WorldWideScience

Sample records for survivable traffic grooming

  1. Dynamic traffic grooming with multigranularity traffic in WDM optical mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zeng, Qingji; Liu, Jimin; Xiao, Pengcheng; Liu, Hua; Xiao, Shilin

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, a traffic-grooming problem for multi-granularity traffic of SDH/SONET in WDM grooming mesh networks is investigated. We propose a path select routing algorithm to solve this problem. The performances of this traffic grooming path select routing algorithm are evaluated in WDM grooming networks. Finally, we presented and compared the simulation results of this algorithm in dynamic traffic grooming WDM mesh networks with that of other algorithms.

  2. Efficient traffic grooming in SONET/WDM BLSR Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A S; Billah, A B; Wang, B

    2004-04-02

    In this paper, we study traffic grooming in SONET/WDM BLSR networks under the uniform all-to-all traffic model with an objective to reduce total network costs (wavelength and electronic multiplexing costs), in particular, to minimize the number of ADMs while using the optimal number of wavelengths. We derive a new tighter lower bound for the number of wavelengths when the number of nodes is a multiple of 4. We show that this lower bound is achievable. All previous ADM lower bounds except perhaps that in were derived under the assumption that the magnitude of the traffic streams (r) is one unit (r = 1) with respect to the wavelength capacity granularity g. We then derive new, more general and tighter lower bounds for the number of ADMs subject to that the optimal number of wavelengths is used, and propose heuristic algorithms (circle construction algorithm and circle grooming algorithm) that try to minimize the number of ADMs while using the optimal number of wavelengths in BLSR networks. Both the bounds and algorithms are applicable to any value of r and for different wavelength granularity g. Performance evaluation shows that wherever applicable, our lower bounds are at least as good as existing bounds and are much tighter than existing ones in many cases. Our proposed heuristic grooming algorithms perform very well with traffic streams of larger magnitude. The resulting number of ADMs required is very close to the corresponding lower bounds derived in this paper.

  3. Traffic Grooming on WDM Rings Using Optical Burst Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Li; Kim, Jaedon; Su, Ching-Fong; Rabbat, Richard; Hamada, Takeo; Tian, Cechan; Kazovsky, Leonid G.

    2006-01-01

    A sublambda traffic-grooming scheme on wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) rings, which is called optical burst transport (OBT), is proposed. The network protocol and architecture allow increased flexibility to tailor the transport network behavior for efficient delivery of bursty data traffic. Using different network parameters, its performance is analyzed via simulation, and the implementation issues including the media-access-control (MAC) protocol, tunable-filter controller, and burst-mode receiver are addressed. Finally, the feasibility of the OBT with an experimental testbed built by the authors is demonstrated and a streaming-video application is used to present its overall functionality.

  4. Dynamic traffic grooming for port number optimization in WDM optical mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zeng, Qingji; Liu, Jimin; Xiao, Pengcheng; Liu, Hua; Xiao, Shilin

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, the objective was optimizing the port number with dynamic traffic grooming of SDH/SONET WDM mesh networks to give useful referenced data to networks design and the cost control of networks. The performances of different path select routing algorithms were evaluated in WDM grooming networks by considering traffic of different bandwidth requests. Finally, the results were presented and compared with in distributed-controlled WDM mesh networks.

  5. On-Chip SDM Switching for Unicast, Multicast and Traffic Grooming in Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of a novel photonic integrated circuit that facilitates multicast and grooming in an optical data center architecture. The circuit allows for on-chip spatial multiplexing and demultiplexing as well as fiber core switching. Using this device, we experimentally verify...... that multicast and/or grooming can be successfully performed along the full range of output ports, for different group size and different power ratio. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate SDM transmission and 5 Tbit/s switching using the on-chip fiber switch with integrated fan-in/fan-out devices and achieve...... errorfree performance (BER≤10-9) for a network scenario including simultaneous unicast/multicast switching and traffic grooming....

  6. An efficient mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes an efficient overlay multicast provisioning (OMP) mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To facilitate request provisioning, OMP jointly utilizes a data learning (DL) scheme on the IP/MPLS layer for logical link cost estimation, and a lightpath fragmentation (LPF) based method on the WDM layer for improving resource sharing in grooming process. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of OMP mechanism under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited port resources. Simulation results demonstrate that OMP significantly outperforms the existing methods. To evaluate the respective influences of the DL scheme and the LPF method on OMP performance, provisioning mechanisms only utilizing either the IP/MPLS layer DL scheme or the WDM layer LPF method are also devised. Comparison results show that both DL and LPF methods help improve OMP blocking performance, and contribution from the DL scheme is more significant when the fixed routing and first-fit wavelength assignment (RWA) strategy is adopted on the WDM layer. Effects of a few other factors, including definition of connection cost to be reported by the WDM layer to the IP/MPLS layer and WDM-layer routing method, on OMP performance are also evaluated.

  7. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  8. Efficient traffic grooming with dynamic ONU grouping for multiple-OLT-based access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Hongxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fast bandwidth growth urges large-scale high-density access scenarios, where the multiple Passive Optical Networking (PON) system clustered deployment can be adopted as an appropriate solution to fulfill the huge bandwidth demands, especially for a future 5G mobile network. However, the lack of interaction between different optical line terminals (OLTs) results in part of the bandwidth resources waste. To increase the bandwidth efficiency, as well as reduce bandwidth pressure at the edge of a network, we propose a centralized flexible PON architecture based on Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). It can provide flexible affiliation for optical network units (ONUs) and different OLTs to support access network traffic localization. Specifically, a dynamic ONU grouping algorithm (DGA) is provided to obtain the minimal OLT outbound traffic. Simulation results show that DGA obtains an average 25.23% traffic gain increment under different OLT numbers within a small ONU number situation, and the traffic gain will increase dramatically with the increment of the ONU number. As the DGA can be deployed easily as an application running above the centralized control plane, the proposed architecture can be helpful to improve the network efficiency for future traffic-intensive access scenarios.

  9. A Grooming Nodes Optimal Allocation Method for Multicast in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengying Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grooming node has the capability of grooming multicast traffic with the small granularity into established light at high cost of complexity and node architecture. In the paper, a grooming nodes optimal allocation (GNOA method is proposed to optimize the allocation of the grooming nodes constraint by the blocking probability for multicast traffic in sparse WDM networks. In the proposed GNOA method, the location of each grooming node is determined by the SCLD strategy. The improved smallest cost largest degree (SCLD strategy is designed to select the nongrooming nodes in the proposed GNOA method. The simulation results show that the proposed GNOA method can reduce the required number of grooming nodes and decrease the cost of constructing a network to guarantee a certain request blocking probability when the wavelengths per fiber and transmitter/receiver ports per node are sufficient for the optical multicast in WDM networks.

  10. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Residential road traffic noise exposure and colorectal cancer survival - A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    traffic noise at different time-windows, and overall and CRC-specific mortality. Furthermore, we investigated interaction with sex, age, prognostic factors, and comorbidity. Mortality Rate Ratios (MRR) were calculated in unadjusted models, and adjusted for railway noise, lifestyle factors......BACKGROUND: Residential traffic noise exposure may entail sleep disruption and compromised circadian functioning; two factors which have been associated with a poor colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between residential road...... traffic noise and CRC survival. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Road traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to February 2012 for incident CRC cases (n = 1,234) in a cohort of 57,053 Danes. We used Cox Proportional Hazard Models to investigate the association between residential road...

  12. On the Performance of Grooming Strategies for Offloading IP Flows onto Lightpaths in Hybrid Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, Rudolf; Fioreze, Tiago; Granville, L.; Pras, Aiko

    Hybrid networks take data forwarding decisions at multiple network levels. In order to make an efficient use of hybrid networks, traffic engineering solutions (e.g., routing and data grooming techniques) are commonly employed. Within the specific context of a self-managed hybrid optical and packet

  13. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees—New damage categories in Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombong, Ayuka T.; Yusuf, Abdullahi A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Stuhl, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite. We tested this hypothesis by comparing grooming and hygienic behaviors in the African savannah honeybee Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya and A. mellifera hybrids of European origin in Florida, USA against the mite. Grooming behavior was assessed by determining adult mite infestation levels, daily mite fall per colony and percentage mite damage (as an indicator of adult grooming rate), while hygienic behavior was assessed by determining the brood removal rate after freeze killing a section of the brood. Our results identified two additional undescribed damaged mite categories along with the six previously known damage categories associated with the grooming behavior of both honeybee subspecies. Adult mite infestation level was approximately three-fold higher in A. mellifera hybrids of European origin than in A. m. scutellata, however, brood removal rate, adult grooming rate and daily natural mite fall were similar in both honeybee subspecies. Unlike A. mellifera hybrids of European origin, adult grooming rate and brood removal rate did not correlate with mite infestation levels on adult worker honeybee of A. m. scutellata though they were more aggressive towards the mites than their European counterparts. Our results provide valuable insights into the tolerance mechanisms that contribute to the survival of A. m. scutellata against the mite. PMID:28622341

  15. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees-New damage categories in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganso, Beatrice T; Fombong, Ayuka T; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Pirk, Christian W W; Stuhl, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite. We tested this hypothesis by comparing grooming and hygienic behaviors in the African savannah honeybee Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya and A. mellifera hybrids of European origin in Florida, USA against the mite. Grooming behavior was assessed by determining adult mite infestation levels, daily mite fall per colony and percentage mite damage (as an indicator of adult grooming rate), while hygienic behavior was assessed by determining the brood removal rate after freeze killing a section of the brood. Our results identified two additional undescribed damaged mite categories along with the six previously known damage categories associated with the grooming behavior of both honeybee subspecies. Adult mite infestation level was approximately three-fold higher in A. mellifera hybrids of European origin than in A. m. scutellata, however, brood removal rate, adult grooming rate and daily natural mite fall were similar in both honeybee subspecies. Unlike A. mellifera hybrids of European origin, adult grooming rate and brood removal rate did not correlate with mite infestation levels on adult worker honeybee of A. m. scutellata though they were more aggressive towards the mites than their European counterparts. Our results provide valuable insights into the tolerance mechanisms that contribute to the survival of A. m. scutellata against the mite.

  16. Grooms receives 2011 Donald L. Turcotte Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Ian Grooms has been awarded the AGU Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Grooms's thesis is entitled “Asymptotic and numerical methods for rapidly rotating buoyant flow.” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Grooms received his B.S. in mathematics from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., in 2005. He received a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 2011 under the supervision of Keith Julien at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His research interests include asymptotic and numerical methods for multiscale problems in geophysical fluid dynamics.

  17. Multi-granularity grooming using timing information in optical networks with waveband and TDM switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabarak allah Ali Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we incorporate the idea of waveband switching in Mixed Line Rates (MLR network design to address the problem of dynamic traffic grooming in waveband switching networks by investigating a cost function which take the effect of call holding time on the time slot assignment process of in WDM–TDM. Use has been made of Markov model in order to predict the wavelength congestion. A routing algorithm is developed based on the Markov modeling. The results are compared with existing routing algorithms – Available Shortest Path (ASP and Online Traffic Grooming Algorithm (OTGA. Validation results have shown that the performance of the proposed system is significantly improved in terms of bandwidth blocking ratio, network utilization as well as port saving due to wavebanding.

  18. Molecular transduction mechanisms in ACTH-induced grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Colbern, D.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Intraventricular administration of ACTH1-24 induces excessive grooming in the rat. Ethogram analysis shows that the peptide does not alter grooming behavior seen in a novel box, but that it prolongs the duration of the grooming bout. Extensive structure-activity studies have been performed which

  19. Relationship between head lice infestation and hair grooming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hair grooming practices and hair characteristics are some of the host related risk factors for head lice infestation. Certain hair grooming practices and characteristics have been reported to affect head lice infestation. Objective: To determine the relationship between head lice infestation and hair grooming ...

  20. Abnormal grooming activity in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazielle, C; Lefevre, A; Jacquelin, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-07-15

    Dab1(scm) mutant mice, characterized by cell ectopias and degeneration in cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex, were compared to non-ataxic controls for different facets of grooming caused by brief water immersions, as well as some non-grooming behaviors. Dab1(scm) mutants were strongly affected in their quantitative functional parameters, exhibiting higher starting latencies before grooming relative to non-ataxic littermates of the A/A strain, fewer grooming bouts, and grooming components of shorter duration, with an unequal regional distribution targeting almost totally the rostral part (head washing and forelimb licking) of the animal. Only bouts of a single grooming element were preserved. The cephalocaudal order of grooming elements appeared less disorganized, mutant and control mice initiating the grooming with head washing and forelimb licking prior to licking posterior parts. However, mutants differed from controls in that all their bouts were incomplete but uninterrupted, although intergroup difference for percentage of the incorrect transitions was not significant. In contrast to grooming, Dab1(scm) mice ambulated for a longer time. During walking episodes, they exhibited more body scratching than controls, possibly to compensate for the lack of licking different body parts. In conjunction with studies with other ataxic mice, these results indicate that the cerebellar cortex affects grooming activity and is consequently involved in executing various components, but not in its sequential organization, which requires other brain regions such as cerebral cortices or basal ganglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Power Efficient Service Differentiation Based on Traffic-Aware Survivable Elastic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes of Se...... while for the proposed approach the difference in power consumption is almost negligible.Moreover, incase of the proposed approach,silver serviceclass can benefit for superior quality of service compared to the gold service class, due to the grooming mechanism.......This study assesses the feasible energy savings whendefining different service classes based on protection schemesincore optical networks.Wepropose a dedicated energy savingstrategy for each of the service classes in order to minimize theoverall power consumption of the network.Four Classes...... of Serviceareconsidered: platinum, gold, silver and best effort.Platinumconnections benefit from a 1+1 protection scheme, gold connections and silver connections are assigned to a 1:1 protection with the difference that in case of gold connections the same pair of transponders is shared by the working and protection...

  2. Seguridad y Riesgos: Cyberbullying, Grooming y Sexting

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer Padilla, Fco Javier

    2017-01-01

    El proyecto se centrara en el estudio y el conocimiento de los diferentes riesgos de seguridad, sobre todo entre los más jóvenes, aunque puede verse afectado cualquier persona. El cyberbullying, grooming y sexting, estaban presentes de otra manera en la sociedad, aunque debido a la gran extensión de redes sociales, móviles y aplicaciones, entre otros, ha llevado a que estos riesgos hayan cambiado considerablemente. Uno de los mayores problemas con los que nos encontramos, es...

  3. Multi-granularity grooming using timing information in optical networks with waveband and TDM switching

    OpenAIRE

    Tabarak allah Ali Mohamed; Salwa El-Sabban; Gamal Abdel Fadeel Mohamed Khalaf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporate the idea of waveband switching in Mixed Line Rates (MLR) network design to address the problem of dynamic traffic grooming in waveband switching networks by investigating a cost function which take the effect of call holding time on the time slot assignment process of in WDM–TDM. Use has been made of Markov model in order to predict the wavelength congestion. A routing algorithm is developed based on the Markov modeling. The results are compared with existing rou...

  4. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  5. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  6. Botnet C&C Traffic and Flow Lifespans Using Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Oujezsky

    2017-03-01

    Based on our research we have figured out a possibility to distinguish the individual lifespans of C&C communications that are identical to each other by using survival projection curves, although it occurred in a different time course.

  7. Detecting child grooming behaviour patterns on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Basave, Amparo; Fernández, Miriam; Alani, Harith

    2014-01-01

    Online paedophile activity in social media has become a major concern in society as Internet access is easily available to a broader younger population. One common form of online child exploitation is child grooming, where adults and minors exchange sexual text and media via social media platforms. Such behaviour involves a number of stages performed by a predator (adult) with the final goal of approaching a victim (minor) in person. This paper presents a study of such online grooming stages ...

  8. Neurofibromin Loss of Function Drives Excessive Grooming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanikea B. King

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis I is a common genetic disorder that results in tumor formation, and predisposes individuals to a range of cognitive/behavioral symptoms, including deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, learning, language development, and sleep, and autism spectrum disorder-like traits. The nf1-encoded neurofibromin protein (Nf1 exhibits high conservation, from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Drosophila provides a powerful platform to investigate the signaling cascades upstream and downstream of Nf1, and the fly model exhibits similar behavioral phenotypes to mammalian models. In order to understand how loss of Nf1 affects motor behavior in flies, we combined traditional activity monitoring with video analysis of grooming behavior. In nf1 mutants, spontaneous grooming was increased up to 7x. This increase in activity was distinct from previously described dopamine-dependent hyperactivity, as dopamine transporter mutants exhibited slightly decreased grooming. Finally, we found that relative grooming frequencies can be compared in standard activity monitors that measure infrared beam breaks, enabling the use of activity monitors as an automated method to screen for grooming phenotypes. Overall, these data suggest that loss of nf1 produces excessive activity that is manifested as increased grooming, providing a platform to dissect the molecular genetics of neurofibromin signaling across neuronal circuits.

  9. Neurofibromin Loss of Function Drives Excessive Grooming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lanikea B; Koch, Marta; Murphy, Keith R; Velazquez, Yoheilly; Ja, William W; Tomchik, Seth M

    2016-04-07

    Neurofibromatosis I is a common genetic disorder that results in tumor formation, and predisposes individuals to a range of cognitive/behavioral symptoms, including deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, learning, language development, and sleep, and autism spectrum disorder-like traits. The nf1-encoded neurofibromin protein (Nf1) exhibits high conservation, from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Drosophila provides a powerful platform to investigate the signaling cascades upstream and downstream of Nf1, and the fly model exhibits similar behavioral phenotypes to mammalian models. In order to understand how loss of Nf1 affects motor behavior in flies, we combined traditional activity monitoring with video analysis of grooming behavior. In nf1 mutants, spontaneous grooming was increased up to 7x. This increase in activity was distinct from previously described dopamine-dependent hyperactivity, as dopamine transporter mutants exhibited slightly decreased grooming. Finally, we found that relative grooming frequencies can be compared in standard activity monitors that measure infrared beam breaks, enabling the use of activity monitors as an automated method to screen for grooming phenotypes. Overall, these data suggest that loss of nf1 produces excessive activity that is manifested as increased grooming, providing a platform to dissect the molecular genetics of neurofibromin signaling across neuronal circuits. Copyright © 2016 King et al.

  10. Human grooming in comparative perspective: People in six small-scale societies groom less but socialize just as much as expected for a typical primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kramer, Karen L; Hames, Raymond; Kiely, Evan J; Gomes, Cristina; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Grooming has important utilitarian and social functions in primates but little is known about grooming and its functional analogues in traditional human societies. We compare human grooming to typical primate patterns to test its hygienic and social functions. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were used to derive expected human grooming time given the potential associations between grooming, group size, body size, terrestriality, and several climatic variables across 69 primate species. This was compared against observed times dedicated to grooming, other hygienic behavior, and conversation among the Maya, Pumé, Sanöma, Tsimane', Yanomamö, and Ye'kwana (mean number of behavioral scans = 23,514). Expected grooming time for humans was 4% (95% Credible Interval = 0.07%-14%), similar to values observed in primates, based largely on terrestriality and phylogenetic signal (mean λ = 0.56). No other covariates strongly associated with grooming across primates. Observed grooming time across societies was 0.8%, lower than 89% of the expected values. However, the observed times dedicated to any hygienic behavior (3.0%) or "vocal grooming," that is conversation (7.3%), fell within the expected range. We found (i) that human grooming may be a (recent) phylogenetic outlier when defined narrowly as parasite removal but not defined broadly as personal hygiene, (ii) there was no support for thermoregulatory functions of grooming, and (iii) no support for the "vocal grooming" hypothesis of language having evolved as a less time-consuming means of bonding. Thus, human grooming reflects decreased hygienic needs, but similar social needs compared to primate grooming. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming.

  12. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Song-Tao; Zhao, Da-Peng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Kang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers) directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers) and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming.

  13. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  14. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale.

  15. Rank-dependent grooming patterns and cortisol alleviation in Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnweber, Ruth S; Ravignani, Andrea; Stobbe, Nina; Schiestl, Gisela; Wallner, Bernard; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-06-01

    Flexibly adapting social behavior to social and environmental challenges helps to alleviate glucocorticoid (GC) levels, which may have positive fitness implications for an individual. For primates, the predominant social behavior is grooming. Giving grooming to others is particularly efficient in terms of GC mitigation. However, grooming is confined by certain limitations such as time constraints or restricted access to other group members. For instance, dominance hierarchies may impact grooming partner availability in primate societies. Consequently specific grooming patterns emerge. In despotic species focusing grooming activity on preferred social partners significantly ameliorates GC levels in females of all ranks. In this study we investigated grooming patterns and GC management in Barbary macaques, a comparably relaxed species. We monitored changes in grooming behavior and cortisol (C) for females of different ranks. Our results show that the C-amelioration associated with different grooming patterns had a gradual connection with dominance hierarchy: while higher-ranking individuals showed lowest urinary C measures when they focused their grooming on selected partners within their social network, lower-ranking individuals expressed lowest C levels when dispersing their grooming activity evenly across their social partners. We argue that the relatively relaxed social style of Barbary macaque societies allows individuals to flexibly adapt grooming patterns, which is associated with rank-specific GC management. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The influence of sexual orientation and sexual role on male grooming-related injuries and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Truesdale, Matthew; Harris, Catherine R; Alwaal, Amjad; Shindel, Alan W; Allen, Isabel E; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2015-03-01

    Pubic hair grooming is a common practice in the United States and coincides with prevalence of grooming-related injuries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) groom more frequently than men who have sex with women (MSW). We aim to characterize the influence of sexual orientation and sexual role on grooming behavior, injuries, and infections in men in the United States. We conducted a nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18-65 residing in the United States. We examined the prevalence and risk factors of injuries and infections that occur as a result of personal grooming. Of the 4,062 men who completed the survey, 3,176 (78.2%) report having sex with only women (MSW), 198 (4.9%) report sex with men (MSM), and 688 (16.9%) report not being sexually active. MSM are more likely to groom (42.5% vs. 29.0%, P sex (85.3% vs. 51.9%, P orientation, and in particular sexual role, may influence male grooming behavior and impact grooming-related injuries and infections. Anogenital grooming may put one at risk for an STI. Healthcare providers should be aware of different grooming practices in order to better educate safe depilatory practices (i.e., the use of electric razors for anogenital grooming) in patients of all sexual orientations. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  18. The pivotal role of rank in grooming and support behaviour in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, Linda van

    2000-01-01

    We investigated dyadic grooming relationships in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and questioned what social function grooming fulfils in the ‘market of services and favors’. Hereto we examined which of two theoretical models - grooming for support (Seyfarth, 1977, 1980) or grooming

  19. Grooming behaviors and gill fouling in the commercially important blue crab (Callinectes sapidus and stone crab (Menippe mercenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen L. Wortham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grooming behaviors reduce fouling of body regions. In decapods, grooming time budgets, body regions groomed, and grooming appendages are known in several species; however, little data exists on brachyuran crabs. In this study, grooming behaviors of two commercially important crabs were documented (blue crabs: Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896; stone crabs: Menippe mercenaria Say, 1818. These crabs are harvested by fishermen and knowing their grooming behaviors is valuable, as clean crabs are preferred by consumers and the stone crab fishery consequence of removing one cheliped to grooming behaviors is unknown. Crabs were observed individually and agonistically to determine how grooming behaviors vary in the presence of another conspecific. Both species frequently use their maxillipeds and groom, with the gills being cleaned by epipods. Respiratory and sensory structures were groomed frequently in both species. Removal of a grooming appendage resulted in higher fouling levels in the gills, indicating that grooming behaviors do remove fouling. Overall, stone crabs had a larger individual time budget for grooming, but agonistic grooming time budgets were similar. Stone crab chelipeds are used in grooming, especially cleaning the other cheliped. The chelipeds are not the main grooming appendage; however, implications of losing one cheliped may have large impacts.

  20. MODUS OPERANDI OF SEXUAL ABUSERS AND THEIR GROOMING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Miraç Burak

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has detrimental effects on both psychological and sociological development of children. In recent years, attention of sexual abuse and abuser has increased because of missing and abducted children. According to literature, sexual abusers are more opportunist and agile than offenders of other crime types. Academic researches related to sexual absusers aim to understand how to sexual abusers groom children and their methods. Therefore these studies intend to prevent sexual ab...

  1. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  2. M-Track: A New Software for Automated Detection of Grooming Trajectories in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon L Reeves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice. This type of analysis is time-consuming and provides limited information about finer aspects of grooming behaviors, which are important to understand movement stereotypy and bilateral coordination in mice. Currently available commercial and freeware video-tracking software allow automated tracking of the whole body of a mouse or of its head and tail, not of individual forepaws. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up and a novel open-source code, named M-Track, for simultaneously tracking the movement of individual forepaws during spontaneous grooming in multiple freely-behaving mice. This toolbox provides a simple platform to perform trajectory analysis of forepaw movement during distinct grooming episodes. By using M-track we show that, in C57BL/6 wild type mice, the speed and bilateral coordination of the left and right forepaws remain unaltered during the execution of distinct grooming episodes. Stress exposure induces a profound increase in the length of the forepaw grooming trajectories. M-Track provides a valuable and user-friendly interface to streamline the analysis of spontaneous grooming in biomedical research studies.

  3. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Scheifele, Peter M.; Johnson, Michael T; Byrne, David C.; Clark, John G.; Ashley Vandlik; Kretschmer, Laura W.; Sonstrom, Kristine E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog) showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA cri...

  4. The role of nurse educators in grooming future nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Rose O; Bishop, Mary

    2007-07-01

    The authors have found in their research that too often our current nurse leaders have "fallen into" their positions, rather than choosing nursing leadership as a career path. With the impending retirements of so many nurse leaders, there is a need for a more proactive approach to ensure the next generation of nurse leaders is ready to assume the leadership of our profession. Guiding the development of a leadership mindset and promoting nursing leadership as a career choice are two important strategies. Nurse educators are in a key position to influence students and start grooming our future nurse leaders. There is no time to waste.

  5. A study of jet mass distributions with grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzani, Simone; Schunk, Lais; Soyez, Gregory

    2017-07-01

    We perform a phenomenological study of the invariant mass distribution of hadronic jets produced in proton-proton collisions, in conjunction with a grooming algorithm. In particular, we consider the modified MassDrop Tagger (mMDT), which corresponds to Soft Drop with angular exponent β = 0. Our calculation, which is differential in both jet mass and jet transverse momentum, resums large logarithms of the jet mass, including the full dependence on the groomer's energy threshold z cut, and it is matched to fixed-order QCD matrix elements at next-to-leading order. In order to account for non-perturbative contributions, originating from the hadronisation process and from the underlying event, we also include a phenomenological correction factor derived from Monte Carlo parton shower simulations. Furthermore, we consider two different possibilities for the jet transverse momentum: before or after grooming. We show that the former should be preferred for comparisons with upcoming experimental data essentially because the mMDT transverse momentum spectrum is not collinear safe, though the latter exhibits less sensitivity to underlying event and displays properties that may provide complementary information for probing non-perturbative effects.

  6. Differential gene expression associated with honey bee grooming behavior in response to varroa mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-relat...

  7. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate

  8. Female snub-nosed monkeys exchange grooming for sex and infant handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool in semi-wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana in central China, a species where two desirable resources, viz. reproductive males and infants, are restricted to the mating and birth season, respectively. We predict that females expend their grooming selectively to different individuals according to their "value". Our results show that in the mating season, females devoted more grooming to the resident male than in the birth season, and this effect was particularly strong in non-mothers (females without newborn infants. Moreover, females were more likely to groom the resident male after copulation than during baseline social conditions. In the birth season, females devoted more grooming to other females than in the mating season, and mothers (females with newborn infants were the most valuable grooming partners. The mean rate of contact by non-mothers toward infants of other females was significantly higher after grooming the mothers than in baseline social conditions. In conclusion, our findings lend credence to the notion that primate females use grooming as a strategic tool to obtain limited resources such as males and infants and vary preference for particular individuals depending on the seasonal availability of valuable resources.

  9. The effects of grooming on a copper ablative coating: a six year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribou, Melissa; Swain, Geoffrey

    2017-07-01

    More than 90% of US Navy Ships are coated with copper ablative paint. These ships may spend long periods of time pier-side, which makes them vulnerable to fouling. Hull grooming has been proposed as a means of maintaining the coatings in an operational condition. This study investigated the effect of grooming on a copper ablative coating exposed statically for six years. Grooming was performed weekly or monthly with controls left ungroomed. The fouling community was visually assessed, dry film thickness measurements were taken to monitor coating loss, and the copper leaching rates were measured. It was found that weekly and monthly groomed surfaces reduced fouling, and the ungroomed surfaces became fully fouled. Coating loss was similar for weekly, monthly and ungroomed surfaces. The results suggest that grooming is a viable method for maintaining copper ablative coatings in a fouling-free condition without adverse increases in the total copper output.

  10. Simultaneous activation of parallel sensory pathways promotes a grooming sequence inDrosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Stefanie; McKellar, Claire E; Simpson, Julie H; Seeds, Andrew M

    2017-09-09

    A central model that describes how behavioral sequences are produced features a neural architecture that readies different movements simultaneously, and a mechanism where prioritized suppression between the movements determines their sequential performance. We previously described a model whereby suppression drives a Drosophila grooming sequence that is induced by simultaneous activation of different sensory pathways that each elicit a distinct movement (Seeds et al., 2014). Here, we confirm this model using transgenic expression to identify and optogenetically activate sensory neurons that elicit specific grooming movements. Simultaneous activation of different sensory pathways elicits a grooming sequence that resembles the naturally induced sequence. Moreover, the sequence proceeds after the sensory excitation is terminated, indicating that a persistent trace of this excitation induces the next grooming movement once the previous one is performed. This reveals a mechanism whereby parallel sensory inputs can be integrated and stored to elicit a delayed and sequential grooming response.

  11. Neurobiology of rodent self-grooming and its value for translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Stewart, Adam Michael; Song, Cai; Berridge, Kent C; Graybiel, Ann M; Fentress, John C

    2016-01-01

    Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders--including models of autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder--that have assessed self-grooming phenotypes. We suggest that rodent self-grooming may be a useful measure of repetitive behaviour in such models, and therefore of value to translational psychiatry. Assessment of rodent self-grooming may also be useful for understanding the neural circuits that are involved in complex sequential patterns of action.

  12. ATLAS Standard Model Measurements Using Jet Grooming and Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Boosted topologies allow to explore Standard Model processes in kinematical regimes never tested before. In such LHC challenging environments, standard reconstruction techniques quickly hit the wall. Targeting hadronic final states means to properly reconstruct energy and multiplicity of the jets in the event. In order to be able to identify the decay product of boosted objects, i.e. W bosons, $t\\bar{t}$ pairs or Higgs produced in association with $t\\bar{t}$ pairs, ATLAS experiment is currently exploiting several algorithms using jet grooming and jet substructure. This contribution will mainly cover the following ATLAS measurements: $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section production and jet mass using the soft drop procedure. Standard Model measurements offer the perfect field to test the performances of new jet tagging techniques which will become even more important in the search for new physics in highly boosted topologies.”

  13. Automated classification of self-grooming in mice using open-source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, Bastijn J G; Pavlidi, Pavlina; Wolf, Casper J H; Mooij, Adriana H; Willuhn, Ingo

    2017-09-01

    Manual analysis of behavior is labor intensive and subject to inter-rater variability. Although considerable progress in automation of analysis has been made, complex behavior such as grooming still lacks satisfactory automated quantification. We trained a freely available, automated classifier, Janelia Automatic Animal Behavior Annotator (JAABA), to quantify self-grooming duration and number of bouts based on video recordings of SAPAP3 knockout mice (a mouse line that self-grooms excessively) and wild-type animals. We compared the JAABA classifier with human expert observers to test its ability to measure self-grooming in three scenarios: mice in an open field, mice on an elevated plus-maze, and tethered mice in an open field. In each scenario, the classifier identified both grooming and non-grooming with great accuracy and correlated highly with results obtained by human observers. Consistently, the JAABA classifier confirmed previous reports of excessive grooming in SAPAP3 knockout mice. Thus far, manual analysis was regarded as the only valid quantification method for self-grooming. We demonstrate that the JAABA classifier is a valid and reliable scoring tool, more cost-efficient than manual scoring, easy to use, requires minimal effort, provides high throughput, and prevents inter-rater variability. We introduce the JAABA classifier as an efficient analysis tool for the assessment of rodent self-grooming with expert quality. In our "how-to" instructions, we provide all information necessary to implement behavioral classification with JAABA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Online traffic grooming using timing information in WDM–TDM networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabarak allah Ali Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of holding time awareness on the process of time slot assignment in WDM–TDM is considered. Use has been made of Markov model in order to predict the wavelength congestion. A routing algorithm is developed based on the Markov modeling. The results are compared with existing algorithms—ASP, WSP and OTGA. Validation results have shown that the performance of the system is significantly improved in terms of bandwidth blocking ratio, network utilization and fairness.

  15. Grooming behaviors of black-tailed prairie dogs are influenced by flea parasitism, conspecifics, and proximity to refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Eads, Samantha L.

    2017-01-01

    Grooming is a common animal behavior that aids in ectoparasite defense. Ectoparasites can stimulate grooming, and natural selection can also favor endogenous mechanisms that evoke periodic bouts of “programmed” grooming to dislodge or kill ectoparasites before they bite or feed. Moreover, grooming can function as a displacement or communication behavior. We compared the grooming behaviors of adult female black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on colonies with or without flea control via pulicide dust. Roughly 91% of the prairie dogs sampled on the non-dusted colony carried at least one flea, whereas we did not find fleas on two dusted colonies. During focal observations, prairie dogs on the non-dusted colony groomed at higher frequencies and for longer durations than prairie dogs on the dusted colonies, lending support to the hypothesis that fleas stimulated grooming. However, the reduced amount of time spent grooming on the dusted colonies suggested that approximately 25% of grooming might be attributed to factors other than direct stimulation from ectoparasites. Non-dusted colony prairie dogs rarely autogroomed when near each other. Dusted colony prairie dogs autogroomed for shorter durations when far from a burrow opening (refuge), suggesting a trade-off between self-grooming and antipredator defense. Allogrooming was detected only on the non-dusted colony and was limited to adult females grooming young pups. Grooming appears to serve an antiparasitic function in C. ludovicianus. Antiparasitic grooming might aid in defense against fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague was introduced to North America ca. 1900 and now has a strong influence on most prairie dog populations, suggesting a magnified effect of grooming on prairie dog fitness.

  16. Distributed Grooming in Multi-Domain IP/MPLS-DWDM Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies distributed multi-domain, multilayer provisioning (grooming) in IP/MPLS-DWDM networks. Although many multi-domain studies have emerged over the years, these have primarily considered 'homogeneous' network layers. Meanwhile, most grooming studies have assumed idealized settings with 'global' link state across all layers. Hence there is a critical need to develop practical distributed grooming schemes for real-world networks consisting of multiple domains and technology layers. Along these lines, a detailed hierarchical framework is proposed to implement inter-layer routing, distributed grooming, and setup signaling. The performance of this solution is analyzed in detail using simulation studies and future work directions are also high-lighted.

  17. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers.

  18. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Peter M; Johnson, Michael T; Byrne, David C; Clark, John G; Vandlik, Ashley; Kretschmer, Laura W; Sonstrom, Kristine E

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog) showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA) exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers.

  19. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  20. Biofilm community structure and the associated drag penalties of a groomed fouling release ship hull coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, Kelli Z; Vora, Gary J; Hunsucker, J Travis; Gardner, Harrison; Leary, Dagmar H; Kim, Seongwon; Lin, Baochuan; Swain, Geoffrey

    2018-02-01

    Grooming is a proactive method to keep a ship's hull free of fouling. This approach uses a frequent and gentle wiping of the hull surface to prevent the recruitment of fouling organisms. A study was designed to compare the community composition and the drag associated with biofilms formed on a groomed and ungroomed fouling release coating. The groomed biofilms were dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria as well the diatoms Navicula, Gomphonemopsis, Cocconeis, and Amphora. Ungroomed biofilms were characterized by Phyllobacteriaceae, Xenococcaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and the pennate diatoms Cyclophora, Cocconeis, and Amphora. The drag forces associated with a groomed biofilm (0.75 ± 0.09 N) were significantly less than the ungroomed biofilm (1.09 ± 0.06 N). Knowledge gained from this study has helped the design of additional testing which will improve grooming tool design, minimizing the growth of biofilms and thus lowering the frictional drag forces associated with groomed surfaces.

  1. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals

  2. Laterality of Grooming and Tool Use in a Group of Captive Bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Colin M; Marchant, Linda F; Boose, Klaree J; White, Frances J; Rood, Tabatha M; Meinelt, Audra

    2017-01-01

    Humans exhibit population level handedness for the right hand; however, the evolution of this behavioral phenotype is poorly understood. Here, we compared the laterality of a simple task (grooming) and a complex task (tool use) to investigate whether increasing task difficulty elicited individual hand preference among a group of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Subjects were 17 bonobos housed at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. Laterality of grooming was recorded using group scans; tool use was recorded using all-occurrence sampling. Grooming was characterized as unimanual or bimanual, and both tasks were scored as right-handed or left-handed. Most individuals did not exhibit significant hand preference for unimanual or bimanual (asymmetrical hand use) grooming, although 1 individual was lateralized for each. For the 8 subjects who engaged in termite fishing enough for statistical testing, 7 individuals exhibited significant laterality and strong individual hand preference. Four subjects preferred their left hand, 3 preferred their right, and 1 had no preference. Grooming, a simple behavior, was not lateralized in this group, yet a more complex behavior revealed a strong individual hand preference, and these results are congruent with other recent findings that demonstrate complex tasks elicit hand preference in bonobos. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Impacts of beach wrack removal via grooming on surf zone water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd L; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Zhou, Christina; French-Owen, Darien; Hassaballah, Abdulrahman; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-02-18

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to assess the microbial water quality of recreational waters. Increasingly, nonfecal sources of FIB have been implicated as causes of poor microbial water quality in the coastal environment. These sources are challenging to quantify and difficult to remediate. The present study investigates one nonfecal FIB source, beach wrack (decaying aquatic plants), and its impacts on water quality along the Central California coast. The prevalence of FIB on wrack was studied using a multibeach survey, collecting wrack throughout Central California. The impacts of beach grooming, to remove wrack, were investigated at Cowell Beach in Santa Cruz, California using a long-term survey (two summers, one with and one without grooming) and a 48 h survey during the first ever intensive grooming event. FIB were prevalent on wrack but highly variable spatially and temporally along the nine beaches sampled in Central California. Beach grooming was generally associated with either no change or a slight increase in coastal FIB concentrations and increases in surf zone turbidity and silicate, phosphate, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. The findings suggest that beach grooming for wrack removal is not justified as a microbial pollution remediation strategy.

  4. Impact of Alternative Inputs and Grooming Methods on Large-R Jet Reconstruction in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, the optimal reconstruction algorithm for large-$R$ jets in ATLAS, characterized in terms of the ability to discriminate signal from background and robust reconstruction in the presence of pileup, was found to be anti-$k_{t}$ jets with a radius parameter of 1.0, formed from locally calibrated topological calorimeter cell clusters and groomed with the trimming algorithm to remove contributions from pileup and underlying event. Since that time, much theoretical, phenomenological, and experimental work has been performed to improve both the reconstruction of the jet inputs as well as the grooming techniques applied to reconstructed jets. In this work, an inclusive survey of both pileup mitigation algorithms applied to calorimeter cell clusters and grooming algorithms is done to study their pileup stability and ability to identify hadronically decaying W bosons within the ATLAS experiment. It is found that compared to the conventional reconstruction algorithm of large-$R$ trimmed jets form...

  5. Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Zheng, Y; Shi, H; Du, X; Zhang, Y; Wei, B; Luo, M; Wang, H; Wu, X; Hua, X; Sun, M; Xu, X

    2017-02-01

    Zfp462 is a newly identified vertebrate-specific zinc finger protein that contains nearly 2500 amino acids and 23 putative C2H2-type zinc finger domains. So far, the functions of Zfp462 remain unclear. In our study, we showed that Zfp462 is expressed predominantly in the developing brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions from embryonic day 7.5 to early postnatal stage. By using a piggyBac transposon-generated Zfp462 knockout (KO) mouse model, we found that Zfp462 KO mice exhibited prenatal lethality with normal neural tube patterning, whereas heterozygous (Het) Zfp462 KO (Zfp462+/- ) mice showed developmental delay with low body weight and brain weight. Behavioral studies showed that Zfp462+/- mice presented anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming and hair loss, which were similar to the pathological grooming behaviors in Hoxb8 KO mice. Further analysis of grooming microstructure showed the impairment of grooming patterning in Zfp462+/- mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pbx1 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1, an interacting protein of Zfp462) and Hoxb8 decreased in the brains of Zfp462+/- mice, which may be the cause of anxiety-like behaviors. Finally, imipramine, a widely used and effective anti-anxiety medicine, rescued anxiety-like behaviors and excessive self-grooming in Zfp462+/- mice. In conclusion, Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice. This provides a novel genetic mouse model for anxiety disorders and a useful tool to determine potential therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders and screen anti-anxiety drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Offense Processes of Online Sexual Grooming and Abuse of Children Via Internet Communication Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloess, Juliane A; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine E; Beech, Anthony R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide an inclusive and realistic account of the offense processes of naturally occurring, sexually exploitative interactions between offenders and victims that took place via Internet communication platforms, and develop an offense process diagram of online sexual grooming and abuse. Five case series, comprising 29 transcripts of 22 interactions, were analyzed using the qualitative approach of thematic analysis. Police reports were reviewed for descriptive and case-specific information. The five offenders were men aged between 27 and 52 years ( M = 33.6, SD = 5.6), and the number of children they communicated with ranged from one to 12 ( M = 4.6, SD = 4.5). Victims were aged between 11 and 15 ( M = 13.0, SD = 1.2), and were both female ( n = 17) and male ( n = 6). Findings revealed that offenders employed either an indirect or a direct approach to conversations with victims and initiating contact with them. The approach offenders employed was also reflected in the types of strategies they used. Only two offenders were found to engage in aspects of sexual grooming as part of an indirect approach; the majority of the interactions by the other three offenders, that lacked features of sexual grooming altogether, were found to be of a direct approach. These findings are discussed in relation to current issues surrounding terminology and definition of sexual grooming, as well as theoretical and practical implications, concluding with suggestions for future research.

  7. Pathological grooming: Evidence for a single factor behind trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Although trichotillomania (TTM), skin picking (SP), and nail biting (NB) have been receiving growing scientific attention, the question as to whether these disorders can be regarded as separate entities or they are different manifestations of the same underlying tendency is unclear. Data were collected online in a community survey, yielding a sample of 2705 participants (66% women, mean age: 29.1, SD: 8.6). Hierarchical factor analysis was used to identify a common latent factor and the multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) modelling was applied to test the predictive effect of borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, distress and self-esteem on pathological grooming. Pearson correlation coefficients between TTM, SP and NB were between 0.13 and 0.29 (p self-esteem had significant predictive effects, whereas borderline personality disorder had a nonsignificant predictive effect on the latent factor. We found evidence that the category of pathological grooming is meaningful and encompasses three symptom manifestations: trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting. This latent underlying factor is not better explained by indicators of psychopathology, which supports the notion that the urge to self-groom, rather than general psychiatric distress, impulsivity, self-esteem or borderline symptomatology, is what drives individual grooming behaviours.

  8. Sexual Abuse and the Grooming Process in Sport: Learning from Bella's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owton, Helen; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Through a process of collaborative autoethnography, we explore the experiences of one female athlete named Bella who was groomed and then sexually abused by her male coach. Bella's story signals how the structural conditions and power relationships embedded in competitive sporting environments, specifically the power invested in the coach, provide…

  9. Automated classification of self-grooming in mice using open-source software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boom, B.; Pavlidi, Pavlina; Wolf, Casper M H; Mooij, Hanne A H; Willuhn, Ingo

    BACKGROUND: Manual analysis of behavior is labor intensive and subject to inter-rater variability. Although considerable progress in automation of analysis has been made, complex behavior such as grooming still lacks satisfactory automated quantification. NEW METHOD: We trained a freely available,

  10. Prevalence of Pubic Hair Grooming-Related Injuries and Identification of High-Risk Individuals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Matthew D; Osterberg, E Charles; Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Elmer-DeWitt, Molly A; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Allen, Isabel; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-11-01

    Pubic hair grooming is a common practice that can lead to injury and morbidity. To identify demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with pubic hair grooming-related injuries to characterize individuals with high risk of injury and develop recommendations for safe grooming practices. This cross-sectional study conducted a national survey of noninstitutionalized US adults (aged 18-65 years). The web-based survey was conducted through a probability-based web panel designed to be representative of the US population. Data were collected in January 2014 and analyzed from August 1, 2016, through February 1, 2017. Grooming-related injury history (yes or no), high-frequency injuries (>5 lifetime injuries), and injury requiring medical attention. Among the 7570 participants who completed the survey (4198 men [55.5%] and 3372 women [44.5%]; mean (SD) age, 41.9 [18.9] years), 5674 of 7456 (76.1%) reported a history of grooming (66.5% of men and 85.3% of women [weighted percentages]). Grooming-related injury was reported by 1430 groomers (weighted prevalence, 25.6%), with more women sustaining an injury than men (868 [27.1%] vs 562 [23.7%]; P = .01). Laceration was the most common injury sustained (818 [61.2%]), followed by burn (307 [23.0%]) and rashes (163 [12.2%]). Common areas for grooming-related injury for men were the scrotum (378 [67.2%]), penis (196 [34.8%]), and pubis (162 [28.9%]); for women, the pubis (445 [51.3%]), inner thigh (340 [44.9%]), vagina (369 [42.5%]), and perineum (115 [13.2%]). After adjustment for age, duration of grooming, hairiness, instrument used, and grooming frequency, men who removed all their pubic hair 11 times or more during their lifespan had an increased risk for grooming injury (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.28-3.01; P = .002) and were prone to repeated high-frequency injuries (AOR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.01-7.52; P injuries (AOR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.78-5.01; P injuries (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.43; P = .001

  11. Pathological grooming: Evidence for a single factor behind trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Maraz

    Full Text Available Although trichotillomania (TTM, skin picking (SP, and nail biting (NB have been receiving growing scientific attention, the question as to whether these disorders can be regarded as separate entities or they are different manifestations of the same underlying tendency is unclear. Data were collected online in a community survey, yielding a sample of 2705 participants (66% women, mean age: 29.1, SD: 8.6. Hierarchical factor analysis was used to identify a common latent factor and the multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC modelling was applied to test the predictive effect of borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, distress and self-esteem on pathological grooming. Pearson correlation coefficients between TTM, SP and NB were between 0.13 and 0.29 (p < 0.01. The model yielded an excellent fit to the data (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.991, χ2 = 696.65, p < 0.001, df = 222, RMSEA = 0.030, Cfit of RMSEA = 1.000, supporting the existence of a latent factor. The MIMIC model indicated an adequate fit (CFI = 0.993, TLI = 0.992, χ2 = 655.8, p < 0.001, df = 307, RMSEA = 0.25, CI: 0.022-0.028, pclose = 1.000. TTM, SP and NB each were loaded significantly on the latent factor, indicating the presence of a general grooming factor. Impulsivity, psychiatric distress and contingent self-esteem had significant predictive effects, whereas borderline personality disorder had a nonsignificant predictive effect on the latent factor. We found evidence that the category of pathological grooming is meaningful and encompasses three symptom manifestations: trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting. This latent underlying factor is not better explained by indicators of psychopathology, which supports the notion that the urge to self-groom, rather than general psychiatric distress, impulsivity, self-esteem or borderline symptomatology, is what drives individual grooming behaviours.

  12. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  13. Using safe materials to control Varroa mites with studying grooming behavior of honey bees and morphology of Varroa over winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam F. Abou-Shaara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of drone larvae and propolis as safe materials are anticipated to boost the grooming behavior of honey bees against Varroa mites. It is also expected that grooming behavior of bees and morphology of Varroa are stable during the least active period of the year to bee colonies (i.e winter. Sugar syrup alone or mixed with drone larvae extract or propolis extract were examined as potential Varroa control materials to test these hypothesizes. Moreover, percentages of groomed mites along with body lengths and widths of Varroa were studied on weekly basis during winter. The results showed that propolis extract was able to increase the number of fallen mites under field conditions but with lethal impacts on bee workers in the laboratory than extract of drone larvae or sugar syrup. All the treatments were not able to boost the grooming behavior of bees. The results proved that grooming behavior was stable during winter. Therefore, it is better to select colonies with grooming potential against Varroa during winter in selection programs. December was significantly the minimal month in percentage of groomed mites based on the overall means. Means of measured characteristics of Varroa declined significantly over the study period. For beekeepers, using sugar syrup as spray on bees during regularly colony inspection can help managing Varroa populations without harming the bees.

  14. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and interchange of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the interchange of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  17. Effect of trail design and grooming on the incidence of injuries at alpine ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrøm, K A; Ekeland, A

    2004-06-01

    To identify the conditions at certain sites on slopes known as black spots for injury. In the Hafjell and Voss alpine ski areas in Norway, 1410 skiing injuries were recorded from December 1990 through the 1996 season. In Hafjell, 183 of these injuries were plotted on an area map during the two first seasons. Similarly, in Voss, 214 injuries were plotted on an area map for two seasons. During the last three seasons in Hafjell, 835 ski injuries were related to 6712 snow grooming hours and 6,829,084 lift journeys. The mean injury rate was 2.2 injuries per 1000 skier days, and the mean injury severity score (ISS) was 3.1. Accumulations of injuries at three sites (black spots) were recorded on the Hafjell area map. These injuries represented 40% of all injuries in the alpine area (palpine area map of Voss, representing 22% of the total injuries (p>0.05). Grooming of the slopes was rated poor for the 49% of injuries that occurred at the sites of injury concentration and significantly different (27%) from injuries that occurred at random in Hafjell. The corresponding values in Voss were 50% and 25% respectively. Grooming hours appeared to be inversely proportional to the number of injuries: R = -0.99 (p<0.02). The mean ISS declined significantly in Hafjell over the observation period (p<0.001). Inappropriate trail design and slope grooming seem to result in an accumulation of injuries at certain sites. Modification in construction and maintenance of the courses may reduce the number of injuries and mean ISS.

  18. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention by All Means?
    A Legal Comparison of the Criminalization of Online Grooming and its Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Kool

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to criminalise online grooming, recently prescribed by the Council of Europe in the Treaty of Lanzarote, illustrates modern citizens' fears of external dangers, especially towards the sexual abuse of minors. The authorities' image of online grooming being unclear, the penalisatiom tends to be of a symbolic nature, implying false prophecies of legal protection. Moreover, the penalisation of online grooming indicates a precautionary use of the criminal law, so its justification lies within the perpertrators' objectionable motive, the latter violating basic assumptions of criminal law. Next to theoretical objections, practical issues are to be foreseen, as the criminal investigation of online grooming indicates the use of undercover tactics, which has a bearing on the procedural risk, e.g. the entrapment defence. Nevertheless, the British authorities have been able to penalise online grooming rather successfully. The Netherlands having recently (in July 2010 introduced a similar provision, this calls for a comparative analysis. Does the penalisation of online grooming have any added value, especially in light of the tendency towards a precautionary use of the criminal law, and what features are apparent in the British success?

  20. The physiological effect of human grooming on the heart rate and the heart rate variability of laboratory non-human primates: a pilot study in male rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Clara Grandi; Hiroaki eIshida

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is a widespread, essential and complex behavior with social and affiliative valence in the non-human primate world. Its impact at the autonomous nervous system level has been studied during allogrooming among monkeys living in a semi-naturalistic environment. For the first time, we investigated the effect of human grooming to monkey in a typical experimental situation inside laboratory. We analyzed the autonomic response of male monkeys groomed by a familiar human (experimenter), in ...

  1. Towards Scalable Cost-Effective Service and Survivability Provisioning in Ultra High Speed Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Wang

    2006-12-01

    Optical transport networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) are considered to be the most appropriate choice for future Internet backbone. On the other hand, future DOE networks are expected to have the ability to dynamically provision on-demand survivable services to suit the needs of various high performance scientific applications and remote collaboration. Since a failure in aWDMnetwork such as a cable cut may result in a tremendous amount of data loss, efficient protection of data transport in WDM networks is therefore essential. As the backbone network is moving towards GMPLS/WDM optical networks, the unique requirement to support DOE’s science mission results in challenging issues that are not directly addressed by existing networking techniques and methodologies. The objectives of this project were to develop cost effective protection and restoration mechanisms based on dedicated path, shared path, preconfigured cycle (p-cycle), and so on, to deal with single failure, dual failure, and shared risk link group (SRLG) failure, under different traffic and resource requirement models; to devise efficient service provisioning algorithms that deal with application specific network resource requirements for both unicast and multicast; to study various aspects of traffic grooming in WDM ring and mesh networks to derive cost effective solutions while meeting application resource and QoS requirements; to design various diverse routing and multi-constrained routing algorithms, considering different traffic models and failure models, for protection and restoration, as well as for service provisioning; to propose and study new optical burst switched architectures and mechanisms for effectively supporting dynamic services; and to integrate research with graduate and undergraduate education. All objectives have been successfully met. This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this project. The impact of the project manifests in many aspects: First

  2. Combining snow depth and innovative skier flow measurements in order to improve snow grooming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, Carlo Maria; Albrecht, Stéphane; Hargoaa, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, ski resort managers have massively improved their snow management practices, in order to adapt their strategies to the inter-annual variability in snow conditions and to the effects of climate change. New real-time informations, such as snow depth measurements carried out on the ski slopes by grooming machines during their daily operations, have become available, allowing high saving, efficiency and optimization gains (reducing for instance the groomer fuel consumption and operation time and the need for machine-made snow production). In order to take a step forward in improving the grooming techniques, it would be necessary to keep into account also the snow erosion by skiers, which depends mostly on the snow surface properties and on the skier attendance. Today, however, most ski resort managers have only a vague idea of the evolution of the skier flows on each slope during the winter season. In this context, we have developed a new sensor (named Skiflux) able to measure the skier attendance using an infrared beam crossing the slopes. Ten Skiflux sensors have been deployed during the 2016/17 winter season at Val Thorens ski area (French Alps), covering a whole sector of the resort. A dedicated software showing the number of skier passages in real time as been developed as well. Combining this new Skiflux dataset with the snow depth measurements from grooming machines (Snowsat System) and the snow and meteorological conditions measured in-situ (Liberty System from Technoalpin), we were able to create a "real-time skiability index" accounting for the quality of the surface snow and its evolution during the day. Moreover, this new framework allowed us to improve the preparation of ski slopes, suggesting new strategies for adapting the grooming working schedule to the snow quality and the skier attendance. In the near future, this work will benefit from the advances made within the H2020 PROSNOW project ("Provision of a prediction system allowing

  3. La importancia de la incorporación de la figura delictiva denominada “grooming"

    OpenAIRE

    Viaña de Avendaño, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    La delincuencia informática facilitada por las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) han llevado al legislador penal a incluir nuevos tipos penales que abarquen y combatan estas conductas. En los últimos tiempos aparecieron un conjunto de anglicismos referidos a distintos fenómenos de abuso que tienen como víctima principal a los menores entre estos conceptos están: el ciberbullying, el happy slapping, el sexting y el grooming o ciberacoso sexual infantil. El crecimiento de la...

  4. Grooming and the 'Asian sex gang predator': the construction of a racial crime threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cockbain, E.

    2013-01-01

    Following a mainstream British newspaper’s claim to have uncovered a new crime threat of ‘on-street grooming’, extensive and emotive debate continues around the so-called ‘Asian sex gang’ problem in the UK. This article examines the construction of a new racial crime threat, assessing the validity of its foundations and exploring its possible causes and consequences. Grooming is shown to be a dubious category, not a distinct offence but an ill-defined subset of child sexual exploitation more ...

  5. Public Participation or Social Grooming: A Quantitative Content Analysis of a Local Social Network Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Tanaka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically investigate the structure of a local social network site (SNS by means of a quantitative content analysis. Local SNSs have recently increased in Japan. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication has supported city governments to set up local SNSs with the aim of encouraging public participation of citizens in municipal areas. However, the users of SNSs do not necessarily seem to utilize government-driven local SNSs for this purpose. The authors apply concepts of public participation and social grooming to study a local SNS. A quantitative content analysis was conducted to investigate users’ activity and latent factors that influence them. The result showed three findings. Firstly, the content of a local SNS might relate to three latent factors, namely, social grooming, civic participation, and political participation. Second, the former two factors could relate to users’ emotions. Third, compared to male users, female users might provide content that is more emotional and may be affected by the former two factors.

  6. Traffic Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Intelligent Vision Systems, Inc. (InVision) needed image acquisition technology that was reliable in bad weather for its TDS-200 Traffic Detection System. InVision researchers used information from NASA Tech Briefs and assistance from Johnson Space Center to finish the system. The NASA technology used was developed for Earth-observing imaging satellites: charge coupled devices, in which silicon chips convert light directly into electronic or digital images. The TDS-200 consists of sensors mounted above traffic on poles or span wires, enabling two sensors to view an intersection; a "swing and sway" feature to compensate for movement of the sensors; a combination of electronic shutter and gain control; and sensor output to an image digital signal processor, still frame video and optionally live video.

  7. A linguistic analysis of grooming strategies of online child sex offenders: Implications for our understanding of predatory sexual behavior in an increasingly computer-mediated world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Pamela J; Wollis, Melissa; Woodworth, Michael; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence to suggest that child sex offenders engage in grooming to facilitate victimization. It has been speculated that this step-by-step grooming process is also used by offenders who access their underage victims online; however, little research has been done to examine whether there are unique aspects of computer-mediated communication that impact the traditional face-to-face grooming process. This study considered the similarities and differences in the grooming process in online environments by analyzing the language used by online offenders when communicating with their victims. The transcripts of 44 convicted online offenders were analyzed to assess a proposed theory of the online grooming process (O'Connell, 2003). Using a stage-based approach, computerized text analysis examined the types of language used in each stage of the offender-victim interaction. The transcripts also were content analyzed to examine the frequency of specific techniques known to be employed by both face-to-face and online offenders, such as flattery. Results reveal that while some evidence of the strategies used by offenders throughout the grooming process are present in online environments, the order and timing of these stages appear to be different. The types (and potential underlying pattern) of strategies used in online grooming support the development of a revised model for grooming in online environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of personal grooming on self-perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paasschen, J; Walker, S C; Phillips, N; Downing, P E; Tipper, S P

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours, including the application of fragranced products, are thought to reflect a means of managing social impressions and self-image. Although application of deodorants has previously been shown to make individuals appear more confident to others, few studies have specifically examined the psychological effects of such rituals on the wearer. Here, we investigated how grooming behaviours affect self-perceived body image, a central component of an individual's self-image. In two separate experiments, using a psychophysical forced choice task, male and female participants with a normal Body Mass Index (BMI) indicated whether projected life-size images of their own body were bigger or smaller than their actual size. In the experimental condition, participants applied a fragranced deodorant before performing the task, whereas in the control condition, no product was applied. Our dependent measures were the point of subjective equality (PSE), the size at which participants report their body is subjectively equal to their actual body size, and the difference limen (DL), the amount of change in body size distortion necessary for it to be reliably detected. These measurements provide an index of attitudinal and perceptual components of body image, respectively. Both male and female participants who, at baseline, overestimated their body size, made significantly more accurate judgments about their body size, as measured by the PSE, following application of a fragranced deodorant or antiperspirant than they did in the control condition. This effect was seen in the absence of differences in perceptual sensitivity to changes in body size (DL) across groups and conditions. People who underestimated their body size did not show this effect. Of note, both male and female overestimators had a significantly larger BMI than underestimators. These results demonstrate that the attitudinal component of body image is malleable and can be influenced by everyday grooming

  9. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  10. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide induces hypothalamic dopaminergic hypoactivity and autistic-like behaviors: Repetitive self-grooming and stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Bernardi, Maria M

    2017-07-28

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model. Prenatal LPS exposure on gestational day 9.5 increased the head washing episodes (frequency and time), as well as the total self-grooming. However, body grooming, paw/leg licking, tail/genital grooming, and circling behavior/tail chasing did not vary significantly among the groups. Moreover, prenatal LPS induced dopaminergic hypoactivity (HVA metabolite and turnover) in the hypothalamus. Therefore, our rat model induced restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors and the other main symptoms of autism experimentally studied in rodent models and also found in patients. The hypothalamic dopaminergic impairments seem to be associated with the autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. modified traffic s modified traffic signal phasing at traffic warden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    centred' notion in traffic engineering is now being replaced by the new 'human centred' notion which takes all road users into consideration in its planning, design and operations and attaches more importance to vulnerable traffic participants such as the pedestrians [4]. Thus the pedestrian traffic safety management at TWC ...

  13. Necropsy findings in dogs that died during grooming or other pet service procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Anna Carolina Barbosa Esteves; Rego, Alexandre Aparecido Mattos da Silva; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2013-09-01

    Procedures involved in grooming, bathing, and other pet services can often lead animals to death. Of the necropsies of 1391 animals carried out at a private diagnostic laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 2004 to 2009, 94 were dogs that died during the above-mentioned procedures. Young male dogs and small breeds like Poodle Miniature, Yorkshire Terrier, and Lhasa Apso were most frequently observed. Blunt-force trauma was responsible for the deaths of 31% of the animals, with a higher incidence of trauma to the head, characterized chiefly by fractures and nervous tissue lesions. In the other 69% of cases, the animals showed signs of stress, and died due to pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. As we cannot rule out the intentional character in some situations, this article provides veterinary forensic support for veterinarians and pet owners, especially in lawsuits, helping in finding the cause of animal's death in such pet services. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2017-04-21

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  15. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. TrafficTurk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report summarizes a project undertaken by the University of Illinois on behalf of the Illinois Department of : Transportation to evaluate a smartphone application called TrafficTurk for traffic safety and traffic monitoring : applications. Traff...

  18. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  19. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  20. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Open traffic : A toolbox for traffic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, G.F.; Knoppers, P.; Van Lint, J.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Open Traffic is an open source software project that provides a transport modeling software environment. While most transport model packages offer ready-to-use modules for end-users, Open Traffic provides open access to a modelling environment for the (further) development of methods and algorithms

  2. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  3. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point...

  6. Gaussian traffic everywhere?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2006-01-01

    It is often assumed that Internet traffic exhibits Gaussian characteristics, and this assumption has been validated in various studies of real Internet traffic. Less is known, however, about possible boundaries: at what timescales is traffic Gaussian and how much user aggregation is required for

  7. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...

  8. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...

  9. High-Frequency Stimulation at the Subthalamic Nucleus Suppresses Excessive Self-Grooming in Autism-Like Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew D; Berges, Victoria A; Chung, Sunho J; Fridman, Gene Y; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately one quarter of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display self-injurious behavior (SIB) ranging from head banging to self-directed biting and punching. Sometimes, these behaviors are extreme and unresponsive to pharmacological and behavioral therapies. We have found electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can produce life-changing results, with more than 90% suppression of SIB frequency. However, these patients typically require frequent maintenance ECT (mECT), as often as every 5 days, to sustain the improvement gained during the acute course. Long-term consequences of such frequent mECT started as early as childhood in some cases are unknown. Accordingly, there is a need for alternative forms of chronic stimulation for these patients. To explore the feasibility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for intractable SIB seen in some patients with an ASD, we utilized two genetically distinct mouse models demonstrating excessive self-grooming, namely the Viaat-Mecp2(-/y) and Shank3B(-/-) lines, and administered high-frequency stimulation (HFS) via implanted electrodes at the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS). We found that STN-HFS significantly suppressed excessive self-grooming in both genetic lines. Suppression occurs both acutely when stimulation is switched on, and persists for several days after HFS is stopped. This effect was not explained by a change in locomotor activity, which was unaffected by STN-HFS. Likewise, social interaction deficits were not corrected by STN-HFS. Our data show STN-HFS suppresses excessive self-grooming in two autism-like mouse models, raising the possibility DBS might be used to treat intractable SIB associated with ASDs. Further studies are required to explore the circuitry engaged by STN-HFS, as well as other potential stimulation sites. Such studies might also yield clues about pathways, which could be modulated by non-invasive stimulatory techniques.

  10. PPLN-based OOK and DQPSK optical grooming by amplitude and phase-signal multiplexing through pump depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Sergio; Malacarne, Antonio; Lazzeri, Emma; Bogoni, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    We propose and characterize a simple, integrable, and wavelength-preserving scheme able to groom a 40 Gbps (D)QPSK signal with a 20 Gbps OOK one into a 20 Gbaud (60 Gbps) 8-APSK signal. The proposed all-optical scheme is based on the second-order nonlinear signal-depletion effect in a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Performance of the device, characterized by means of BER measurements, attests error-free operation and a power penalty below 4.1 dB.

  11. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  12. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  13. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  14. modified traffic s modified traffic signal phasing at traffic warden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1111, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, KWARA STATE. NIGERIA. E-mail addresses: 1111 ... centred' notion in traffic engineering is now being replaced by the new 'human centred' ..... Federal Highway Administration, 2009. [5] Alhajyaseen, W. K. M., Asano, ...

  15. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  16. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  18. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees-New damage categories in Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the und...

  19. Child Grooming and Sexual Exploitation: Are South Asian Men the UK Media’s New Folk Devils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha K Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Media reporting on the trial focused on the fact that eight of the men were of Pakistani descent, while all the girls were white. Framing similar cases in Preston, Rotherham, Derby, Shropshire, Oxford, Telford and Middlesbrough as ethnically motivated, the media incited moral panic over South Asian grooming gangs preying on white girls. While these cases shed light on the broader problem of sexual exploitation in Britain, they also reveal continuing misconceptions that stereotype South Asian men as ‘natural’ perpetrators of these crimes due to culturally-specific notions of hegemonic masculinity. Examining newspaper coverage from 2012 to 2013, this article discusses the discourse of the British media’s portrayal of South Asian men as perpetrators of sexual violence against white victims, inadvertently construing ‘South Asian men’ as ‘folk devils’.

  20. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Civil and Architectural Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of. Technology, Illinois, Chicago ..... parametric test, i.e., the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, compared between observed and derived densities. ..... istics related to freeway design, vehicle performance, and the traffic stream on passenger-car equivalents for heavy ...

  1. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

  2. Intermediate-term emotional bookkeeping is necessary for long-term reciprocal grooming partner preferences in an agent-based model of macaque groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Evers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how primates are able to maintain long-term affiliative relationships is still under debate. Emotional bookkeeping (EB, the partner-specific accumulation of emotional responses to earlier interactions, is a candidate mechanism that does not require high cognitive abilities. EB is difficult to study in real animals, due to the complexity of primate social life. Therefore, we developed an agent-based model based on macaque behavior, the EMO-model, that implements arousal and two emotional dimensions, anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE, which regulate social behavior. To implement EB, model individuals assign dynamic LIKE attitudes towards their group members, integrating partner-specific emotional responses to earlier received grooming episodes. Two key parameters in the model were varied to explore their effects on long-term affiliative relationships: (1 the timeframe over which earlier affiliation is accumulated into the LIKE attitudes; and (2 the degree of partner selectivity. EB over short and long timeframes gave rise to low variation in LIKE attitudes, and grooming partner preferences were only maintained over one to two months. Only EB over intermediate-term timeframes resulted in enough variation in LIKE attitudes, which, in combination with high partner selectivity, enables individuals to differentiate between regular and incidental grooming partners. These specific settings resulted in a strong feedback between differentiated LIKE attitudes and the distribution of grooming, giving rise to strongly reciprocated partner preferences that could be maintained for longer periods, occasionally up to one or two years. Moreover, at these settings the individual’s internal, socio-emotional memory of earlier affiliative episodes (LIKE attitudes corresponded best to observable behavior (grooming partner preferences. In sum, our model suggests that intermediate-term LIKE dynamics and high partner selectivity seem most plausible for

  3. Comsat's TDMA traffic terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Bogaert, W. M.

    1985-06-01

    Comsat has installed two traffic terminals in the Etam earth-station and is currently installing a third in the new Roaring Creek earth-station to access the Intelsat TDMA network. This paper describes the Comsat TDMA traffic terminal equipment from the supergroup interface to the antenna. Comsat's 1: N redundancy approach for terrestrial interface equipment and DSI unit back-up is described as well as electrical path length, amplitude and group delay equalization techniques, special on-line RF monitoring and failure reporting facilities and the operation and maintenance center which can operate and perform diagnostic testing on up to four traffic terminals from a central location.

  4. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  5. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  6. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  7. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  8. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  9. Traffic pollution and countermeasures of urban traffic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhong; Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-01-01

    Background: Traffic environment has become a serious social problem in China currently, therefore, urban traffic environment governance is the requirement to solve this issue because as an important place in people's social life, urban traffic environment shows a strong city's energy. Objective: Based on analysis on social function of city traffic environment and its influence of traffic on urban environment in this paper, the goal to establish a healthy urban traffic environment must be included under the aim of sustainable development eternally and feasible measures were put forward afterwards. Method, result, conclusion and possible applications.

  10. Traffic camera system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Toshi

    1997-04-01

    The intelligent transportation system has generated a strong need for the development of intelligent camera systems to meet the requirements of sophisticated applications, such as electronic toll collection (ETC), traffic violation detection and automatic parking lot control. In order to achieve the highest levels of accuracy in detection, these cameras must have high speed electronic shutters, high resolution, high frame rate, and communication capabilities. A progressive scan interline transfer CCD camera, with its high speed electronic shutter and resolution capabilities, provides the basic functions to meet the requirements of a traffic camera system. Unlike most industrial video imaging applications, traffic cameras must deal with harsh environmental conditions and an extremely wide range of light. Optical character recognition is a critical function of a modern traffic camera system, with detection and accuracy heavily dependent on the camera function. In order to operate under demanding conditions, communication and functional optimization is implemented to control cameras from a roadside computer. The camera operates with a shutter speed faster than 1/2000 sec. to capture highway traffic both day and night. Consequently camera gain, pedestal level, shutter speed and gamma functions are controlled by a look-up table containing various parameters based on environmental conditions, particularly lighting. Lighting conditions are studied carefully, to focus only on the critical license plate surface. A unique light sensor permits accurate reading under a variety of conditions, such as a sunny day, evening, twilight, storms, etc. These camera systems are being deployed successfully in major ETC projects throughout the world.

  11. Fine-scale linkage mapping reveals a small set of candidate genes influencing honey bee grooming behavior in response to Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E Arechavaleta-Velasco

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees in North America have been experiencing high annual colony mortality for 15-20 years. Many apicultural researchers believe that introduced parasites called Varroa mites (V. destructor are the most important factor in colony deaths. One important resistance mechanism that limits mite population growth in colonies is the ability of some lines of honey bees to groom mites from their bodies. To search for genes influencing this trait, we used an Illumina Bead Station genotyping array to determine the genotypes of several hundred worker bees at over a thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a family that was apparently segregating for alleles influencing this behavior. Linkage analyses provided a genetic map with 1,313 markers anchored to genome sequence. Genotypes were analyzed for association with grooming behavior, measured as the time that individual bees took to initiate grooming after mites were placed on their thoraces. Quantitative-trait-locus interval mapping identified a single chromosomal region that was significant at the chromosome-wide level (p<0.05 on chromosome 5 with a LOD score of 2.72. The 95% confidence interval for quantitative trait locus location contained only 27 genes (honey bee official gene annotation set 2 including Atlastin, Ataxin and Neurexin-1 (AmNrx1, which have potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects. Atlastin and Ataxin homologs are associated with neurological diseases in humans. AmNrx1 codes for a presynaptic protein with many alternatively spliced isoforms. Neurexin-1 influences the growth, maintenance and maturation of synapses in the brain, as well as the type of receptors most prominent within synapses. Neurexin-1 has also been associated with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia in humans, and self-grooming behavior in mice.

  12. Measurement of groomed jet mass in PbPb and pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the groomed jet mass ($M_g$) normalized by the jet transverse momentum ($p_\\text{T}^\\text{jet}$) for anti-$k_\\text{T}$ jets with the radius parameter $0.4$ in PbPb and pp collisions at a center of mass energy of $5.02\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ per nucleon pair is presented. The jet grooming algorithm is a recursive procedure which sequentially removes soft constituents of a jet until a pair of hard subjets is found. The results of this grooming can be used to study modifications to partons and their evolution while traversing the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, via small angle splitting of quarks and gluons insie the jet cores. The CMS detector at the LHC is used to perform this analysis for $p_\\text{T}^\\text{jet}$ between 140 and $300\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ and pseudo-rapidity less than 1.3 in both PbPb and pp collisions, and for a range of PbPb collision centralities. The measurements in pp collisions are compared to predictions from the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ event generators and agreement...

  13. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  14. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  15. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...

  16. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  17. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  18. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Transportation and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are working to support the development of automated ... USA.gov WhiteHouse.gov National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE Washington, DC 20590 ...

  19. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  20. Youth and Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, H.M.; Mayhew, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of traffic accidents involving young adults: specifically, what is known about the causes of their accidents, and what preventive action seems warranted. In this context, we consider what role the family physician might play in dealing with this major public health problem.

  1. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  2. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  3. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  4. Traffic light intensity meter, TIM®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leden, N. van der; Varkevisser, J.; Vroom, J. de; Oijen, T van

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of traffic lights decreases over time as a result of pollution and ageing. The Dutch Traffic Research Centre of the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is searching for a convenient method for measuring the luminous intensity of traffic lights on the road, in order

  5. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  6. Stochastic Model of Traffic Jam and Traffic Signal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.

  7. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  8. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  9. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  10. Physics of Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  11. RAILWAY TRAFFIC OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Kamenický

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analysis of possibilities of operatic control of railway traffic and its automatization and its support by information systems. Conditions, necessary pieces of input information like infrastructure description are discussed. RailML format is mentioned as suitable format for description in railway area. Optimization criterion and use of evolutionary techniques are suggested. The system is modeled in Railway Laboratory of the Faculty of Transportation Sciences, CTU in Prague.

  12. The Physics of Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. Craig

    2006-03-01

    Congestion in freeway traffic is an example of self-organization in the language of complexity theory. Nonequilibrium, first-order phase transitions from free flow cause complex spatiotemporal patterns. Two distinct phases of congestion are observed in empirical traffic data--wide moving jams and synchronous flow. Wide moving jams are characterized by stopped or slowly moving vehicles within the jammed region, which widens and moves upstream at 15-20 km/h. Above a critical density of vehicles, a sudden decrease in the velocity of a lead vehicle can initiate a transition from metastable states to this phase. Human behaviors, especially delayed reactions, are implicated in the formation of jams. The synchronous flow phase results from a bottleneck such as an on-ramp. Thus, in contrast to a jam, the downstream front is pinned at a fixed location. The name of the phase comes from the equilibration (or synchronization) of speed and flow rate across all lanes caused by frequent vehicle lane changes. Synchronous flow occurs when the mainline flow and the rate of merging from an on-ramp are sufficiently large. Large-scale simulations using car-following models reproduce the physical phenomena occurring in traffic and suggest methods to improve flow and mediate congestion.

  13. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  14. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2008-05-01

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents.

  15. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  16. A Virtual Platform for Improving Coordination and Promoting Cooperation on Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabee Mohamed Reffat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful management of traffic safety requires effective community participation in the process of traffic awareness, planning and management along with the executive bodies concerned with traffic planning and management. Just as important to reinforcing a shared vision among people and management bodies is the idea of people participation in decision-making. There is a strong need for cooperation among traffic users, planners and managers. Traffic users play a significant role in running the traffic and have been vocal about management issues. Users should be encouraged to be as involved and active as possible in all decisions that affect their traffic safety. Community Corporations go further and encourage participation by forming user organizations. Encouraging user participation also requires training for oversight and conflict resolution, in order to work through unresolved problems. It is also as important that users should try out their ideas in an open exchange, see how the ideas fare; and hopefully, the best ones will survive and users learn through each other. Therefore, there is a great need to provide users, traffic planners and managers with a platform that fosters such activities and allows traffic users to discuss, report and document their views, events, experiences related to their traffic safety, i.e. report on faults, cracks, breakdown, damages, etc. Making a good use of such data can substantially assist in improving the operation and management of traffic safety. Virtual environments can provide traffic users, planners and managers with an atmosphere to participate in a computer generated world. Virtual environments run on multiple processes in which information are shared among processes. Traffic users, planners and managers will be able to visualize and navigate the virtual traffic modeled in distributed virtual environments. Traffic management is essential to achieve better reliability and availability of traffic safety

  17. Near real-time traffic routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  18. Interdomain traffic engineering with BGP

    OpenAIRE

    Quoitin, Bruno; Uhlig, Steve; Pelsser, Cristel; Swinnen, Louis; Bonaventure, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Traffic engineering is performed by means of a set of techniques that can be used to better control the flow of packets inside an IP network We discuss the utilization of these techniques across interdomain boundaries in the global Internet. We first analyze the characteristics of interdomain traffic on the basis of measurements from three different Internet service providers and show that a small number of sources are responsible for a large fraction of the traffic. Across interdomain bounda...

  19. Traffic Signals in School Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin S Lee; Bullock, Darcy M.

    2003-01-01

    Traffic signals are used to control the right of way at intersections. Strict engineering guidelines are published in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) that engineers use to determine if a traffic signal is “warranted”. The warrants provide consistent national balance between mobility, safety, efficiency, and costs. However, signalized intersections are often viewed by the general public as safer then unsignalized intersections. This belief is often heightened when there a...

  20. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Artuñedo; Raúl M del Toro; Rodolfo E Haber

    2017-01-01

    .... The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...

  1. Economical Video Monitoring of Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B. C.; Paine, G.; Rubenstein, L. D.; Parham, O. Bruce, Jr.; Graves, W.; Bradley, C.

    1986-01-01

    Data compression allows video signals to be transmitted economically on telephone circuits. Telephone lines transmit television signals to remote traffic-control center. Lines also carry command signals from center to TV camera and compressor at highway site. Video system with television cameras positioned at critical points on highways allows traffic controllers to determine visually, almost immediately, exact cause of traffic-flow disruption; e.g., accidents, breakdowns, or spills, almost immediately. Controllers can then dispatch appropriate emergency services and alert motorists to minimize traffic backups.

  2. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...... ways of dealing with congestion and environmental problems in urban areas....

  3. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  4. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  5. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  6. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...

  7. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  8. Steady traffic scheduler for internet video traffic across large delay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady traffic scheduler for internet video traffic across large delay networks. O.E. Ojo, A.O. Oluwatope, I.T. Arowobusoye. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Computer Networks, Multimedia Networking, TCP and Large-Delay Networks. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  9. Simulation of Traffic on Intersection After Change of Traffic Priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav KŘIVDA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problem of capacity calculation of intersection after change of traffic priority and with simulation of traffic using simulation software PTV VISSIM. This paper was prepared with financial support for project FRVŠ č. 2206/2011/F1/d “Innovation of Learning of Subjects from the Design of Urban Roads and Intersections”.

  10. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  11. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  12. Allogrooming, Self-Grooming, and Touching Behavior: Contamination Routes of Leaf-Cutting Ant Workers Using a Fat-Soluble Tracer Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Roberto da Silva; Puccini, Carolina; Forti, Luiz Carlos; de Matos, Carlos Alberto Oliveira

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to determine whether worker self-grooming, allogrooming, and direct contact promotes the dispersal of substances among members of the colony. For this purpose, a tracer (Sudan III dye) was applied topically to a worker ant and the social interactions between the worker with the tracer and workers without the tracer were studied. Additionally, the worker heads were dissected to visualize whether or not the post-pharyngeal gland was stained. The post-pharyngeal glands from 50% to 70% of workers were stained depending on the size of the group. With the increase in the experimental group size, the frequency of interactions between workers increased, with touching being the most frequent behavior. The tracer dye was probably passed on by direct contact between workers, followed by self-grooming and allogrooming. These behaviors are responsible for the rapid dispersal of substances among colony members as observed in our experiment. The results therefore support the hypothesis that contact with substances promotes the contamination of nestmates, even in the absence of feeding, serving as a model for further studies on the contamination of workers with the active ingredients of insecticides.

  13. [Drugs and traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, V; Zabranský, T; Vorel, F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to map the prevalence of alcohol and other psychotropic substances in deceased participants of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample included persons autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine and forensic toxicology that died during traffic accidents and were toxicologically tested in 2003. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0,2 g/kg and higher, with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; in cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the definition only cases with substances not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. We identified 554 cases of whom 440 (79.4%) were males and 114 (20.6%) were females. 35.5% were in the age group 20 - 34 years. The sample has been classified into 4 categories (average age, % of males): pedestrians (45.4, 76.2), bicyclists (51.1, 82.0), drivers (36.3, 91.2) and others (36.1, 66.2). Alcohol was tested in 548 cases, 214 (39.1%) of those were found positive. 380 cases were tested for other psychotropic substances than alcohol; samples taken from 25 bodies (6.6%) were found positive for at least for one of these substances. 8 cases were positive both for alcohol and some other psychotropic substance - i.e. 3.7% out of 214 cases positive for alcohol were positive for other substance and 32.0% out of 25 cases positive at least for any other psychotropic substance were alcohol-positive. When focusing our analysis at the active participants of road traffic accidents only - pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers (altogether 397 cases) - we have found alcohol to be tested in 394 cases, out of which 158 (39.1%) were positive; as for other psychotropic substances, 314 cases were tested and 23 (7.3%) were positive at least for one of them. 7 cases were found positive for alcohol and other psychotropic substance simultaneously; this represents 4.4% out of

  14. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance o...

  15. Traffic Safety for Special Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Val; MacKenzie, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    In a 6 weeks' unit on traffic education using flannel graphs, filmstrips and models, 12 special class students (IQ 55-82) ages 7- to 11-years-old learned six basic skills including crossing a road, obeying traffic lights and walking on country roads. (CL)

  16. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  17. Safety effects of traffic restraint.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years the effectiveness and acceptability of traffic restraint measures in residential areas has been investigated. Results of accident investigations indicate that a new layout of residential areas has a positive effect on traffic safety. Research into road safety should not be restricted

  18. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  19. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  20. [The pediatrician and traffic safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, Renata D; Pirito, Regina M B K

    2005-11-01

    To instruct children and teenagers about safe transportation and about their behavior as cyclists and pedestrians. The MEDLINE and LILACS databases were searched, using the following terms, from 1995 to 2005: traffic accidents, child, adolescent, morbidity, mortality, age, and gender. Scientific articles on morbidity and mortality from traffic accidents, children in a pedestrian situation, as cyclists or as motor vehicle passengers, were selected. More than 300 scientific articles were found, but only the studies that addressed those issues in a broad manner were selected. Traffic-related mortality rates are still very high and show the necessity to intensify educational campaigns for community awareness, in addition to encouraging investments in effective pedestrian safety. The pediatrician s role is to decrease the number of children and adolescents who get involved in traffic accidents by providing them with traffic guidance and education.

  1. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  2. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  3. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hua-pu; Sun, Zhi-yuan; Qu, Wen-cong; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic ...

  4. Technical note: Use of an automated grooming brush by heifers and potential for radiofrequency identification-based measurements of this behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel L; Velez, Martin; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2017-10-01

    Healthy cattle readily use grooming brushes but this behavior subsides when animals become ill. Tracking use of a brush may provide an opportunity for health monitoring, especially if the process could be automated. We assessed how healthy heifers groom themselves on a brush and hypothesized that radiofrequency identification (RFID) could be used to accurately and automatically record this behavior. Angus and Hereford heifers (n = 16) were fitted with 2 ultra-high-frequency RFID ear tags and monitored in groups of 8 while housed in a pen with an electronic brush, video cameras, and 4 RFID antennas. Each heifer was observed for a 6-h period using continuous video recordings, and brush contact was characterized in terms of anatomic region involved (head/neck, trunk, or posterior) and when not touching the brush but within 1 body length of it. The RFID data were collected for the same period and then processed such that intervals of up to 16 s with no detections but contained between 2 recordings were also considered positive (animal in brush proximity). Brush proximity (RFID) was regressed against brush contact duration (video) and the sensitivity and specificity for each individual heifer calculated. Across heifers, the majority of brush use involved the head/neck, although a few heifers demonstrated relatively large amounts of posterior contact, which contributed to false-negative readings when antennas failed to read the ear tags. Furthermore, for the majority of time that animals were near the brush, they were not in contact with it but rather standing or lying nearby, resulting in false-positive readings. It follows that the ability of the RFID system to accurately detect brush contact varied widely across individual heifers (sensitivity 0.54-1.0; specificity 0.59-0.98), with RFID generally overestimating the duration of brush proximity relative to actual time spent in brush contact. The implication is that RFID-based ear tag recording of brush proximity

  5. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  6. Fluctuations in Urban Traffic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Dong; Li, Li; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jian-Ming; Jin, Xue-Xiang

    Urban traffic network is a typical complex system, in which movements of tremendous microscopic traffic participants (pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles) form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics. We collected flow volumes data on the time-dependent activity of a typical urban traffic network, finding that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation on individual links obeys a certain scaling law, with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1. These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the nodes' internal dynamics (i.e. queuing at intersections, car-following in driving) and changes in the external (network-wide) traffic demand (i.e. the every day increase of traffic amount during peak hours and shocking caused by traffic accidents), allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the transportation system's collective behavior. Multiscaling and hotspot features are observed in the traffic flow data as well. But the reason why the separated internal dynamics are comparable to the external dynamics in magnitude is still unclear and needs further investigations.

  7. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber-sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website.

  8. Linearized Theory of Traffic Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Cohan, Tal

    2014-01-01

    The equation of motion of a general class of macroscopic traffic flow models is linearized around a steady uniform flow. A closed-form solution of a boundary-initial value problem is obtained, and it is used to describe several phenomena. Specifically, the scenarios examined involve a smooth velocity field in stop-and-go traffic, a discontinuous velocity field with shock waves in a traffic light problem, and discontinuous displacement fields in a problem where a single platoon of vehicles splits into two, and later merges back into one.

  9. Vulnerable road users are at greater risk during Ramadan -- results from road traffic surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Amber; Khan, Irum Qamar; Mir, Mohammad Umer; Moin, Anoosh; Jooma, Rashid

    2015-03-01

    To assess how the frequency, nature and outcome of road traffic crashes differ during the fasting month of Ramadan. The retrospective study was conducted in Karachi and comprised data from the Road Traffic Injury Surveillance Project which entailed information on all road traffic injury victims presenting to Emergency Departments in the city between September 2006 and September 2011. Data was analysed to find the frequency of road traffic crashes according to time of incident, road user group and survival. Ramadan and Non-Ramadan groups were compared with respect to time and frequency of incidents, road user group and mortality. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. There were 163,022 subjects from whom 13,640(8.36%) came during Ramadan and 149,382 (91.6%) during the non-Ramadan months. Frequency of road traffic crashes did not change significantly during Ramadan, but was clustered around the breaking of Fast and the Taravih prayers. The most commonly affected road user group was motorbike riders followed by pedestrians. Overall survival of the RTI victims was 96.1% with a mortality rate of 4.1% which was higher than the figure of 3.5% in the non-Ramadan period. Vulnerable road users were more frequently involved in road traffic injuries during Ramadan. Moreover, the frequency of crashes increased around evening which requires more careful planning of traffic controls, especially for the vulnerable road users.

  10. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  11. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and

  12. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole

  13. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traffic Flow-Density diagrams are obtained using simple Jackson queuing network analysis. Such simple analytical models can be used to capture the effect of non- homogenous traffic. Keywords. Flow-density curves; uninterrupted traffic; Jackson networks. 1. Introduction. Traffic management has become very essential in ...

  14. 49 CFR 1139.2 - Traffic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Traffic study. 1139.2 Section 1139.2... of General Commodities § 1139.2 Traffic study. (a) The respondents shall submit a traffic study for... “base-calendar year—actual.” The study shall include a probability sampling of the actual traffic...

  15. Fastlane : Traffic flow modeling and multi-class dynamic traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.; Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Yuan, Y.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) aims to improve traffic conditions. DTM usually consists of two steps: first the current traffic is estimated, then appropriate control actions are determined based on that estimate. In order to estimate and control the traffic, a suitable traffic flow model that

  16. Characterization and Modeling of Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Bergheim, Hans; Ragnarsson, Olafur

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to characterize and model backbone network traffic, using a small number of statistics. In order to reduce cost and processing power associated with traffic analysis. The parameters affecting the behaviour of network traffic are investigated and the choice is that inter......-arrival time, IP addresses, port numbers and transport protocol are the only necessary parameters to model network traffic behaviour. In order to recreate this behaviour, a complex model is needed which is able to recreate traffic behaviour based on a set of statistics calculated from the parameters values....... The model investigates the traffic generation mechanisms, and grouping traffic into flows and applications....

  17. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  18. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  19. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  20. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  1. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  2. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  3. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  4. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...... with respect to the decibel traffic noise. The model distinguishes between houses and apartments and shows that the ability to include refined accessibility variables have significant impact on estimated prices....

  5. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  6. The Railway Traffic Shunting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pepevnik

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Economy demands quality peiformance of transport servicesfrom all spheres of the traffic system The shunting systemin railway transport is a part of the traffic system. The fact thatthe railways are an organization of special social interest makesits organization structure the more important for the economicdevelopment. Problems that appear in the development of theeconomic system clearly point out numerous irregularitieswithin the railways. The demand of quality transport servicesrequires rationality of transport which consequently requiresgreat changes in the field of traffic organization structure andexploitation of transport capacities.Elementary parameters of the quality evaluation of thetransport service in all traffic subsystems are: speed, safety andregularity of transport. The same parameters can be implementedas the basis of technical and exploitation characteristicsof traffic.The shunting system in railway traffic is affected by numerouselements which are interconnected and represent a uniformtechnological process. Subsequently, the shunting system isconsidered a uniform technological system. The characteristicsof such a system are apparent in the technical and technologicalprocess, e.g.:- integrality, i. e. characteristic of collective production oftransport services;- homogeneity of transport means;- standardization of means of integral transport.In the process of transport demands, maximum servicequality is incessantly required. However, maximum quality withcertain quantitative dimension in regard to mode, place andtime of the transport process requires engagement of transportmeans, which directly affects the costs. Therefore, it can be assertedthat the optimum lies between the maximum quantitativeand qualitative dimensions of transport services and in thedetermined time of minimum costs of means.

  7. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  8. 32 CFR 634.24 - Traffic planning and codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic planning and codes. 634.24 Section 634.24... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.24 Traffic planning and... traffic supervision program includes traffic circulation planning and control of motor vehicle traffic...

  9. The Influence of Sensor-Based Intelligent Traffic Light Control On Traffic Flow In Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Rademacher, Katja

    2017-01-01

    With growing cities and the increased use of vehicles for transportation purposes, there is a demand to make the traffic management in cities smarter. An intelligent traffic light control that dynamically adapts to the existing traffic conditions can help reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. This thesis reviews the popular traffic light control approaches - static, actuated and adaptive – based on their influences on recorded traffic conditions in Dublin. The Irish capital relies heav...

  10. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  11. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  12. A traffic situation analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  13. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  14. Hidden geometry of traffic jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Gupte, Neelima; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-05-01

    We introduce an approach based on algebraic topological methods that allow an accurate characterization of jamming in dynamical systems with queues. As a prototype system, we analyze the traffic of information packets with navigation and queuing at nodes on a network substrate in distinct dynamical regimes. A temporal sequence of traffic density fluctuations is mapped onto a mathematical graph in which each vertex denotes one dynamical state of the system. The coupling complexity between these states is revealed by classifying agglomerates of high-dimensional cliques that are intermingled at different topological levels and quantified by a set of geometrical and entropy measures. The free-flow, jamming, and congested traffic regimes result in graphs of different structure, while the largest geometrical complexity and minimum entropy mark the edge of the jamming region.

  15. Distributed Air Traffic Control Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Radovanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During initial training air traffic control students acquire theoretical knowledge in various fields including air traffic management, aircraft performance, air traffic control equipment and systems, navigation and others. This paper proposes a simulator and explains its use and features that allows students to gain a practical insight into their coursework in order to complement their training. The goal of the simulator is to realistically implement all the key functionalities needed to cover the topics that were presented in class. The simulator offers a user friendly, distributed, and multi-role environment that can be deployed on regular PCs. Moreover, this paper discusses and resolves some of the main conceptual and implementational issues that were faced during simulator development.

  16. TrafficGen Architecture Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    v 1. Overview of TrafficGen Application 1 2. Modules 2 3. User Interface 3 3.1 Top-Level MVC Classes 3 3.1.1 TrafficGenView 3 3.1.2...for download on the ARL public web site.4 2. Modules Fig. 2 depicts the various modules that constitute this application. It shows its internal...release; distribution unlimited. 3 A key design concept in use here is the model-view-controller ( MVC ) pattern. In general, the MVC design pattern

  17. Traffic education of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan Velušček, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Pre-school children are involved in road traffic on daily basis, either as pedestrians, cyclists or as passengers in cars; they also belong to the group of most vulnerable road users. It is for this reason that children should be educated to develop safe traffic habits as early as possible. Education on road safety must start at a very young age, primarily within the family and later on in co-operation with kindergarten and school. The first part of the thesis presents the developmental ...

  18. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  19. Density fluctuations in traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yukawa, S

    1996-01-01

    Density fluctuations in traffic current are studied by computer simulations using the deterministic coupled map lattice model on a closed single-lane circuit. By calculating a power spectral density of temporal density fluctuations at a local section, we find a power-law behavior, \\sim 1/f^{1.8}, on the frequency f, in non-congested flow phase. The distribution of the headway distance h also shows the power law like \\sim 1/h^{3.0} at the same time. The power law fluctuations are destroyed by the occurence of the traffic jam.

  20. Is freight traffic noise more annoying than passenger traffic noise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.G. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new freight-only railway route, the "Betuweroute", is being planned to carry freight traffic from Rotterdam harbour east into Germany. Inhabitants of areas near the future route are concerned about noise and vibration, and question the relevance of current legislation for a

  1. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-04-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  2. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  3. Buffalo Air Traffic Control Tower Operations Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a description of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Greater Buffalo International Airport from the air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of all controller c...

  4. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  5. En route air traffic flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The report covers the conception, design, development, and initial implementation of an advanced simulation technique applied to a study of national air traffic flow and its control by En Route Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC). It is intende...

  6. 49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash test performance and survivability. 563.10... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.10 Crash test...,” must be recorded in the format specified by § 563.8, exist at the completion of the crash test, and be...

  7. Theoretical Considerations of Interdisciplinary Expertise in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Peran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jnterdisciplinwy traffic expertise is being increasingly appliedin road traffic. It is not possible to determine whether anaccident had been intentionally set up without such expertise.The interdisciplinary expertise is the result of mutual work ofseveral different interdisciplinary experts. The paper analysesthe basic characteristics of interdisciplinary investigation ofset-up traffic accidents. Special attention has been paid to interdisciplinwyexpertise of set-up traffic accidents involving injuredpersons or fatalities.

  8. Traffic incidents analysis on Slovenian motorway network

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis we were analysing traffic incidents (such as accidents, congestions, heavy snow, etc.) on Slovenian road network, specifically we focused on incidents on motorways. We were starting from database of incidents provided by Prometno-informacijski center (Traffic information center) and added information about hourly traffic at the moment of incident. We were also researching possible correlations between weather and traffic congestions and accidents as well as behaviour of ...

  9. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  10. Learning to Detect Traffic Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the performance of sign detection based on synthetic training data to the performance of detection based on real-world training images. Viola-Jones detectors are created for 4 different traffic signs with both synthetic and real data, and varying numbers of training samples...

  11. Probabilistic description of traffic breakdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Reinhart; Mahnke, Reinhard; Lubashevsky, Ihor; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs

    2002-06-01

    We analyze the characteristic features of traffic breakdown. To describe this phenomenon we apply the probabilistic model regarding the jam emergence as the formation of a large car cluster on a highway. In these terms, the breakdown occurs through the formation of a certain critical nucleus in the metastable vehicle flow, which enables us to confine ourselves to one cluster model. We assume that, first, the growth of the car cluster is governed by attachment of cars to the cluster whose rate is mainly determined by the mean headway distance between the car in the vehicle flow and, maybe, also by the headway distance in the cluster. Second, the cluster dissolution is determined by the car escape from the cluster whose rate depends on the cluster size directly. The latter is justified using the available experimental data for the correlation properties of the synchronized mode. We write the appropriate master equation converted then into the Fokker-Planck equation for the cluster distribution function and analyze the formation of the critical car cluster due to the climb over a certain potential barrier. The further cluster growth irreversibly causes jam formation. Numerical estimates of the obtained characteristics and the experimental data of the traffic breakdown are compared. In particular, we draw a conclusion that the characteristic intrinsic time scale of the breakdown phenomenon should be about 1 min and explain the case why the traffic volume interval inside which traffic breakdown is observed is sufficiently wide.

  12. [Smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buñuel Granados, J M; Córdoba García, R; Castillo Pardo Md, M del; Alvarez Pardo, J L; Monreal Hijar, A; Pablo Cerezuela, F

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possible associations between smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents, and to evaluate the possible influence of other factors on traffic accidents. Cross-sectional study of associations.Setting. Eight health centers in the city of Zaragoza. 1214 drivers between 25 and 65 years of age, who visited the health center during the months of July to September 2001, and who drove on at least 2 days of the week. MAIN MEASURES. We recorded data on sex, age, marital status, level of education, profession, diseases, use of prescription and nonprescription drugs, drinking, smoking, illegal drug use, accidents and traffic infractions. We found accidents to be most common among unmarried men between 25 and 29 years of age. There were no significant differences in accident rates between drinkers and nondrinkers. The accident rate was 50% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.49%-3.09%), and there were no significant differences between smokers who smoked while driving and those who refrained from smoking while driving. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of accidents is highest in unmarried men younger than 45 years of age. In statistical terms, smokers have twice as many accidents as nonsmokers. The absence of significant differences between smokers who do and do not smoke while driving suggests that smoking increases the risk of being involved in traffic accidents regardless of whether drivers refrain from smoking at the wheel.

  13. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage...

  14. Next generation traffic management centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Traffic management centers (TMCs) are critical to providing mobility to millions of people travelling on high-volume roadways. In Virginia, as with most regions of the United States, TMCs were aggressively deployed in the late 1990s and early 2000s. ...

  15. TRAFFIC SIGN RECOGNATION WITH VIDEO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa AYDIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traffic signs are aimed to be recognized and identified from a video image which is taken through a video camera. To accomplish our aim, a traffic sign recognition program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The target traffic sign are recognized in the video image with the developed program.

  16. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  17. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  18. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  19. Capturing Internet Traffic Dynamics through Graph Distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Fu, B.; Jamakovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the Internet have typically focused either on the routing system, i.e. the paths chosen to reach a given destination, or on the evolution of traffic on a physical link. In this paper, we combine routing and traffic, and study for the first time the evolution of the traffic on the Internet

  20. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  1. Empirical analysis of heterogeneous traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Pel, A.J.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow in many developing countries is strongly mixed comprising vehicle types, such as motorcycles, cars, (mini) buses, and trucks; furthermore, traffic flow typically exhibits free inter-lane exchanges. This phenomenon causes a complex vehicle interaction, rendering most existing traffic

  2. Computational intelligence for traffic and mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wuhong

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the new development of computation intelligence for traffic, transportation and mobility, the main contents include traffic safety, mobility analysis, intelligent transportation system, smart vehicle, transportation behavior, driver modeling and assistance, transportation risk analysis and reliability system analysis, vehicle operation and active safety, urban traffic management and planning.

  3. [Bitemporal hemianopia in road traffic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzizok, T; Schwerdtfeger, G

    2006-09-01

    Patients suffering from pituitary adenomas and diseases of the chiasma typically show a bitemporal hemianopia. The residual undisturbed nasal visual fields of both eyes should have an extension of (at least) 120 degrees and are according to the actual German traffic rules (FeVAndV) for cars of the classes A, B, M, L and T. The intact half fields fit geometrically to one virtual normal field, that seems to correspond in the centre of a normal field. Reports on this problem often do not address correctly the questions of suitability for participation in road traffic. The case of a patient with typical bitemporal hemianopia illustrates the sensorial peculiarities: the functioning temporal retinal halves do not correspond. This patient suffered additionally from disturbing diplopia due to a small-angle exotropia. The extent of the performed eye muscle surgery was selected to induce a slight overcorrection, i. e., resulting in 3 to 5 degrees esotropia. This eliminated the diplopia, but resulted in a vertical scotoma of the extension of the esotropia. In bitemporal hemianopia the undisturbed nasal visual half fields do not add up to a "nearly normal field of one eye". Moreover, either diplopia or--much more dangerous in traffic--a central vertical scotoma is the result. The explanation for this is a sliding of the hemifields of each eye without stabilisation by corresponding areas of the retinas of the right and left eyes. The peripheral extension of the visual field is not the key to the problem to imagine how a patient with typical bitemporal hemianopia will visualise daily life and traffic. In bitemporal hemianopia there is substantially no eligibility for driving a car or motor bicycle in road traffic.

  4. Traffic Generator (TrafficGen) Version 1.4.2: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    specific ports and flows describing the start time, stop time, and specific traffic pattern to send. The variety of patterns MGEN offers enables the... traffic flows are represented by horizontal bars indicating the start time, stop time, and specific traffic pattern that will be sent. Traffic flows can...communication flows overlaid on a topographical map . TrafficGen interacts with SDT3D by sending node link commands via TCP or UDP to the IP address and port

  5. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Lin, Shimin; Yang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Nanfeng; Yang, Ji; Li, Yong; Zhou, Handong; Yang, Feng; Li, Zhifu

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of tra...

  6. Simulation Study of Traffic Accidents in Bidirectional Traffic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Najem

    Conditions for the occurrence of bidirectional collisions are developed based on the Simon-Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model. Three types of dangerous situations can occur in this model. We analyze those corresponding to head-on collision; rear-end collision and lane-changing collision. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the probability of the occurrence of these collisions for different values of the oncoming cars' density. It is found that the risk of collisions is important when the density of cars in one lane is small and that of the other lane is high enough. The influence of different proportions of heavy vehicles is also studied. We found that heavy vehicles cause an important reduction of traffic flow on the home lane and provoke an increase of the risk of car accidents.

  7. Effects of experimentally elevated traffic noise on nestling white-crowned sparrow stress physiology, immune function and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Ondi L; Johnson, Erin E; Blickley, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Breuner, Creagh W

    2013-06-01

    Roads have been associated with behavioral and physiological changes in wildlife. In birds, roads decrease reproductive success and biodiversity and increase physiological stress. Although the consequences of roads on individuals and communities have been well described, the mechanisms through which roads affect birds remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine one mechanism through which roads could affect birds: traffic noise. We exposed nestling mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) to experimentally elevated traffic noise for 5 days during the nestling period. Following exposure to traffic noise we measured nestling stress physiology, immune function, body size, condition and survival. Based on prior studies, we expected the traffic noise treatment to result in elevated stress hormones (glucocorticoids), and declines in immune function, body size, condition and survival. Surprisingly, nestlings exposed to traffic noise had lower glucocorticoid levels and improved condition relative to control nests. These results indicate that traffic noise does affect physiology and development in white-crowned sparrows, but not at all as predicted. Therefore, when evaluating the mechanisms through which roads affect avian populations, other factors (e.g. edge effects, pollution and mechanical vibration) may be more important than traffic noise in explaining elevated nestling stress responses in this species.

  8. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    for traffic classification, which can be used for nearly real-time processing of big amounts of data using affordable CPU and memory resources. Other questions are related to methods for real-time estimation of the application Quality of Service (QoS) level based on the results obtained by the traffic......Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models...... classifier. This thesis is focused on topics connected with traffic classification and analysis, while the work on methods for QoS assessment is limited to defining the connections with the traffic classification and proposing a general algorithm. We introduced the already known methods for traffic...

  9. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... of the project were not previously considered. We define a special inseparable cost function and develop a solution complex capable of using this cost function. In relation to calibration and estimation of statistical models used for dynamic route guidance we worked with generating random number sequences...

  10. Stochastic stability of traffic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We study the ergodic properties of a family of traffic maps acting in the space of bi-infinite sequences of real numbers. The corresponding dynamics mimics the motion of vehicles in a simple traffic flow, which explains the name. Using connections to topological Markov chains we obtain nontrivial invariant measures, prove their stochastic stability and calculate the topological entropy. Technically these results in the deterministic setting are related to the construction of measures of maximal entropy via measures uniformly distributed on periodic points of a given period, while in the random setting we construct (spatially) Markov invariant measures directly. In distinction to conventional results the limiting measures in the non-lattice case are non-ergodic. The average velocity of individual ‘vehicles’ as a function of their density and its stochastic stability is studied as well.

  11. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Samuel L Combinido

    Full Text Available While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from a negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  12. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  13. Software for Simulating Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Bilimoria, Karl; Grabbe, Shon; Chatterji, Gano; Sheth, Kapil; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) is a system of software for performing computational simulations for evaluating advanced concepts of advanced air-traffic management. FACET includes a program that generates a graphical user interface plus programs and databases that implement computational models of weather, airspace, airports, navigation aids, aircraft performance, and aircraft trajectories. Examples of concepts studied by use of FACET include aircraft self-separation for free flight; prediction of air-traffic-controller workload; decision support for direct routing; integration of spacecraft-launch operations into the U.S. national airspace system; and traffic- flow-management using rerouting, metering, and ground delays. Aircraft can be modeled as flying along either flight-plan routes or great-circle routes as they climb, cruise, and descend according to their individual performance models. The FACET software is modular and is written in the Java and C programming languages. The architecture of FACET strikes a balance between flexibility and fidelity; as a consequence, FACET can be used to model systemwide airspace operations over the contiguous U.S., involving as many as 10,000 aircraft, all on a single desktop or laptop computer running any of a variety of operating systems. Two notable applications of FACET include: (1) reroute conformance monitoring algorithms that have been implemented in one of the Federal Aviation Administration s nationally deployed, real-time, operational systems; and (2) the licensing and integration of FACET with the commercially available Flight Explorer, which is an Internet- based, real-time flight-tracking system.

  14. Road Traffic Accidents: A Wild Life Exterminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Kavandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Once commonly traced in various parts of Southwest Asia, the Iranian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, a disparagingly endangered cheetah subspecies, seems to have been driven to extinction. Restricted to its only remained appropriate habitat, The Iranian cheetah has barely survived in Iran's Dasht-e Kavir plateau. Throughout the 1970s, about 200 cheetahs were estimated to live in seven protected areas in Iran (1. Nevertheless, the figures dramatically declined to 50 and 60 individuals in 2005–2006. Over ten years, Iranian researchers captured images of 76 individual cheetahs using 80 camera traps implanted throughout the Dasht-e Kavir plateau (2. Disappointingly in 2011, camera traps captured only 20 individuals in the protected areas (2, 3. What adds insult to the injury is knowing the fact that two-thirds of cheetah deaths in 2012–2013 were due to road accidents(4.      Beside the human fatalities and injuries, road traffic accidents remain as serious threats for wildlife. Although numerous measures are taken to hinder the extinction of this subspecies, efforts should be concentrated on long-term planning at both national and international levels to raise awareness and promote willingness to address this ongoing yet controllable damage.

  15. Traffic Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) in ERTMS System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Taomei

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the conflict problem in railway traffic. Although the railway traffic management nowadays can partly be carried out by a traffic control system (or a traffic management system), the control system is insufficient to make operational decisions once the occurrence of disturbance gets frequent, particularly at the junctions with dense traffic. Traffic conflicts may arise along with the disturbances. The traffic controllers (and dispatchers) are often required to handle thes...

  16. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  17. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Aliane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations.

  18. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  19. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  20. Using Visualization Techniques in Multilayer Traffic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Arnold

    We describe visualization techniques for multilayer traffic modeling - i.e., traffic models that span several protocol layers, and traffic models of protocols that cross layers. Multilayer traffic modeling is challenging, as one must deal with disparate traffic sources; control loops; the effects of network elements such as IP routers; cross-layer protocols; asymmetries in bandwidth, session lengths, and application behaviors; and an enormous number of complex interactions among the various factors. We illustrate by using visualization techniques to identify relationships, transformations, and scaling; to smooth simulation and measurement data; to examine boundary cases, subtle effects and interactions, and outliers; to fit models; and to compare models with others that have fewer parameters. Our experience suggests that visualization techniques can provide practitioners with extraordinary insight about complex multilayer traffic effects and interactions that are common in emerging next-generation networks.

  1. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  2. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks. Op...

  3. Weather-responsive traffic management : real solutions for serious traffic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This flyer describes how weather responsive traffic management (WRTM) can prevent or mitigate the effects of weather on traffic operations and reduce congestion. The three types of WRTM described in the flyer include 1) Advisory strategies that provi...

  4. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  5. An assessment of traffic safety culture related to engagement efforts to improve traffic safety : research programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Center for Health and Safety Culture at Montana State University developed a survey to investigate the traffic safety culture related to engagement in traffic safety citizenship behaviors. The development of the survey was based on an augmented f...

  6. Traffic analysis toolbox volume XI : weather and traffic analysis, modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a weather module for the traffic analysis tools program. It provides traffic engineers, transportation modelers and decisions makers with a guide that can incorporate weather impacts into transportation system analysis and mode...

  7. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The rapidly changing racial and ethnic composition of the : U.S. population is important to traffic safety specialists : because involvement in fatal traffic crashes varies across : racial and ethnic groups. Some research suggests that certain : mino...

  8. Fractal Analysis On Internet Traffic Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, K. B.; Choo, K. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Fractal behavior and long-range dependence have been observed in tele-traffic measurement and characterization. In this paper we show results of application of the fractal analysis to internet traffic via various methods. Our result demonstrate that the internet traffic exhibits self-similarity. Time-scale analysis show to be an effective way to characterize the local irregularity. Based on the result of this study, these two Internet time series exhibit fractal characteristic with long-range...

  9. THE ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRAFFIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Akimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of civil aviation aircraft flights delays, because of the lack of efficiency of the air traffic planning. As a result, airports and airlines have financial losses. Analysis of delays at Moscow aerodromes, Tegel and Munich aerodromes are given. The principles of organization of air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation are described, as well as recommendations the use of which will improve the efficiency of the air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation.

  10. The Technical Issues Of Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vladimirovich Yegorov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the analysis of Internet traffic associated with a large number of network applications, complex patterns of communication and a significant amounts of information. The definition of the category of traffic using the analysis of the number of port is irrelevant for P2P applications, streaming data and many other types of network applications. The article describes some of technical issues related to the analysis of Internet traffic.

  11. Traffic Monitoring and Control Using RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Thakur; Ankita Chauhan; Ajay Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion and tidal flow management were recognized as major problems in modern urban areas, which have caused much frustration and loss of man hours. The operation of standard traffic lights which are currently deployed in many junctions, are based on predetermined timing schemes, which are fixed during the installation and remain until further resetting. The timing is no more than a default setup to control what may be considered as normal traffic. Although every road junction by n...

  12. Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; Goyal, Mukul

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Traffic management issues for TCP/IP based data services over satellite-ATM networks; 2) Design issues for TCP/IP over ATM; 3) Optimization of the performance of TCP/IP over ATM for long delay networks; and 4) Evaluation of ATM service categories for TCP/IP traffic.

  13. The negative effects of homogeneous traffic on merging sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Bart; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous traffic flows are believed to be better in absorbing disturbances, raise capacity and stimulate traffic safety. Measures to make traffic more homogeneous are therefore often taken to increase capacity. This paper shows that the ability of a traffic flow to deal with traffic coming from

  14. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  15. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  16. Modelling of H.264 MPEG2 TS traffic source

    OpenAIRE

    Kľúčik, Stanislav; Lackovič, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with IPTV traffic source modelling. Traffic sources are used for simulation, emulation and real network testing. This model is made as a derivation of known recorded traffic sources that are analysed and statistically processed. As the results show the proposed model causes in comparison to the known traffic source very similar network traffic parameters when used in a simulated network.

  17. GSM Network Traffic Analysis | Ani | Nigerian Journal of Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GSM networks are traffic intensive specifically the signaling traffic. Evolvement of effective and efficient performance management strategy requires accurate quantification of network signaling traffic volume along side with the user traffic volume. Inaccurate quantification may lead to serious network traffic congestion and ...

  18. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  19. Robust Traffic Flow Management: Coevolutionary Approach Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop a Coevolutionary Decision Support Tool (CDST) that explicitly incorporates weather uncertainty (non-probabilistically) into strategic Traffic Flow...

  20. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... signaling. The priority adjustment is based on both the Composite Available Capacity (CAC) and the radio conditions of the candidate layers. Compared to broadcast AP, the proposed scheme achieves better load balancing performance and improves network capacity, given that the User Equipment (UE) inactivity...

  1. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  2. Psychoactive Medication and Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris C. Verster

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Driving a car is important to maintain independence and participate in society. Many of those who use psychoactive medication are outpatients and are thus likely to drive a vehicle. Most common adverse effects that impair driving are reduced alertness, affected psychomotor functioning and impaired vision. This review discusses the effects on driving ability of most commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs, including hypnotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, analgesics and stimulant drugs. Within these categories of medicines significant differences concerning their impact on driving ability are evident. The International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (ICADTS categorization can help physicians to make a choice between treatments when patients want to drive a car.

  3. Scaling in Computer Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-07

    behaviour, measurement .... 29 The Self-Similar Traffic Model Fractional Gaussian Noise (fGn) and Fractional Brownian Motion (fBm) The unique...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM001750, Wavelets and Multifractal Analysis... Multifractality Wavelet qth order moments: IE|dX(j, k)|q ∼ C 2αqj, j → 0. Estimating the LHS from data using Sq(j) = 1 nj ∑ k |dX(j, k)|q, and measure the slopes

  4. Travelers ability to observe changes in traffic intensities and traffic light settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Do, Michael; Middag, Wilco; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; ITSC,

    2011-01-01

    Travel choice behavior is an important determinant in traffic and subject to human imperfection and bounded rationality. In decision-making processes travelers seldom act perfectly rational. Traffic models and traffic network management measure could become more realistic and effective, if

  5. Forecasting Multivariate Road Traffic Flows Using Bayesian Dynamic Graphical Models, Splines and Other Traffic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Queen, Catriona; Albers, Casper J.

    Traffic flow data are routinely collected for many networks worldwide. These invariably large data sets can be used as part of a traffic management system, for which good traffic flow forecasting models are crucial. The linear multiregression dynamic model (LMDM) has been shown to be promising for

  6. Did Chile's traffic law reform push police enforcement? Understanding Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Munoz, José Ignacio; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; van den Berg, Axel

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the current study is to determine to what extent the reduction of Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries during 2000-2012 was related to the police traffic enforcement increment registered after the introduction of its 2005 traffic law reform. A unique dataset with assembled information from public institutions and analyses based on ordinary least square and robust random effects models was carried out. Dependent variables were traffic fatality and severe injury rates per population and vehicle fleet. Independent variables were: (1) presence of new national traffic law; (2) police officers per population; (3) number of traffic tickets per police officer; and (4) interaction effect of number of traffic tickets per police officer with traffic law reform. Oil prices, alcohol consumption, proportion of male population 15-24 years old, unemployment, road infrastructure investment, years' effects and regions' effects represented control variables. Empirical estimates from instrumental variables suggest that the enactment of the traffic law reform in interaction with number of traffic tickets per police officer is significantly associated with a decrease of 8% in traffic fatalities and 7% in severe injuries. Piecewise regression model results for the 2007-2012 period suggest that police traffic enforcement reduced traffic fatalities by 59% and severe injuries by 37%. Findings suggest that traffic law reforms in order to have an effect on both traffic fatality and injury rates reduction require changes in police enforcement practices. Last, this case also illustrates how the diffusion of successful road safety practices globally promoted by WHO and World Bank can be an important influence for enhancing national road safety practices. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. 40 CFR 93.128 - Traffic signal synchronization projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic signal synchronization... synchronization projects. Traffic signal synchronization projects may be approved, funded, and implemented without... include such regionally significant traffic signal synchronization projects. ...

  8. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  9. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2012-01-01

    Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....

  10. Routing Post-Disaster Traffic Floods Heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Nasralla, ZHA; Musa, MOI; El-Gorashi, TEH; Elmirghani, JMH

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present three heuristics for mitigating post-disaster traffic floods. First exploiting the excess capacity, second rerouting backup paths, finally redistributing the whole traffic by rerouting the working and protection paths to accommodate more floods. Using these mitigation approaches can reduce the blocking by up to 30%.

  11. Automatic speech recognition in air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and its application to the Air Traffic Control system are described. The advantages of applying ASR to Air Traffic Control, as well as criteria for choosing a suitable ASR system are presented. Results from previous research and directions for future work at the Flight Transportation Laboratory are outlined.

  12. Green Wave Traffic Optimization - A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warberg, Andreas; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    The objective of this survey is to cover the research in the area of adaptive traffic control with emphasis on the applied optimization methods. The problem of optimizing traffic signals can be viewed in various ways, depending on political, economic and ecological goals. The survey highlights so...

  13. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the

  14. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaioannou, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Vyrsokinos, K.

    2012-01-01

    . The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce...

  15. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    almost reached the opposite pavement but had miscalcu- lated the speed of oncoming traffic in relation to his own speed. Of the 521 fatal traffic accidents analysed (Table Ill),. 11,7% were due to persons falling from moving vehides- some were due to passengers attempting to alight from moving buses, while others fell from ...

  16. Neural network system for traffic flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Elibiary, Khalid J.; Petersson, L. E. Rickard

    1992-09-01

    Atlanta will be the home of several special events during the next five years ranging from the 1996 Olympics to the 1994 Super Bowl. When combined with the existing special events (Braves, Falcons, and Hawks games, concerts, festivals, etc.), the need to effectively manage traffic flow from surface streets to interstate highways is apparent. This paper describes a system for traffic event response and management for intelligent navigation utilizing signals (TERMINUS) developed at Georgia Tech for adaptively managing special event traffic flows in the Atlanta, Georgia area. TERMINUS (the original name given Atlanta, Georgia based upon its role as a rail line terminating center) is an intelligent surface street signal control system designed to manage traffic flow in Metro Atlanta. The system consists of three components. The first is a traffic simulation of the downtown Atlanta area around Fulton County Stadium that models the flow of traffic when a stadium event lets out. Parameters for the surrounding area include modeling for events during various times of day (such as rush hour). The second component is a computer graphics interface with the simulation that shows the traffic flows achieved based upon intelligent control system execution. The final component is the intelligent control system that manages surface street light signals based upon feedback from control sensors that dynamically adapt the intelligent controller's decision making process. The intelligent controller is a neural network model that allows TERMINUS to control the configuration of surface street signals to optimize the flow of traffic away from special events.

  17. Gaussian queues in light and heavy traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dębicki, K.; Kosiński, K.M.; Mandjes, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Gaussian queues in the light-traffic and in the heavy-traffic regime. Let $Q^{(c)}_{X}\\equiv\\{Q^{(c)}_{X}(t):t\\ge0\\}$ denote a stationary buffer content process for a fluid queue fed by the centered Gaussian process X≡{X(t):t∈ℝ} with stationary increments, X(0)=0,

  18. GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Uitert, Miranda

    2002-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for

  19. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  20. Uppaal Stratego for Intelligent Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Andreas Berre; Huang, Chao; Kildebogaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Modern traffic lights use information from induction loops and to some extend radar information. Recent developments in radar technology has made it possible to obtain more detailed information relevant to the control mechanism of the traffic light. Unfortunately much of the current controllers d...

  1. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  2. Traffic calming schemes : opportunities and implementation strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (ed.)

    2003-01-01

    Commissioned by the Swedish National Road Authority, this report aims to provide a concise overview of knowledge of and experiences with traffic calming schemes in urban areas, both on a technical level and on a policy level. Traffic calming refers to a combination of network planning and

  3. Environmental protection and traffic regulation in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaš Plevnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises the proposed chapter on traffic in the National programme for environmental protection. The main theme focuses on the suggested goals and measures to reach sustainable development in Slovenia. The goals and measures are derived from the current situation and traffic development trends and their influence on the environment, from international guidelines and the current Slovene policies.

  4. Traffic load effects in prestrssed concrete bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Allaix, D.L.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The traffic load effect of a two-span prestressed concrete bridge with two traffic lanes is analyzed in this paper. The design value of the result-ing bending moment in some prescribed sections is estimated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The model for the vehicular loads is derived from a set

  5. Traffic safety facts 1995 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, 376,000 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in traffic crashes in the United States; 4,453 were involved in fatal crashes. A total of 4,903 people died (12 percent of all the traffic fatalities...

  6. Traffic safety facts 1993 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In 1994, 4,615 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in fatal traffic crashes in the United States. A total of 5,112 people died in those crashes-13 percent of the 40,676 traffic fatalities reported in 19...

  7. Traffic safety facts 1996 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, 393,000 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in traffic crashes in the United States; 4,740 were involved in fatal crashes. A total of 5,126 people died (12 percent of all the traffic fatalities...

  8. Traffic safety facts 1994 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, 4,615 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in fatal traffic crashes in the United States. A total of 5,112 people died in those crashes-13 percent of the 40,676 traffic fatalities reported in 19...

  9. Traffic safety facts 1999 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, 475,000 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lb) were involved in traffic crashes in the United States; 4,898 were involved in fatal crashes. A total of 5,362 people died (13% of all the traffic fatalities reported i...

  10. Evaluating Performances of Traffic Noise Models | Oyedepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise in decibel dB(A) were measured at six locations using 407780A Integrating Sound Level Meter, while spot speed and traffic volume were collected with cine-camera. The predicted sound exposure level (SEL) was evaluated using Burgess, British and FWHA model. The average noise level obtained are 77.64 ...

  11. Road traffic emission monitoring on motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the major environmental noise sources that is known to cause health problems. Despite existing noise reception items, the continuing growth of traffic causes higher levels than the lims allow. Consequently, excessive costs are incurred for noise barriers along roads and

  12. Traffic density as a surrogate measure of environmental exposures in studies of air pollution health effects: Long-term mortality in a cohort of US veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F. W.; Wyzga, R. E.; Baty, J. D.; Miller, J. P.

    Vehicular traffic is an ubiquitous source of air pollution in developed nations, yet relatively few epidemiology studies have considered its long-term health effects. This paper uses an areal measure of traffic density as a surrogate index of exposure to vehicular traffic. We present associations between county-level traffic density (annual vehicle-km traveled km -2), ambient air quality, and mortality in a cohort of about 70,000 male US veterans (the Washington University-EPRI Veterans Cohort) who were enrolled in 1976 and followed through 2001. Traffic density is seen to be a significant and robust predictor of survival in this cohort, more so than ambient air quality, with the possible exception of ozone. Stronger effects of traffic density are seen in the counties that have ambient air quality monitoring data, which also tend to have higher levels of traffic density. These proportional-hazard modeling results indicate only modest changes in traffic-related mortality risks over time, from 1976-2001, despite the decline in regulated tailpipe emissions per vehicle since the mid-1970s. This suggests that other environmental effects may be involved, such as particles from brake, tire, and road wear, traffic noise, psychological stress, and spatial gradients in socioeconomic status.

  13. Traffic flow dynamics data, models and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on ...

  14. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  15. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  16. Evaluation of traffic pollution on Moscow network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukanin, V.N.; Buslaev, A.P.; Yashina, M. [Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University, MADI-TU, Mscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The Moscow vehicle fleet grows each year and traffic is a major source of air pollutants in Moscow. We have developed a model for air quality evaluation and management in a megalopolis in order to improve ecological parameters of vehicles. We have received estimations of traffic influence on human health. These analytical methods allow to regulate traffic flows on road network and structure of car fleet in order to minimise damage to the environment in large cities. Simulation methods are tested on traffic data of Moscow City. The purpose of the research is development of principles, modelling and experimental methods of air quality management in a large city in order to improve ecological parameters of vehicles, to regulate traffic flows on road network and structure of car fleet. (authors)

  17. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    Automated analysis of traffic situations - be it cars, signs, or pedestrians - is becoming increasingly relevant and feasible with the advent of powerful sensors, computers, and algorithms. This PhD thesis tackles three themes within this realm: Traffic sign detection, pedestrian detection...... and analysis, and person re-identification. In traffic sign detection, the work comprises a thorough survey of the state of the art, assembly of the worlds largest public dataset with U.S. traffic signs, and work in machine learning based detection algorithms. It was shown that detection of U.S. traffic signs....../SVM has been put forth, which gives the speed advantage of Viola-Jones and the detection performance of HOG/SVM. Work has also been done in tracking the gaze of drivers to determine which pedestrians a driver may have missed. Finally, pedestrian tracking has been performed in an attempt to predict...

  18. Review on Driverless Traffic from Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The move towards automated driving is gaining ground. This paper reviews the development process of self-driving technology and discusses the safety and efficiency advantages of autonomous vehicles. The discussion shows that the existing traffic management system, including transport infrastructures and regulations, should be changed accordingly to maximize the advantages of autonomous driving. Thus, this paper subsequently gives an insight of the traffic management from three aspects: fully self-driving traffic infrastructures, mixed traffic infrastructures and regulations. First, it is summarized in detail what should be adjusted in intersections, parking lots, pedestrian crossings, ramps, signs and markings. With the transformation of traffic infrastructures, the advantages of driverless car will be more pronounced on account of increased capacity, reduced delay and land use. Also, this paper indicates that the implementations of strict product liability for self-driving car manufacturers and no-fault tort liability for users are applicable to automated vehicle accidents.

  19. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  20. An assessment of a traffic monitoring system for a major traffic generator to improve regional planning : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The opening of a major traffic generator in the San Antonio area provided an opportunity to develop and : implement an extensive traffic monitoring system to analyze local, area, and regional traffic impacts from the : generator. Researchers reviewed...

  1. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    is well documented that Advanced Trauma and Life Support (ATLS and Advanced Life Support (ALS courses improve survival [5].Unfortunately in Libya they are not compulsory for nurses or doctors. Some doctors and nurses working in the Emergency department are even unaware that these courses exist. Therefore, it is no surprise that the majority of car accident causalities dies or sustain permanent disabilities despite reaching the hospital in redeemable condition.WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?A. Ministry of Health:1. We must put pressure on the ministry of health and offer our services in running ATLS, ALS and Trauma courses to all medical personnel and paramedics. These courses should become a prerequisite for qualifying to work in the Medical field especially for those who directly deal with trauma patients.2. All hospitals dealing with trauma must have well trained and well equipped trauma and cardiac arrest teams whose ATLS/ ALS knowledge is revalidated periodically.3. Emphasise the importance of introducing the Bleep/Page System.4. Train paramedics and improve the Emergency Service [5,6].5. Emergency phone numbers should exist and should be made free of charge to dial.B. Ministry of Education:1. Educate children at an early age about behaviour in the street and dangers on the road.2. The schools should share the responsibilities with the traffic police in ensuring the safety of pupils.3. Supply posters and educate the public.4. The United Nations invited member states and the international community to recognize the third Sunday in November of every year as the World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims as the appropriate acknowledgement for victims of road traffic crashes and their families.I think a union should be formed in Libya, of people who have lost relatives to car accidents to campaign and educate drivers as per recommendation of the UN [7].C. Ministry of Transport:1. Re-validate the traffic police on their behaviour and knowledge of the law.2. Revise and

  2. The effect of intra-nucleus accumbens administration of allopregnanolone on δ and γ2 GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression in the hippocampus and on depressive-like and grooming behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Ferri, Marcelo K; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Agnes, Grasiela; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-12-01

    Alterations in GABA(A) receptor expression have been associated with the allopregnanolone (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one; 3α,5α-THP) antidepressant-like effect in rats. The present study aimed to verify the effect of bilateral, intra-nucleus accumbens core (intra-AcbC) administration of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone on behaviors in the forced swim and grooming microstructure tests and in the δ and γ2 GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression in right and left hippocampus of rats. The results of this study showed that bilateral, intra-AcbC allopregnanolone administration (5μg/rat) presented antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test concomitant with an increase in climbing. Allopregnanolone at doses of 1.25 and 5μg/rat also decreased the percentage of correct transitions in the grooming microstructure test. Both δ and γ2 GABA(A) subunit expressions increased in the rat hippocampus after allopregnanolone intra-AcbC treatment. Our findings point to asymmetrical GABA(A) receptor expression changes in the hippocampus of animals treated with allopregnanolone. Further investigation should evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of allopregnanolone not only in other directly infused regions but also with respect to changes in other brain areas of the limbic system to understand allopregnanolone's mechanism of action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  4. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  5. Traffic forecaster for MPLS multimedia data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Barry; Lin, Freddie

    2006-05-01

    Contemporary high performance data networks carry a wide range of multimedia services (voice, video, audio, text, sensor data, etc.) that require an outstanding Quality of Service (QoS) to provide performance guarantees in priority delivery, latency, bandwidth utilization, load balancing, etc. With the advent of recent Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) network standards, the QoS has made significant progress in performance to provide these performance guarantees. Right now, attention has turned to the task of managing these QoS networks more efficiently through the handling of network traffic. We have investigated a novel Network Traffic Forecasting Assisted QoS Planner technology that will provide constantly updated forecasts of data traffic and server loads to any application that needs this information. Using source models of voice, video and data traffic based on empirical studies of TCP/IP data traffic carried out by Paxson and Floyd in the 1990's, our studies have shown that the system may provide up to 43% bandwidth savings for MPLS data streams, by predicting future traffic flows and reserving network resources to accommodate the predicted traffic. The system additionally provides a means to submit bandwidth reservation requests for those applications that need assured service guarantees for data delivery. The technology essentially increases the efficiency and effectiveness of multimedia information and communication network infrastructure that supports multiple or adaptive QoS levels for multimedia data networking and information system applications.

  6. A First Look at Modern Enterprise Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Ruoming; Mark Allman, Mark; Bennett, Mike; Lee, Jason; Paxson, Vern; Tierney, Brian

    2005-06-01

    While wide-area Internet traffic has been heavily studied for many years, the characteristics of traffic inside Internet enterprises remain almost wholly unexplored. Nearly all of the studies of enterprise traffic available in the literature are well over a decade old and focus on individual LANs rather than whole sites. In this paper we present a broad overview of internal enterprise traffic recorded at a medium-sized site. The packet traces span more than 100 hours, over which activity from a total of several thousand internal hosts appears. This wealth of data--which we are publicly releasing in anonymized form--spans a wide range of dimensions. While we cannot form general conclusions using data from a single site, and clearly this sort of data merits additional in-depth study in a number of ways, in this work we endeavor to characterize a number of the most salient aspects of the traffic. Our goal is to provide a first sense of ways in which modern enterprise traffic is similar to wide-area Internet traffic, and ways in which it is quite different.

  7. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  8. Design for Survivability: An Approach to Assured Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly expanding unmanned air traffic includes and will continue to include non-cooperative participants. Non-cooperative behavior may be due to technical failure, a lack of appropriate equipment, a careless or malicious operator. Regardless of the cause, the outcome remains: growing density of non-cooperative traffic will increase the risk of collision between unmanned vehicles and aircraft carrying humans. As a result, the degraded safety of airspace may limit access to airspace, with adverse consequences for the traveling public and the economy. Because encounters with small non-cooperative objects, such as birds or wayward drones, can happen too rapidly for an external control system to mitigate them, it is imperative that the aircraft that carry humans survive encounters with non-cooperative vehicles. To-date, design for survivability has been practiced explicitly in the military domain. Survivability against collisions in civil aviation has been limited to tolerances against bird strikes; and these tolerances have proved inadequate on occasion. The growing risk of collision with unmanned vehicles now requires the development of survivability discipline for civilian transport aircraft. The new discipline must be infused into multidisciplinary design methods, on par with traditional disciplines. In this paper, we report on a preliminary study of survivability considerations for the civil aviation domain.

  9. Emergency medical service providers' experiences with traffic congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-02-01

    The population's migration from urban to suburban areas has resulted in a more dispersed population and has increased traffic flow, possibly resulting in longer emergency response times. Although studies have examined the effect of response times on time to definitive care and survival, no study has addressed the possible causes of slowed response time from the point of view of emergency medical services (EMS) first responders. To assess the variables most commonly associated with increased emergency response time as described by the opinions and views of EMS first responders. A total of 500 surveys were sent to randomly selected individuals registered as first responders with the Alabama Department of Public Health, and 112 surveys were returned completed. The survey included questions regarding roadway design, response to emergency calls, in-vehicle technology aimed at decreasing travel time, and public education regarding emergency response. Respondents reported traveling on city streets most often during emergency calls, and encountering traffic more often on interstates and national highways. Traffic congestion, on average, resulted in nearly 10min extra response time. Most agreed that the most effective in-vehicle technology for reducing response time was a pre-emptive green light device; however, very few reported availability of this device in their emergency vehicles. Public education regarding how to react to approaching emergency vehicles was stated as having the greatest potential impact on reducing emergency response time. The results of the survey suggest that the best methods for reducing emergency response times are those that are easy to implement (e.g., public education). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  11. A statistical approach to vehicular traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jan; Pöschel, Thorsten

    1995-02-01

    A two-dimensional cellular automaton is introduced to model the flow and jamming of vehicular traffic in cities. Each site of the automaton represents a crossing where a finite number of cars can wait approaching the crossing from each of the four directions. The flow of cars obeys realistic traffic rules. We investigate the dependence of the average velocity of cars on the global traffic density. At a critical threshold for the density the average velocity reduces drastically caused by jamming. For the low-density regime we provide analytical results which agree with the numerical results.

  12. Elevator traffic handbook theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Barney, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This second edition of this well-respected book covers all aspects of the traffic design and control of vertical transportation systems in buildings, making it an essential reference for vertical transportation engineers, other members of the design team, and researchers. The book introduces the basic principles of circulation, outlines traffic design methods and examines and analyses traffic control using worked examples and case studies to illustrate key points. The latest analysis techniques are set out, and the book is up-to-date with current technology. A unique and well-established book, this much-needed new edition features extensive updates to technology and practice, drawing on the latest international research.

  13. Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, A

    2011-01-01

    Although web standards-based websites can scale effectively - and basic CSS will give you basic results - there are considerations and obstacles that high traffic websites must face to keep your development and hosting costs to a minimum. There are many tips and tricks, as well as down-to-earth best practice information, to make sure that everything runs quickly and efficiently with the minimum amount of fuss or developer intervention. Targeted at "high traffic" websites - those receiving over 10,000 unique visitors a day - Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites gives you inside informati

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  15. Delay of Vehicle Motion in Traffic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bando, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, A; Bando, Masako; Hasebe, Katsuya; Nakanishi, Ken; Nakayama, Akihiro

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that in Optimal Velocity Model (OVM) delay times of vehicles coming from the dynamical equation of motion of OVM almost explain the order of delay times observed in actual traffic flows without introducing explicit delay times. Delay times in various cases are estimated: the case of a leader vehicle and its follower, a queue of vehicles controlled by traffic lights and many-vehicle case of highway traffic flow. The remarkable result is that in most of the situation for which we can make a reasonable definition of a delay time, the obtained delay time is of order 1 second.

  16. Graph Wavelets for Spatial Traffic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM ’95, 1995, pp. 100–113. [5] J. Levy-Vehel and R. Riedi, “Fractional Brownian motion and data traffic modeling: the other end of...similarity and long-range dependence, [3, 4]; and multifractality and local scaling [5, 6]. Many of the key results in traffic time scaling analysis have...as cascades: Investigating the multifractal nature of Internet WAN traffic,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM ’98, October 1998, pp. 42–55. [7] P. Abry and

  17. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases, the accumulated traffic series are more stationary.

  18. Calculating Distribution and Intensity of Agricultural Traffic for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, A.; Louwsma, M.A.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Kuiper, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Land from many holdings is dispersed, which compels farmers to use public roads to access distant parcels. Agricultural traffic is different from other traffic with its large and heavy vehicles. When agricultural traffic mixes with other traffic, safety issues may arise. Another issue of

  19. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reports received from civil authorities on serious traffic violations, accidents, and intoxicated driving... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision...

  20. 32 CFR 634.32 - Traffic violation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.32 Traffic violation... Government vehicle at the time of the violation. (2) A Federal Magistrate is either not available or lacks... refer violations of State traffic laws made applicable to the installation (Assimilative Crimes Act (18...

  1. ON THE RELEVANCE OF ON-LINE TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, B.; Uhlig, S.P.W.G.

    The evaluation of dynamic Traffic Engineering (TE) algorithms is usually carried out using some specific network(s), traffic pattern(s) and traffic engineering objective(s). As the behavior of a TE algorithm is a consequence of the interactions between the network, the traffic demand and the

  2. Application of advanced sampling for efficient probabilistic traffic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Taale, H.; Snelder, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    In probabilistic traffic models, consideration of stochasticity in the dynamics of traffic gives a closer representation of a traffic system in comparison to that of a deterministic approach. Monte Carlo simulation is a broadly accepted method to consider variations in traffic within modelling. In

  3. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  4. Spatio-temporal propagation of traffic jams in urban traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yinan; Kang, Rui; Li, Daqing; Guo, Shengmin; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Since the first reported traffic jam about a century ago, traffic congestion has been intensively studied with various methods ranging from macroscopic to microscopic viewpoint. However, due to the population growth and fast civilization, traffic congestion has become significantly worse not only leading to economic losses, but also causes environment damages. Without understanding of jams spatio-temporal propagation behavior in a city, it is impossible to develop efficient mitigation strateg...

  5. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsSadhan, Basil; Moura, José M F

    2014-07-01

    Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines) that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet's communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2) communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet's C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker's large sample test to the periodogram's maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot's C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI) or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior.

  6. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil AsSadhan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet’s communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2 communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet’s C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker’s large sample test to the periodogram’s maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot’s C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior.

  7. Interaction between socio-demographic characteristics: traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Y; Demirel, M C; Mutlu, M M

    2014-11-01

    Young drivers' high traffic violation involvement rate and significant contribution to traffic crashes compared to older drivers creates the need for detailed analyses of factors affecting young drivers' behaviors. This study is based on survey data collected from 2,057 18-29 year old young adults. Data were collected via face-to-face questionnaire surveys in four different cities in Turkey. The main objective of this study is to identify the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violations, and traffic crashes among young drivers. Four main traffic rule violations are examined: red light violations, seat belt violations, speeding, and driving under the influence of alcohol, which are decisive in determining driving behavior and traffic crashes. The survey investigates the socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violation behavior and traffic crash histories of young adults. Four hypothetical scenarios were prepared for each traffic rule violation and data from the scenarios were modeled using the ordered probit model. Significant variables affecting each traffic rule violation are stated. Finally, significant variables that interact with crash involvements were investigated with binary logit models. According to the data analysis, 23.9% of drivers stated that they were involved in at least one traffic crash within the last three years. This crash rate increases to 38.3% for those who received at least one traffic citation/violation in last three years and peaks to 47.4% for those who were fined for seat belt violations in last three years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A rapid appraisal of traffic policemen about auditory effects of traffic noise pollution from Ambala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traffic policemen are at an increased risk of suffering from hazards of noise pollution because they are engaged in controlling traffic noise, particularly at heavy traffic junctions. The effect is more in this subgroup because they are continuously exposed to it. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen regarding auditory effects of traffic noise pollution in Ambala city. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional workplace survey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out in different traffic zones of Ambala city during April-June 2013. The study population consisted of 100 traffic policemen working in different traffic intersections of Ambala city. Statistical Analysis Used: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Interpretation of data was performed using percentages and proportions. Results: Majority (75% of the study subjects were exposed to traffic noise pollution for more than 5 years. Of the total subjects, 5% of respondents reported below-average hearing on self-assessment of hearing ability. Seventeen percent of the study population accepted that while hearing over phone they do miss some conversation. Most (98% of the traffic police did not use any personal protective equipment (PPEs like earplugs/earmuffs, and the non-availability of these PPEs (90% is the common reason for the hearing loss. Conclusions: The study concludes that traffic policemen are not much aware regarding impending auditory effects of traffic noise pollution. Duty rotation, duty scheduling and other forms of preventive modalities for exposure limitation are suggested.

  9. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  10. Caltrans Average Annual Daily Traffic Volumes (2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — [ from http://www.ehib.org/cma/topic.jsp?topic_key=79 ] Traffic exhaust pollutants include compounds such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates (fine...

  11. Transport Traffic Analysis for Abusive Infrastructure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    spam. Contemporary techniques for obtaining and using such infrastructure for abusive purposes are becoming increasingly sophisticated and economically...driven. For instance, spammers receive monetary compensation for driving traffic to sites that sell knock-off jewelry , pornography, or pharmaceuticals

  12. Assessment program for Kentucky traffic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    During 2013, the Kentucky Transportation Center identified 117 potential performance metrics for the ten databases in : the Kentucky Traffic Records System. This report summarizes the findings of three main tasks completed in 2014: (1) : assessment o...

  13. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  14. Innovative contracting methods and construction traffic congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Increasing travel demand and lack of sufficient highway capacity are serious problems in most : major metropolitan areas in the United States. Large metropolitan cities have been experiencing : increased traffic congestion problems over the past seve...

  15. Uninhabited Traffic Management System Evaluator (UTME) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of this effort is the development of an Uninhabited Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Manager Evaluator (UTME) specifically targeted at evaluating...

  16. Regional Traffic Incident Management Programs : implementation guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist organizations and their leaders in implementing and sustaining regional traffic incident management programs, both by examining some successful models, and by considering some of the lessons learned by early ...

  17. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  18. ROAD TRAFFIC ESTIMATION USING BLUETOOTH SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika N. BUGDOL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bluetooth standard is a low-cost, very popular communication protocol offering a wide range of applications in many fields. In this paper, a novel system for road traffic estimation using Bluetooth sensors has been presented. The system consists of three main modules: filtration, statistical analysis of historical, and traffic estimation and prediction. The filtration module is responsible for the classification of road users and detecting measurements that should be removed. Traffic estimation has been performed on the basis of the data collected by Bluetooth measuring devices and information on external conditions (e.g., temperature, all of which have been gathered in the city of Bielsko-Biala (Poland. The obtained results are very promising. The smallest average relative error between the number of cars estimated by the model and the actual traffic was less than 10%.

  19. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics air traffic management cost assessment tool provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP)...

  20. Louisiana traffic sign inventory and management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD), like many state highway agencies in the United States, lacks a comprehensive system for inventorying and maintaining records of traffic signs. To address this problem, state highway d...

  1. Traffic Predictive Control: Case Study and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    This project developed a quantile regression method for predicting future traffic flow at a signalized intersection by combining both historical and real-time data. The algorithm exploits nonlinear correlations in historical measurements and efficien...

  2. Traffic control device evaluation program : FY 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...

  3. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  4. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic fl...

  5. Detecting Target Data in Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    packets, such as unauthorized connections to services like FTP and SSH connections, as well as RDP and MSSQL. Stateful firewalls are designed to...Hashdb can also be used to analyze network traffic and embedded content in other documents. There are hashdb libraries for the Python and C...amount of data that it logs. Bro will look at to DNS traffic, HTTP requests, and if any other connections attempted to be made over FTP, SSH and other

  6. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  7. Aplikasi Traffic Monitoring Server Menggunakan SMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona, Clarissa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to build traffic monitoring application that can help network administrator to monitor server anytime and anywhere, by using SMS. Things to be monitored are data traffic and server network connection. Literature study, and field study were done before designing the application.The result is application that can send and receive SMS to / from network administrator, check the connection to the server, and respond to network administrator in a relatively fast time when the connec...

  8. PSNR Evaluation of Media Traffic over TFRC

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda S. Sorour; Magdi A. Koutb; Mohammad A. Talaat

    2009-01-01

    Due to the remarkable increase in media traffic overthe existing best-effort IP Internet, the Internet congestion stateis expected to worsen. TCP-friendly rate control protocol TFRCis one of the most promising congestion control techniquesdeveloped so far. Those techniques have been thoroughly testedin terms of being TCP-friendly and fair. Yet, their impact on thevisual quality of the media traffic traversing Internet is stillquestionable. This paper investigates, in a simulatedenvironment, t...

  9. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  10. Human Factors in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    knowlodg of the world from our experience, undverstanding, end acquisition of’ information. These divisions do not fit practical considerations nuatly...Clearly in air tra.ffic control the coan-troller relies liavily on long term memory for hei general knowlodge of the principles, methods and techniques of...air traffic control and for his specific knowledge about the way those prinoiples are translated into practice in a partioalar air space under his own

  11. Traffic, diesel and asthma : a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This article details the major pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust, mainly particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The emphasis is on motor vehicle emissions from diesel powered engines, which have become a significant source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact of motor vehicle pollutants on respiratory health is explored, and the major studies relating asthma to high volume of traffic and proximity to major traffic arteries are reviewed.

  12. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  13. Road traffic noise and children's inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Stansfeld, Stephen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Vrijheid, Martine; de Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-11-21

    An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association was mediated by sleep duration. This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of children's inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age 8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway. An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age 8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled. Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on children's inattention. We found no mediation by sleep duration.

  14. Optimizing Traffic Operation in Designing Specific Upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sangsefidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport forms one of the primary needs in all categories of the population in modern society; it is of paramount concern for traffic engineers, transport planners, and policy makers to understand and evaluate the quality of service being provided by the transport facilities designed by them. This paper presents an investigation in profile geometric design and traffic flow operation on two-lane two-way highways and provides analyses that will help in a better understanding of traffic operation on these facilities to select the optimum profile configuration. The effects of influencing parameters consisting of grade, length of grade, traffic composition, and traffic volume are evaluated and finally a systematic procedure to evaluate flow rate under the base condition is presented. Finally, based on these achievements an algorithm is introduced to select optimum Finished Ground of profile view. Results show that the percentage of heavy vehicles has a contributing effect on traffic operation so that the optimum profile configuration is incredibly affected by this factor. Source data have been obtained from Highway Capacity Manual (HCM as a pioneer document in respect of quantifying the concept of capacity for a transport facility.

  15. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  16. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  17. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  18. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  19. Modelling of H.264 MPEG2 TS Traffic Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Klucik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with IPTV traffic source modelling. Traffic sources are used for simulation, emulation and real network testing. This model is made as a derivation of known recorded traffic sources that are analysed and statistically processed. As the results show the proposed model causes in comparison to the known traffic source very similar network traffic parameters when used in a simulated network.

  20. Evaluation of Deterministic and Stochastic Components of Traffic Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic counts or statistical evidence of the traffic processare often a characteristic of time-series data. In this paper fundamentalproblem of estimating deterministic and stochasticcomponents of a traffic process are considered, in the context of"generalised traffic modelling". Different methods for identificationand/or elimination of the trend and seasonal componentsare applied for concrete traffic counts. Further investigationsand applications of ARIMA models, Hilbert space formulationsand state-space representations are suggested.

  1. System and method for traffic signal timing estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Dumazert, Julien

    2015-12-30

    A method and system for estimating traffic signals. The method and system can include constructing trajectories of probe vehicles from GPS data emitted by the probe vehicles, estimating traffic signal cycles, combining the estimates, and computing the traffic signal timing by maximizing a scoring function based on the estimates. Estimating traffic signal cycles can be based on transition times of the probe vehicles starting after a traffic signal turns green.

  2. Fuzzy cellular model of signal controlled traffic stream

    OpenAIRE

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic traffic models have recently gained considerable importance as a mean of optimising traffic control strategies. Computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate microscopic traffic models have been developed based on the cellular automata theory. However, the real-time application of the available cellular automata models in traffic control systems is a difficult task due to their discrete and stochastic nature. This paper introduces a novel method of traffic streams modelling,...

  3. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  4. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  5. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  6. Criminal Liability for Serious Traffic Offences : Essays on Causing Death, Injury and Danger in Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Alwin; Wolswijk, Hein

    2015-01-01

    The criminal law on serious traffic offences is a fascinating area. The traffic context presents legislators with numerous controversial issues. One such issue is when severe consequences are matched with low moral culpability. How should the law deal with a driver who kills someone because she

  7. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  8. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  9. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  10. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  11. Traffic flow behavior at a single lane roundabout as compared to traffic circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H., E-mail: ezahamid@fsr.ac.ma; Benyoussef, A.

    2014-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic Cellular Automata (CA) model to study traffic flow at a single-lane urban roundabout (resp. traffic circle) of N entry points (resp. exit points), the entry points are controlled by rates α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} while the removal rates from the exit points are denoted by β. The traffic is controlled by a self-organized scheme. Based on computer simulation, density profiles, global density and current are calculated in terms of rates. Furthermore, the phase diagrams for roundabout as well as traffic circle are constructed. It has turned out that the phase diagrams consist essentially of two phases namely free flow and jamming. It is noted that the typology of the phase diagrams of the roundabout is not similar to it in the traffic circle. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of the two systems in terms of the geometrical properties and the number of entry points. - Highlights: • Simulations are conducted to study traffic flow at a single-lane urban roundabout as well as traffic circle. • Phase diagrams for roundabout as well as traffic circle are constructed. • The performance of the two systems are compared in terms of the geometrical properties and the number of entry points.

  12. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  13. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chuan; Sun, Di-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Considering the effects that the probability of traffic interruption and the friction between two lanes have on the car-following behaviour, this paper establishes a new two-lane microscopic car-following model. Based on this microscopic model, a new macroscopic model was deduced by the relevance relation of microscopic and macroscopic scale parameters for the two-lane traffic flow. Terms related to lane change are added into the continuity equations and velocity dynamic equations to investigate the lane change rate. Numerical results verify that the proposed model can be efficiently used to reflect the effect of the probability of traffic interruption on the shock, rarefaction wave and lane change behaviour on two-lane freeways. The model has also been applied in reproducing some complex traffic phenomena caused by traffic accident interruption.

  14. TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION BASED ON BIOLOGICALLY VISUAL MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Hu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TSR (Traffic sign recognition is an important problem in ITS (intelligent traffic system, which is being paid more and more attention for realizing drivers assisting system and unmanned vehicle etc. TSR consists of two steps: detection and recognition, and this paper describe a new traffic sign detection method. The design principle of the traffic sign is comply with the visual attention mechanism of human, so we propose a method using visual attention mechanism to detect traffic sign ,which is reasonable. In our method, the whole scene will firstly be analyzed by visual attention model to acquire the area where traffic signs might be placed. And then, these candidate areas will be analyzed according to the shape characteristics of the traffic sign to detect traffic signs. In traffic sign detection experiments, the result shows the proposed method is effectively and robust than other existing saliency detection method.

  15. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  16. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  17. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2016-04-01

    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  18. Interdependence of Tourism and Traffic in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic characteristics of tourism as stimulating factorof economic development of individual counties are reflectedin the expansion of economic relations with foreign count1ies,in stimulating regional development, in opening of new workplaces,in additional marketing of products on the domesticmarket, in evaluation of cultural and hist01ical resources, etc.The interrelation between the traffic system and tourism resultsfrom the complexity of characteristics and functions ofthese two economic activities. Although traffic system regularlyappears as the factor of improving or limiting the developmentof tourism, their relation needs to be considered in fact in theirmutual interaction.Defining of the Croatian traffic policy regarding tourism requirements,can be considered according to certain trafficbranches but also according to specific requirements the touristdemand has on the traffic system. However, tourist demandneeds to be understood as a part of the overall demand on thetraffic system so that it can and has to be satisfied by the trafficsupply formed according to the overall traffic demand.

  19. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Suphanchaimaj, Weraphan; Settasatien, Anuchar; Jinwong, Thanapong

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Thailand. The number of mortalities, morbidities and disabilities are huge, greatly affecting the individual victims, the families, society and the nation as a whole. To study the current situation regarding traffic injuries in Thailand. Retrospective study from multiple national data sources For over ten years, the annual death toll due to road accidents has been more than ten thousand Thais. The situation remains critical with a higher mortality and morbidity than many other low or middle income countries. Two-thirds of the victims were males: 80% were under 40 years of age. Most (80%) of the injured and dead were motorcyclists. The large number of traffic crashes, injuries, disabilities and deaths resulted in more than 168 thousand million Baht in economic losses in 2002. These losses are trending to increase. Traffic injuries are a persistent major public health concern primarily because of a lack of adherence to the use of safety restraints and obedience of traffic laws. The nation must not hesitate to increase efforts to address these problems, as they are costing life and limb of Thais every hour of every day, as well as adding a huge economic burden.

  20. Distraction-related road traffic collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to prospectively study distraction-related road traffic collision injuries, their contributory factors, severity, and outcome. Data were prospectively collected on all hospitalized road traffic collision trauma patients in Al-Ain City who were drivers at the collision time over one and half years. Driver's inattentive behaviors preceding the collision were collected by interviewing the admitted drivers. There were 444 drivers, 330 of them were fully oriented patients, out of them only 44 (13%) were distracted. Nineteen (5.8%) drivers were distracted by using mobile phones, 12 (3.6%) were pre-occupied with deep thinking, six (1.8%) were talking with other passengers, four (1.2%) were picking things in the vehicle, and three (0.9%) were using entertainment systems. The maximum distraction occurred during the time of 6 am - 12 noon when the traffic was crowded. There were no significant differences between distracted and non-distracted drivers in demographical and physiological factors, injured regions, and outcomes. Distraction of alert drivers causes 13% of road traffic collisions in Al-Ain city. About 40 percent of the distracted drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports the ban of use of cell phones while driving.

  1. The design of traffic signal coordinated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueting; Sun, Hongsheng; Wang, Xifu

    2017-05-01

    Traffic as the tertiary industry is an important pillar industry to support the normal development of the economy. But now China's road traffic development and economic development has shown a great imbalance and fault phenomenon, which greatly inhibited the normal development of China's economy. Now in many large and medium-sized cities in China are implementing green belt construction. The so-called green band is when the road conditions to meet the conditions for the establishment of the green band, the sections of the intersection of several planning to a traffic coordination control system, so that when the driver at a specific speed can be achieved without stopping the continuous Through the intersection. Green belt can effectively reduce the delay and queuing length of vehicle driving, the normal function of urban roads and reduce the economic losses caused by traffic congestion is a great help. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the design of the coordinated control system is described. Secondly, the green time offset is calculated by the analytic method and the green band is established. And then the VISSIM software is used to simulate the traffic system before and after the improvement. Finally, the results of the two simulations are compared.

  2. Transportation, road and traffic; Yuso / doro / kotsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, K.; Oshita, T.; Kimura, K.; Ishikura, T. [Ministry of Construction Ibaragi (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Road transportation of cargos and passengers is increasing recently. Securing funds for road construction projects is under severe condition due to retrenchment in finance. The number of four-wheel vehicles possessed by users totaled to 65.18 million at the end of March, 1996, showing 3.0% increase compared with that of the previous year. The number of motorcycles increased by 40 thousand in the area of two-wheel vehicles. The number of light two-wheeled vehicles showed no marked fluctuations. No statistic was made public concerning motor-bicycles. Outlines of the budget for road construction and road maintenance situation are given. The traffic density was much heavier than the increasing rate of the road extension at the end of March, 1996. The advanced road traffic system is a new road traffic system which utilizes most advanced information communication technology to decrease traffic snarls and traffic accidents and to improve the riding comfort of users, and 9 development fields and 20 user service systems are being developed currently. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  4. Eigen-Gradients for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Esmeralda Gonzalez-Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign detection and recognition systems include a variety of applications like autonomous driving, road sign inventory, and driver support systems. Machine learning algorithms provide useful tools for traffic sign identification tasks. However, classification algorithms depend on the preprocessing stage to obtain high accuracy rates. This paper proposes a road sign characterization method based on oriented gradient maps and the Karhunen-Loeve transform in order to improve classification performance. Dimensionality reduction may be important for portable applications on resource constrained devices like FPGAs; therefore, our approach focuses on achieving a good classification accuracy by using a reduced amount of attributes compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method was tested using German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, reaching a dimensionality reduction of 99.3% and a classification accuracy of 95.9% with a Multi-Layer Perceptron.

  5. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    their network capacities. However, in order to provide more advanced video services than simply porting the traditional television services to the network, the service provider needs to do more than just augment the network capacity. Advanced traffic management capability is one of the relevant abilities...... slacken the steps of some network operators towards providing IPTV services. In this dissertation, the topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed to tackle the problem addressed. The scheme simplifies the deployment process by placing an intelligent switch with centralized traffic...... management functions at the edge of the network, scheduling traffic on behalf of the other nodes. The topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is able to provide outstanding flow isolation due to its centralized scheduling ability, which is essential for providing IPTV services. In order to reduce...

  6. Application of Internet in Road Traffic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dadić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the implementation of Internet in trafficengineering with the purpose of improving the professionaland scientific research development of the traffic system in theRepublic of Croatia.Fast growth of the world computer network, Internet, andits applications in almost all the fields of human activities,change the picture of the modern world. The current exchangeof data in all their forms and the daily growth of the network,supplemented by almost incredible amounts of data that can bealmost instantly accessible, indicates that Internet is not just theinfomwtion technology revolution, but that it is a revolutionper se. More than 100 million computers are estimated to benetworked beginning of the 21" century.Internet seems almost as if it were created for the purposesof knowledge and expe1ience exchange in traffic, a relativelyyoung scientific branch. 11 can be concluded that the presenceof traffic engineers in Internet is today's reality and tomon·ow'snecessity.

  7. Machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    . Due to promise of non-invasive and resilient detection, botnet detection based on network traffic analysis has drawn a special attention of the research community. Furthermore, many authors have turned their attention to the use of machine learning algorithms as the mean of inferring botnet......-related knowledge from the monitored traffic. This paper presents a review of contemporary botnet detection methods that use machine learning as a tool of identifying botnet-related traffic. The main goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the field by summarizing current scientific efforts....... The contribution of the paper is three-fold. First, the paper provides a detailed insight on the existing detection methods by investigating which bot-related heuristic were assumed by the detection systems and how different machine learning techniques were adapted in order to capture botnet-related knowledge...

  8. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ABBAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.

  9. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  10. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  11. Rail-induced Traffic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s railway has exerted an enormous influence on the intercity passenger transport structure in recent years. However, it has not satisfied the passengers’ travel demand due to induced traffic. This paper is committed to solving such issue, with the aim of satisfying the current travel demand, and of anticipating the demand of the predicted traffic growth over the next 20 to 30 years. The paper has considered the increase in rail passenger kilometres caused by the growth of rail kilometres as rail-induced traffic. Based on the concept and former research of induced traffic, the panel data of 26 provinces and 3 municipalities of China between the year 2000 and 2014 were collected, and the elasticity models (including elasticity-based model, distributed lag model, high-speed rail (HSR elasticity model and rail efficiency model have been constructed. The results show the importance of model formation incorporation of rail-induced traffic. It is better to get the correct value in divided zones with different train frequencies or incorporation rail efficiency in cities or provinces. The lag time and rail types also need to be considered. In summary, the results analysis not only confirms the existence of rail-induced traffic, but also provides substantial recommendations to train operation planning.

  12. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  13. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT-RELATED OPEN GLOBE INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Morikawa, Shohei; Okamoto, Fumiki; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Ueda, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sugitani, Kazuhiko; Sawada, Osamu; Mori, Junya; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries, and to examine preoperative factors influencing the visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy, as compared with common open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy, were identified. Patients' demographic and clinical data were entered into a computerized database for review and analysis; data included age, sex, initial visual acuity, duration between onset of injury and surgery, information about the type and cause of injury, wound location and length, presence of ocular complications, and final visual acuity. Of the 355 open globe injuries, 14 were sustained during a traffic-related accident; the average age was 50.4 years (range: 20-85) and most (78.6%) were men. Of these 14 patients, 9 (64.3%) presented with rupture and 5 (35.7%) with laceration. Injuries were caused while driving (6 eyes; 42.9%), riding a bicycle (5 eyes; 35.7%), involved in car accident while walking (2 eyes; 14.3%), and riding a motorbike (1 eye; 7.1%). Initial visual acuity was significantly related to final visual acuity (P = 0.003, R = 0.80). The final visual acuity in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries was significantly better than that of the total group (P = 0.01). Traffic accident-related open globe injuries had better visual outcomes than common open globe injuries. Visual outcomes in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries were related to the initial visual acuity. No eyes developed endophthalmitis in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries.

  14. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha. These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites. For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century, and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data.

  15. Numerical study of traffic flow considering the probability density distribution of the traffic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. M.; Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.

    The probability density distribution of the traffic density is analyzed based on the empirical data. It is found that the beta distribution can fit the result obtained from the measured traffic density perfectly. Then a modified traffic model is proposed to simulate the microscopic traffic flow, in which the probability density distribution of the traffic density is taken into account. The model also contains the behavior of drivers’ speed adaptation by taking into account the driving behavior difference and the dynamic headway. Accompanied by presenting the flux-density diagrams, the velocity evolution diagrams and the spatial-temporal profiles of vehicles are also given. The synchronized flow phase and the wide moving jam phase are indicated, which is the challenge for the cellular automata traffic model. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is exhibited, which has been observed in the measured data previously. The results set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in detecting the complicated dynamic phenomena of the traffic flow.

  16. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  17. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review.

  18. Impact of air traffic on the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stief, G. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Agrometeorologia

    1997-12-31

    Though emission from world-wide air traffic may seem to be relatively small in comparison to that from all other anthropogenic sources, the deleterious effect on the climate of the gases and particles emitted by planes is disproportionately large. It is thought that air traffic, working together with pollutants that have already accumulated at critical heights, and depending on humidity and temperature, plays a decisive role in helping to cause the changes, presented below, in global radiation, sunshine duration, rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures which are taking place. (author) 7 refs.

  19. Service scheduling for WWW traffic in GPRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingguo

    2004-04-01

    Transmission scheduling algorithm for WWW traffic in GPRS needs to be optimized according to characteristics of Temporary Block Flow, TCP/IP and mobile access behavior. We analyze the radio resource allocation problem in GPRS and design a new scheduling algorithm FIFO-with-flow. It is simple and can adapt to temporal flows, and allocate bandwidth among temporal flows fairly. Based on the characteristics of mobile user access behavior, we determine the wireless WWW traffic model and its parameters reflecting TCP congest control. We simulate and compare the performance of FIFO-with-flow and FIFO. The FIFO-with-flow can support more WWW users than FIFO.

  20. Road traffic safety on the roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Степанчук

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth of automobilization and the noncompliance of the city central parts with the modern vehicles requirements create the preconditions for the increase of the road traffic accidents. the intersections, of the main streets of the district value are the most accidental. It is noted that to develop a set of measures to improve road safety at the intersections it is necessary to know the degree of their security. it is found that that the intersections of highways significantly reduce the capacity, creating significant delay of traffic flows, as a result of which they become places of high concentration of automobile emissions, noise and other adverse effects on the environment

  1. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  2. Analyses of Real Email Traffic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Malinka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical analysis of email traffic logs obtained from a large university to better understand its impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of anonymous mix remailers. We analyzed data containing records of almost 790,000 emails sent over a period of forty days – the largest dataset we are aware of. The initial analysis of data is followed by an exploration of how variance in message arrival time and size impact the anonymity and efficiency provided by timed and threshold mixes, respectively. The analysis results are subsequently explored for their possible impact on traffic analysis.

  3. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got...

  4. Broadband Traffic Forecasting in the Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Radojičić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modification of traffic forecast model generated by residential and small business (SOHO, Small Office Home Office users. The model includes forecasted values of different relevant factors and competition on broadband market. It allows forecasting the number of users for various broadband technologies and interaction impact of long-standing technologies as well as the impact of the new technology entrant on the market. All the necessary parameters are evaluated for the Serbian broadband market. The long-term forecasted results of broadband traffic are given. The analyses and evaluations performed are important inputs for the transport network resources planning.

  5. Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition using SURF Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Wai Kyu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For road safety traffic sign is essential for drivers by giving valuable safety and navigation information pedestrians and even for the development of autonomous driver assistance system. Traffic sign can be classified by two methods can be approached. First approach is color base segmentation which is the region of traffic sign by using HSV color space Hue Saturation and Value and the next approach is shape base segmentation using Hough Circle Detection. In thissystem we use circle shape base detection for every traffic sign. At first keypoints descriptor is extracted from each standard traffic sign image in database and then keypoints descriptor is taken from region of traffic sign extracted from Hough circle detection. After that the nearest distance is matched keypoints descriptor between in each standard traffic sign image in database and extracted traffic sign image.

  6. Traffic Infrastructure and Economics Development in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic infrastructure makes an integral pwt of the trafficand economic system in each country. The traffic policy makershave a task, that their policy must be based on scientific developmentsand synchronised activity of all economic systemsegments.

  7. Traffic incident management in hazardous materials spills in incident clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous materials spills provide unique challenges to traffic incident clearance. When hazardous materials are present, not only do response personnel have to deal with typical traffic incident issues, they also must deal with potential chemical ha...

  8. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic : characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder : width, roadway sect...

  9. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder width, roadway section ...

  10. Traffic accident mapping in Bangkok metropolis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    Results from an analysis of traffic accidents from a study of the police records of four police stations in the Bangkok metropolis are presented. The main emphasis in this study was put on the development of a measure for traffic accident density. The traffic flow was estimated at the various study locations by trained experts. By relating the frequency of traffic accidents found in the police records to the independently estimated traffic flow, a measure for traffic accident occurrence, the traffic accident density, was constructed and estimated for the 47 areas in four study locations. The spatial risk structure was estimated and three risk groups were identified. Each area was classified into its associated risk group, and traffic accident maps for the four study locations in the Bangkok metropolis are provided here. The implication for prevention strategies is discussed.

  11. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., shall be reported as freight terminated by respondent. (g) Import and export traffic received from or... or exit. (h) Traffic interchanged with connecting rail lines operating in Canada and Mexico shall be...

  12. Game-theoretic analysis of dynamic traffic equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic traffic assignment has grown steadily in popularity and use since its inception. It has become an : important and permanent tool in transportation agencies across the country. However, the exact nature of : dynamic traffic equilibrium, includ...

  13. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  14. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  15. Tire-pavement and environmental traffic noise research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In response to an interest in traffic noise, particularly tirepavement noise, CDOT elected to conduct tirepavement : noise research. Following a rigid set of testing protocols, data was collected on highway traffic : noise characteristics along wi...

  16. Improving traffic safety culture in Iowa : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Phase II of Improving Traffic Safety Culture in Iowa focuses on producing actions that will improve the traffic safety culture across the state, and involves collaboration among the three large public universities in Iowa: Iowa State University, Univ...

  17. Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Kiloloma, Othman; Munthali, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    .... Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, associated factors and management of road traffic injury patients in Tanzania...

  18. Traffic flow simulation for an urban freeway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a realistic and operational macroscopic traffic flow simulation model which requires relatively less data collection efforts. Such a model should be capable of delineating the dynamics of traffic flow created...

  19. Computer-Assisted Traffic Engineering Using Assignment, Optimal Signal Setting, and Modal Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Methods of traffic assignment, traffic signal setting, and modal split analysis are combined in a set of computer-assisted traffic engineering programs. The system optimization and user optimization traffic assignments are described. Travel time func...

  20. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  1. The effects of redundancy and information manipulation on traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Berk; Ozel, Berk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the most frequently encountered problems in real life. It is not only a scientific concern of scholars, but also an inevitable issue for most of the individuals living in urban areas. Since every driver in traffic networks tries to minimize own journey length, and volume of the traffic prevents coordination between individuals, a cooperative behavior will not be provided spontaneously in order to decrease the total cost of the network and the time spent on traffic...

  2. Self-Organizing Traffic at a Malfunctioning Intersection

    OpenAIRE

    Sujai Kumar; Sugata Mitra

    2006-01-01

    Traffic signals and traffic flow models have been studied extensively in the past and have provided valuable insights on the design of signalling systems, congestion control, and punitive policies. This paper takes a slightly different tack and describes what happens at an intersection where the traffic signals are malfunctioning and stuck in some configuration. By modelling individual vehicles as agents, we were able to replicate the surprisingly organized traffic flow that we observed at a ...

  3. Algorithms and tools for anonymization of the internet traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Farah, Tanjila

    2013-01-01

    Collecting network traffic traces from deployed networks is one of the basic steps in under-standing communication networks and ensuring adequate quality of service. Traffic traces may be used for network management, traffic engineering, packet classification, and for analyzing user behavior. They may also be used for identifying and tracking network anomalies and for maintaining network security. For privacy and security reasons, monitored traffic traces should be anonymization before they m...

  4. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  5. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kapileswar Nellore; Gerhard P. Hancke

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and val...

  6. A Survey of Modern Air Traffic Control. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    oceanic traffic would use combined hyperbolic-inertial navigation systems. System I could be implemented to meet the demanda for air traffic services...but one of great importance if the projected gro~th in air traffic occurs and the current trend in labor osts c ontinue. Satellite-aided systems...control <>fair traffic through increased use of automated facilities, then a less labor intensive syst e m may be feas i ble with attendant long term

  7. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  8. Estimating Traffic and Anomaly Maps via Network Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Mardani, Morteza; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping origin-destination (OD) network traffic is pivotal for network management and proactive security tasks. However, lack of sufficient flow-level measurements as well as potential anomalies pose major challenges towards this goal. Leveraging the spatiotemporal correlation of nominal traffic, and the sparse nature of anomalies, this paper brings forth a novel framework to map out nominal and anomalous traffic, which treats jointly important network monitoring tasks including traffic estim...

  9. Design of Automatic Comprehensive Traffic Data Management System for Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    1998-01-01

    With the highway infrastructure under strain, there is a need to collect and analyze traffic volume, vehicle classification, and weight data in an integrated manner. Most research focuses on collection and quality of data with little emphasis on an integrated traffic data management system. Design of an integrated traffic data management system that allows for editing, storage, and reporting of traffic volumes, vehicle classification, and vehicle weight along with quality assurance of data is...

  10. POINT COORDINATION FUNCTION WLAN TRAFFIC LOADINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNN

    DCF function is contention based and is supported by carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol [7, 8]. The CSMA/CA media access control (MAC) protocol of IEEE WLAN is a unique way of avoiding the collision of the user packets when the traffic sources transmit bursty packets [3, 4, 5, 6].

  11. CYCLISTS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ON ROUNDABOUT (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena BELIKOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth of motorization level leads to the necessity of crossroads modernization and this is reflected in the other movement participants. This article discusses and compares the methods of cyclists traffic management on roundabout in terms of security, efficiency of implementation, simplicity of organization and cost.

  12. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1 the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2 the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3 the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  13. Traffic gridlock on a honeycomb city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, L. E.; Muñoz, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by an old and almost in oblivion urban plan, we report the behavior of the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model—a paradigm for studying phase transitions of traffic flow—on a hypothetical city with a perfect honeycomb street network. In contrast with the original BML model on a square lattice, the same model on a honeycomb does not show any anisotropy or intermediate states, but a single continuous phase transition between free and totally congested flow, a transition that can be completely characterized by the tools of classical percolation. Although the transition occurs at a lower density than for the conventional BML, simple modifications, like randomly stopping the cars with a very small probability or increasing the traffic light periods, drives the model to perform better on honeycomb lattices. As traffic lights and disordered perturbations are inherent in real traffic, these results question the actual role of the square gridlike designs and suggest the honeycomb topology as an interesting alternative for urban planning in real cities.

  14. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  15. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  16. Second-order continuum traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.; Hoffmann, C.; Sollacher, R.; Wagenhuber, J.; Schürmann, B.

    1996-11-01

    A second-order traffic flow model is derived from microscopic equations and is compared to existing models. In order to build in different driver characteristics on the microscopic level, we exploit the idea of an additional phase-space variable, called the desired velocity originally introduced by Paveri-Fontana [Trans. Res. 9, 225 (1975)]. By taking the moments of Paveri-Fontana's Boltzmann-like ansatz, a hierachy of evolution equations is found. This hierarchy is closed by neglecting cumulants of third and higher order in the cumulant expansion of the distribution function, thus leading to Euler-like traffic equations. As a consequence of the desired velocity, we find dynamical quantities, which are the mean desired velocity, the variance of the desired velocity, and the covariance of actual and desired velocity. Through these quantities an alternative explanation for the onset of traffic clusters can be given, i.e., a spatial variation of the variance of the desired velocity can cause the formation of a traffic jam. Furthermore, by taking into account the finite car length, Paveri-Fontana's equation is generalized to the high-density regime eventually producing corrections to the macroscopic equations. The relevance of the present dynamic quantities is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  17. Traffic safety effects of navigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.J.; Hogema, J.H.; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— To investigate effects of navigation systems on traffic safety, a literature search, a damages database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented car study were conducted. This paper presents the instrumented car study to investigate the effects of a navigation system on driving behavior

  18. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-02

    May 2, 2017 ... Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose ... Most accidents were caused by male .... Accidents statistics, Nairobi: Ministry for Public works,. Government of Kenya, 1983 – 1990, 1992. 5. Filani and Gbadamosi. Identification of cycles and.

  19. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  20. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  1. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of accidents experienced with railway transportation involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. These collisions can be averted by putting safety measures in place. Part of the measures can be achieved by using computerized railway station traffic control systems that use ...

  2. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulati...

  3. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  4. Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Lindsey, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes traffic bottleneck congestion when drivers randomly cause incidents that temporarily block the bottleneck. Drivers have general scheduling preferences for time spent at home and at work. They independently choose morning departure times from home to maximize expected utility w...

  5. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    RESOURCE ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY FOR INTERNET. HETEROGENEOUS TRAFFIC. Cosmas I Ani. Department of Electronic Engineering. University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The mode of operation of internet can lead to congestion which, in turn, leads to degradation in the quality of service. (QoS).

  6. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is a sprouting serious road safety issue that causes a pro- portion of preventable deaths4,5. Pre-crash driver's dis- traction was reported to be responsible for about 80% of collisions and 65% of near-collisions6. We aimed to pro- spectively study distraction-related road traffic collision injuries, their contributory factors, ...

  7. Overtaking as Indicator of Road Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking is presemed as one of the indicators of roadtraffic flow. The possibility of overtaking depends on the existenceof an intetval in the opposing traffic flow sufficient to performovertaking. It also analyses the probability of overtakingby applying adequate equations and graphical presentations

  8. What kinds of traffic forecasts are possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    hardly possible to make exact, quantitative predictions about the impact of implementing a specific infrastructure project, compared to ‘doing nothing’. Instead of relying on traffic model simulations as the general forecasting and assessment tool in transport planning, we propose to separate the so...

  9. Probability in traffic : A challenge for modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Taale, H.; Snelder, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade an increase in research regarding stochasticity and probability in traffic modelling has occurred. The realisation has grown that simple presumptions and basic stochastic elements are insufficient to give accurate modelling results in many cases. This paper puts forward a strong

  10. Probability in traffic: a challenge for modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Taale, H.; Snelder, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade an increase in research regarding stochasticity and probability in traffic modelling has occurred. The realisation has grown that simple presumptions and basic stochastic elements are insufficient to give accurate modelling results in many cases. This paper puts forward a strong

  11. Smartphone Based Traffic Sign Inventory and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Road signs are an important part of the infrastructure and are needed to ensure smooth and : safe traffic flow. Faded, occluded, damaged or vandalized signs can confuse or misinform : drivers and lead to unsafe driving behavior. E.g. if a driver is n...

  12. Representing the road infrastructure in open traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, G.; Knoppers, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the design of network objects for all types of assignment methods, varying from macroscopic assignments to micro simulation models. The basic idea is that the model environment should allow the simulation of traffic at multiple scales, based on standardized data formats. We

  13. South Carolina traffic collision fact book, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The number of traffic fatalities decreased from 921 in 2008 to 894 in : 2009, a 2.9% decrease. There was also a decrease in the mileage : death rate (MDR) as well. It fell to an all time low of 1.84 deaths per : hundred million vehicle miles of trave...

  14. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  15. Road traffic noise, sleep and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygna, Karin; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aamodt, Geir; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between road traffic noise, self-reported sleep quality and mental health. The study is cross-sectional and based on data from a survey conducted in Oslo, Norway, in 2000. Psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, HSCL-25) was measured along with self-reported somatic health, sleep quality, noise sensitivity and socioeconomic variables. Questionnaire data were combined with modeled estimates of noise exposure. The total study sample consisted of 2898 respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders and stratifying for sleep quality, we found a positive, but not statistically significant association between noise exposure and symptoms of psychological distress among participants with poor sleep quality (slope=0.06, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.13, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). In the same sleep quality group, we found a borderline statistically significant association between noise exposure and a symptom level indicating a probable mental disorder (HSCL≥1.55) (odds ratio=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). We found no association between road traffic noise and mental health among subjects reporting good and medium sleep quality. The results suggest that road traffic noise may be associated with poorer mental health among subjects with poor sleep. Individuals with poor sleep quality may be more vulnerable to effects of road traffic noise on mental health than individuals with better sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, August). Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control. Meeting of the EARLI SIG6/7 Instructional Design and Learning and Instruction with Computers, Ulm, Germany.

  17. Traffic Engineering of Cellular Wireless Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2002-01-01

    protection mechanisms to guarantee the Quality of Service for all services. We study cellular systems with hierarchical cells, and the effect of overlapping cells, and we show that by call packing we obtain a very high utilisation. The models are generalisations of the Erlang-B formula, and include general...... arrival processes, and multi-rate (multi-media) traffic for third generation systems....

  18. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local

  19. Optimization of traffic light control system of an intersection using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of traffic light control system of an intersection using fuzzy inference system. ... This clearly demonstrates the efficacy and potential of our solution strategy to address the traffic scheduling problem. Keywords: Fuzzy Logic; Traffic Control Systems; Dynamic Phase Scheduling; Static Phase Scheduling, Fuzzy Sets ...

  20. Introduction to Traffic Flow Theory : An introduction with exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.

    Traffic processes cause several problems in the world. Traffic delay, pollution are some of it. They can be solved with the right road design or traffic management (control) measure. Before implementing these designs of measures, though, their effect could be tested. To this end, knowledge of

  1. Prediction of traffic fatalities and prospects for mobility becoming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    road traffic fatalities for developing countries is used, based on the relationships of income level per capita with road traffic mortality. Also this model implies that at some point in time road traffic deaths will start declining for ever, also worldwide. After empirically derived corrections for missing or incomplete data and police.

  2. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Routing strategy; network traffic flow; hysteretic loop; phase transition from free flow state to congestion state; scale-free network; bi-stable state; traffic dynamics. PACS Nos 89.75.Hc; 89.20.Hh; 05.10.-a; 89.75.Fb. 1. Traffic dynamics based on local routing strategy on scale-free networks. Communication networks such as ...

  3. Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A Public Health Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, road traffic accidents lead to death and disability as well as financial cost to both society and the individual involved. The causes of road traffic accidents are not just human error or driver negligence. Unfortunately,. Nigerian highways are arguably one of the worst and most dangerous in the world. Road traffic ...

  4. Factors Influencing Road Traffic Delay: Drivers' Perspectives And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined drivers' perception of road traffic delay attributes and factors influencing road traffic delay with a view to assessing loss of man hours along Lagos-Abeokuta Expressway. This view translated to policy statements that can tremendously reduce the road traffic delay in the study area. Primary data were ...

  5. 41 CFR 109-40.301 - Traffic management functions administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic management functions administration. 109-40.301 Section 109-40.301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Management § 109-40.301 Traffic management functions administration. The DOE traffic management functions are...

  6. Bayesian Data Assimilation for Improved Modeling of Road Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the optimal use of existing models that predict certain phenomena of the road traffic system. Such models are extensively used in Advanced Traffic Information Systems (ATIS), Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) or Model Predictive Control (MPC) approaches in order to improve the

  7. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most

  8. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    effectively if traffic behaviours under all conditions are modeled accurately [2]. Traffic flow in engineering is the study of interaction between vehicles, commuters and infrastructure. (including the highways, signage and traffic control devices) with the aim of understanding and developing an optimal road network with efficient ...

  9. An information strategy for the traffic control-chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seignette, P.; Dijkman, J.J.; Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Plomp, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the chain analysis of the traffic control chain according to the method of Chain-computerisation. The traffic control chain co-operation aims at maintaining car mobility with minimal delay. Car mobility is threatened by disruptions of traffic flows that are

  10. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...

  11. Efficiency of Roundabouts as Compared to Traffic Light Controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    light especially when the electric power consumption, fuel consumption and emission by the vehicles stopped by red light at the entrance of signalized intersection are taken into consideration. When traffic density exceeds this value, however, it is recommended for the traffic to be regulated with traffic light at a part time basis ...

  12. Load characterization and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); I. Saniee; A. Stolyar

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies typically arise when there is focused overload or when a network element fails and it is desired to infer these purely from the measured traffic. We derive new general formulae for the variance of the

  13. Epidemiology of Deaths from Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of deaths from Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in Nigeria using Lagos State as a baseline study and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures towards reducing the traffic accidents in the study area. The reported number of deaths from road traffic accidents ...

  14. The Pseudo-Self-Similar Traffic Model: Application and Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Abdouni Khayari, Rachid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Sadre, R.; Ost, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, a variety of studies have shown that network traffic, both for local- and wide-area networks, has self-similar properties. This led to new approaches in network traffic modelling because most traditional traffic approaches result in the underestimation of performance measures

  15. Busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells | Ozovehe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only ...

  16. busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only.

  17. Effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Li, Ming; Li, Qi-Lang; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) traffic flow model. It is assumed that there are two kinds of drivers: normal drivers obey the traffic light rule and violators disobey it. Simulation results show that although the existence of violators increases the average velocity in the free-flowing phase, it decreases the threshold from free-flowing phase to jam. With the presence of violators, a new kind of configuration with stripe slopes -2 and -1/2 has been found in the free-flowing phase. We have developed an analytical investigation which successfully predicts the average velocity in the free-flowing phase. A phase separation phenomenon, where jams and freely flowing traffic coexist, has been found in the intermediate car density range. The mechanism of the phase separation has been illustrated.

  18. Pilot visual acquisition of traffic : operational communications from air traffic control operational communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Avionics devices designed to provide pilots with graphically displayed traffic information will enable pilots to acquire and verify the identity of any intruder aircraft within the general area, either before or in accordance with a controller-issued...

  19. Road traffic and cardiovascular health effects - Road traffic noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to both environmental noise and air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until now, few studies have considered both stressors simultaneously. Two large studies were carried out investigating the relationship between road traffic noise and several cardiovascular

  20. Design and evaluation of impact of traffic light priority for trucks on traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Current traffic light control systems treat all vehicles the same. Trucks however have : different dynamics than passenger vehicles. They take a longer distance to stop, have : lower acceleration rates, have bigger turning rates that cause bigger tra...