 975 propensity score-matched patients with newly diagnosed ESRD and prior stroke undergoing HD between 2000 and 2010. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011. Comparisons of the risks of mortality between PD and HD were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. In the propensity score-matched cohorts, there was a 2.4 per 100 person-years greater mortality in patients with PD (20.4 vs. 18.0 per 100 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.20 (95 % CI 1.06-1.36). For patients with diabetes, ESRD and prior stroke, patients undergoing PD had inferior survival compared with those undergoing HD (adjusted HR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.05-1.43), particularly among female patients (adjusted HR 1.55, 95 % CI 1.25-1.91). For patients with ESRD and prior stroke but without diabetes, there was no significant difference in mortality between PD and HD (adjusted HR 1.20, 95 % CI 0.96-1.50). PD was associated with overall poorer survival among patients with diabetes, ESRD and prior stroke and with similar overall survival among patients with ESRD and prior stroke, but without diabetes, compared with HD.

  17. [Birth spacing: a simple practice with a definite advantage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damessi, Y M

    1992-12-01

    Birth spacing is an ancient and very widespread tradition among various African populations. In traditional societies, the average birth interval is less than three years. Birth spacing is valued and non-observation of birth spacing is frowned upon. In Togo, women who have another infant within two years of the last delivery is referred to in a derogatory term, Kpedevinon. In the past, polygamy and breast feeding sustained birth spacing. Traditional societies believe that a lactating mother who engages in sexual intercourse spoils her milk and makes the infant sick. They recommend that women breast feed for at least 20 months. Polygamy allows a man to not forego sexual intercourse while a wife is observing postpartum abstinence. In fact, pregnant wives return to their family for childbirth and do not return until several months after childbirth. Exposure to the outside and urbanization threaten this autoregulation system through reduction of polygamy, promiscuity, and disorganization of traditional family linkages. Birth intervals are becoming shorter. Birth spacing reduces the mortality rate of infants and mothers. For example, in Mali, a child born less than 2 years after his sibling is 2.5 times more likely to die before age 1 than a child born 2-3 years after his sibling. The mortality risk increases to 4 times when compared to a four-year birth interval. A birth interval of at least 2 years allows the mother to completely recover before delivering again. Only modern contraception can restore longer birth intervals in changing African societies. Contraceptive use is rare in Africa, however. A broad education campaign on the advantages of birth spacing in terms of maternal and child survival would be able to mobilize public opinion to expand family planning programs.

  18. PREFACE: The Irago Conference 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    The Irago Conference 2012 - 360 degree outlook on critical scientific and technological challenges for a sustainable society Organized by the Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS) at Toyohashi University of Technology, the Irago Conference, held recently (15-16 November) in Aichi, Japan, aimed to enhance mutual understanding between scientists, engineers and policymakers. Over 180 participants tackled topics ranging from energy and natural resources to public health and disaster prevention. The 360-degree outlook of the conference impressed speakers and guests. ''This conference has been extremely informative,'' noted Robert Gellar from the University of Tokyo. ''A unique conference with experts from a range of backgrounds,'' agreed Uracha Ruktanonchai from the National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC) in Thailand. Similarly, G P Li, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of California Irvine commented that he had been ''able to think the unthinkable'' as a range of topics came together. The conference was streamed live on Ustream to ensure that researchers from across the world could benefit from thought-provoking presentations examining global issues such as energy, disaster mitigation and nanotechnology. ''This was wonderful,'' said Oussama Khatib from Stanford University, ''A good recipe of speakers from such a range of backgrounds.'' Manuscripts submitted to the organizers were peer-reviewed, and the papers in this proceedings were accepted for Journal of Physics: Conference Series. In addition to the formal speaker programme, graduate-student sessions provided a platform for graduate students to describe their latest findings as oral presentations. A series of excursions to relevant locations, such as the Tahara megasolar region under construction and a local car-manufacturing factory, gave participants the opportunity to further consider practical applications of their research in industry

  19. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  20. Community College Advantages: The Roles of Accreditation with Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges offer many advantages over other types of institutions, financially and educationally. This article will explore some of those advantages, including comparisons to other types of institutions. A brief introduction to accreditation will contextualize how community colleges have advantages of certain institutions. Lastly,…

  1. Resource-based advantages in an international context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouthers, K.D.; Brouthers, L.E.; Werner, S.

    2008-01-01

    How universal are resource-based advantages? In this study, the authors suggest that differences in nations' institutional environments may influence the applicability of resource-based advantages; for this reason, the effectiveness of such advantages may vary cross-nationally. They hypothesize and

  2. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  3. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  4. 7th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    Cryocoolers 7 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 7th International Cryocooler Conference which was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 17-19, 1992. This year's conference consisted of over 100 papers and was hosted by the Nichols Research Corp. and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The conference proceedings were published by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory in the four-volume set reproduced here.

  5. 6th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Knox, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Cryocoolers 6 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 6th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Plymouth, Massachusetts, on October 25-26, 1990. This year's conference consisted of 54 papers and was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland. The conference proceedings containing 49 submitted manuscripts was published by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center in the report reproduced here.

  6. DOE Workshop at Tapia Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-02-19

    The DE-SC0013568 DOE Grant, in the amount of $11,822.79, was used to support five doctoral students from underrepresented groups to attend the 2015 Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference, held February 18-21 in Boston, MA. Each scholarship was approximately $1200 to cover conference registration, travel, and lodging for the duration of the conference. The remaining $5,822.79 was used to support a DOE Breakfast Workshop during breakfast on Thursday, February 19. The Breakfast supported approximately 140 graduate students from underrepresented groups to learn about the different career opportunities at the different DOE National Laboratories.

  7. International Conference on Algebraic Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Ralph; Miller, Haynes; Ravenel, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    These are proceedings of an International Conference on Algebraic Topology, held 28 July through 1 August, 1986, at Arcata, California. The conference served in part to mark the 25th anniversary of the journal Topology and 60th birthday of Edgar H. Brown. It preceded ICM 86 in Berkeley, and was conceived as a successor to the Aarhus conferences of 1978 and 1982. Some thirty papers are included in this volume, mostly at a research level. Subjects include cyclic homology, H-spaces, transformation groups, real and rational homotopy theory, acyclic manifolds, the homotopy theory of classifying spaces, instantons and loop spaces, and complex bordism.

  8. AINSE`s 40th anniversary conference. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Highlights of 40 years of activity of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) were the main focus of this conference. Topics covered include nuclear physics, plasma physics, radiation chemistry, radiation biology, neutron diffraction, nuclear techniques of analysis and other relevant aspects of nuclear science and technology. The conference handbook contains the summaries of the 78 papers and posters presented and the list of participants

  9. The effects of early versus delayed castration targeting androgen on prolonging survival in a mouse model of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaixian; Xu, Qingquan; Huang, Xiaobo; Yang, Jia; Xu, Yanhong; Zhang, Guixiang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of early versus delayed surgical castration on prolonging survival and further to investigate the anticancer effect and potential value of targeting androgen in the therapeutic intervention of bladder cancer. N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) was used to induce bladder cancer in male mice. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: the early castration group (on which castration was perform at 4 weeks after first time of BBN administration), the delayed castration group (on which castration was perform at 20 weeks after first time of BBN administration), and the sham-castrated group. Mice were monitored daily throughout their lifespan until cancer-related death or the progress of an obviously moribund appearance, at which time the mice were killed. Androgen receptor expression and cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis were also evaluated. The average lifespan in early castration, delayed castration and sham-castrated groups were 315.8 days, 300.1 days and 254.6 days, respectively. Early castration conferred a statistically significant survival advantage when compared with the sham-castrated group (P cancer mice. This finding may enhance the feasibility of androgen ablation treatment in patients with bladder cancer.

  10. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  11. A lower visual field advantage for endpoint stability but no advantage for online movement precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olav; Heath, Matthew

    2006-03-01

    It has been proposed that visually guided reaching movements performed in the lower visual field (LVF) of peripersonal space are more effective and efficient than their upper visual field (UVF) counterparts (Danckert and Goodale 2001). In the present investigation we sought to determine whether this purported visual field asymmetry reflects advantaged processing of online visual feedback. To accomplish that objective, participants performed discrete reaching movements to each of three target locations in the LVF and UVF. In addition, reaches were completed under conditions wherein target location remained constant throughout a reaching response (i.e., control trials) and a separate condition wherein target location unexpectedly perturbed at movement onset (i.e., experimental trials). We reasoned that the target perturbation paradigm would provide a novel means to assess a possible superior-inferior visual field asymmetry for online reaching control. In terms of the impact of a target perturbation, both visual fields demonstrated equal proficiency integrating visual feedback for online limb adjustments. Interestingly, however, the spatial distribution of movement endpoints in the LVF was less than UVF counterparts (cf. Binsted and Heath 2005). Taken together, the present findings suggest that although LVF and UVF reaches readily use visual feedback to accommodate an unexpected target perturbation, reaches in the LVF elicit advantaged spatial benefits influencing the effectiveness of online limb corrections.

  12. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  13. Conference OKs science budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the budget process all but complete for next fiscal year, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration observers were saying that science had not done that badly in Congress, for an election year. NSF got half the budget increase it requested, NASA two-thirds. The Space Station did well, at the expense of environmental and social programs, which are funded by Congress from the same pot of money as NASA and NSF.A House-Senate conference finished work on a $59 billion appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, including EPA, NASA, and NSF, in early August. The House and Senate then quickly passed the measure before their recess; the President is expected to sign it soon. Included in the Fiscal Year 1989 spending bill are $1,885 billion for NSF, a 9.8% increase over FY 1988, and $10.7 billion for NASA, 18.5% more than the year before.

  14. Survival of sea anemones in Bunder C fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicksten, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Sea anemones (Anthopleura elegantissima) can withstand submersion in Bunker C fuel oil for up to 1 h without visible adverse effects. The wet, mucus-covered tissues of the sea anemones may repel oil. During recovery, the sea anemones expand the column, evert the tentacles and reattach. A dahlia anemone (Tealia lofotensis) withstood immersion in oil for 15 min. The ability to withstand immersion in oil may confer an ecological advantage to sea anemones in contaminated areas. 5 references, 8 figures, 1 tables.

  15. International Conference on Robot Ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira, Joao; Tokhi, Mohammad; Kadar, Endre; Virk, Gurvinder

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhão do Conhecimento/Ciência Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: • Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close ...

  16. Climate Leadership Awards and Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seventh annual Climate Leadership Awards Dinner will be held during the 2018 Climate Leadership Conference; the event publicly recognize individuals and organizations for their outstanding leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Waterfowl disease conference report : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Waterfowl Disease Conference was held in Denver the fall of 1980 to develop a better program for dealing with waterfowl disease problems. Most of the report dealt...

  18. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  19. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  20. The reproductive advantages of a long life: longevity and senescence in wild female African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis C; Fishlock, Victoria; Webber, C Elizabeth; Moss, Cynthia J

    Long-lived species such as elephants, whales and primates exhibit extended post-fertile survival compared to species with shorter lifespans but data on age-related fecundity and survival are limited to few species or populations. We assess relationships between longevity, reproductive onset, reproductive rate and age for 834 longitudinally monitored wild female African elephants in Amboseli, Kenya. The mean known age at first reproduction was 13.8 years; only 5 % commenced reproduction by 10 years. Early reproducers (advantages of a long life. Overall, 95 % of fertility was completed before 50, and 95 % of mortality experienced by age 65, with a mean life expectancy of 41 years for females who survived to the minimum age at first birth (9 years). Elephant females have a relatively long period (c. 16 years) of viability after 95 % completed fertility, although reproduction does not entirely cease until they are over 65. We found no evidence of increased investment among females aged over 40 in terms of delay to next birth or calf mortality. The presence of a mother reproducing simultaneously with her daughter was associated with higher rates of daughter reproduction suggesting advantages from maternal (and grandmaternal) co-residence during reproduction.

  1. An experimental investigation of the functional hypothesis and evolutionary advantage of stone-tipped spears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Wilkins

    Full Text Available Stone-tipped weapons were a significant innovation for Middle Pleistocene hominins. Hafted hunting technology represents the development of new cognitive and social learning mechanisms within the genus Homo, and may have provided a foraging advantage over simpler forms of hunting technology, such as a sharpened wooden spear. However, the nature of this foraging advantage has not been confirmed. Experimental studies and ethnographic reports provide conflicting results regarding the relative importance of the functional, economic, and social roles of hafted hunting technology. The controlled experiment reported here was designed to test the functional hypothesis for stone-tipped weapons using spears and ballistics gelatin. It differs from previous investigations of this type because it includes a quantitative analysis of wound track profiles and focuses specifically on hand-delivered spear technology. Our results do not support the hypothesis that tipped spears penetrate deeper than untipped spears. However, tipped spears create a significantly larger inner wound cavity that widens distally. This inner wound cavity is analogous to the permanent wound cavity in ballistics research, which is considered the key variable affecting the relative 'stopping power' or 'killing power' of a penetrating weapon. Tipped spears conferred a functional advantage to Middle Pleistocene hominins, potentially affecting the frequency and regularity of hunting success with important implications for human adaptation and life history.

  2. The advantage of being slow: The quasi-neutral contact process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available According to the competitive exclusion principle, in a finite ecosystem, extinction occurs naturally when two or more species compete for the same resources. An important question that arises is: when coexistence is not possible, which mechanisms confer an advantage to a given species against the other(s? In general, it is expected that the species with the higher reproductive/death ratio will win the competition, but other mechanisms, such as asymmetry in interspecific competition or unequal diffusion rates, have been found to change this scenario dramatically. In this work, we examine competitive advantage in the context of quasi-neutral population models, including stochastic models with spatial structure as well as macroscopic (mean-field descriptions. We employ a two-species contact process in which the "biological clock" of one species is a factor of α slower than that of the other species. Our results provide new insights into how stochasticity and competition interact to determine extinction in finite spatial systems. We find that a species with a slower biological clock has an advantage if resources are limited, winning the competition against a species with a faster clock, in relatively small systems. Periodic or stochastic environmental variations also favor the slower species, even in much larger systems.

  3. Propionic acidemia consensus conference summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kimberly A; Summar, Marshall L

    2012-01-01

    In January 2011, Children's National Medical Center in Washington, D.C. hosted a consensus conference to discuss and develop recommendations for the diagnosis and management of propionic acidemia. Several resulting manuscripts from this conference are included in this issue. Topics covered include recommendations for acute management of metabolic decompensations, recommendations for chronic management and health monitoring, natural history of disease in patients with propionic acidemia, and neurologic complications in propionic acidemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 9. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held November 12--16, 1995 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on genetic mapping in mice. This report contains abstracts of presentations, focusing on the following areas: mutation identification; comparative mapping; informatics and complex traits; mutagenesis; gene identification and new technology; and genetic and physical mapping.

  5. 4th Machining Innovations Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results presented at the 4th Machining Innovations Conference, Hannover, September 2013. The topic of the conference are new production technologies in aerospace industry and the focus is on energy efficient machine tools as well as sustainable process planning. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  7. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  8. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

  9. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  10. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  11. Biomineralization of Uranium by PhoY Phosphatase Activity Aids Cell Survival in Caulobacter crescentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, M C [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jiao, Y [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-22

    Caulobacter crescentus is known to tolerate high levels of uranium [U(VI)], but its detoxification mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that C. crescentus is able to facilitate U(VI) biomineralization through the formation of U-Pi precipitates via its native alkaline phosphatase activity. The U-Pi precipitates, deposited on the cell surface in the form of meta-autunite structures, have a lower U/Pi ratio than do chemically produced precipitates. The enzyme that is responsible for the phosphatase activity and thus the biomineralization process is identified as PhoY, a periplasmic alkaline phosphatase with broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, PhoY is shown to confer a survival advantage on C. crescentus toward U(VI) under both growth and nongrowth conditions. Results obtained in this study thus highlight U(VI) biomineralization as a resistance mechanism in microbes, which not only improves our understanding of bacterium-mineral interactions but also aids in defining potential ecological niches for metal-resistant bacteria.

  12. Combining parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric survival models with stacked survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Connett, John; Rudser, Kyle

    2015-07-01

    For estimating conditional survival functions, non-parametric estimators can be preferred to parametric and semi-parametric estimators due to relaxed assumptions that enable robust estimation. Yet, even when misspecified, parametric and semi-parametric estimators can possess better operating characteristics in small sample sizes due to smaller variance than non-parametric estimators. Fundamentally, this is a bias-variance trade-off situation in that the sample size is not large enough to take advantage of the low bias of non-parametric estimation. Stacked survival models estimate an optimally weighted combination of models that can span parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric models by minimizing prediction error. An extensive simulation study demonstrates that stacked survival models consistently perform well across a wide range of scenarios by adaptively balancing the strengths and weaknesses of individual candidate survival models. In addition, stacked survival models perform as well as or better than the model selected through cross-validation. Finally, stacked survival models are applied to a well-known German breast cancer study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Survival during renal replacement therapy of patients previously treated with a very low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids : the Italian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cupisti

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, prescription of sVLPD during the conservative phase of chronic renal failure does not worsen, or even improves, survival after starting RRT. This survival advantage is more evident in patients younger than 70 years.

  14. Mathematical Theories and Applications : Proceedings of a Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rost, Hermann; Tautu, Petre

    1980-01-01

    These Proceedings have been assembled from papers presented at the Conference on Models of Biological Growth and Spread, held at the German Cancer Research Centre Heidelberg and at the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the University of Heidelberg, July 16-21, 1979. The main theme of the conference was the mathematical representation of biolog­ ical populations with an underlying spatial structure. An important feature of such populations is that they and/or their individual com­ ponents may interact with each other. Such interactions may be due to external disturbances, internal regulatory factors or a combination of both. Many biological phenomena and processes including embryogenesis, cell growth, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, carcinogenesis, and the spread of an epidemic or of an advantageous gene can be studied in this con­ text. Thus, problems of particular importance in medicine (human and veterinary), agriculture, ecology, etc. may be taken into consideration and a deeper insight gained by utilizing...

  15. Operation quality assessment model for video conference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bangshi; Qi, Feng; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Ying; Li, Weijian

    2018-01-01

    Video conference system has become an important support platform for smart grid operation and management, its operation quality is gradually concerning grid enterprise. First, the evaluation indicator system covering network, business and operation maintenance aspects was established on basis of video conference system's operation statistics. Then, the operation quality assessment model combining genetic algorithm with regularized BP neural network was proposed, which outputs operation quality level of the system within a time period and provides company manager with some optimization advice. The simulation results show that the proposed evaluation model offers the advantages of fast convergence and high prediction accuracy in contrast with regularized BP neural network, and its generalization ability is superior to LM-BP neural network and Bayesian BP neural network.

  16. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  17. EDITORIAL: International MEMS Conference 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Francis E. H.; Jianmin, Miao; Iliescu, Ciprian

    2006-04-01

    The International MEMS conference (iMEMS2006) organized by the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology and Nanyang Technological University aims to provide a platform for academicians, professionals and industrialists in various related fields from all over the world to share and learn from each other. Of great interest is the incorporation of the theme of life sciences application using MEMS. It is the desire of this conference to initiate collaboration and form network of cooperation. This has continued to be the objective of iMEMS since its inception in 1997. The technological advance of MEMS over the past few decades has been truly exciting in terms of development and applications. In order to participate in this rapid development, a conference involving delegates from within the MEMS community and outside the community is very meaningful and timely. With the receipt of over 200 articles, delegates related to MEMS field from all over the world will share their perspectives on topics such as MEMS/MST Design, MEMS Teaching and Education, MEMS/MST Packaging, MEMS/MST Fabrication, Microsystems Applications, System Integration, Wearable Devices, MEMSWear and BioMEMS. Invited speakers and delegates from outside the field have also been involved to provide challenges, especially in the life sciences field, for the MEMS community to potentially address. The proceedings of the conference will be published as an issue in the online Journal of Physics: Conference Series and this can reach a wider audience and will facilitate the reference and citation of the work presented in the conference. We wish to express our deep gratitude to the International Scientific Committee members and the organizing committee members for contributing to the success of this conference. We would like to thank all the delegates, speakers and sponsors from all over the world for presenting and sharing their perspectives on topics related to MEMS and the challenges that MEMS can

  18. 2nd CEAS Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, Bob; Choukroun, Daniel; Kampen, Erik-Jan; Visser, Coen; Looye, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Following the successful 1st CEAS (Council of European Aerospace Societies) Specialist Conference on Guidance, Navigation and Control (CEAS EuroGNC) held in Munich, Germany in 2011, Delft University of Technology happily accepted the invitation of organizing the 2nd  CEAS EuroGNC in Delft, The Netherlands in 2013. The goal of the conference is to promote new advances in aerospace GNC theory and technologies for enhancing safety, survivability, efficiency, performance, autonomy and intelligence of aerospace systems using on-board sensing, computing and systems. A great push for new developments in GNC are the ever higher safety and sustainability requirements in aviation. Impressive progress was made in new research fields such as sensor and actuator fault detection and diagnosis, reconfigurable and fault tolerant flight control, online safe flight envelop prediction and protection, online global aerodynamic model identification, online global optimization and flight upset recovery. All of these challenges de...

  19. Testing the specifity of memory advantages in synaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lunke, Katrin; Meier, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Testing the specificity of memory advantages in synaesthesia The present study aims to distinguish between different theories for memory advantages in synaesthesia (i.e., general, domain-, and inducer-specific). Four groups of synaesthetes (grapheme-colour, sound-colour, grapheme-and-sound-colour, and sequence-space) and corresponding control groups performed memory tasks involving words, music, and pictorial stimuli. We hypothesized to find a memory advantage for the synaesthetes compare...

  20. The 13thWinter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott D

    2017-04-06

    The Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry Foundation (MBCF) hosted its 13 th biannual Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry (WCMBC) this past January 22 nd -26 th in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (USA). The gathering this year kept true to the tradition of this conference series, with an impressive lineup of presenters from both academia and industry. With about 125 delegates, the conference took all the advantages of a mid-sized gathering: a sufficiently wide spectrum of scientists in attendance, yet an intimate atmosphere conducive to solid networking and frank, open discussions. This conference report summarizes the presentations that were given this year. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The artist's advantage: Better integration of object information across eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Over their careers, figurative artists spend thousands of hours analyzing objects and scene layout. We examined what impact this extensive training has on the ability to encode complex scenes, comparing participants with a wide range of training and drawing skills on a possible versus impossible objects task. We used a gaze-contingent display to control the amount of information the participants could sample on each fixation either from central or peripheral visual field. Test objects were displayed and participants reported, as quickly as possible, whether the object was structurally possible or not. Our results show that when viewing the image through a small central window, performance improved with the years of training, and to a lesser extent with the level of skill. This suggests that the extensive training itself confers an advantage for integrating object structure into more robust object descriptions. PMID:24349697

  2. Supply chain management and relational competitive advantage in footwear industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Luiz Emerenciano Viana; José de Paula Barros Neto; Miguel Eduardo Moreno Añez

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the supply chain management contribution to competitive advantage for companies in the footwear industry, with a primary focus on the inter-organizational relationship analysis...

  3. Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Reu, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This collection represents a single volume of technical papers presented at the Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference organized by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Sandia National Laboratories and held in Philadelphia, PA, November 7-10, 2016. The volume presents early findings from experimental, standards development and various other investigations concerning digital image correlation - an important area within Experimental Mechanics. The area of Digital Image Correlation has been an integral track within the SEM Annual Conference spearheaded by Professor Michael Sutton from the University of South Carolina. In 2016, the SEM and Sandia joined their collaborative strengths to launch a standing fall meeting focusing specifically on developments in the area of Digital Image Correlation. The contributed papers within this volume span numerous technical aspects of DIC including standards development for the industry. .

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of pre-emptive kidney transplantation: results from a single transplantation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Ushigome, H; Nakao, T; Harada, S; Koshino, K; Suzuki, T; Ito, T; Nobori, S; Yoshimura, N

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing tendency to perform pre-emptive kidney transplantation (PKT). However, less research has been performed on outcomes of PKT and kidney transplantation (KT) after long-term dialysis (LD). To elucidate advantages of PKT to KTLD, 96 patients who underwent living-donor KT at our university from 2000 to 2011 were enrolled for this study: 64 patients in the PKT0 (0 months dialysis) group; 14 patients in the PKT-3 group (less than 3 months dialysis); 18 patients in the LD (dialysis > 120 months) group. All recipients were assessed for patients' survival, graft survival, urinary tract infection, laboratory data, episodes of acute rejection, cytomegalovirus-related diseases, and other significant infectious diseases which required hospitalization. Although there were no significant differences in 5-year graft survival (93.8% in PKT0, 85.7% in PKT-3, and 83.7% in control), 5-year patient survival is better in the PKT0 group (96.9%) and the PKT-3 group (92.9%) compared to 88.9% in the control group. Urinary tract infection is clearly correlated with the LD group (44.4% in the LD group vs 19.2% in the PKT group) primarily due to atrophic bladder and subsequent vesicoureteral reflux. Slightly higher rates of acute rejection were found in the PKT groups (30.8% vs 26.3%). This study revealed that there are both advantages and disadvantages of PKT. It is clear, therefore, that PKT can be recommended for end-stage renal disease patients provided enough attention is paid to the onset of acute rejection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. International Conference on Computational Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Atluri, Satya

    1986-01-01

    It is often said that these days there are too many conferences on general areas of computational mechanics. mechanics. and numer ical methods. vJhile this may be true. the his tory of scientific conferences is itself quite short. According to Abraham Pais (in "Subtle is the Lord ...• " Oxford University Press. 1982. p.80). the first international scientific conference ever held was the Karlsruhe Congress of Chemists. 3-5 September 1860 in Karlsruhe. Germany. There were 127 chemists in attendance. and the participants came from Austria. Belgium. France. Germany. Great Britain. Italy. Mexico. Poland. Russia. Spain. Sweden. and Switzerland. At the top of the agenda of the points to be discussed at this conference was the question: "Shall a difference be made between the expressions molecule and atom?" Pais goes on to note: "The conference did not at once succeed in bringing chemists closer together ... It is possible that the older men were offended by the impetuous behavior and imposing manner of the younger...

  6. IEEE International conference on plasma science: Conference record--Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The conference covered the following topics: basic plasma physics; vacuum electronics; gaseous and electrical gas discharges; laser-produced plasma; space plasmas; computational plasma science; plasma diagnostics; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave-plasma interactions; magnetic fusion; MHD; plasma focus; ultrafast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; plasma processing; fast-opening switches; EM and ETH launchers; solid-state plasmas and switches; plasmas for lighting; ball lightning and spherical plasma configurations; and environmental/energy issues. Separate abstracts were prepared for 379 items in this conference.

  7. Correlates of Strategic Management and Corporate Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    However, not all business systems offer the same potential to build competitive advantage. In addition, their choice is affected by the stage of development of the industry as well as the action of other competitors. Hoffer (2007) affirmed that the key to survival by consumer goods manufacturers in modern competitive business ...

  8. Relative survival of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James G; Wehberg, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies consistently show an initial survival advantage for PD patients compared to HD. It has recently been suggested that this is due to the fact that many HD patients are referred late, and start dialysis on an acute, in-patient basis. The present study was perfor...

  9. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  10. β2-microglobulin gene duplication in cetartiodactyla remains intact only in pigs and possibly confers selective advantage to the species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Minh Le

    Full Text Available Several β2-microglobulin (B2M -bound protein complexes undertake key roles in various immune system pathways, including the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn, cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1 protein, non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC, and well-known MHC class I molecules. Therefore, the duplication of B2M may lead to an increase in the biological competence of organisms to the environment. Based on the pig genome assembly SSC10.2, a segmental duplication of ~45.5 kb, encoding the entire B2M protein, was identified in pig chromosome 1. Through experimental validation, we confirmed the functional duplication of the B2M gene with a completely identical coding sequence between two copies in pigs. Considering the importance of B2M in the immune system, we performed the phylogenetic analysis of B2M duplication in ten mammalian species, confirming the presence of B2M duplication in cetartioldactyls, like cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and whales, but non-cetartiodactyl species, like mice, cats, dogs, horses, and humans. The density of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE at the edges of duplicated blocks (39 to 66% was found to be 2 to 3-fold higher than the average (20.12% of the pig genome, suggesting its role in the duplication event. The B2M mRNA expression level in pigs was 12.71 and 7.57 times (2-ΔΔCt values higher than humans and mice, respectively. However, we were unable to experimentally demonstrate the difference in the level of B2M protein because species specific anti-B2M antibodies are not available. We reported, for the first time, the functional duplication of the B2M gene in animals. The identification of partially remaining duplicated B2M sequences in the genomes of only cetartiodactyls indicates that the event was lineage specific. B2M duplication could be beneficial to the immune system of pigs by increasing the availability of MHC class I light chain protein, B2M, to complex with the proteins encoded by the relatively large number of MHC class I heavy chain genes in pigs. Further studies are necessary to address the biological meaning of increased expression of B2M.

  11. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Langer

    Full Text Available Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env, regulatory (rev, tat and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1 and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown.Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time.Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype.

  12. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Simon M; Hopfensperger, Kristina; Iyer, Shilpa S; Kreider, Edward F; Learn, Gerald H; Lee, Lan-Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sauter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M) encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env), regulatory (rev, tat) and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef) genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown. Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs) of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time. Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype.

  13. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  14. Revisiting the survival mnemonic effect in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pand eirada, Josefa N S; Pires, Luísa; Soares, Sandra C

    2014-04-29

    The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the "survival processing effect." In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving). These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  15. Revisiting the Survival Mnemonic Effect in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa N. S. Pand Eirada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the “survival processing effect.” In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving. These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  16. Do American dippers obtain a survival benefit from altitudinal migration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Green

    Full Text Available Studies of partial migrants provide an opportunity to assess the cost and benefits of migration. Previous work has demonstrated that sedentary American dippers (residents have higher annual productivity than altitudinal migrants that move to higher elevations to breed. Here we use a ten-year (30 period mark-recapture dataset to evaluate whether migrants offset their lower productivity with higher survival during the migration-breeding period when they occupy different habitat, or early and late-winter periods when they coexist with residents. Mark-recapture models provide no evidence that apparent monthly survival of migrants is higher than that of residents at any time of the year. The best-supported model suggests that monthly survival is higher in the migration-breeding period than winter periods. Another well-supported model suggested that residency conferred a survival benefit, and annual apparent survival (calculated from model weighted monthly apparent survival estimates using the Delta method of residents (0.511 ± 0.038SE was slightly higher than that of migrants (0.487 ± 0.032. Winter survival of American dippers was influenced by environmental conditions; monthly apparent survival increased as maximum daily flow rates increased and declined as winter temperatures became colder. However, we found no evidence that environmental conditions altered differences in winter survival of residents and migrants. Since migratory American dippers have lower productivity and slightly lower survival than residents our data suggests that partial migration is likely an outcome of competition for limited nest sites at low elevations, with less competitive individuals being forced to migrate to higher elevations in order to breed.

  17. Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference)

    CERN Document Server

    Pagter, Ben; Gaans, Onno; Veraar, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of Positivity VII, held from 22-26 July 2013, in Leiden, the Netherlands. Positivity is the mathematical field concerned with ordered structures and their applications in the broadest sense of the word. A biyearly series of conferences is devoted to presenting the latest developments in this lively and growing discipline. The lectures at the conference covered a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from order-theoretic approaches to stochastic processes, positive solutions of evolution equations and positive operators on vector lattices, to order structures in the context of algebras of operators on Hilbert spaces. The contributions in the book reflect this variety and appeal to university researchers in functional analysis, operator theory, measure and integration theory and operator algebras. Positivity VII was also the Zaanen Centennial Conference to mark the 100th birth year of Adriaan Cornelis Zaanen, who held the chair of Analysis in Leiden for more than 25 years and was ...

  18. 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

  19. International Conference GIREP EPEC 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dębowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best contributions to GIREP EPEC 2015, the Conference of the International Research Group on Physics Teaching (GIREP) and the European Physical Society’s Physics Education Division (EPS PED). It introduces readers interested in the field to the problem of identifying strategies and tools to improve physics teaching and learning so as to convey Key Competences and help students acquire them. The main topic of the conference was Key Competences (KC) in physics teaching and learning in the form of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are fundamental for every member of society. Given the role of physics as a field strongly connected not only to digital competence but also to several other Key Competences, this conference provided a forum for in-depth discussions of related issues.

  20. Fifth International Conference KSE 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Denoeux, Thierry; Tran, Dang; Le, Anh; Pham, Son; Knowledge and Systems Engineering

    2014-01-01

    The field of Knowledge and Systems Engineering (KSE) has experienced rapid development and inspired many applications in the world of information technology during the last decade. The KSE conference aims at providing an open international forum for presentation, discussion and exchange of the latest advances and challenges in research of the field. These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fifth International Conference on Knowledge and Systems Engineering (KSE 2013), which was held in Hanoi, Vietnam, during 17–19 October, 2013. Besides the main track of contributed papers, which are compiled into the first volume, the conference also featured several special sessions focusing on specific topics of interest as well as included one workshop, of which the papers form the second volume of these proceedings. The book gathers a total of 68 papers describing recent advances and development on various topics including knowledge discovery and data mining, natural language processing, expert systems, intell...