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Sample records for survivable autonomic response

  1. Cortical and cerebellar modulation of autonomic responses to loud sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Zeffiro, Thomas; O'Gorman, Ruth; Michels, Lars; Baumann, Peter; Wood, Nellie; Spring, Justin; Rufer, Michael; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2014-01-01

    Detecting unexpected environmental change causes modulation of autonomic activity essential for survival. Understanding the neural mechanisms associated with responses to loud sounds may provide insights into the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), since individuals with PTSD exhibit heightened autonomic responses to unexpected loud sounds. We combined fMRI with autonomic psychophysiological assessment to investigate central and peripheral reactivity to loud tones in 20 healthy participants. Activity in anterior insula, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, anterior midcingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, and cerebellar lobules VIII-IX was associated with both tones and concomitant skin conductance responses. Since regions signaling unexpected external events modulate autonomic activity, heightened loud tone autonomic responses in PTSD may reflect sensitization of this "salience" network. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Blunted autonomic response in cluster headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Brinth, Louise; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability...... be interpreted as dysregulation in the posterior hypothalamus and supports a theory of central autonomic mechanisms involvement in CH....

  3. Incremental shuttle walk test distance and autonomic dysfunction predict survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Catherine G; Hurdman, Judith A; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Smith, Ian A; Austin, Matthew; Armstrong, Iain J; Hamilton, Neil; Charalampopoulos, Athanasios; Sabroe, Ian; Swift, Andrew J; Rothman, Alexander M; Wild, Jim M; Lawrie, Allan; Waterhouse, Judith C; Kiely, David G

    2017-08-01

    To ensure effective monitoring of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a simple, reliable assessment of exercise capacity applicable over a range of disease severity is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) to correlate with disease severity, measure sensitivity to change, and predict survival in PAH. We enrolled 418 treatment-naïve patients with PAH with baseline ISWT within 3 months of cardiac catheterization. Clinical validity and prognostic value of ISWT distance were assessed at baseline and 1 year. ISWT distance was found to correlate at baseline with World Health Organization functional class, Borg score, and hemodynamics without a ceiling effect (all p Change in ISWT distance also predicted survival (p = 0.04). Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) parameters reflecting autonomic response to exercise (highest HR, change in HR, HR recovery at 1 minute >18 beats/min, highest SBP, change in SBP, and 3-minute SBP ratio) were significant predictors of survival (all p < 0.05). In patients with PAH, the ISWT is simple to perform, allows assessment of maximal exercise capacity, is sensitive to treatment effect, predicts outcome, and has no ceiling effect. Also, measures of autonomic function made post-exercise predict survival in PAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Autonomic nervous system status and responsiveness and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'brake' on heart rate, are much more important than previously assumed.1,2 Perhaps of greater concern with regard to anxiety disorders are indications of an autonomic inflexibility or decreased responsiveness in the face of a challenge.1,2 In view of the importance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to instantaneously ...

  5. Theoretical foundations for the responsibility of autonomous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, Jaap

    This article argues that it is possible to hold autonomous agents themselves, and not only their makers, users or owners, responsible for the acts of these agents. In this connection autonomous systems are computer programs that interact with the outside world without human interference. They

  6. Autonomic response to exercise as measured by cardio- vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomic response to exercise as measured by cardio- vascular variability. Abstract. Motivation. There is growing interest in the use of cardiovas- cular variability indicators as measures of autonomic activity, even though reported results are not always comparable or as expected. This review aims to determine the ...

  7. Clinical features and autonomic testing predict survival in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Elizabeth A; Sletten, David M; Suarez, Mariana D; Mandrekar, Jay N; Ahlskog, J Eric; Bower, James H; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Silber, Michael H; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Fealey, Robert D; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A; Singer, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Multiple system atrophy is characterized by autonomic failure along with motor symptoms of parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia. There are differing reports on the influence of certain clinical features, including motor subtype (multiple system atrophy-parkinsonism versus multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia), age of onset, gender, and early autonomic symptoms, on the survival in patients with multiple system atrophy. We sought to evaluate overall survival and predictors of survival in a large cohort of patients with multiple system atrophy seen at a single referral centre where objective autonomic testing is routinely performed for this indication. All cases of multiple system atrophy evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester and assessed with an autonomic reflex screen between January 1998 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 685 patients were identified; 594 met criteria for probable multiple system atrophy, and 91 for possible multiple system atrophy. Multiple system atrophy-parkinsonism was the predominant subtype in 430 patients (63%). Average age of onset was earlier in multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (58.4 years) compared to multiple system atrophy-parkinsonism (62.3 years; P system atrophy (P = 0.232). An initial motor symptom was most common (61%) followed by autonomic onset (28%) and combined motor and autonomic symptoms (11%). The initial onset of either motor or autonomic symptoms did not influence length of survival. However, a number of clinical and autonomic laboratory features predicted unfavourable survival in a univariate analysis. A multivariate model retained the following unfavourable predictors of survival: (i) falls within 3 years of onset (hazard ratio 2.31, P features can be used to predict survival in patients with multiple system atrophy. Autonomic testing adds an additional, independent predictor of survival, demonstrating its value not only in the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy but also as

  8. Metabolic and cardiovascular responses to epinephrine in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Richter, E; Madsbad, S

    1987-01-01

    . To study these responses, we administered epinephrine in a graded intravenous infusion (0.5 to 5 micrograms per minute) to seven diabetic patients without neuropathy, seven diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy, and seven normal subjects. Mean arterial pressure decreased significantly in the patients...... with autonomic neuropathy than in the other groups (P less than 0.05). These findings indicate that several beta-receptor-mediated responses to epinephrine are enhanced in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated.......Norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction, which is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors, is accentuated in patients with autonomic neuropathy. In contrast, responses mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors, including vasodilatation and metabolic changes, have not been evaluated in these patients...

  9. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance

  11. Autonomous Aerobraking: Thermal Analysis and Response Surface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Thornblom, Mark N.

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity thermal model of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was developed for use in an autonomous aerobraking simulation study. Response surface equations were derived from the high-fidelity thermal model and integrated into the autonomous aerobraking simulation software. The high-fidelity thermal model was developed using the Thermal Desktop software and used in all phases of the analysis. The use of Thermal Desktop exclusively, represented a change from previously developed aerobraking thermal analysis methodologies. Comparisons were made between the Thermal Desktop solutions and those developed for the previous aerobraking thermal analyses performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during aerobraking operations. A variable sensitivity screening study was performed to reduce the number of variables carried in the response surface equations. Thermal analysis and response surface equation development were performed for autonomous aerobraking missions at Mars and Venus.

  12. Autonomic response to exercise as measured by cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The published articles that evaluate the effect of exercise on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are summarised in three categories: the response of the ANS during a bout of exercise, directly after exercise (recovery measurements), and after a long-term exercise programme. Results. Articles on the effect of training on ...

  13. Cardiovascular and autonomic response induced by a 20-week ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular and autonomic response induced by a 20-week military training programme in young healthy South African males. ... To investigate the benefit of prolonged exercise on cardiovascular and haemodynamic variables in young healthy black African males. Methods. Fifty-five healthy male volunteers between 18 ...

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Pretransplant Malfunction Is a Powerful Predictor of Survival After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Takahiko; Nakamae, Mika; Koh, Hideo; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Asao; Hino, Masayuki; Nakamae, Hirohisa

    2017-11-01

    Autonomic nervous system function indexed by heart rate variability (HRV) has shown prognostic value for mortality in various cardiovascular and noncardiovascular diseases including cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an association between HRV and outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We prospectively measured HRV as a surrogate pretransplant marker of autonomic nervous system activity in consecutive allo-HCTs with hematological diseases. We analyzed 112 allo-HCTs performed between July 2011 and July 2013 in our center. Univariate analysis showed that increased values of HRV components (low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] spectral component), SD of normal-to-normal RR interval (SDNN), and squares of the differences between adjacent normal-to-normal RR intervals (r-MSSD) were significantly associated with decreased probability of overall mortality (hazard ratio = 0.3 for LF, P transplantation-comorbidity index, and disease risk index models showed the highest values of ΔAkaike information criterion (16.5, 22.2, and 11.4, respectively). When stratified into quartiles of LF groups, 2-year overall survival was 92.9, 84.5, 59.7, and 33.2%, respectively (P transplantation-comorbidity index, and disease risk index. In addition, from bivariate analyses, decreased LF was an independent and significant factor for higher overall mortality in all models. Indicators reflective of autonomic nervous system function might be a powerful predictor of survival after allo-HCT.

  15. Autonomic skin responses in females with Fabry disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette T; Bach, Flemming W; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    , and the cold pressor test; and (3) cutaneous blood flow following capsaicin. The vasoconstrictor response to inspiratory gasp was increased in Fabry patients compared to controls (p = 0.03), while the response to cold and mental stress did not change. Female patients with Fabry disease had a reduced sweat......Fabry disease is a genetic lysosomal disorder with dysfunction of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A causing accumulation of glycolipids in multiple organs including the nervous system and with neuropathy as a prominent manifestation. Neurological symptoms include pain and autonomic...... dysfunction. This study examined peripheral autonomic nerve function in 19 female patients with Fabry disease and 19 sex and age-matched controls by measuring (1) sweat production following acetylcholine challenge; (2) the sympathetically mediated vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp, stress...

  16. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2015-06-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible.

  17. Autonomic responses of autistic children to people and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirstein, W; Iversen, P; Ramachandran, V S

    2001-09-22

    Several recent lines of inquiry have pointed to the amygdala as a potential lesion site in autism. Because one function of the amygdala may be to produce autonomic arousal at the sight of a significant face, we compared the responses of autistic children to their mothers' face and to a plain paper cup. Unlike normals, the autistic children as a whole did not show a larger response to the person than to the cup. We also monitored sympathetic activity in autistic children as they engaged in a wide range of everyday behaviours. The children tended to use self-stimulation activities in order to calm hyper-responsive activity of the sympathetic ('fight or flight') branch of the autonomic nervous system. A small percentage of our autistic subjects had hyporesponsive sympathetic activity, with essentially no electrodermal responses except to self-injurious behaviour. We sketch a hypothesis about autism according to which autistic children use overt behaviour in order to control a malfunctioning autonomic nervous system and suggest that they have learned to avoid using certain processing areas in the temporal lobes.

  18. LOOPHOLE : How sports cars will find a way to survive the autonomous future.

    OpenAIRE

    Striedieck, Robert

    2017-01-01

    What will happen to sport cars once our society and infrastructure allow for a fully autonomous transport systems? My concern for the ”survival of the sports car” clearly originates from an emotional viewpoint rather than a reasonable argument. We know about the benefits that come along with autonomy but that doesn’t make the fear of loosing the emotional side of driving unfounded. My aim was to create a scenario that allows both reason and emotion to coexist and furthermore to benefit from e...

  19. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response En español Send ... Mouth? Looking at Lupus Wise Choices Signs of Sepsis Sepsis can be hard to spot, because its ...

  20. Observation of action and autonomic nervous system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Olivier; Collet, Christian; Dittmar, André

    2005-08-01

    Observing somebody performing an action has been shown to elicit neuronal activity in the premotor cortex. This paper investigated physiological effect of observing an effortful action at the peripheral level. As Autonomic Nervous System responses reflect central nervous system processes such as movement planning and programming, it was expected that observing an action would elicit a pattern of ANS responses matching those recorded during actual movement. 12 male subjects, ages 23 to 28 years (M = 25.5, SD = 1.9), were selected as they were experienced in weight lifting. They were asked to observe a squat movement followed by returning to the upright position under 3 different conditions: (i) observation of actual movement performed by somebody else, (ii) observation of a video of the subject himself (first-person video), and (iii) observation of a video of somebody else performing the same movement (third-person video). Moreover, each movement was observed when performed at 50% and 90% of each participant's personal best mark (% of the highest weight which could be lifted). Three ANS parameters were continuously recorded: skin resistance, temperature and heart rate. ANS responses varied as a function of movement intensity: autonomic responses recorded during movement observation at 90% were significantly higher and longer than those recorded during movement observation at 50%. Thus, autonomic responses were linked to the amount of observed effort. Conversely, no difference was found among the three conditions of observation. ANS responses from observation of actual movement were shown to resemble those recorded under the two conditions of video observation.

  1. Autonomic responses of autistic children to people and objects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirstein, W; Iversen, P; Ramachandran, V. S.

    2001-01-01

    Several recent lines of inquiry have pointed to the amygdala as a potential lesion site in autism. Because one function of the amygdala may be to produce autonomic arousal at the sight of a significant face, we compared the responses of autistic children to their mothers' face and to a plain paper cup. Unlike normals, the autistic children as a whole did not show a larger response to the person than to the cup. We also monitored sympathetic activity in autistic children as they engaged in a w...

  2. Impaired autonomic responses to emotional stimuli in autoimmune limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eSchröder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion-evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2-antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence and arousal ratings. The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala.

  3. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  4. Autonomic and cardiovascular responses of preschool children to television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröer, M; Howell, M

    1990-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the heart rates (HR) and skin temperatures (ST) of 18 preschool children while they viewed two clips of everyday children's television (TV) programming. The measurements were made in a day care setting, in a naturalistic environment designed to mimic the real world of children's TV viewing. The purpose of the study was to determine whether cardiovascular and autonomic arousal to TV programming might occur in some children. Since a large body of psychosocial literature addresses the affects of TV violence on children, HR and ST were examined during exposure to scenes from Mr. Roger's Neighborhood and G.I. Joe cartoons. The Mr. Roger's clip was slow, rhythmic, prosocial, and nonviolent, while the G.I. Joe clip was fast-paced, staccato, colorful, and full of verbal and action violence. The study found a significant effect of exposure to the cartoon violence on HR, with HR increasing. ST decreased, but not significantly, and there was a significant effect of time on the ST, due possibly to habituation. This finding has relevance to nursing assessment, intervention, and education of parents and children, since TV viewing is a pervasive cultural phenomenon. The possibility of excessive or inappropriate autonomic and cardiovascular responsiveness in some children to TV must be considered.

  5. Autonomic function responses to training: Correlation with body composition changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Huang, Chuanye; He, Zihong; Hong, Ping; Zhao, Jiexiu

    2015-11-01

    The causal relation between autonomic function and adiposity is an unresolved issue. Thus, we studied whether resting heart rate variability (HRV) changes could be used to predict changes in body composition after 16 weeks of individualized exercise training. A total of 117 sedentary overweight/obese adults volunteered to join an intervention group (IN, n=82) or a control group (CON, n=35). The intervention group trained for 30-40 min three times a week with an intensity of 85-100% of individual ventilatory threshold (Thvent). At baseline and after a 16-week training period, resting HRV variables, body composition and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were assessed. Compared with CON, exercise training significantly improved HRV and body composition and increased VO2peak (Ptraining were observed for those with greater total and central fat loss. Individual aerobic-based exercise training was for improving autonomic function and resting HRV responses to aerobic training is a potential indicator for adaptations to exercise training. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (−4.3 to −7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to −17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h−1). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling. PMID:21151351

  7. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (-4.3 to -7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to -17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h⁻¹). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling.

  8. The impact of autonomic dysfunction on survival in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Stubendorff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Autonomic dysfunction is a well-known feature in neurodegenerative dementias, especially common in α-synucleinopathies like dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia. The most common symptoms are orthostatic hypotension, incontinence and constipation, but its relevance in clinical practice is poorly understood. There are no earlier studies addressing the influence of autonomic dysfunction on clinical course and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the three most common features of autonomic dysfunction and analyze how it affects survival. METHODS: Thirty patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia were included in this prospective, longitudinal follow-up study. Presence of incontinence and constipation was recorded at baseline. Blood pressure was measured at baseline, after 3 months and after 6 months according to standardized procedures, with 5 measurements during 10 minutes after rising. Orthostatic hypotension was defined using consensus definitions and persistent orthostatic hypotension was defined as 5 or more measurements with orthostatic hypotension. Difference in survival was analyzed 36 months after baseline. RESULTS: There was a high frequency of persistent orthostatic blood pressure (50%, constipation (30% and incontinence (30%. Patients with persistent orthostatic hypotension had a significantly shorter survival compared to those with no or non-persistent orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 4.47, p = 0.034. Patients with constipation and/or urinary incontinence, in addition to persistent orthostatic hypotension, had a poorer prognosis compared to those with isolated persistent orthostatic hypotension or no orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 6.370, p = 0.041. DISCUSSION: According to our findings, the identification of autonomic dysfunction seems to be of great importance in clinical practice, not only to

  9. Reliability of Autonomic Responses and Malaise Across Multiple Motion Sickness Stimulation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Cynthia S.; Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    There is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation. Additionally, a paucity of data exists that examines the variability within an individual across repeated motion sickness tests. Investigators have also examined the relationship of autonomic responses to motion sickness development. These investigations have used analyses at discrete points in time to describe this relationship. This approach fails to address the time course of autonomic responses and malaise development throughout the motion sickness test. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and malaise using the final minute of the motion sickness test across five testing occasions, to examine the reliability of the change in autonomic responses and the change in malaise across five testing occasions, and to examine the relationship between changes in autonomic responses and changes in malaise level across the entire motion sickness test. Our results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and malaise throughout the test duration were less stable across the tests. We attribute this instability to variations in individual susceptibility and the error associated with estimating a measure of autonomic gain.

  10. Sensor Webs: Autonomous Rapid Response to Monitor Transient Science Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Dan; Grosvenor, Sandra; Frye, Stu; Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Cichy, Ben; Ingram, Mary Ann; Langley, John; Miranda, Felix

    2005-01-01

    To better understand how physical phenomena, such as volcanic eruptions, evolve over time, multiple sensor observations over the duration of the event are required. Using sensor web approaches that integrate original detections by in-situ sensors and global-coverage, lower-resolution, on-orbit assets with automated rapid response observations from high resolution sensors, more observations of significant events can be made with increased temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. This paper describes experiments using Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) along with other space and ground assets to implement progressive mission autonomy to identify, locate and image with high resolution instruments phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, floods and ice breakup. The software that plans, schedules and controls the various satellite assets are used to form ad hoc constellations which enable collaborative autonomous image collections triggered by transient phenomena. This software is both flight and ground based and works in concert to run all of the required assets cohesively and includes software that is model-based, artificial intelligence software.

  11. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cong-Yi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograde labeling, immunostaining, calcium imaging, and electrophysiological recordings, here we show that a subpopulation of airway vagal afferent nerves express TRPM8 receptors and that activation of TRPM8 receptors by cold excites these airway autonomic nerves. Thus activation of TRPM8 receptors may provoke autonomic nerve reflex to increase airway resistance. This putative autonomic response may be associated with cold-induced exacerbation of asthma and other pulmonary disorders, making TRPM8 receptors a possible target for prevention of cold-associated respiratory disorders.

  12. University EFL Learners' Perceptions of Their Autonomous Learning Responsibilities and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razeq, Anwar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness of university students for autonomous learning of English as a foreign language. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. The study assessed learners' readiness for autonomous learning across three dimensions: a) learners' perceptions of their educational responsibilities; b) learners' abilities…

  13. Autonomic and Emotional Responses of Graduate Student Clinicians in Speech-Language Pathology to Stuttered Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K.; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Dayalu, Vikram N.; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluent speakers and people who stutter manifest alterations in autonomic and emotional responses as they view stuttered relative to fluent speech samples. These reactions are indicative of an aroused autonomic state and are hypothesized to be triggered by the abrupt breakdown in fluency exemplified in stuttered speech. Furthermore,…

  14. Cardiac autonomic responses after resistance exercise in treated hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alves Trevizani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess and to compare heart rate variability (HRV after resistance exercise (RE in treated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nine hypertensive men [HT: 58.0±7.7 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP =133.6±6.5 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP =87.3±8.1 mmHg; under antihypertensive treatment] and eleven normotensive men (NT: 57.1±6.0 years, SBP =127±8.5 mmHg, DBP =82.7±5.5 mmHg performed a single session of RE (2 sets of 15-20 repetitions, 50% of 1RM, 120 s interval between sets/exercise for the following exercises: leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion, seated arm curl. HRV was assessed at resting and during 10 min of recovery period by calculating time (SDNN, RMSSD and frequency domain (LF and HF indices. Mean values of HRV indices were reduced in the post-exercise period compared to the resting period (HT: lnHF: 4.7±1.4 vs. 2.4±1.2 ms²; NT: lnHF: 4.8±1.5 vs. 2.2±1.1 ms², p<0.01. However, there was no group vs. time interaction in this response (p=0.8. The results indicate that HRV is equally suppressed after RE in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. These findings suggest that a single session of RE does not bring additional cardiac autonomic stress to treated hypertensive subjects.

  15. Increased cardiac autonomic responses to auditory challenges in swaddled infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Scaillet, Sonia; Groswasser, José; Kahn, André

    2004-12-15

    When infants have been swaddled and sleep supine, their risk of dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is reduced with an odds ratio of 0.64 to 0.69. Alternatively, the risk for SIDS in swaddled infants shows a 3-fold increase in the prone position. The protective role of swaddling during supine sleep has remained unexplained. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of swaddling on cardiac reactivity to auditory stimuli during sleep in both the prone and the supine position. Thirty healthy infants with a median age of 11 weeks (range 8 to 15 weeks) were studied polygraphically for 1 night while sleeping successively prone and supine, or vice versa. The infants were studied while swaddled and nonswaddled in both positions. Heart rates were studied during rapid eye movement sleep, before and after exposure to 90 dB(A) of white-noise. Ten infants were excluded from the study because they woke up during the position change or the auditory challenge. Before the administration of the noise stimulus, swaddling decreased values of basal heart rates in the supine position only (P = .049). Following swaddling, the values of basal heart rate were significantly lower in the supine than in the prone position (P = .003). Auditory challenges were followed by a greater increase in heart rate when the supine sleeping infants were swaddled than when not swaddled (P = .018). When swaddled, beat-to-beat heart-rate variability increased following auditory stimulation in the supine position only (P = .012). When sleeping supine, swaddled infants had greater cardiac autonomic changes in response to noise challenges than when they were not swaddled.

  16. Autonomic dysreflexia in response to pudendal nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, A; Schmid, D M; Curt, A; Knapp, P A; Schurch, B

    2003-10-01

    Pudendal nerve stimulation in complete spinal cord injury (SCI). To evaluate the influence of pudendal nerve stimulation on the cardiovascular system in SCI patients in order to assess the underlying neuronal mechanism and the potential risk during stimulation. Swiss Paraplegic Center, and University Hospital, Zurich. A total of 22 male patients with a complete SCI were divided into two groups according to the level of lesion: group A (C6-T6, n=15) and group B (T7-L2, n=7). A total of 66 stimulations using biphasic rectangular impulses (0.2 ms, 10 Hz) with intensities up to 100 mA were applied to the dorsal penile nerve. Of these, 15 stimulations in five patients were repeated after intravenous application of 7 mg of phentolamine. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded by a Finapres cuff applied to the right index finger. Significant increased diastolic and systolic BP accompanied by significant decreased HR suggested the occurrence of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) during pudendal nerve stimulation. These cardiovascular changes corresponded with the subjective sensation of AD symptoms in patients of group A. Intravenous phentolamine lowered the resting BP and prevented severe hypertension during stimulation. Patients in group B presented with mild HR and BP changes in response to pudendal nerve stimulation and reported no AD symptoms. Our results show a considerable effect of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation on HR and BP in patients with high SCI. This may indicate that sacral somatic afferent fibers of the pudendal nerve are involved in the neuronal mechanism of AD in SCI patients with high neurological level. Intravenous phentolamine enables pudendal nerve stimulation without the risk of severe hypertension.

  17. Augmentation of the pressor response to octapressin by autonomic blocking agents in the pithed rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, F.H.H.; Jong, Wybren de

    The effect of octapressin on blood pressure was studied in anesthetized pithed male rats, pretreated with autonomic blocking agents. Phenoxybenzamine and chlorpromazine induced an augmentation of the blood pressure response to octapressin, whereas atropine, propranolol and hexamethonium had no

  18. Autonomic nervous system status and responsiveness and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increases in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. However, it is now accepted that decreases in parasympathetic control, that is, decreases in the autonomic. 'brake' on heart rate, are much more important than previously assumed.1,2 Perhaps of greater concern with regard to anxiety disorders are indications of ...

  19. Investigation of a Micro-test for Circulatory Autonomic Nervous System Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Maximilian; Frühwirth, Matthias; Messerschmidt, Dietmar; Goswami, Nandu; Dorfer, Leopold; Bahr, Frank; Opitz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in homeostasis and organismic recreation, control of immune function, inflammation, and bone growth. It also regulates blood pressure and orthostasis via vagal and sympathetic pathways. Besides recording of heart rate variability (HRV), which characterizes medium (1-5 min) and long term (circadian) autonomic tone or modulation, no gentle tests of short-term autonomic reactivity and control are available. In 1976 Nogier described a short time cardiovascular response ("Réflexe Auriculo Cardiaque", RAC) which could be used to investigate short term autonomic reactions without changing system characteristics and thus being repeatable in short intervals. In this paper, we investigated the possible application of the Nogier reaction as a micro-test for the identification of a disturbed sensitivity or reactivity of the autonomic nervous system. Methods: We statistically analyzed cardiovascular signals derived during the application of small repeated stimuli utilizing methods of signal averaging to characterize the physiological background. Specifically, the Nogier reaction was investigated using simultaneous recordings of ECG, pulse waves, and respiration. Results: Significant fast (delay 1-5 s) and slower (delay 6-12 s) cardio-autonomic responses to different stimuli which characterize short term were observed. From time characteristics and type of signals where they occur we deduce that fast changes observed in heart rate are vagal reactions to the small stimuli whereas slower changes observed in pulse waves stem from sympathetic nervous system responses. Conclusions: The investigated autonomic micro-test opens the possibility to differentially investigate both limbs of the autonomic nervous system with minimal stimuli. It can be performed within seconds and does not change the set point of the system in opposition to less subtle tests such as Valsalva maneuver. Therefore, it is well-suited for

  20. Investigation of a Micro-test for Circulatory Autonomic Nervous System Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Moser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in homeostasis and organismic recreation, control of immune function, inflammation, and bone growth. It also regulates blood pressure and orthostasis via vagal and sympathetic pathways. Besides recording of heart rate variability (HRV, which characterizes medium (1–5 min and long term (circadian autonomic tone or modulation, no gentle tests of short-term autonomic reactivity and control are available. In 1976 Nogier described a short time cardiovascular response (“Réflexe Auriculo Cardiaque”, RAC which could be used to investigate short term autonomic reactions without changing system characteristics and thus being repeatable in short intervals. In this paper, we investigated the possible application of the Nogier reaction as a micro-test for the identification of a disturbed sensitivity or reactivity of the autonomic nervous system.Methods: We statistically analyzed cardiovascular signals derived during the application of small repeated stimuli utilizing methods of signal averaging to characterize the physiological background. Specifically, the Nogier reaction was investigated using simultaneous recordings of ECG, pulse waves, and respiration.Results: Significant fast (delay 1–5 s and slower (delay 6–12 s cardio-autonomic responses to different stimuli which characterize short term were observed. From time characteristics and type of signals where they occur we deduce that fast changes observed in heart rate are vagal reactions to the small stimuli whereas slower changes observed in pulse waves stem from sympathetic nervous system responses.Conclusions: The investigated autonomic micro-test opens the possibility to differentially investigate both limbs of the autonomic nervous system with minimal stimuli. It can be performed within seconds and does not change the set point of the system in opposition to less subtle tests such as Valsalva maneuver. Therefore, it

  1. No response of pancreatic hormones to hypoglycemia in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Krarup, T

    1982-01-01

    The responses of pancreatic hormones (i.e. glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin) to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were investigated in 18 insulin-dependent diabetics without residual beta-cell function and in 6 normal subjects. Nine of the diabetics had autonomic neuropathy, and 9 had...... no neuropathy. After hypoglycemia, no significant increase in any of the 3 pancreatic hormones was found in the diabetics with autonomic neuropathy, whereas significant increments were found in the diabetics without neuropathy and in the normal subjects. These results suggest that autonomic nervous activity...

  2. Use of Portable Digital Devices to Analyze Autonomic Stress Response in Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.

  3. Cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses to graded exercise in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen juvenile diabetics were studied in order to determine if decreased beat-to-beat variation during deep respiration, indicating abnormal autonomic nerve function, imply that cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses are impaired. Patients with decreased beat-to-beat variation had to...... to be more heavily stressed during exercise to reach a certain heart rate or catecholamine level. The relation between other metabolic and hormonal response is discussed.......Thirteen juvenile diabetics were studied in order to determine if decreased beat-to-beat variation during deep respiration, indicating abnormal autonomic nerve function, imply that cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses are impaired. Patients with decreased beat-to-beat variation had...

  4. Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to utilize feed efficiently, promote growth, increase survival and reduce labour costs associated with feeding, Heterobranchus longifilis ingerlings were placed on one of four feeding frequencies; once/day, twice/day; once every other day, and twice every other day for 56 days. They were fed with a commercial ...

  5. A Role for the Autonomic Nervous System in Modulating the Immune Response during Mild Emotional Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, Gerda; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Wal, Wim E. van der; Boer, Sietse F. de; Wied, David de

    1990-01-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the modulation of the immune response to emotional stimuli, was established in rats subjected to the passive avoidance test. An increase in splenic primary antibody response directed against SRBC was found after exposure of rats to the passive avoidance

  6. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E; Gamer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  7. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. METHODS: 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1 electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2 autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing. RESULTS: DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  8. The Assessment of the Autonomic Response to Acute Stress Using Electrodermal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mestanlk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of autonomic nervous system to mental stress is currently studied as a key role factor in the pathophysiology of stress related diseases. Altered autonomic regulation can result in increased morbidity, potentially affecting (directly or indirectly any of the organs. Cardiovascular system (CVS is one of the most sensitive systems to the effect of autonomic outputs. The predictive value of the laboratory stress tests was proved in several studies with CVS pathology. In this study we aimed to assess the autonomic reactivity to different mental stressors (cognitive and emotional in healthy subjects using electrodermal activity (EDA as a sensitive psychophysiological marker of sympathetic activity. We found significantly increased EDA in response to all the mental tasks with decrease of the values during recovery periods. However, EDA did not return to the baseline values during recovery periods, potentially indicating the sympathetic arousal during complete stress profile protocol. We suggest EDA presents a well applicable marker of the sympathetic activation, offering a different information about central regulation processes regarding the sympathetic activity compared to cardiac autonomic indices.

  9. Cardiovascular autonomic responsiveness in postmenopausal women with and without hot flushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautamäki, Hanna; Piirilä, Päivi; Haapalahti, Petri; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Sovijärvi, Anssi R A; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S

    2011-04-01

    During menopausal transition autonomic balance is known to shift towards sympathetic dominance, but the role of vasomotor hot flushes in this phenomenon is not understood. We compared cardiovascular autonomic responsiveness between women with and without hot flushes. One hundred fifty recently postmenopausal healthy women with varying degree of hot flushes (none, mild, moderate, severe) underwent comprehensive cardiovascular autonomic nervous testing (controlled and deep breathing, active orthostatic test, Valsalva manoeuvre and handgrip test) assessing both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. The responses of heart rate, heart rate variability and blood pressure in these tests were evaluated. Responses in heart rate showed differences between the study groups only in the Valsalva manoeuvre where the tachycardia ratio in all symptomatic women was lower (p=0.041) than in women without hot flushes. Neither change in the heart rate variability analyses nor the blood pressure responses were affected by hot flush status. However, there was a non-significantly higher maximum systolic (140 (112-182)mmHg vs. 135 (102-208)mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (94 (72-112)mmHg vs. 90 (66-122)mmHg) following the handgrip test in women without hot flushes vs. all the symptomatic women. Menopausal hot flushes seem to be associated with a possibly increased sympathetic preponderance without an effect on parasympathetic activity in cardiovascular autonomic responses. This may imply a potentially negative impact on cardiovascular health in women experiencing hot flushes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  11. Bacterial survival responses to extreme desiccation and high humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinjie; Yokobori, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    The presence of water is thought to be essential for life and strongly considered in life searching operation on extraterrestrial planets. In this study we show different survival responses of bacterial species to water availability and temperatures (25, 4 and - 70 o C). At these temperatures, E.coli lost viability much faster under extreme desiccation than under high humidity. Deinococcus radiodurans exhibited much higher survival rate under desiccation than under high humidity at 25 o C, while its survivals under desiccation and high humidity increased to the same level at 4 and - 70 o C. Bacillus pumilus spores generally survived well under all tested conditions. Water is favorable for the survival of most microorganisms but not a "safeguard" for all microorganisms. Microbial survival at low temperatures may not be affected by water availability. Water absence should not preclude us from seeking life on other planets.

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F La Fountaine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The arterial pulse wave (APW has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate, it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW, has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure was performed in the seated upright position in ten athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 seconds (F60 of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 hours (48hr and 1 week (1wk of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP>1wk; RTP≤1wk. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48hr and 1wk; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP>1wk group had lower SysSlope (405±200; 420±88; 454±236 mmHg/s, respectively at rest 48hr compared to the RTP≤1wk and controls. Similarly at 48hr rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP>1wk compared to RTP≤1wk and controls: Peak-to-Notch Latency (0.12±0.04; 0.16±0.02; 0.17±0.05, respectively, Notch Relative Amplitude (0.70±0.03; 0.71±0.04; 0.66±0.14, respectively and Stiffness Index (6.4±0.2; 5.7±0.4; 5.8±0.5, respectively. Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery

  13. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) and Frisson: Mindfully Induced Sensory Phenomena That Promote Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Marisa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many important phenomena involved in human functioning that are unnoticed, misunderstood, not applied, or do not pique the interest of the scientific community. Among these, "autonomous sensory meridian response" ("ASMR") and "frisson" are two very noteworthy instances that may prove to be therapeutically…

  14. Association of Type D personality with the autonomic and hemodynamic response to the cold pressor test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, N.; Pelle, A.J.M.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms relating Type D personality to poor health are largely unknown, with autonomic nervous system function being a candidate. This study examined the physiologic response to cold stress. Undergraduates (N = 101, 84% female) underwent a cold pressor test. An electrocardiogram, impedance

  15. Survival responses to oxidative stress and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress is recognized as an important environmental factor in aging; however, because reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related free radicals are normally produced both intra- and extracellularly, air-living organisms cannot avoid the risk of oxidative stress. Consequently, these organisms have evolved various anti-oxidant systems to prevent ROS, scavenge free radicals, repair damaged components and adaptive responses. This review will focus on the repair and adaptive response to oxidative stress, and summarize the changes of these systems as a result aging and their relationship to premature aging.

  16. Relationship between serum TSH and the responsiveness of toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules to radioiodine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Kirkegaard, B C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if serum TSH at the time of 131I therapy influences the outcome. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of data on 39 consecutive patients with toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules treated with 131I during a 4 year period. METHODS: Serum TSH was determined by an ultrasens......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if serum TSH at the time of 131I therapy influences the outcome. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of data on 39 consecutive patients with toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules treated with 131I during a 4 year period. METHODS: Serum TSH was determined...... hypothyroidism both had detectable serum TSH at the time of 131I treatment. No other clinical parameter seemed to influence the outcome. CONCLUSION: There is no clinically significant effect of circulating TSH on the response of toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules to 131I therapy. However, keeping...

  17. The effect of heart rate on the heart rate variability response to autonomic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, George E

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR) or heart period (R-R interval), has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20) or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9) autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD) and the high frequency (HF) variability (HF, 0.24-1.04 Hz) were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec)(2) for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF) while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation) even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  18. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  19. Autonomic stress responses in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrusselt, Neel; Santermans, Lien

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a difference in stress response between typically developing adolescents and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders during different tasks.Important factors that have to be taken into account are anxiety, temperament and sex.

  20. Autonomic stress responses in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrusselt, Neel; Santermans, Lien

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a difference in stress response between typically developing adolescents and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders during different tasks. Important factors that have to be taken into account are anxiety, temperament and sex.

  1. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Emma L. Barratt; Charles Spence; Nick J. Davis

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as...

  2. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): Understanding the triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Barratt, EL; Spence, CJ; Davis, NJ

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as...

  3. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR): a flow-like mental state

    OpenAIRE

    Emma L. Barratt; Nick J. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp s...

  4. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  5. Investigation research on autonomous responsive materials; Jiritsu oto zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was made on autonomous responsive materials as a new material which reversibly change molecular structures and the aggregation state according to external stimuli. Autonomous responsive materials imitate environmental responsibility in the living organism system and have sensing, control and active functions for external stimuli. The materials are highly efficient and environmentally friendly. In biomimetic materials for soft actuators, drastic changes by temperature of elastic modulus of water-swollen hydrogel are used to the motion. In order to molecularly design stimulus-responsible polymer gel, studied are the relation between the micro structure and stimulus responsibility, dynamic correlation between the micro structure and the macro structure, etc. In the biomedical field, new cure and diagnosis using innovative materials are expected, and the application of autonomous responsive materials to the field is studied. For example, using hydrogel responding the temperature and the surface and controlling by temperature the interaction with components of the organism such as protein and cells, drug delivery in the organism is optimized. Also studied is the application of hydrophilic/hydrophobic changes by temperature to the chromatography. 215 refs., 47 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Anxiety and autonomic response to social-affective stimuli in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula; Järvinen, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an unusual "hypersocial" personality juxtaposed by high anxiety. Recent evidence suggests that autonomic reactivity to affective face stimuli is disorganised in WS, which may contribute to emotion dysregulation and/or social disinhibition. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and mean interbeat interval (IBI) of 25 participants with WS (19 - 57 years old) and 16 typically developing (TD; 17-43 years old) adults were measured during a passive presentation of affective face and voice stimuli. The Beck Anxiety Inventory was administered to examine associations between autonomic reactivity to social-affective stimuli and anxiety symptomatology. The WS group was characterized by higher overall anxiety symptomatology, and poorer anger recognition in social visual and aural stimuli relative to the TD group. No between-group differences emerged in autonomic response patterns. Notably, for participants with WS, increased anxiety was uniquely associated with diminished arousal to angry faces and voices. In contrast, for the TD group, no associations emerged between anxiety and physiological responsivity to social-emotional stimuli. The anxiety associated with WS appears to be intimately related to reduced autonomic arousal to angry social stimuli, which may also be linked to the characteristic social disinhibition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Autonomous Experimentation of Carbon Nanotube Using Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    minimizes variance (Myers et al., 2009:286). Orthogonality is a very useful property, because it eliminates multicollinearity in the regressor variables...Montgomery et al., 2012:118). Multicollinearity is a common problem in data that is not collected from an experimental design. Multicollinearity can...until the surface appears non-linear. When the lack of fit test detects a significant curvature in the response surface, additional axial runs are

  8. The cost of self-protection: threat response and performance as a function of autonomous and controlled motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S; Weibust, Kristin S; Weinstein, Netta; Shiffman, Sara; Miller, Anita; Coombs, Garth; Adair, Kathryn C

    2010-08-01

    Seventy-seven undergraduates, primed for autonomous or controlled motivation, were videotaped and physiologically monitored during a stressful interview and subsequent speech. Interview videotapes were coded for behavioral measures of threat response; speech videotapes were coded for performance. It was hypothesized that relative to controlled motivation, autonomous motivation would decrease interview threat response and enhance speech performance, and that threat response would mediate the effect of motivation on performance. Results support the prediction across measures of verbal, paralinguistic, smiling, vocal fundamental frequency, and cardiovascular response. Autonomously primed participants continued to show less cardiovascular threat throughout the later speech and gave better speeches. Finally, speech performance was mediated by interview threat response. Results demonstrate that relative to controlled motivation, autonomous motivation lowers threat response, which enhances performance.

  9. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  10. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  11. Cognitive load and autonomic response patterns under negative priming demand in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemche, Erwin; Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L; Gasston, David; Williams, Steven C R; Giampietro, Vincent P

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups. Evoked haemodynamic responses for basic Stroop/negative priming activations were compared. For basic Stroop to neutral contrast, patients with DPRD differed in the location (inferior vs. superior lobule) of the parietal region involved, but showed similar activations in the left frontal region. In addition, patients with DPRD also co-activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA9) and posterior cingulate cortex (BA31), which were also found to be the main between-group difference regions. These regions furthermore showed connectivity with frequency of depersonalization states. Evoked haemodynamic responses drawn from regions of interest indicated significant between-group differences in 30-40% of time points. Brain-behaviour correlations differed mainly in laterality, yet only slightly in regions. A reversal of autonomic patterning became evident in patients with DPRD for cognitive load spans, indicating less effective arousal suppression under cognitive stress - patients with DPRD showed positive associations of cognitive load with autonomic responses, whereas controls exhibit respective inverse association. Overall, the results of the present study show only minor executive cognitive peculiarities, but further support the notion of abnormalities in autonomic functioning in patients with DPRD. © 2016 Federation of European

  12. Future Roles for Autonomous Vertical Lift in Disaster Relief and Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    System analysis concepts are applied to the assessment of potential collaborative contributions of autonomous system and vertical lift (a.k.a. rotorcraft, VTOL, powered-lift, etc.) technologies to the important, and perhaps underemphasized, application domain of disaster relief and emergency response. In particular, an analytic framework is outlined whereby system design functional requirements for an application domain can be derived from defined societal good goals and objectives.

  13. An Examination of Personality Traits Associated with Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Fredborg, Beverley; Clark, Jim; Smith, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a perceptual condition in which the presentation of particular audio-visual stimuli triggers intense, pleasurable tingling sensations in the head and neck regions, which may spread to the periphery of the body. These triggering stimuli are often socially intimate in nature, and usually involve repetition of movements and/or sounds (e.g., hearing whispering, watching someone brush her hair). Reports of ASMR experiences first appeared in online com...

  14. Daily exercise and gender influence postexercise cardiac autonomic responses in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Chandler, M P; DiCarlo, S E

    1997-03-01

    The influence of daily spontaneous running (DSR) and gender on postexercise cardiac autonomic responses was examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats were weaned at 4-5 wk of age and were randomly assigned to a sedentary (7 males and 6 females) or DSR (7 males and 8 females) group. After 8 weeks of DSR or sedentary control, rats were chronically instrumented with arterial and venous catheters. After 5 days of recovery, cardiac sympathetic (ST) and parasympathetic tonus (PT) were determined (by the response of heart rate to receptor antagonists) on alternate days under two experimental conditions: no exercise and postexercise. After a single bout of dynamic treadmill exercise (12 m/min, 10% grade for 40 min) ST was reduced (P exercise 45 +/- 4 vs. postexercise 28 +/- 3 beats/min; female sedentary: no exercise 69 +/- 10 vs. postexercise 37 +/- 7 beats/ min). PT was also altered after exercise (male sedentary: no exercise -31 +/- 4 vs. postexercise -11 +/- 2 beats/min; female sedentary: no exercise -5 +/- 4 vs. postexercise 7 +/- 4 beats/min). After DSR, ST was reduced (male sedentary 45 +/- 4 vs. DSR 22 +/- 3 beats/min; female sedentary 69 +/- 10 vs. DSR 36 +/- 4 beats/min) (P exercise; 2) ST was reduced after DSR; 3) the autonomic response to acute exercise was attenuated after DSR; and 4) there was a gender influence on the cardiac autonomic function.

  15. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the physiological significance of autonomic neuropathy in juvenile diabetics, cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic functions have been investigated in three groups of juvenile diabetics: One group had no signs of neuropathy, one group had presumably slight autonomic...... neuropathy (reduced beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation) and one group had clinically severe autonomic neuropathy, defined by presence of orthostatic hypotension. In all three experimental situations we found sympathetic dysfunction causing cardiovascular and/or hormonal...... maladjustments in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Regarding metabolic functions we found normal responses to graded exercise and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with autonomic neuropathy in spite of blunted catecholamine responses, suggesting increased sensitivity of glycogen stores and adipose...

  16. The impact of emotion-related autonomic nervous system responsiveness on pain sensitivity in female patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Houtveen, J.H.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with fibromyalgia have shown hyporeactive autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to physical stressors, augmented pain to ANS changes, and heightened negative emotions, which can increase pain. This study examined ANS reactivity to negative emotions and its association with

  17. Dynamics of a stochastic non-autonomous predator-prey system with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Xinan

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic non-autonomous predator-prey system with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is proposed, the existence of a global positive solution and stochastically ultimate boundedness are derived...

  18. The influence of concentration/meditation on autonomic nervous system activity and the innate immune response: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kox, M; Stoffels, M; Smeekens, S.P; Alfen, N. van; Gomes, M.E.R; Eijsvogels, T.M.H; Hopman, M.T.E; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Netea, M.G; Pickkers, P

    2012-01-01

    .... The study participant holds several world records with regard to tolerating extreme cold and claims that he can influence his autonomic nervous system and thereby his innate immune response. METHODS...

  19. Presence of human friends and pet dogs as moderators of autonomic responses to stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K M; Blascovich, J; Tomaka, J; Kelsey, R M

    1991-10-01

    Autonomic responses were measured while 45 adult women performed a standard experimental stress task in the laboratory with only the experimenter present and 2 weeks later at home in the presence of a female friend, pet dog, or neither. Results demonstrated that autonomic reactivity was moderated by the presence of a companion, the nature of whom was critical to the size and direction of the effect. Ss in the friend condition exhibited higher physiological reactivity and poorer performance than subjects in the control and pet conditions. Ss in the pet condition showed less physiological reactivity during stressful tasks than Ss in the other conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of the degree to which friends and pets are perceived as evaluative during stressful task performance. Physiological reactivity was consistent across the laboratory and field settings.

  20. Facial feedback and autonomic responsiveness reflect impaired emotional processing in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pala, Francesca; Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara; Rosini, Sandra; Benussi, Alberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-08-11

    Emotional deficits are part of the non-motor features of Parkinson's disease but few attention has been paid to specific aspects such as subjective emotional experience and autonomic responses. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of emotional recognition in Parkinson's Disease (PD) using the following levels: explicit evaluation of emotions (Self-Assessment Manikin) and implicit reactivity (Skin Conductance Response; electromyographic measure of facial feedback of the zygomaticus and corrugator muscles). 20 PD Patients and 34 healthy controls were required to observe and evaluate affective pictures during physiological parameters recording. In PD, the appraisal process on both valence and arousal features of emotional cues were preserved, but we found significant impairment in autonomic responses. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, PD patients revealed lower Skin Conductance Response values to negative and high arousing emotional stimuli. In addition, the electromyographic measures showed defective responses exclusively limited to negative and high arousing emotional category: PD did not show increasing of corrugator activity in response to negative emotions as happened in heathy controls. PD subjects inadequately respond to the emotional categories which were considered more "salient": they had preserved appraisal process, but impaired automatic ability to distinguish between different emotional contexts.

  1. Autonomic response to approachability characteristics, approach behavior, and social functioning in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is saliently characterized by a unique social phenotype, most notably associated with a dramatically increased affinity and approachability toward unfamiliar people. Despite a recent proliferation of studies into the social profile of WS, the underpinnings of the pro-social predisposition are poorly understood. To this end, the present study was aimed at elucidating approach behavior of individuals with WS contrasted with typical development (TD) by employing a multidimensional design combining measures of autonomic arousal, social functioning, and two levels of approach evaluations. Given previous evidence suggesting that approach behaviors of individuals with WS are driven by a desire for social closeness, approachability tendencies were probed across two levels of social interaction: talking versus befriending. The main results indicated that while overall level of approachability did not differ between groups, an important qualitative between-group difference emerged across the two social interaction contexts: whereas individuals with WS demonstrated a similar willingness to approach strangers across both experimental conditions, TD individuals were significantly more willing to talk to than to befriend strangers. In WS, high approachability to positive faces across both social interaction levels was further associated with more normal social functioning. A novel finding linked autonomic responses with willingness to befriend negative faces in the WS group: elevated autonomic responsivity was associated with increased affiliation to negative face stimuli, which may represent an autonomic correlate of approach behavior in WS. Implications for underlying organization of the social brain are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between serum TSH and the responsiveness of toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules to radioiodine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Kirkegaard, B C

    1998-01-01

    ) were euthyroid, three (8%) had responded insufficiently and required further antithyroid therapy, and two (5%) had developed hypothyroidism. No significant difference in the response pattern between patients with suppressed or detectable serum TSH could be demonstrated. The two patients who developed...... hypothyroidism both had detectable serum TSH at the time of 131I treatment. No other clinical parameter seemed to influence the outcome. CONCLUSION: There is no clinically significant effect of circulating TSH on the response of toxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules to 131I therapy. However, keeping...... the patients subclinically hyperthyroid when receiving 131I treatment may possibly result in a reduced frequency of hypothyroidism....

  3. Different autonomic responses to occupational and leisure time physical activities among blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatiana O; Hallman, David M; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen H; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-11-24

    The differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is termed the physical activity health paradox. Cardiac autonomic modulation could bring insights about the underlying mechanism behind this differential effect. The aim was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) during different activities (sitting, standing and moving) at work and leisure among blue-collar workers. One hundred thirty-eight workers from the NOMAD cohort were included. Data from physical activity and HRV were obtained for 3-4 days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) and a heart rate monitor (Actiheart). HRV indices were determined during sitting, standing and moving both at work and leisure. Linear mixed-models with two fixed factors (activities and domains) were applied to investigate differences in HRV indices adjusting for individual and occupational factors. The results showed significant effects of domain (p  0.05). Sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was higher during work for sitting and moving (p < 0.01), but showed no difference for standing (p = 0.62). Differences in cardiac autonomic modulation between work and leisure were found, indicating sympathetic predominance during work and parasympathetic predominance during leisure for sitting. Autonomic responses can be part of the mechanism that explains the differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on health.

  4. Tbx1 is required autonomously for cell survival and fate in the pharyngeal core mesoderm to form the muscles of mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; Racedo, Silvia E.; Macchiarulo, Stephania; Hu, Zunju; Carpenter, Courtney; Guo, Tingwei; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Deyou; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2014-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a congenital anomaly disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies including velo-pharyngeal insufficiency, facial muscle hypotonia and feeding difficulties, in part due to hypoplasia of the branchiomeric muscles. Inactivation of both alleles of mouse Tbx1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, deleted on chromosome 22q11.2, results in reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles. To identify downstream pathways, we performed gene profiling of microdissected pharyngeal arch one (PA1) from Tbx1+/+ and Tbx1−/− embryos at stages E9.5 (somites 20–25) and E10.5 (somites 30–35). Basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors were reduced, while secondary heart field genes were increased in expression early and were replaced by an increase in expression of cellular stress response genes later, suggesting a change in gene expression patterns or cell populations. Lineage tracing studies using Mesp1Cre and T-Cre drivers showed that core mesoderm cells within PA1 were present at E9.5 but were greatly reduced by E10.5 in Tbx1−/− embryos. Using Tbx1Cre knock-in mice, we found that cells are lost due to apoptosis, consistent with increase in expression of cellular stress response genes at E10.5. To determine whether Tbx1 is required autonomously in the core mesoderm, we used Mesp1Cre and T-Cre mesodermal drivers in combination with inactivate Tbx1 and found reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles from PA1. These mechanistic studies inform us that Tbx1 is required upstream of key myogenic genes needed for core mesoderm cell survival and fate, between E9.5 and E10.5, resulting in formation of the branchiomeric muscles. PMID:24705356

  5. Dynamics of autonomic nervous system responses and facial expressions to odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Why we like or dislike certain products may be better captured by physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system than by conscious or classical sensory tests. Responses to pleasant and unpleasant food odors presented in varying concentrations were assessed continuously using facial expressions and responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Results of 26 young and healthy female participants showed that the unpleasant fish odor triggered higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, lower skin temperature, fewer neutral facial expressions and more disgusted and angry expressions (p < .05. Neutral facial expressions differentiated between odors within 100 ms, after the start of the odor presentation followed by expressions of disgust (180 ms, anger (500 ms, surprised (580 ms, sadness (820 ms, scared (1020 ms, and happy (1780 ms (all p values < .05. Heart rate differentiated between odors after 400 ms, whereas skin conductance responses differentiated between odors after 3920 ms. At shorter intervals (between 520 and 1000 ms and between 2690 and 3880 ms skin temperature for fish was higher than that for orange, but became considerable lower after 5440 ms. This temporal unfolding of emotions in reactions to odors, as seen in facial expressions and physiological measurements supports sequential appraisal theories.

  6. Prediction of nuclear submariner adaptability from autonomic indices and Rorschach Inkblot responses. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weybrew, B.B.; Molish, H.B.

    1986-09-09

    To identify the most valid predictors of submariner adaptability, the authors derived 23 indices from the responses of 170 nuclear submariners to the Rorschach Inkblot Test, 11 measures of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity to contrived stress, and five adjustment criteria. Factor analysis of this 39x39 correlation matrix yielded two Rorschach Factors, one of which correlated with three criterion dimensions. Two unique factors were also discovered, one, a structured ANS factor, and the other, a complex criterion scale. Selected Rorschach scores and, to a lesser extent, certain ANS indices emanating from this study, may be usefully-valid predictors of the adaptability of nuclear submariners during long patrols.

  7. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Vidotti, Heloisa G.; Mendes, Renata G.; Simões, Rodrigo P.; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) ...

  8. A Review of Cardiac Autonomic Measures: Considerations for Examination of Physiological Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Teal W.; Lane, Shelly J.

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for multiple physiological responses, and dysfunction of this system is often hypothesized as contributing to cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in children. Research suggests that examination of ANS activity may provide insight into behavioral dysregulation in children with autism…

  9. Response of cardiac autonomic modulation after a single exposure to musical auditory stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lucas L.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Guida, Heraldo L.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Garner, David M.; Vanderlei, Franciele M.; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E.

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects after exposure to different styles of music on cardiac autonomic modulation assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis have not yet been well elucidated. We aimed to investigate the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation in women after exposure to musical auditory stimulation of different styles. The study was conducted on 30 healthy women aged between 18 years and 30 years. We did not include subjects having previous experience with musical instruments and those who had an affinity for music styles. The volunteers remained at rest for 10 min and were exposed to classical baroque (64-84 dB) and heavy metal (75-84 dB) music for 10 min, and their HRV was evaluated for 30 min after music cessation. We analyzed the following HRV indices: Standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of normal-to-normal 50 (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. SDNN, LF in absolute units (ms2) and normalized (nu), and LF/HF ratio increased while HF index (nu) decreased after exposure to classical baroque music. Regarding the heavy metal music style, it was observed that there were increases in SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, and LF (ms2) after the musical stimulation. In conclusion, the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation after exposure to auditory stimulation with music featured an increased global activity of both systems for the two musical styles, with a cardiac sympathetic modulation for classical baroque music and a cardiac vagal tone for the heavy metal style. PMID:25774614

  10. Enhanced pain and autonomic responses to ambiguous visual stimuli in chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H E; Hall, J; Harris, N; McCabe, C S; Blake, D R; Jänig, W

    2012-02-01

    Cortical reorganisation of sensory, motor and autonomic systems can lead to dysfunctional central integrative control. This may contribute to signs and symptoms of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), including pain. It has been hypothesised that central neuroplastic changes may cause afferent sensory feedback conflicts and produce pain. We investigated autonomic responses produced by ambiguous visual stimuli (AVS) in CRPS, and their relationship to pain. Thirty CRPS patients with upper limb involvement and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls had sympathetic autonomic function assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry of the finger pulp at baseline and while viewing a control figure or AVS. Compared to controls, there were diminished vasoconstrictor responses and a significant difference in the ratio of response between affected and unaffected limbs (symmetry ratio) to a deep breath and viewing AVS. While viewing visual stimuli, 33.5% of patients had asymmetric vasomotor responses and all healthy controls had a homologous symmetric pattern of response. Nineteen (61%) CRPS patients had enhanced pain within seconds of viewing the AVS. All the asymmetric vasomotor responses were in this group, and were not predictable from baseline autonomic function. Ten patients had accompanying dystonic reactions in their affected limb: 50% were in the asymmetric sub-group. In conclusion, there is a group of CRPS patients that demonstrate abnormal pain networks interacting with central somatomotor and autonomic integrational pathways. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  11. Prenatal stretching exercise and autonomic responses: preliminary data and a model for reducing preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe

    2010-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and it increases maternal risk for future cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships among stretching exercise, autonomic cardiac response, and the development of preeclampsia. Secondary data analysis. Heart rate and pulse pressure were longitudinally examined in this secondary data analysis among women who engaged in stretching exercise daily from 18 weeks of gestation to the end of pregnancy compared with women who did walking exercise daily during the same time period. A total of 124 women were randomized to either stretching (n=60) or walking (n=64) in the parent study. Heart rates in the stretching group were consistently lower than those in the walking group. Based on the results of this secondary data analyses, a physiologic framework for possible beneficial effects of stretching exercise by enhancing autonomic responses on reducing risks for preeclampsia is proposed and discussed. If the protective effect is established, stretching exercise can be translated into nursing intervention for prenatal care.

  12. Autonomic function at rest and in response to emotional and rectal stimuli in women with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B

    2008-06-01

    Our aim was to study autonomic function in patients with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) without constipation and psychiatric comorbidity. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) (representing cardiac vagal activity), skin conductance (representing sympathetic activity) and heart rate were measured at baseline and as a response to emotional stress and rectal discomfort in 33 women with IBS and 21 healthy women. Baseline heart rate was higher in the patients than in the healthy volunteers. Both groups had decreased RSA and increased heart rate and skin conductance level when exposed to emotional stress, but the autonomic responses did not differ significantly between the groups. At discomfort threshold the patients had increased heart rate response and skin conductance amplitude when compared to the healthy volunteers. Correlations between autonomic responses and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) score differed markedly between the diarrhea-predominant IBS patients and the IBS patients with alternating stool habits.

  13. Eye contact with neutral and smiling faces: effects on frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Pönkänen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we have shown that seeing another person live with a direct vs. averted gaze results in greater relative left-sided frontal asymmetry in the electroencephalography (EEG, associated with approach motivation, and in enhanced skin conductance responses indicating autonomic arousal. In our studies, however, the stimulus persons had a neutral expression. In real-life social interaction, eye contact is often associated with a smile, which is another signal of the sender’s approach-related motivation. A smile could therefore enhance the affective-motivational responses to eye contact. In the present study, we investigated whether the facial expression (neutral vs. smile would modulate the frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic arousal to seeing a direct vs. an averted gaze in faces presented live through a liquid crystal shutter. The results showed that the skin conductance responses were greater for the direct than the averted gaze and that the effect of gaze direction was more pronounced for a smiling than a neutral face. However, the frontal EEG asymmetry results revealed a more complex pattern. Participants whose responses to seeing the other person were overall indicative of leftward frontal activity (indicative of approach showed greater relative left-sided asymmetry for the direct vs. averted gaze, whereas participants whose responses were overall indicative of rightward frontal activity (indicative of avoidance showed greater relative right-sided asymmetry to direct vs. averted gaze. The other person’s facial expression did not have an effect on the frontal EEG asymmetry. These findings may reflect that another’s direct gaze, as compared to their smile, has a more dominant role in regulating perceivers’ approach motivation.

  14. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  15. Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna Sara; Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low....../m3. Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were...... found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses. Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure....

  16. Modifications of Control Loop to Improve the Depth Response of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During a constant depth maneuver of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV, its pitch attitude and stern plane deflections create forces and moments to achieve equilibrium in the vertical plane. If an AUV has a proportional controller only in its depth control loop, then different weights or centers of gravity will cause different steady-state depth errors at trimmed conditions. In general, a steady-state depth error can be eliminated by adding an integral controller in the depth control loop. However, an improper integrator may lead to a bad transient response, even though the steady-state depth error can finally be eliminated. To remove the steady-state depth error, this study proposes methods that adjust the depth command and add a switching integral controller in the depth control loop. Simulation results demonstrate that the steady-state depth error can be eliminated and the transient response can be improved.

  17. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR): a flow-like mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Emma L; Davis, Nick J

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9%) within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  18. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR: understanding the triggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  19. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Emma L; Spence, Charles; Davis, Nick J

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  20. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR: a flow-like mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  1. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legisa, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with…

  2. The Effect of Tracheal Intubation-Induced Autonomic Response on Photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Talke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraoperative stress responses and postoperative pain can be monitored using photoplethysmography (PPG. PPG signal has two components, AC and DC. Effects of noxious stimuli-induced stress responses have not been studied on the DC component of PPG. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a known noxious stimulus (endotracheal intubation on both the AC and DC components of PPG. Methods. 15 surgical patients having general anesthesia were enrolled into this clinical study. PPG was recorded electronically from a pulse oximeter. Maximum changes in the AC and DC components of the PPG and pulse rate were determined in response to endotracheal intubation from high frequency (62.5 Hz PPG recordings. Results. Endotracheal intubation-induced autonomic stress response resulted in a significant decrease in the AC component of the PPG and an increase in pulse rate in every subject (p<0.05 for all. The decrease in the AC component of the PPG was 50±12% (p<0.05 and the increase in pulse rate was 26±10 bpm (p<0.05. The response of the DC component was variable (p = NS. Conclusion. Endotracheal intubation-induced stress response resulted in a significant and consistent change in the AC, but not the DC component of the PPG. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03032939.

  3. Tbx1 is required autonomously for cell survival and fate in the pharyngeal core mesoderm to form the muscles of mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; Racedo, Silvia E; Macchiarulo, Stephania; Hu, Zunju; Carpenter, Courtney; Guo, Tingwei; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Deyou; Morrow, Bernice E

    2014-08-15

    Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a congenital anomaly disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies including velo-pharyngeal insufficiency, facial muscle hypotonia and feeding difficulties, in part due to hypoplasia of the branchiomeric muscles. Inactivation of both alleles of mouse Tbx1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, deleted on chromosome 22q11.2, results in reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles. To identify downstream pathways, we performed gene profiling of microdissected pharyngeal arch one (PA1) from Tbx1(+/+) and Tbx1(-/-) embryos at stages E9.5 (somites 20-25) and E10.5 (somites 30-35). Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors were reduced, while secondary heart field genes were increased in expression early and were replaced by an increase in expression of cellular stress response genes later, suggesting a change in gene expression patterns or cell populations. Lineage tracing studies using Mesp1(Cre) and T-Cre drivers showed that core mesoderm cells within PA1 were present at E9.5 but were greatly reduced by E10.5 in Tbx1(-/-) embryos. Using Tbx1(Cre) knock-in mice, we found that cells are lost due to apoptosis, consistent with increase in expression of cellular stress response genes at E10.5. To determine whether Tbx1 is required autonomously in the core mesoderm, we used Mesp1(Cre) and T-Cre mesodermal drivers in combination with inactivate Tbx1 and found reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles from PA1. These mechanistic studies inform us that Tbx1 is required upstream of key myogenic genes needed for core mesoderm cell survival and fate, between E9.5 and E10.5, resulting in formation of the branchiomeric muscles. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cardiac Autonomic and Blood Pressure Responses to an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Nordvall, Michael; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Lastova, Kevin; Francavillo, Gwendolyn; Summerfield, Liane; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos

    2017-10-07

    Kettlebell (KB) training has become an extremely popular exercise program for improving both muscle strength and aerobic fitness. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation and blood pressure (BP) responses induced by an acute KB exercise session are currently unknown. Understanding the impact of this exercise modality on the post-exercise autonomic modulation and BP would facilitate appropriate exercise prescription in susceptible populations. The present study evaluated the effects of an acute session of KB exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) and BP responses in healthy individuals. Seventeen (M=10, F=7) healthy subjects completed either a KB or non-exercise control trial in randomized order. HRV and BP measurements were collected at baseline, 3, 10 and 30 min after each trial. There were significant increases (P < 0.01) in heart rate, markers of sympathetic activity (nLF) and sympathovagal balance (nLF/nHF) for 30 min after the trial KB trial, while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. There were also significant decreases (P < 0.01) in markers of vagal tone (RMMSD, nHF) for 30 min as well as (P < 0.01) systolic BP and diastolic BP at 10 and 30 min after the trial KB trial while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. Our findings indicate that KB exercise increases sympathovagal balance for 30 min post-intervention which is concurrent with an important hypotensive effect. Further research is warranted to evaluate the potential clinical application of KB training in populations that might benefit from post-exercise hypotension, such as hypertensives.

  5. Optimizing Industrial Consumer Demand Response Through Disaggregation, Hour-Ahead Pricing, and Momentary Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaal, Ahmed

    The work in this study addresses the current limitations of the price-driven demand response (DR) approach. Mainly, the dependability on consumers to respond in an energy aware conduct, the response timeliness, the difficulty of applying DR in a busy industrial environment, and the problem of load synchronization are of utmost concern. In order to conduct a simulation study, realistic price simulation model and consumers' building load models are created using real data. DR action is optimized using an autonomous control method, which eliminates the dependency on frequent consumer engagement. Since load scheduling and long-term planning approaches are infeasible in the industrial environment, the proposed method utilizes instantaneous DR in response to hour-ahead price signals (RTP-HA). Preliminary simulation results concluded savings at the consumer-side at the cost of increased supplier-side burden due to the aggregate effect of the universal DR policies. Therefore, a consumer disaggregation strategy is briefly discussed. Finally, a refined discrete-continuous control system is presented, which utilizes multi-objective Pareto optimization, evolutionary programming, utility functions, and bidirectional loads. Demonstrated through a virtual testbed fit with real data, the new system achieves momentary optimized DR in real-time while maximizing the consumer's wellbeing.

  6. Acupuncture Affects Autonomic and Endocrine but Not Behavioural Responses Induced by Startle in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dias Villas-Boas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Startle is a fast response elicited by sudden acoustic, tactile, or visual stimuli in a variety of animals and in humans. As the magnitude of startle response can be modulated by external and internal variables, it can be a useful tool to study reaction to stress. Our study evaluated whether acupuncture can change cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability; and behavioural (reactivity and endocrine (cortisol levels parameters in response to startle. Brazilian Sport horses (n=6 were subjected to a model of startle in which an umbrella was abruptly opened near the horse. Before startle, the horses were subjected to a 20-minute session of acupuncture in acupoints GV1, HT7, GV20, and BL52 (ACUP and in nonpoints (NP or left undisturbed (CTL. For analysis of the heart rate variability, ultrashort-term (64 s heart rate series were interpolated (4 Hz and divided into 256-point segments and the spectra integrated into low (LF; 0.01–0.07 Hz; index of sympathetic modulation and high (HF; 0.07–0.50 Hz; index of parasympathetic modulation frequency bands. Acupuncture (ACUP changed the sympathovagal balance with a shift towards parasympathetic modulation, reducing the prompt startle-induced increase in LF/HF and reducing cortisol levels 30 min after startle. However, acupuncture elicited no changes in behavioural parameters.

  7. Disturbances of autonomic nervous system activity and diminished response to stress in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska-Felus, M; Furgala, A; Zwolinska-Wcislo, M; Mazur, M; Widera, A; Thor, P; Mach, T

    2014-12-01

    Celiac disease (CED) is immune-mediated enteropathy caused by gluten intolerance affecting genetically predisposed individuals. CED may exert a number of various symptoms, including extra intestinal manifestations. Neurological symptoms can be the first sign of gluten intolerance. However, affected autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity may be linked to other symptoms. We evaluated the frequency of ANS impairment and resting ANS response to several stimuli in CED patients without neurological manifestations. Twenty five neurologically asymptomatic patients with CED were studied. The medical history was taken and ANS activity was determined. ANS tests included heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and after stimulation (sympathetic - stress, and parasympathetic - deep breathing). The results were compared with those of the control group comprising of 30 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Both the resting HRV parameters and the HRV indices recorded after deep breathing (parasympathetic stimulation) were significantly lower in patients with CED than in the controls (P<0.05). Also the stress-induced increase in normalized low frequency parameter (LFnu) was significantly lower in the CED group than in the control group (P<0.05). Overall, about 20% of CED patients presented with parasympathetic dominancy but 36% with sympathetic dominancy, and 44% of patients did not show changes in sympathetic-vagal balance of the autonomic nervous system. We conclude that sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalance, in favour of more often sympathetic than parasympathetic overactivity occurs among neurologically asymptomatic CED patients. The ANS impairment observed in the course of CED may result from prolonged intestinal inflammation. Therefore, routine ANS testing might be considered in patients presenting with this condition.

  8. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vidotti, Heloisa G; Mendes, Renata G; Simões, Rodrigo P; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population.

  9. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa G. Machado-Vidotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results: Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower. RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively. In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions: Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population.

  10. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac

  11. Human responses to upright tilt: a window on central autonomic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, W. H.; Hoag, J. B.; Crossman, A. A.; Kuusela, T. A.; Tahvanainen, K. U.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    1. We examined interactions between haemodynamic and autonomic neural oscillations during passive upright tilt, to gain better insight into human autonomic regulatory mechanisms. 2. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, respiration and peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity in nine healthy young adults. Subjects breathed in time with a metronome at 12 breaths min-1 (0.2 Hz) for 5 min each, in supine, and 20, 40, 60, 70 and 80 deg head-up positions. We performed fast Fourier transform (and autoregressive) power spectral analyses and integrated low-frequency (0.05-0.15 Hz) and respiratory-frequency (0. 15-0.5 Hz) spectral powers. 3. Integrated areas of muscle sympathetic bursts and their low- and respiratory-frequency spectral powers increased directly and significantly with the tilt angle. The centre frequency of low-frequency sympathetic oscillations was constant before and during tilt. Sympathetic bursts occurred more commonly during expiration than inspiration at low tilt angles, but occurred equally in expiration and inspiration at high tilt angles. 4. Systolic and diastolic pressures and their low- and respiratory-frequency spectral powers increased, and R-R intervals and their respiratory-frequency spectral power decreased progressively with the tilt angle. Low-frequency R-R interval spectral power did not change. 5. The cross-spectral phase angle between systolic pressures and R-R intervals remained constant and consistently negative at the low frequency, but shifted progressively from positive to negative at the respiratory frequency during tilt. The arterial baroreflex modulus, calculated from low-frequency cross-spectra, decreased at high tilt angles. 6. Our results document changes of baroreflex responses during upright tilt, which may reflect leftward movement of subjects on their arterial pressure sympathetic and vagal response relations. The intensity, but not the centre frequency of low

  12. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Dose-response relationship of autonomic nervous system responses to individualized training impulse in marathon runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincenzo Manzi; Carlo Castagna; Elvira Padua; Mauro Lombardo; Stefano D'Ottavio; Michele Massaro; Maurizio Volterrani; Ferdinando Iellamo

    2009-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that in long-distance athletes, changes in ANS parameters are dose-response related to individual volume/intensity training load and could predict athletic performance...

  14. An Examination of Personality Traits Associated with Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredborg, Beverley; Clark, Jim; Smith, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a perceptual condition in which the presentation of particular audio-visual stimuli triggers intense, pleasurable tingling sensations in the head and neck regions, which may spread to the periphery of the body. These triggering stimuli are often socially intimate in nature, and usually involve repetition of movements and/or sounds (e.g., hearing whispering, watching someone brush her hair). Reports of ASMR experiences first appeared in online communities in 2010; since this time, these communities have expanded, with some groups consisting of over 100,000 members. However, despite the apparent prevalence of ASMR, there is currently no research on the personality characteristics that co-occur with this condition. In the current study, 290 individuals with ASMR and 290 matched controls completed the Big Five Personality Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991); participants with ASMR also completed a questionnaire related to their ASMR phenomenology. Individuals with ASMR demonstrated significantly higher scores on Openness-to-Experience and Neuroticism, and significantly lower levels of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness compared to matched controls. Further, ratings of subjective ASMR intensity in response to 14 common ASMR stimuli were positively correlated with the Openness-to-Experience and Neuroticism dimensions of the BFI. These results provide preliminary evidence that ASMR is associated with specific personality traits and suggest avenues for further investigation.

  15. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  16. Mom feels what her child feels: thermal signatures of vicarious autonomic response while watching children in a stressful situation

    OpenAIRE

    Manini, Barbara; Cardone, Daniela; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Bafunno, Daniela; Aureli, Tiziana; Merla, Arcangelo

    2013-01-01

    Maternal attunement with an infant's emotional states is thought to represent a distinctive feature of the human primary bond. It implies the mother's ability of empathizing with her child in order to fulfil the child's needs in an immediate and appropriate manner. Thus, it is particularly involved in stressful situations. By assuming that maternal attunement embodies a direct sharing of physiological responses with the child, we compared the autonomic response of mothers observing their own ...

  17. MYC through miR-17-92 Suppresses Specific Target Genes to Maintain Survival, Autonomous Proliferation, and a Neoplastic State

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yulin

    2014-08-01

    The MYC oncogene regulates gene expression through multiple mechanisms, and its overexpression culminates in tumorigenesis. MYC inactivation reverses turmorigenesis through the loss of distinguishing features of cancer, including autonomous proliferation and survival. Here we report that MYC via miR-17-92 maintains a neoplastic state through the suppression of chromatin regulatory genes Sin3b, Hbp1, Suv420h1, and Btg1, as well as the apoptosis regulator Bim. The enforced expression of miR-17-92 prevents MYC suppression from inducing proliferative arrest, senescence, and apoptosis and abrogates sustained tumor regression. Knockdown of the five miR-17-92 target genes blocks senescence and apoptosis while it modestly delays proliferative arrest, thus partially recapitulating miR-17-92 function. We conclude that MYC, via miR-17-92, maintains a neoplastic state by suppressing specific target genes.

  18. Emotional responses to odors in children with high-functioning autism: autonomic arousal, facial behavior and self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legiša, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with high-functioning autism and 8 age-matched typically developing controls. Despite subtle differences in the facial actions of the children with autism, children in both groups had similar facial and autonomic emotional responses to the odors. However, children with autism were less likely than controls to report an emotional reaction to the odors that matched their facial expression, suggesting difficulties in the self report of emotional states.

  19. Beyond expectations: The responses of the autonomic nervous system to visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verastegui-Tena, Luz; Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia; van Trijp, Hans; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2017-10-01

    Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying ANS responses by evaluating the reactions to different images when expectations about a product are created (before tasting the product) and when they are confirmed and disconfirmed (after tasting the product). In a first study, seventy-five participants tasted four drinks (three identical soy-based drinks and one rice-based drink) and were told that they would be shown their main ingredient either before or after tasting. For the three identical drinks, the images shown were: worms, chocolate, and soy. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured during the procedure. The results showed that ANS responses followed similar patterns when images were presented before or after tasting. Heart rate decreased for all images, with the largest decrease found for chocolate and worms. Skin conductance increased, with the largest increase found for worms. To test whether the effects were solely caused by image perception, a second study was done in which forty participants only saw the images. The responses obtained were smaller and did not completely match those of the first study. In conclusion, it could be said that the ANS responses of the first study were a result of the sensory processing and defense mechanisms happening during the creation and (dis)confirmation of expectations. The second study confirmed that visual perception alone could not account for these effects and that it led to smaller changes. Hence, it

  20. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal responses to noradrenaline in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Andersen, P; Hvidberg, A

    1996-01-01

    Denervation hypersensitivity is a well-known phenomenon in patients with autonomic failure. In diabetic autonomic neuropathy hypersensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation has been demonstrated. We infused noradrenaline, mainly an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in three escalating doses (0.5, 2.......5, and 5 micrograms min-1) in three age and sex matched groups of eight subjects: healthy volunteers, diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy. During steady state in each infusion period we measured heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, hepato-splanchnic blood flow, vascular...

  1. Study of the autonomic response in hemodialysis patients with different fluid overload levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Manuela; Moissl, Ulrich; Garzotto, Francesco; Signorini, Maria G; Cruz, Dinna; Tetta, Ciro; Ronco, Claudio; Gatti, Emanuele; Cerutti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at studying the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response to hemodialysis (HD) treatment in a population of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. ECG Holter recordings and whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements were performed for each patient. Patients were classified according to the fluid overload (FO) values and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured before HD. Time domain and frequency domain indices from heart rate variability (HRV) signals were measured for the first 30 minutes and last 30 minutes of HD, the first hour after HD, and night (12.00 p.m.-4 a.m.). Significant differences were obtained in fluid overloaded but normotensive patients (Group IV) with respect to fluid overloaded and hypertensive patients (Group I) and normohydrated and normotensive patients (Group N+Dx). In particular, SDNN, RMSSD, SDSD, pNN50%, indices resulted significantly higher in Group IV with respect to the other groups. Overhydrated patients with hypertension (Group I) showed a blunted parasympathetic activity, which is supposed to contribute to hypertension.

  2. Autonomously responsive pumping by a bacterial flagellar forest: A mean-field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, James D.; Fu, Henry C.

    2017-09-01

    This study is motivated by a microfluidic device that imparts a magnetic torque on an array of bacterial flagella. Bacterial flagella can transform their helical geometry autonomously in response to properties of the background fluid, which provides an intriguing mechanism allowing their use as an engineered element for the regulation or transport of chemicals in microscale applications. The synchronization of flagellar phase has been widely studied in biological contexts, but here we examine the synchronization of flagellar tilt, which is necessary for effective pumping. We first examine the effects of helical geometry and tilt on the pumping flows generated by a single rotating flagellum. Next, we explore a mean-field model for an array of helical flagella to understand how collective tilt arises and influences pumping. The mean-field methodology allows us to take into account possible phase differences through a time-averaging procedure and to model an infinite array of flagella. We find array separation distances, magnetic field strengths, and rotation frequencies that produce nontrivial self-consistent pumping solutions. For individual flagella, pumping is reversed when helicity or rotation is reversed; in contrast, when collective effects are included, self-consistent tilted pumping solutions become untilted nonpumping solutions when helicity or rotation is reversed.

  3. An examination of the default mode network in individuals with autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen D; Katherine Fredborg, Beverley; Kornelsen, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a perceptual condition in which specific visual and auditory stimuli consistently trigger tingling sensations on the scalp and neck, sometimes spreading to the back and limbs. These triggering stimuli are often social, almost intimate, in nature (e.g., hearing whispering, or watching someone brush her hair), and often elicit a calm and positive emotional state. Surprisingly, despite its prevalence in the general population, no published study has examined the neural underpinnings of ASMR. In the current study, the default mode network (DMN) of 11 individuals with ASMR was contrasted to that of 11 matched controls. The results indicated that the DMN of individuals with ASMR showed significantly less functional connectivity than that of controls. The DMN of individuals with ASMR also demonstrated increased connectivity between regions in the occipital, frontal, and temporal cortices, suggesting that ASMR was associated with a blending of multiple resting-state networks. This atypical functional connectivity likely influences the unique sensory-emotional experiences associated with ASMR.

  4. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.M.H.E.; Maas, J.; Muller, R.; Braun, A.; Kaandorp, W.; van Lien, R.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; van Mechelen, W.; van den Berg, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded

  5. The Autonomous Development Strategies of Micro and Small Entrepreneurs Through Coorporate Social Responsibility in Bogor District of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Maad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective  of this  reseach were to: (1 analyze the level of autonomous of mikro and small entreprise (SMEs entrepreneurs are empowered through Coorporate Social Responsibility (CSR; (2 analyze the dominant factors that influence autonomous of MSEs entrepreneurs  are empowered through CSR;  and (3 formulate an appropriate  a strategy  in developing autonomy of MSEs entrepreneurs through CSR. The reseach  was conduct  in the village built two companies running CSR in Bogor district involved 212  (SMEs entrepreneurs which determined from population (450 SMEs entrepreneurs by Solvin formula with level of error 5 % and drawn by cluster random sampling. Data collection was conducted from July to November 2013, and consisted  the primary and secondary data. Data analysis was simulated by using structural equation model (SEM . The results showed that the degree  of autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs is low, its core was 36.89 out of 100.00. There are three strategies that must be done to develop of  autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs through  CSR, such as; (a an increase the empowerment sustainable of MSEs entrepereneurs (b improve the quality of  the environment  supporting MSEs and (c an increase in intensity of  empowerment for MSEs entrepreneurs.

  6. Dorsal and ventral hippocampus modulate autonomic responses but not behavioral consequences associated to acute restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América A Scopinho

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that the dorsal (DH and the ventral (VH poles of the hippocampus are structurally, molecularly and functionally different regions. While the DH is preferentially involved in the modulation of spatial learning and memory, the VH modulates defensive behaviors related to anxiety. Acute restraint is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP, intense heart rate (HR increases, skeletal muscle vasodilatation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, which are accompanied by a rapid skin temperature drop followed by body temperature increases. In addition to those autonomic responses, animals submitted to restraint also present behavioral changes, such as reduced exploration of the open arms of an elevated plus-maze (EPM, an anxiogenic-like effect. In the present work, we report a comparison between the effects of pharmacological inhibition of DH and VH neurotransmission on autonomic and behavioral responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the unspecific synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1mM into the DH or VH attenuated BP and HR responses, as well as the decrease in the skin temperature, elicited by restraint stress exposure. Moreover, DH or VH inhibition before restraint did not change the delayed increased anxiety behavior observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results demonstrate for the first time that both DH and VH mediate stress-induced autonomic responses to restraint but they are not involved in the modulation of the delayed emotional consequences elicited by such stress.

  7. Developmental changes in autonomic responses are associated with future reward/punishment expectations: A study of sympathetic skin responses in the Markov decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Hiromi; Aoyagi, Kakuro; Kaga, Yoshimi; Kanemura, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2017-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity is recognized as a major component of emotional responses. Future reward/punishment expectations depend upon the process of decision making in the frontal lobe, which is considered to play an important role in executive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between autonomic responses and decision making during reinforcement tasks using sympathetic skin responses (SSR). Nine adult and 9 juvenile (mean age, 10.2years) volunteers were enrolled in this study. SSRs were measured during the Markov decision task (MDT), which is a reinforcement task. In this task, subjects must endure a small immediate loss to ultimately get a large reward. The subjects had to undergo three sets of tests and their scores in these tests were assessed and evaluated. All adults showed gradually increasing scores for the MDT from the first to third set. As the trial progressed from the first to second set in adults, SSR appearance ratios remarkably increased for both punishment and reward expectations. In comparison with adults, children showed decreasing scores from the first to second set. There were no significant inter-target differences in the SSR appearance ratio in the first and second set in children. In the third set, the SSR appearance ratio for reward expectations was higher than that in the neutral condition. In reinforcement tasks, such as MDT, autonomic responses play an important role in decision making. We assume that SSRs are elicited during efficient decision making tasks associated with future reward/punishment expectations, which demonstrates the importance of autonomic function. In contrast, in children around the age of 10years, the autonomic system does not react as an organized response specific to reward/punishment expectations. This suggests the immaturity of the future reward/punishment expectations process in children. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B

  8. Global brain blood-oxygen level responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr, and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip, but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex

  9. Muscle cells challenged with saturated fatty acids mount an autonomous inflammatory response that activates macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillon Nicolas J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Within adipose tissue of mice fed a high fat diet, resident and infiltrating macrophages assume a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by the production of cytokines which in turn impact on the surrounding tissue. However, inflammation is not restricted to adipose tissue and high fat-feeding is responsible for a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in muscle. Although skeletal muscle is the major disposer of dietary glucose and a major determinant of glycemia, the origin and consequence of muscle inflammation in the development of insulin resistance are poorly understood. We used a cell culture approach to investigate the vectorial crosstalk between muscle cells and macrophages upon exposure to physiological, low levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Inflammatory pathway activation and cytokine expression were analyzed in L6 muscle cells expressing myc-tagged GLUT4 (L6GLUT4myc exposed to 0.2 mM palmitate or palmitoleate. Conditioned media thereof, free of fatty acids, were then tested for their ability to activate RAW264.7 macrophages. Palmitate -but not palmitoleate- induced IL-6, TNFα and CCL2 expression in muscle cells, through activation of the NF-κB pathway. Palmitate (0.2 mM alone did not induce insulin resistance in muscle cells, yet conditioned media from palmitate-challenged muscle cells selectively activated macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of palmitate activate autonomous inflammation in muscle cells to release factors that turn macrophages pro-inflammatory. We hypothesize that saturated fat-induced, low-grade muscle cell inflammation may trigger resident skeletal muscle macrophage polarization, possibly contributing to insulin resistance in vivo.

  10. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  11. Developmental changes in autonomic emotional response during an executive functional task: A pupillometric study during Wisconsin card sorting test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Tetsuo; Kaga, Yoshimi; Goto, Yusuke; Aoyagi, Kakuro; Ishii, Sayaka; Kanemura, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2017-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system has a deep relationship with the cognitive network when performing cognitive tasks. We hypothesize that autonomic emotional responses can affect cognitive function, especially executive function. The aim of this study was to clarify the involvement of the autonomic system during an executive functional task via developmental changes assessed using pupillometry. Subjects were 16 healthy children and 9 healthy adults. Children were divided into 3 groups (Group A, 7-9years; Group B, 10-14years; Group C, 15-17years). Pupil diameter was recorded using an eye mark recorder during cognitive shift (CS) during the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The rate of pupil variations was integrated and compared within each group, focusing on performance during CS. Categories achieved (CA) in the behavioral results of WCST increased with age, with significant differences between Group A and other groups. The change of pupillary diameter was increased with CS and decreased at the correct answers after CS in adults. Changes of pupillary diameter with CS showed a linear increase with age, and the pattern of the pupillary response at the age of 10-14years was comparable to adults. The integrated rate of pupil diameter with CS increased with age, and there was a significant difference between Group A and adults. In addition, the degree of mydriasis correlated with the number of CA. These findings suggest that autonomic emotional response play an important role as a part of the process for executive function. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Autonomic, endocrine and behavioural responses to thunder in laboratory and companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini de Souza, Carla Caroline; Maccariello, Carolina Elisabetta Martins; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Almeida, Norma Aparecida Dos Santos; Medeiros, Magda Alves de

    2017-02-01

    Dogs are highly sensitive to sound stimuli, especially fireworks, firearms, and thunder, and therefore these sounds are used as models of stress reactivity in dogs. Companion and laboratory dogs may respond differently to stressful stimuli, due to differences in management and their relationship with humans. Therefore, the reactivity of beagle dogs (laboratory) and companion dogs to an acute acoustic stress model was studied by analysing the heart rate variability (HRV; cardiac interval values), serum cortisol levels and various behavioural parameters. Eight beagles and six privately owned dogs with no history of phobia to thunder were used. The sound stimulus consisted of a standardized recording of thunder for 2.5min with a maximum intensity of 103-104dB. To evaluate the HRV, cardiac intervals were recorded using a frequency meter (Polar RS800CX model), and later the data were analysed using CardioSeries 2.4.1 software. In both laboratory and companion dogs, thunder promoted an increase in the power of the LF band of the cardiac interval spectrum, in the LF/HF ratio and in the HR, and a decrease in the power of the HF band of the cardiac interval spectrum. Companion dogs showed higher cortisol levels, than beagles, independently of the time point studied and a significant increase in the cortisol levels 15min after acoustic stress, while beagles did not show any alterations in their cortisol levels in response to the sound. On the other hand, beagles showed higher scores in the trembling, hiding, vigilance, running, salivation, bolting and startle parameters than companion dogs. Our results showed that independently of the sound stimulus, companion dogs had higher cortisol levels than laboratory dogs. Furthermore, the sound stimulus induced a marked autonomic imbalance towards sympathetic predominance in both laboratory and companion dogs. However a significant increase in the cortisol was observed only in companion dogs. On the other hand, in general the

  13. The role of gender differences in response to emotional music: a comprehensive analysis of autonomic signal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Goshvarpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Individual differences, especially gender, have an important role on individuals responds to the emotions. In cognitive science investigations, the analysis of biological signals has been introduced as a confident way to evaluate such responses. In this paper, by adopting a comprehensive approach on biomedical signal processing techniques, a precise examination on women and men differences in affective responses has been provided into different emotional stimuli, including fear, sadness, happiness, and peacefulness. Materials and Methods: Accordingly, signal processing methods were divided into three general categories, linear, wavelet, and non-linear based techniques. In the proposed method, different features from each of three categories and from three autonomic signals, including electrocardiogram (ECG, finger pulse, and galvanic skin response (GSR, were extracted. To induce emotions in participants, validated emotional pieces of music were broadcast in four affective classes. Results: The results indicate the different patterns of responses into affective incentives in women and men. The differences were more noticeable in the features of pulse signal than those of the other signals. Among emotional classes, fear resulted in the highest rate of distinction between men and women emotional responses. Conclusion: By the comprehensive evaluation of autonomic signals and different signal processing techniques, this study has tried to offer a new insight for better understanding of gender differences in emotional responses. In addition, it will help the researchers to adopt appropriate decisions in identifying efficient processing approach to deal with large amount of information achieved from signal analysis.

  14. Fulfillment of Social Responsibility as a Business Survival Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This theoretical discourse x-rays the need for the fulfillment of socialresponsibility as a means of business survival strategy in Niger Delta.Nigerian business organizations especially those operating in the NigerDelta region are having a rough time operating in the environment becauseof their inability to socially respond to ...

  15. Autonomic nervous system responses to viewing green and built settings: differentiating between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; Maas, Jolanda; Mulder, Rianne; Braun, Anoek; Kaandorp, Wendy; van Lien, René; van Poppel, Mireille; van Mechelen, Willem; van den Berg, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    his laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram

  16. Impact of Diabetes Type 1 in Children on Autonomic Modulation at Rest and in Response to the Active Orthostatic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacon, Thais Roque; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1), of which one of the first subclinical manifestations is changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Thus, analysis of HRV associated with the autonomic active orthostatic test is important in this population. To analyze the autonomic modulation responses induced by the implementation of the active orthostatic test, in children with DM1, and study the autonomic modulation by means of HRV indices. Data of 35 children were analyzed, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 15 years, who were divided into two groups: Diabetic (n = 16) and Control (n = 19). The following variables were collected initially: weight, height, body fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure and casual blood glucose. Subsequently, for analysis of autonomic modulation, the beat-to-beat heart rate was captured by a heart rate monitor in the supine position for 30 minutes and after 10 minutes standing during performance of the active orthostatic test. HRV indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used to compare groups and ANOVA for repeated measures to compare the effects of the active orthostatic test. These data were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, with a 5% significance level. The results suggested that diabetic children at rest present a decrease in SDNN (50.4 vs. 75.2), rMSSD (38.7 vs 57.6) and LF [ms2] (693.6 vs 1874.6). During the active orthostatic test the children in both groups demonstrated a reduction in SDNN, RMSSD and LF [ms2] compared to the resting position, and this response was less pronounced in the diabetic group. We conclude that regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, performing the active orthostatic test promoted increased sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic modulation in both groups, and this response was less

  17. Impact of Diabetes Type 1 in Children on Autonomic Modulation at Rest and in Response to the Active Orthostatic Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Roque Giacon

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1, of which one of the first subclinical manifestations is changes in heart rate variability (HRV. Thus, analysis of HRV associated with the autonomic active orthostatic test is important in this population.To analyze the autonomic modulation responses induced by the implementation of the active orthostatic test, in children with DM1, and study the autonomic modulation by means of HRV indices.Data of 35 children were analyzed, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 15 years, who were divided into two groups: Diabetic (n = 16 and Control (n = 19. The following variables were collected initially: weight, height, body fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure and casual blood glucose. Subsequently, for analysis of autonomic modulation, the beat-to-beat heart rate was captured by a heart rate monitor in the supine position for 30 minutes and after 10 minutes standing during performance of the active orthostatic test. HRV indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used to compare groups and ANOVA for repeated measures to compare the effects of the active orthostatic test. These data were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, with a 5% significance level.The results suggested that diabetic children at rest present a decrease in SDNN (50.4 vs. 75.2, rMSSD (38.7 vs 57.6 and LF [ms2] (693.6 vs 1874.6. During the active orthostatic test the children in both groups demonstrated a reduction in SDNN, RMSSD and LF [ms2] compared to the resting position, and this response was less pronounced in the diabetic group.We conclude that regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, performing the active orthostatic test promoted increased sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic modulation in both groups, and this response

  18. Role of the autonomic nervous system in the thermogenic response to food in lean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, L; Garrel, D R

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in obligatory and facultative components of the thermogenic response to food (TRF). Nineteen lean, healthy subjects participated in this study, which comprised two protocols, each exploring one component of the ANS. In the first experimental group, propranolol (prime: 80 micrograms/kg; continuous: 1 microgram.kg-1.min-1) was infused intravenously to inhibit sympathetic nervous activity (SNA), whereas in the second group atropine (prime: 5 micrograms/kg; continuous: 5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) was used to inhibit parasympathetic nervous activity (PNA). The TRF was measured on four occasions: 1) after oral ingestion of a breakfast, during 0.9% NaCl perfusion, 2) after oral ingestion of the same breakfast, during the perfusion of one of the drugs, 3) after intragastric injection of a pureed form of the same meal as in part 1, during 0.9% NaCl perfusion, and 4) after intragastric feeding, during the administration of one of the drugs. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry for 30 min before and 6 h after ingestion of the meal. Facultative TRF was defined as the difference between oral and intragastric TRF. Intragastric feeding significantly reduced TRF in both studies: 6.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.8% of the ingested energy in the SNA study and 5.5 +/- 1.6 vs. 7.4 +/- 3.1% in the PNA study. During propranolol infusion, TRF was significantly lower than it was during saline infusion after oral feeding (6.9 +/- 1.0% vs. 8.7 +/- 0.8% of ingested energy) but not after intragastric feeding. During atropine administration, TRF was reduced after both oral and intragastric feeding, although statistical significance was not reached in the latter. Atropine administration decreased gastric emptying (measured with an isotopic method) 2 h postingestion by 50%. These results show that the SNA is necessary for the facultative component of TRF to occur in humans. The role of the PNA appears

  19. Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on cardiovascular responses and autonomic sympathovagal modulation following stressor tasks in prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Sun, P; Wang, S; Lin, G; Wang, T

    2016-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is implicated in prehypertension, and previous studies have suggested that therapies that improve modulation of sympathovagal balance, such as biofeedback and slow abdominal breathing, are effective in patients with prehypertension at rest. However, considering that psychophysiological stressors may be associated with greater cardiovascular risk in prehypertensives, it is important to investigate whether heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) results in equivalent effects on autonomic cardiovascular responses control during stressful conditions in prehypertensives. A total of 32 college students with prehypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to HRV-BF (n=12), slow abdominal breathing (SAB, n=10) or no treatment (control, n=10) groups. Then, a training experiment consisting of 15 sessions was employed to compare the effect of each intervention on the following cardiovascular response indicators before and after intervention: heart rate (HR); heart rate variability (HRV) components; blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp); galvanic skin response; respiration rate (RSP); and blood pressure. In addition, the cold pressor test and the mental arithmetic challenge test were also performed over two successive days before and after the invention as well as after 3 months of follow-up. A significant decrease in HR and RSP and a significant increase in BVPamp were observed after the HRV-BF intervention (Peffects on RSP, BVPamp, LF/HF and HFnm were observed in the HRV-BF group compared with the SAB group. HRV-BF training contributes to the beneficial effect of reducing the stress-related cardiovascular response in prehypertensives by improving autonomic sympathovagal modulation.

  20. When Age Matters: Differences in Facial Mimicry and Autonomic Responses to Peers' Emotions in Teenagers and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916

  1. Progression-free survival, post-progression survival, and tumor response as surrogate markers for overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Imai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effects of first-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS might be confounded by subsequent therapies in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. We examined whether progression-free survival (PFS, post-progression survival (PPS, and tumor response could be valid surrogate endpoints for OS after first-line chemotherapies for patients with extensive SCLC using individual-level data. Methods: Between September 2002 and November 2012, we analyzed 49 cases of patients with extensive SCLC who were treated with cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy. The relationships of PFS, PPS, and tumor response with OS were analyzed at the individual level. Results: Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that PPS was strongly correlated with OS (r = 0.97, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.94, PFS was moderately correlated with OS (r = 0.58, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.24, and tumor shrinkage was weakly correlated with OS (r = 0.37, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.13. The best response to second-line treatment, and the number of regimens employed after progression beyond first-line chemotherapy were both significantly associated with PPS ( p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: PPS is a potential surrogate for OS in patients with extensive SCLC. Our findings also suggest that subsequent treatment after disease progression following first-line chemotherapy may greatly influence OS.

  2. Autonomic Response to the Cold Pressor Test : Through the Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    藤岩, 秀樹; 石尾, 潤; 中村, 貢治

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to clarify the autonomic response to the cold pressor test (CPT) by analyzing the power spectrum of the heart rate variability (HRV). The subjects of this investigation were 10 males who were aged 16-17 years. The results of this investigation are summarized as follows: 1)The parasympathetic nerve activity of the subjects decreased significantly in CPT. 2)The sympathetic nerve activity of the subjects increased significantly in CPT. 3)It is...

  3. Corporate social responsibility: An organizational tool for survival in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demonstrating socially responsible behaviour has become increasingly important for corporations. The study identifies the extent of participation of the banking industries in corporate social responsibility, the bank policies as it affects CRS and the impact of the bank the on the practice of CRS. The study utilized primary ...

  4. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficiency influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS), or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed with normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8-10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low- (0.3-0.5 Hz) and high-frequency (0.5-4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve, and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3-4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very-low-frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system

  5. Mom feels what her child feels: thermal signatures of vicarious autonomic response while watching children in a stressful situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manini, Barbara; Cardone, Daniela; Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Bafunno, Daniela; Aureli, Tiziana; Merla, Arcangelo

    2013-01-01

    Maternal attunement with an infant's emotional states is thought to represent a distinctive feature of the human primary bond. It implies the mother's ability of empathizing with her child in order to fulfil the child's needs in an immediate and appropriate manner. Thus, it is particularly involved in stressful situations. By assuming that maternal attunement embodies a direct sharing of physiological responses with the child, we compared the autonomic response of mothers observing their own distressed child with those of other women observing an unknown child involved in an ecological distressful condition (mishap paradigm). The hypothesis was that the adult's response was more attuned with the child's response in the former group than in the latter group. The autonomic response was non-invasively evaluated through the recording of the thermal facial imprints by means of thermal infrared (IR) imaging. Nine mother-child dyads and 9 woman-unknown child dyads were studied. We found marked similarities between the facial temperature dynamics of women and children along the experimental procedure, thus providing evidence for a direct emotional sharing within the adult-child dyad. The evidence for common dynamics in the time course of the temperatures was assessed through correlation analysis and, nevertheless, resulted stronger in the mother-child dyads than in the other women-child dyads. In addition, temporal analysis showed a faster response in mothers than in other women, thus confirming our study hypothesis. Besides confirming the extraordinary capability of IR imaging to preserve ecological context in the study of social or non-verbal interactions, these results suggest that maternity appears to potentiate the emotional attunement with the child. Although based on preliminary results, this study opens new perspectives in the study of the factors modulating vicarious socio-emotional processes.

  6. Mom feels what her child feels: thermal signatures of vicarious autonomic response while watching children in a stressful situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eManini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal attunement with an infant's emotional states is thought to represent a distinctive feature of the human primary bond. It implies the mother’s ability of empathizing with her child in order to fulfil the child’s needs in an immediate and appropriate manner. Thus, it is particularly involved in stressful situations. By assuming that maternal attunement embodies a direct sharing of physiological responses with the child, we compared the autonomic response of mothers observing their own distressed child with those of other women observing an unknown child involved in an ecological distressful condition (mishap paradigm. The hypothesis was that the adult’s response was more attuned with the child’s response in the former group than in the latter group. The autonomic response was non-invasively evaluated through the recording of the thermal facial imprints by means of thermal infrared (IR imaging. Nine mother-child dyads and nine woman-unknown child dyads were studied. We found marked similarities between the facial temperature dynamics of women and children along the experimental procedure, thus providing evidence for a direct emotional sharing within the adult-child dyad. The evidence for common dynamics in the time course of the temperatures was assessed through correlation analysis and, nevertheless, resulted stronger in the mother-child dyads than in the other women–child dyads. In addition, temporal analysis showed a faster response in mothers than in other women, thus confirming our study hypothesis. Besides confirming the extraordinary capability of thermal infrared imaging to preserve ecological context in the study of social or non-verbal interactions, these results suggest that maternity appears to potentiate the emotional attunement with the child. Although based on preliminary results, this study opens new perspectives in the study of the factors modulating vicarious socio-emotional processes.

  7. Radiographic response to locoregional therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma predicts patient survival times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Kulik, Laura; Lewandowski, Robert J; Wang, Edward; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Marshall, Karen; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Senthilnathan, Seanthan; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa L; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B; Mulcahy, Mary F; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad

    2011-08-01

    It is not clear whether survival times of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with their response to therapy. We analyzed the association between tumor response and survival times of patients with HCC who were treated with locoregional therapies (LRTs) (chemoembolization and radioembolization). Patients received LRTs over a 9-year period (n = 463). Patients with metastases, portal venous thrombosis, or who had received transplants were excluded; 159 patients with Child-Pugh B7 or lower were analyzed. Response (based on European Association for the Study of the Liver [EASL] and World Health Organization [WHO] criteria) was associated with survival times using the landmark, risk-of-death, and Mantel-Byar methodologies. In a subanalysis, survival times of responders were compared with those of patients with stable disease and progressive disease. Based on 6-month data, in landmark analysis, responders survived longer than nonresponders (based on EASL but not WHO criteria: P = .002 and .0694). The risk of death was also lower for responders (based on EASL but not WHO criteria: P = .0463 and .707). Landmark analysis of 12-month data showed that responders survived longer than nonresponders (P < .0001 and .004, based on EASL and WHO criteria, respectively). The risk of death was lower for responders (P = .0132 and .010, based on EASL and WHO criteria, respectively). By the Mantel-Byar method, responders had longer survival than nonresponders, based on EASL criteria (P < .0001; P = .596 with WHO criteria). In the subanalysis, responders lived longer than patients with stable disease or progressive disease. Radiographic response to LRTs predicts survival time. EASL criteria for response more consistently predicted survival times than WHO criteria. The goal of LRT should be to achieve a radiologic response, rather than to stabilize disease. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose Effects of Ion Beam Exposure on Deinococcus Radiodurans: Survival and Dose Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dao-jun; Wu, Li-fang; Wu, Li-jun; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2001-02-01

    To explore the survival and dose response of organism for different radiation sources is of great importance in the research of radiobiology. In this study, the survival-dose response of Deinococcus radiodurans (E.coli, as the control) for ultra-violet (UV), γ-rays radiation and ion beam exposure was investigated. The shoulder type of survival curves were found for both UV and γ-ray ionizing radiation, but the saddle type of survival curves were shown for H+, N+(20keV and 30keV) and Ar+ beam exposure. This dose effect of the survival initially decreased with the increase in dose and then increased in the high dose range and finally decreased again in the higher dose range. Our experimental results suggest that D. radiodurans, which is considerably radio-resistant to UV and x-ray and γ-ray ionizing radiation, do not resist ion beam exposure.

  9. Mood and autonomic responses to repeated exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Ehlert, Ulrike; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew; La Marca, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    A group version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-G) was introduced as a standardized, economic and efficient tool to induce a psychobiological stress response simultaneously in a group of subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of the TSST-G to repeatedly induce an affective and autonomic stress response while comparing two alternative protocols for the second examination. Healthy young male recruits participated twice in the TSST-G 10 weeks apart. In the first examination, the TSST-G consisted of a combination of mental arithmetic and a fake job interview (TSST-G-1st; n=294). For the second examination, mental arithmetic was combined with either (a) a defensive speech in response to a false shoplifting accusation (TSST-G-2nd-defence; n=105), or (b) a speech on a more neutral topic selected by the investigators (TSST-G-2nd-presentation; n=100). Affect ratings and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were determined immediately before and after the stress test, while heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured continuously. TSST-G-1st resulted in a significant increase of negative affect, HR, and sAA, and a significant decrease in positive affect and HRV. TSST-G-2nd, overall, resulted in a significant increase of HR and sAA (the latter only in response to TSST-G-2nd-defence) and a decrease in HRV, while no significant affect alterations were found. When comparing both, TSST-G-2nd-defence and -2nd-presentation, the former resulted in a stronger stress response with regard to HR and HRV. The findings reveal that the TSST-G is a useful protocol to repeatedly evoke an affective and autonomic stress response, while repetition leads to affective but not necessarily autonomic habituation. When interested in examining repeated psychosocial stress reactivity, a task that requires an ego-involving effort, such as a defensive speech, seems to be significantly superior to a task using an impersonal speech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  10. Influence of the single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Engi, Sheila A; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2012-10-01

    Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs) has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous abuse of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and AASs are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effects of either single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for one or 10 consecutive days on autonomic (arterial pressure, heart rate and tail cutaneous temperature) and neuroendocrine (plasma corticosterone) responses induced by acute restraint stress in rats. Combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 10 days reduced the increase in heart rate and plasma corticosterone level, as well as the fall in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Furthermore, repeated administration of cocaine inhibited the increase in arterial pressure observed during restraint, and this effect was not affected by coadministration of testosterone. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased basal values of arterial pressure. Moreover, chronic administration of testosterone induced rest bradycardia and elevated basal level of plasma corticosterone. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that combined administration of testosterone and cocaine changed the autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress. These findings suggest that interaction between AASs and cocaine may affect the ability to cope with stressful events.

  11. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, M. R.; Vargas-Luna, F. M.; Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies.

  12. Altered Behavioral and Autonomic Pain Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease Are Associated with Dysfunctional Affective, Self-Reflective and Salience Network Resting-State Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Beach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While pain behaviors are increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients compared to healthy seniors (HS across multiple disease stages, autonomic responses are reduced with advancing AD. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena, we undertook a controlled cross-sectional study examining behavioral (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia, PAINAD scores and autonomic (heart rate, HR pain responses in 24 HS and 20 AD subjects using acute pressure stimuli. Resting-state fMRI was utilized to investigate how group connectivity differences were related to altered pain responses. Pain behaviors (slope of PAINAD score change and mean PAINAD score were increased in patients vs. controls. Autonomic measures (HR change intercept and mean HR change were reduced in severe vs. mildly affected AD patients. Group functional connectivity differences associated with greater pain behavior reactivity in patients included: connectivity within a temporal limbic network (TLN and between the TLN and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC; between default mode network (DMN subcomponents; between the DMN and ventral salience network (vSN. Reduced HR responses within the AD group were associated with connectivity changes within the DMN and vSN—specifically the precuneus and vmPFC. Discriminant classification indicated HR-related connectivity within the vSN to the vmPFC best distinguished AD severity. Thus, altered behavioral and autonomic pain responses in AD reflects dysfunction of networks and structures subserving affective, self-reflective, salience and autonomic regulation.

  13. Improving child survival: Malnutrition Task Force and the paediatrician's responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A A; Ashworth, A; Khanum, S

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition (underweight) contributes to approximately 60% of all child deaths, yet health professionals, policy makers, and donor agencies often fail to recognise its relevance to child survival. There is a need for the paediatric community to champion the importance of adequate nutrition for normal growth and development, and of placing sufficient emphasis on the prevention and treatment of malnutrition. Many severely malnourished children die from inappropriate treatment. Case fatality rates of 25–30% are commonly found and in some hospitals as many as 50–70% will die. Many of these deaths are avoidable. Weaknesses in health systems, inappropriate training of doctors and nurses, inadequate supervision, and lack of support for staff all contribute to compromised quality of care. The International Union of Nutritional Sciences, with support from the International Pediatric Association, Launched a global Malnutrition Task Force in 2005. The main objective is to ensure that an integrated system of prevention and treatment of malnutrition is actively supported as a fundamental aspect of care, and becomes an integral part of all training programmes. PMID:16861489

  14. 205 Fulfillment of Social Responsibility as a Business Survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Ethical behaviour can influence a firm's success in business. They stressed that it ranked the most important personal attributes that workers in most business organizations in the United States of America should posses. They, however, see social responsibility as a whole but observe that ethics concerns.

  15. 205 Fulfillment of Social Responsibility as a Business Survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... impetus for executives to think through the society role of the enterprise they operate. Also, it is the belief by most ... responsibility as the duty of a business enterprise to ensure that it does not. Vol. 4 (4), Serial No. 17, October, 2010. .... Small Business Management. Fundamentals: McGraw-Hill Series in ...

  16. Musical Auditory Stimulation Influences Heart Rate Autonomic Responses to Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Drumond Ramos Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the acute effect of musical auditory stimulation on heart rate autonomic regulation during endodontic treatment. The study included 50 subjects from either gender between 18 and 40 years old, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis of the upper front teeth and endodontic treatment indication. HRV was recorded 10 minutes before (T1, during (T2, and immediately (T3 and T4 after endodontic treatment. The volunteers were randomly divided into two equal groups: exposed to music (during T2, T3, and T4 or not. We found no difference regarding salivary cortisol and anxiety score. In the group with musical stimulation heart rate decreased in T3 compared to T1 and mean RR interval increased in T2 and T3 compared to T1. SDNN and TINN indices decreased in T3 compared to T4, the RMSSD and SD1 increased in T4 compared to T1, the SD2 increased compared to T3, and LF (low frequency band increased in T4 compared to T1 and T3. In the control group, only RMSSD and SD1 increased in T3 compared to T1. Musical auditory stimulation enhanced heart rate autonomic modulation during endodontic treatment.

  17. Intravital mucosal imaging of CD8+resident memory T cells shows tissue-autonomous recall responses that amplify secondary memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beura, Lalit K; Mitchell, Jason S; Thompson, Emily A; Schenkel, Jason M; Mohammed, Javed; Wijeyesinghe, Sathi; Fonseca, Raissa; Burbach, Brandon J; Hickman, Heather D; Vezys, Vaiva; Fife, Brian T; Masopust, David

    2018-02-01

    CD8 + T cell immunosurveillance dynamics influence the outcome of intracellular infections and cancer. Here we used two-photon intravital microscopy to visualize the responses of CD8 + resident memory T cells (T RM cells) within the reproductive tracts of live female mice. We found that mucosal T RM cells were highly motile, but paused and underwent in situ division after local antigen challenge. T RM cell reactivation triggered the recruitment of recirculating memory T cells that underwent antigen-independent T RM cell differentiation in situ. However, the proliferation of pre-existing T RM cells dominated the local mucosal recall response and contributed most substantially to the boosted secondary T RM cell population. We observed similar results in skin. Thus, T RM cells can autonomously regulate the expansion of local immunosurveillance independently of central memory or proliferation in lymphoid tissue.

  18. Oral Contraceptives Attenuate Cardiac Autonomic Responses to Musical Auditory Stimulation: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Réveni Carmem; Plassa, Bruna Oliveira; Guida, Heraldo Lorena; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Gomes, Rayana L; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor E

    2015-01-01

    The literature presents contradictory results regarding the effects of contraceptives on cardiac autonomic regulation. The research team aimed to evaluate the effects of musical auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation in women who use oral contraceptives. The research team designed a transversal observational pilot study. The setting was the Centro de Estudos do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo (CESNA) in the Departamento de Fonoaudiologia at the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) in Marília, SP, Brazil. Participants were 22 healthy nonathletic and nonsedentary females, all nonsmokers and aged between 18 and 27 y. Participants were divided into 2 groups: (1) 12 women who were not taking oral contraceptives, the control group; and (2) 10 women who were taking oral contraceptives, the oral contraceptive group. In the first stage, a rest control, the women sat with their earphones turned off for 20 min. After that period, the participants were exposed to 20 min of classical baroque music (ie, "Canon in D Major," Johann Pachelbel), at 63-84 dB. Measurements of the equivalent sound levels were conducted in a soundproof room, and the intervals between consecutive heartbeats (R-R intervals) were recorded, with a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. For calculation of the linear indices, the research team used software to perform an analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Linear indices of HRV were analyzed in the time domain: (1) the standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), (2) the root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals in a time interval (RMSSD), and (3) the percentage of adjacent R-R intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms (pNN50). The study also analyzed the frequency domain-low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. For the control group, the musical auditory stimulation reduced (1) the SDNN from 52.2 ± 10 ms to 48.4 ± 16 ms (P = .0034); (2) the RMSSD from 45.8 ± 22 ms to 41.2

  19. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors......) are not altered in circulating blood cells in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Thus, a generalized up-regulation of adrenoceptors does not occur in diabetic autonomic neuropathy....

  20. Parasitic infection improves survival from septic peritonitis by enhancing mast cell responses to bacteria in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Sutherland

    Full Text Available Mammals are serially infected with a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites. Each infection reprograms the immune system's responses to re-exposure and potentially alters responses to first-time infection by different microorganisms. To examine whether infection with a metazoan parasite modulates host responses to subsequent bacterial infection, mice were infected with the hookworm-like intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, followed in 2-4 weeks by peritoneal injection of the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Survival from Klebsiella peritonitis two weeks after parasite infection was better in Nippostrongylus-infected animals than in unparasitized mice, with Nippostrongylus-infected mice having fewer peritoneal bacteria, more neutrophils, and higher levels of protective interleukin 6. The improved survival of Nippostrongylus-infected mice depends on IL-4 because the survival benefit is lost in mice lacking IL-4. Because mast cells protect mice from Klebsiella peritonitis, we examined responses in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice, in which parasitosis failed to improve survival from Klebsiella peritonitis. However, adoptive transfer of cultured mast cells to Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice restored survival benefits of parasitosis. These results show that recent infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis protects mice from Klebsiella peritonitis by modulating mast cell contributions to host defense, and suggest more generally that parasitosis can yield survival advantages to a bacterially infected host.

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M.H.E. van den Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and pre-ejection period (PEP, indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space.

  2. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  3. EEG and autonomic responses during performance of matching and non-matching to sample working memory tasks with emotional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eGarcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is a neural system responsible for the temporary storage of information and its utilization in problem solving. The central executive is theorized as the controller of storage functions that support WM. Neurophysiological data suggest that EEG theta and alpha oscillations in frontal and midline regions are involved in neural communication between the central executive and storage functions during WM performance. Emotion is known to modulate several memory systems, including WM, through central and peripheral pathways. However, the physiological correlations (electroencephalographic – EEG; autonomic nervous activity of the effect of emotion over WM are not well described. In this study we aimed to identify physiological responses related to emotional WM performance. EEG (21 channels, heart rate (HR and galvanic skin response (GSR recordings were obtained from 54 volunteers while performing delayed matching and non-matching to sample tasks (DMTS/DNMTS. Emotional and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System and geometric figures were used as stimuli. As expected, WM performance was accompanied by presence of theta (frontal and midline electrodes and Alpha power (parietal electrodes. Beta and gamma oscillations were concentrated in frontopolar and left temporal regions. DNMTS task was accompanied by increases in Beta power, HR and GSR compared to DMTS task. Correlation analysis showed a positive tendency for gamma in Fp2 site, ratio of LF/HF (HR low and high frequency and skin conductance in both tasks. The HR results indicate an inverse reaction related to parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system during the performance of the tasks. Taken together, our results contribute to elucidate the complex interactions between central and autonomic nervous systems in the modulation of emotional WM tasks.

  4. Cortical and Autonomic Stress Responses in Adults with High Versus Low Levels of Trait Anxiety: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, A; Zarbo, C; Adorni, R; Compare, A; Sakatani, K

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses are mediated by complex patterns of cortical and autonomic activity. Earlier studies showed increased recruitment of the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and parasympathetic withdrawal during a stress task; however, it remains unclear whether these responses change in relation to different levels of psychopathological symptoms, such as trait anxiety. The present study examines the effect of a mathematical task (with a control condition and a stressful/experimental condition) on the PFC and autonomic activity, using a two-channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and an ECG monitoring system. After a preliminary screening of 65 subjects, a sample of 12 individuals (6 with the highest and 6 with the lowest scores on an anxiety questionnaire, i.e. the STAI trait) was selected. The two groups were similar regarding demographic variables (age, sex, body mass index) and baseline STAI-state scores. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare changes from baseline in oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), heart rate (HR) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) between the two groups. Individuals affected by high levels of trait anxiety showed a reduced bilateral PFC activity during the entire experimental procedure compared to those with low anxiety. No differences in NIRS channels were found between the two groups. During both conditions, RMSSD was lower among individuals affected by high levels of anxious symptoms. Finally, throughout the procedure, changes in HR were higher in the anxious group. Overall, these findings suggest a reduced PFC activity and a larger parasympathetic withdrawal during a stress task in individuals with high levels of trait anxiety compared to those with low anxiety. These results could represent a starting point for future NIRS and ECG studies on the relationship between mental disorders and acute stress responses.

  5. Elevated HbA1c Levels Are Associated with the Blunted Autonomic Response Assessed by Heart Rate Variability during Blood Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Miho; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2016-10-01

    A high glycemic status increases the risk for autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular failure. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent changes in the autonomic response and cardiovascular dynamics and the association between the level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and autonomic response during blood volume reduction. The study population consisted of 26 preoperative participants who were scheduled for autologous blood donation (200-400 mL of whole blood) for intraoperative or postoperative use. These participants without circulatory, respiratory, or brain disease and diabetes mellitus were grouped according to their HbA1c levels: heart rate variability (HRV) to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation throughout blood donation. During blood volume reduction, which was about 10% of the circulating blood volume, the BP and heart rate varied within normal ranges in both groups. The high-frequency (HF) component, an index of parasympathetic nerve activity, and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) to HF components (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nerve activity, significantly decreased and increased with the progression of blood volume reduction, respectively, in the HbA1c levels are associated with the decrease in the autonomic response induced by blood volume reduction.

  6. Differential cell autonomous responses determine the outcome of coxsackievirus infections in murine pancreatic α and β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroqui, Laura; Lopes, Miguel; dos Santos, Reinaldo S; Grieco, Fabio A; Roivainen, Merja; Richardson, Sarah J; Morgan, Noel G; Op de Beeck, Anne; Eizirik, Decio L

    2015-06-10

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by loss of pancreatic β cells via apoptosis while neighboring α cells are preserved. Viral infections by coxsackieviruses (CVB) may contribute to trigger autoimmunity in T1D. Cellular permissiveness to viral infection is modulated by innate antiviral responses, which vary among different cell types. We presently describe that global gene expression is similar in cytokine-treated and virus-infected human islet cells, with up-regulation of gene networks involved in cell autonomous immune responses. Comparison between the responses of rat pancreatic α and β cells to infection by CVB5 and 4 indicate that α cells trigger a more efficient antiviral response than β cells, including higher basal and induced expression of STAT1-regulated genes, and are thus better able to clear viral infections than β cells. These differences may explain why pancreatic β cells, but not α cells, are targeted by an autoimmune response during T1D.

  7. Standardization of a computerized method for calculating autonomic function test responses in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neumann

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were 1 to compare results obtained by the traditional manual method of measuring heart rate (HR and heart rate response (HRR to the Valsalva maneuver, standing and deep breathing, with those obtained using a computerized data analysis system attached to a standard electrocardiograph machine; 2 to standardize the responses of healthy subjects to cardiovascular tests, and 3 to evaluate the response to these tests in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. In all subjects (97 healthy and 143 with DM we evaluated HRR to deep breathing, HRR to standing, HRR to the Valsalva maneuver, and blood pressure response (BPR to standing up and to a sustained handgrip. Since there was a strong positive correlation between the results obtained with the computerized method and the traditional method, we conclude that the new method can replace the traditional manual method for evaluating cardiovascular responses with the advantages of speed and objectivity. HRR and BPR of men and women did not differ. A correlation between age and HRR was observed for standing (r = -0.48, P<0.001 and deep breathing (r = -0.41, P<0.002. Abnormal BPR to standing was usually observed only in diabetic patients with definite and severe degrees of autonomic neuropathy.

  8. Evaluation of Reliability in Risk-Constrained Scheduling of Autonomous Microgrids with Demand Response and Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    Uncertain natures of the renewable energy resources and consumers’ participation in demand response (DR) programs have introduced new challenges to the energy and reserve scheduling of microgrids, particularly in the autonomous mode. In this paper, a risk-constrained stochastic framework...... by using conditional value at risk (CVaR) method. The influence of consumers’ participation in DR programs and their emergency load shedding for different values of lost load (VOLL) are then investigated on the expected profit of operator, CVaR, expected energy not served (EENS) and scheduled reserves...... of microgrid. Moreover, the impacts of different VOLL and risk aversion parameter are illustrated on the system reliability. Extensive simulation results are also presented to illustrate the impact of risk aversion on system security issues with and without DR. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages...

  9. Empathy in Negative and Positive Interpersonal Interactions. What is the Relationship Between Central (EEG, fNIRS) and Peripheral (Autonomic) Neurophysiological Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Maria Elide Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2017-01-01

    Emotional empathy is crucial to understand how we respond to interpersonal positive or negative situations. In the present research, we aim at identifying the neural networks and the autonomic responsiveness underlying the human ability to perceive and empathize with others' emotions when positive (cooperative) or negative (uncooperative) interactions are observed. A multimethodological approach was adopted to elucidate the reciprocal interplay of autonomic (peripheral) and central (cortical) activities in empathic behavior. Electroencephalography (EEG, frequency band analysis) and hemodynamic (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS) activity were all recorded simultaneously with systemic skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) measurements as potential biological markers of emotional empathy. Subjects were required to empathize in interpersonal interactions. As shown by fNIRS/EEG measures, negative situations elicited increased brain responses within the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas positive situations elicited greater responses within the left PFC. Therefore, a relevant lateralization effect was induced by the specific valence (mainly for negative conditions) of the emotional interactions. Also, SCR was modulated by positive/negative conditions. Finally, EEG activity (mainly low-frequency theta and delta bands) intrinsically correlated with the cortical hemodynamic responsiveness, and they both predicted autonomic activity. The integrated central and autonomic measures better elucidated the significance of empathic behavior in interpersonal interactions.

  10. Empathy in Negative and Positive Interpersonal Interactions. What is the Relationship Between Central (EEG, fNIRS) and Peripheral (Autonomic) Neurophysiological Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Maria Elide Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2017-01-01

    Emotional empathy is crucial to understand how we respond to interpersonal positive or negative situations. In the present research, we aim at identifying the neural networks and the autonomic responsiveness underlying the human ability to perceive and empathize with others’ emotions when positive (cooperative) or negative (uncooperative) interactions are observed. A multimethodological approach was adopted to elucidate the reciprocal interplay of autonomic (peripheral) and central (cortical) activities in empathic behavior. Electroencephalography (EEG, frequency band analysis) and hemodynamic (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS) activity were all recorded simultaneously with systemic skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) measurements as potential biological markers of emotional empathy. Subjects were required to empathize in interpersonal interactions. As shown by fNIRS/EEG measures, negative situations elicited increased brain responses within the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas positive situations elicited greater responses within the left PFC. Therefore, a relevant lateralization effect was induced by the specific valence (mainly for negative conditions) of the emotional interactions. Also, SCR was modulated by positive/negative conditions. Finally, EEG activity (mainly low-frequency theta and delta bands) intrinsically correlated with the cortical hemodynamic responsiveness, and they both predicted autonomic activity. The integrated central and autonomic measures better elucidated the significance of empathic behavior in interpersonal interactions. PMID:28450977

  11. Adaptive response and split-dose effect of radiation on the survival ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although the importance of radiation-induced adaptive response has been recognized in human health, risk assessment and clinical application, the phenomenon has not been understood well in terms of survival of animals. To examine this aspect Swiss albino mice were irradiated with different doses (2–10 Gy) at 0.015 ...

  12. Mesothelin-specific Immune Responses Predict Survival of Patients With Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhenjiang

    2017-09-01

    Interpretation: This is the first evidence that immune responses to mesothelin serve as a marker of increased overall survival in patients with brain metastases, regardless of the primary tumor origin. Analyses of immunological markers could potentially serve as prognostic markers in patients with brain metastases and help to select patients in need for adjunct, immunological, treatment strategies.

  13. Alpha-fetoprotein response after locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: oncologic marker of radiologic response, progression, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Kulik, Laura M; Mulcahy, Mary F; Lewandowski, Robert J; Minocha, Jeet; Ibrahim, Saad M; Sato, Kent T; Baker, Talia; Miller, Frank H; Newman, Steven; Omary, Reed; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B; Salem, Riad

    2009-12-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is considered to be an indicator of tumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We present a novel correlation of AFP response to radiologic response, time-to-progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients treated with locoregional therapies. Four hundred sixty-three patients with HCC were treated with chemoembolization or radioembolization at our institution. One hundred twenty-five patients with baseline AFP higher than 200 ng/mL were studied for this analysis. AFP response was defined as more than 50% decrease from baseline. One hundred nineteen patients with follow-up imaging were studied for the AFP imaging correlation analysis. AFP response was correlated to radiologic response, TTP, PFS, and OS. Multivariate analyses were performed. Eighty-one patients (65%) showed AFP response. AFP response was seen in 26 (55%) of 47 and 55 (70%) of 78 of patients treated with chemoembolization and radioembolization, respectively (P = .12). WHO response was seen in 41 (53%) of 77 and 10 (24%) of 42 of AFP responders and nonresponders, respectively (P = .002). The hazard ratio (HR) for TTP in AFP nonresponders compared with responders was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.5 to 5.1). The HR for PFS was 4.2 (95% CI, 2.4 to 7.2) in AFP nonresponders compared with responders. The HR for OS in AFP nonresponders compared with responders was 5.5 (95% CI, 3.1 to 9.9) and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.6 to 4.6) on univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. The data presented support the use of AFP response seen after locoregional therapy as an ancillary method of assessing tumor response and survival, as well as an early objective screening tool for progression by imaging.

  14. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy is often difficult to establish, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease, and may be non-specific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on th...

  15. Autonomic cardiac regulation and morpho-physiological responses to eight week training preparation in junior soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Botek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training preparation in soccer is thought to improve body composition and performance level, especially the maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max. However, an enhancement in performance may be attenuated by the increase of fatigue. Heart rate variability (HRV as a non-invasive index of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity has been considered to be a sensitive tool in fatigue assessment. Objective: This study was focused to evaluate the response of ANS activity and morpho-physiological parameters to eight week training preparation. Methods: Study included 12 trained soccer players aged 17.2 ± 1.2 years. Athletes underwent pre- and post-preparation testing that included the ANS activity assessment by spectral analysis of HRV in supine and upright position. Further, body composition was analyzed via electrical bio-impedance method and physiological parameters were assessed during maximal stress tests. ANS activity and subjective feeling of fatigue was assessed continuously within subsequent weeks of preparation. Results: No significant differences in all HRV variables within weeks were found. Pre vs. post analyses revealed a significant (p < .05 increase in body weight, fat free mass, body mass index, and peak power. A significant decline in mean maximal heart rate (HR and resting HR at standing was identified at the end of preparation. Since no significant changes between pre- post-preparation in the mean VO2max occurred, the positive correlation between the individual change in VO2max and the vagally related HRV [supine LnHF (r = .78, Ln rMSSD (r = .63, and the standing LnHF (r = .73, p < .05] was found. Conclusions: This study showed that an 8 week training program modified particularly fat free mass and short-term endurance, whereas both the autonomic cardiac regulation and the feeling of fatigue remained almost unaffected. Standing position seems to be more sensitive in terms of the HR response in relation to fatigue

  16. A priori Prediction of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients using Quantitative Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Kim, Christina; Ghandi, Sonal; Trudeau, Maureen; Pritchard, Kathleen; Tran, William T.; Slodkowska, Elzbieta; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can probe tissue structure and analyze tumour characteristics. Using a 6-MHz ultrasound system, radiofrequency data were acquired from 56 locally advanced breast cancer patients prior to their neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and QUS texture features were computed from regions of interest in tumour cores and their margins as potential predictive and prognostic indicators. Breast tumour molecular features were also collected and used for analysis. A multiparametric QUS model was constructed, which demonstrated a response prediction accuracy of 88% and ability to predict patient 5-year survival rates (p = 0.01). QUS features demonstrated superior performance in comparison to molecular markers and the combination of QUS and molecular markers did not improve response prediction. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that non-invasive QUS features in the core and margin of breast tumours can indicate breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and predict five-year recurrence-free survival.

  17. Transcranial Doppler and cardiovascular responses during cardiovascular autonomic tests in migraineurs during and outside attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Boesen, F

    1995-01-01

    to a head-up tilt test, a cold-pressor test and a Valsalva manoeuvre. The cardiovascular reflexes in response to the Valsalva manoeuvre suggested a mild parasympathetic hypofunction in migraineurs, both those with and those without aura. On the basis of the present results and previous findings by others...

  18. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  19. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C.; Elliott, Diane G.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Linda K.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2010-01-01

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  20. Evaluating Autonomic Parameters: The Role of ‎Sleep ‎Duration in Emotional Responses to Music ‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Goshvarpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been recognized that sleep has an important effect on emotion processing. The aim ‎of this study was to investigate the effect of previous night sleep duration on autonomicresponses to musical stimuli in different emotional contexts.‎Method: A frequency based measure of GSR, PR and ECG signals were examined in 35 healthy ‎students in three groups of oversleeping, lack of sleep and normal sleep. ‎Results: The results of this study revealed that regardless of the emotional context of the musical ‎stimuli (happy, relax, fear, and sadness, there was an increase in the maximum power of ‎GSR, ECG and PR during the music time compared to the rest time in all the three ‎groups. In addition, the higher value of these measures was achieved while the ‎participants listened to relaxing music. Statistical analysis of the extracted features ‎between each pair of emotional states revealed that the most significant differences ‎were attained for ECG signals. These differences were more obvious in the participants ‎with normal sleeping (p<10-18. The higher value of the indices has been shown, ‎comparing long sleep duration with the normal one.‎Conclusion: There was a strong relation between emotion and sleep duration, and this association can ‎be observed by means of the ECG signals.‎ 

  1. Ensuring 3es and Responsiveness in the Delivery of Educational Services in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapia Moalam Abdulrachman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM is a public organization in the Philippines located in between the national government and the local governments. It performs unique functions quite distinct from other public organizations in the coun-try, as it performs both political and administrative functions. Using unobtrusive research design, as it relies on mostly secondary data, this paper analyzes the educational system in the region and proposes strategies in attaining administrative efficiency, economy, effectiveness and responsiveness. The paper starts with the introduction which consist of the background and statement of the problem. It is followed by a review of theoretical perspective and then by the research methodology. The fourth part portrays the findings of the study which include: DepEd ARMM resources; the management of DepEd ARMM, and the management outputs such as: net enrollment ratio, achievement rate and literacy rate. The fifth part of the paper deals with the analyses and conclusion. The paper concludes that in addition to certain structural innovation, inculcation of appropriate work ethics in accordance with the Ethi-cal Standards Act, the Anti-Corruption Law, the Civil Service Rules and Regulations as well as the Islamic Practices on Employment must be enshrined in the reform agenda. Finally, among other things that could facilitate the attainment of 3Es and R in the delivery of educational services is a strategy that requires the joint collaboration and teamwork between the civil society, non-government organizations and government organizations in the region.

  2. Essential oils reduce autonomous response to pain sensation during self-monitoring of blood glucose among children with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Pomykała, Agnieszka; Suwała, Szymon; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils were proven to possess analgesic activity in adults. Children with diabetes are exposed to highly painful interventions such as self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). An evaluation of the analgesic properties of two essential oils during SMBG in diabetic children. We included 73 hospitalized children (agescale (VAS) and change of baseline heart rate (ΔHR%). An aromatherapy device was used to disperse essential oils in the testing room. We performed 647 individual measurements of pain intensity and ΔHR%. Girls reported higher VAS scores [median, Me 0.5 (interquartile range, IQR 0-1) vs. 0 (IQR 0-0.5), p=0.0036]. Both age and duration of diabetes correlated with ΔHR% [r=-0.14, p=0.0005; r=-0.12, p=0.0025]. Negative correlations were also noted for VAS/age [r=-0.12, p=0.0030] and VAS/duration of diabetes [r=-0.12, p=0.0034]. Aromatherapy did not alter the VAS score (p=0.40), while ΔHR% decreased with borderline significance (p=0.0639). After adjustment for patient's age and sex lower ΔHR% was associated with essential oil application (p=0.0252). Aromatherapy did not have any influence on VAS scores in multivariate analysis (p=0.35). Aromatherapy decreased the autonomic response to a painful stimulus by lowering ΔHR%, but did not affect the perception of pain reported by VAS.

  3. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzen, Beate; Nater, Urs M; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants' behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = -49.36, t = -2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men.

  4. Transcriptional responses to fluctuating thermal regimes underpinning differences in survival in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torson, Alex S; Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Kemp, William P; Bowsher, Julia H

    2015-04-01

    The transcriptional responses of insects to long-term, ecologically relevant temperature stress are poorly understood. Long-term exposure to low temperatures, commonly referred to as chilling, can lead to physiological effects collectively known as chill injury. Periodically increasing temperatures during long-term chilling has been shown to increase survival in many insects. However, the transcripts responsible for this increase in survival have never been characterized. Here, we present the first transcriptome-level analysis of increased longevity under fluctuating temperatures during chilling. Overwintering post-diapause quiescent alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata) were exposed to a constant temperature of 6°C, or 6°C with a daily fluctuation to 20°C. RNA was collected at two different time points, before and after mortality rates began to diverge between temperature treatments. Expression analysis identified differentially regulated transcripts between pairwise comparisons of both treatments and time points. Transcripts functioning in ion homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress response were up-regulated in individuals exposed to periodic temperature fluctuations during chilling. The differential expression of these transcripts provides support for the hypotheses that fluctuating temperatures protect against chill injury by reducing oxidative stress and returning ion concentrations and metabolic function to more favorable levels. Additionally, exposure to fluctuating temperatures leads to increased expression of transcripts functioning in the immune response and neurogenesis, providing evidence for additional mechanisms associated with increased survival during chilling in M. rotundata. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Yttrium-90 radioembolization for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: safety, response, and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouli, Samdeep; Memon, Khairuddin; Baker, Talia; Benson, Al B; Mulcahy, Mary F; Gupta, Ramona; Ryu, Robert K; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    To present data on safety, antitumoral response, and survival following yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The present study expands on the cohort of 24 patients with ICC described in a pilot study, and includes 46 patients treated with (90)Y radioembolization at a single institution during an 8-year period. Via retrospective review of a prospectively collected database, patients were stratified by performance status, tumor distribution (solitary or multifocal), tumor morphology (infiltrative or peripheral), and presence/absence of portal vein thrombosis. Primary endpoints included biochemical and clinical toxicities, and secondary endpoints included imaging response (World Health Organization [WHO] and European Association for the Study of Liver Disease [EASL] criteria) and survival. Uni-/multivariate analyses were performed. Ninety-two treatments were performed, with a mean of two per patient. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain occurred in 25 patients (54%) and 13 patients (28%), respectively. Treatment-related gastroduodenal ulcer developed in one patient (2%). WHO imaging findings included partial response (n = 11; 25%), stable disease (n = 33; 73%), and progressive disease (n = 1; 2%). EASL imaging findings included partial/complete response (n = 33; 73%) and stable disease (n = 12; 27%). Survival varied based on presence of multifocal (5.7 mo vs 14.6 mo), infiltrative (6.1 mo vs 15.6 mo), and bilobar disease (10.9 mo vs 11.7 mo). Disease was converted to resectable status in five patients, who successfully underwent curative (ie, R0) resection. Radioembolization with (90)Y is safe and demonstrates antitumoral response and survival benefit in select patients with ICC. Results are most pronounced in patients with solitary tumors, for whom conversion to curative resection is possible. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  7. Responses of the sustained inward current to autonomic agonists in guinea-pig sino-atrial node pacemaker cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Futoshi; Ding, Wei-Guang; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to examine the responses of the sustained inward current (I(st)) to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic agonists in guinea-pig sino-atrial (SA) node cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. I(st) was detected as the nicardipine (1 microM)-sensitive inward current at potentials between approximately -80 and +20 mV in the presence of low concentration (0.1 mM) of extracellular Ca2+, where the L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca,L)) was practically abolished. 2. Beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (ISO) in nanomolar concentrations not only increased the amplitude of I(st) but also shifted the membrane potential producing the peak amplitude (Vpeak) to a negative direction by approximately 15 mV without appreciably affecting potential range for the current activation. The stimulatory effect of ISO was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 2.26 nM and the maximal effect (96.4+/-22.9% increase, n=6) was obtained at 100 nM ISO, when evaluated by the responses at -50 mV. 3. Bath application of acetylcholine (ACh) significantly inhibited I(st), which had been maximally augmented by 100 nM ISO; this inhibitory effect of ACh was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 133.9 nM. High concentration (1000 nM) of ACh depressed basal I(st) by 10.5+/-2.0% (n=3). 4. In action potential clamp experiments, I(st) was also detected under control conditions and was markedly potentiated by exposure to ISO. 5. These results strongly suggest that I(st) not only contributes to the spontaneous action potentials of mammalian SA node cells but also plays a substantial role in mediating autonomic regulation of SA node pacemaker activity.

  8. Classical conditioning of autonomic fear responses is independent of contingency awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2010-10-01

    The role of contingency awareness in classical conditioning experiments using human subjects is currently under debate. This study took a novel approach to manipulating contingency awareness in a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. Complex sine wave gratings were used as visual conditional stimuli (CS). By manipulating the fundamental spatial frequency of the displays, we were able to construct pairs of stimuli that varied in discriminability. One group of subjects was given an "easy" discrimination, and another was exposed to a "difficult" CS+ and CS-. A 3rd group was exposed to a stimulus that was paired with the unconditional stimulus (UCS) 50% of the time and served as a control. Skin conductance response (SCR) and continuous UCS expectancy data were measured concurrently throughout the experiment. Differential UCS expectancy was found only in the easy discrimination group. Differential SCRs were found in the easy discrimination group as well as in the difficult discrimination group, but not in the 50% contingency control. The difficult discrimination group did not exhibit differential UCS expectancy but did show clear differential SCR. These observations support a dual process interpretation of classical conditioning whereby conditioning on an implicit level can occur without explicit knowledge about the contingencies. The role of contingency awareness in classical conditioning experiments using human subjects is currently under debate. This study took a novel approach to manipulating contingency awareness in a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. Complex sine wave gratings were used as visual conditional stimuli (CS). By manipulating the fundamental spatial frequency of the displays, we were able to construct pairs of stimuli that varied in discriminability. One group of subjects was given an "easy" discrimination, and another was exposed to a "difficult" CS+ and CS-. A 3rd group was exposed to a stimulus that was paired with the

  9. GENOMIC PREDICTOR OF RESPONSE AND SURVIVAL FOLLOWING TAXANE-ANTHRACYCLINE CHEMOTHERAPY FOR INVASIVE BREAST CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzis, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; Valero, Vicente; Booser, Daniel J.; Esserman, Laura; Lluch, Ana; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Holmes, Frankie; Souchon, Eduardo; Martin, Miguel; Cotrina, José; Gomez, Henry; Hubbard, Rebekah; Chacón, J. Ignacio; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Dyer, Richard; Buxton, Meredith; Gong, Yun; Wu, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Ueno, Naoto T.; Hunt, Kelly; Yang, Wei; Nazario, Arlene; DeMichele, Angela; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Symmans, W. Fraser

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT Accurate prediction of who will (or won’t) have high probability of survival benefit from standard treatments is fundamental for individualized cancer treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE To develop a predictor of response and survival from chemotherapy for newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer. DESIGN Development of different predictive signatures for resistance and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (stratified according to estrogen receptor (ER) status) from gene expression microarrays of newly diagnosed breast cancer (310 patients). Then prediction of breast cancer treatment-sensitivity using the combination of signatures for: 1) sensitivity to endocrine therapy, 2) chemo-resistance, and 3) chemo-sensitivity. Independent validation (198 patients) and comparison with other reported genomic predictors of chemotherapy response. SETTING Prospective multicenter study to develop and test genomic predictors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS Newly diagnosed HER2-negative breast cancer treated with chemotherapy containing sequential taxane and anthracycline-based regimens then endocrine therapy (if hormone receptor-positive). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) if predicted treatment-sensitive and absolute risk reduction (ARR, difference in DRFS of the two predicted groups) at median follow-up (3 years), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS Patients in the independent validation cohort (99% clinical Stage II–III) who were predicted to be treatment-sensitive (28% of total) had DRFS of 92% (CI 85–100) and survival benefit compared to others (absolute risk reduction (ARR) 18%; CI 6–28). Predictions were accurate if breast cancer was ER-positive (30% predicted sensitive, DRFS 97%, CI 91–100; ARR 11%, CI 0.1–21) or ER-negative (26% predicted sensitive, DRFS 83%, CI 68–100; ARR 26%, CI 4–28), and were significant in multivariate analysis after adjusting for relevant clinical-pathologic characteristics. Other

  10. Hidden survival heterogeneity of three Common eider populations in response to climate fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéry, Loreleï; Descamps, Sébastien; Pradel, Roger; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bêty, Joël

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how individuals and populations respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions is critical to explain and anticipate changes in ecological systems. Most such studies focus on climate impacts on single populations without considering inter- and intra-population heterogeneity. However, comparing geographically dispersed populations limits the risk of faulty generalizations and helps to improve ecological and demographic models. We aimed to determine whether differences in migration tactics among and within populations would induce inter- or intra-population heterogeneity in survival in relation to winter climate fluctuations. Our study species was the Common eider (Somateria mollissima), a marine duck with a circumpolar distribution, which is strongly affected by climatic conditions during several phases of its annual cycle. Capture-mark-recapture data were collected in two arctic (northern Canada and Svalbard) and one subarctic (northern Norway) population over a period of 18, 15, and 29 years respectively. These three populations have different migration tactics and experience different winter climatic conditions. Using multi-event and mixture modelling, we assessed the association between adult female eider survival and winter conditions as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We found that winter weather conditions affected the survival of female eiders from each of these three populations. However, different mechanisms seemed to be involved. Survival of the two migrating arctic populations was impacted directly by changes in the NAO, whereas the subarctic resident population was affected by the NAO with time lags of 2-3 years. Moreover, we found evidence for intra-population heterogeneity in the survival response to the winter NAO in the Canadian eider population, where individuals migrate to distinct wintering areas. Our results illustrate how individuals and populations of the same species can vary in their responses to

  11. Clinical Characteristics, Response to Therapy, and Survival of African American Patients Diagnosed With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Lorenzo; Keating, Michael J.; Wang, Xuemei; Coombs, Catherine C.; Lanasa, Mark C.; Strom, Sara; Wierda, William G.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding racial disparities in characteristics and outcomes among patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods The characteristics and outcomes of untreated African American (AA) patients with CLL (n=84) were analyzed and compared with a reference nonblack (NB) patient population (n=1571). Results At the time of presentation, AA patients had lower median hemoglobin levels (12.9 g/dL vs 13.7 g/dL), higher β2 microglobulin levels (2.7 mg/dL vs 2.4 mg/dL), greater frequency of constitutional symptoms (27% vs 10%), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) mutation status (65% vs 47%), ζ-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) expression (58% vs 32%), and deletion of chromosome 17p or chromosome 11q (28% vs 17%; P ≤ 02 for each comparison). Fifty-one percent of AA patients and 39% of NB patients required first-line therapy and 91% and 88%, respectively, received chemoimmunotherapy. Overall response rates to treatment were 85% for AA patients and 94% for NB patients (P=.06); and the complete response rates were 56% and 58%, respectively (P=.87). The median survival of AA patients was shorter compared with that of NB patients (event-free survival: 36 months vs 61 months; P=.007; overall survival: 152 months vs not reached; P=.0001). AA race was an independent predictor of shorter event-free and overall survival in multivariable regression models. Conclusions The current results indicated that AA patients with CLL have more unfavorable prognostic characteristics and shorter survival compared with their NB counterparts. PMID:24022787

  12. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  13. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Responses by Parasites: A Common Strategy to Survive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Terrazas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in our planet and the immune responses triggered by these organisms are critical to determine their outcome. Dendritic cells are key elements for the development of immunity against parasites; they control the responses required to eliminate these pathogens while maintaining host homeostasis. However, there is evidence showing that parasites can influence and regulate dendritic cell function in order to promote a more permissive environment for their survival. In this review we will focus on the strategies protozoan and helminth parasites have developed to interfere with dendritic cell activities as well as in the possible mechanisms involved.

  14. Adaptive memory: determining the proximate mechanisms responsible for the memorial advantages of survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Burns, Sarah A; Hwang, Ana J

    2011-01-01

    J. S. Nairne, S. R. Thompson, and J. N. S. Pandeirada (2007) suggested that our memory systems may have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information and showed that retention of words rated for their relevance to survival is superior to that of words encoded under other deep processing conditions. The authors present 4 experiments that uncover the proximate mechanisms likely responsible. The authors obtained a recall advantage for survival processing compared with conditions that promoted only item-specific processing or only relational processing. This effect was eliminated when control conditions encouraged both item-specific and relational processing. Data from separate measures of item-specific and relational processing generally were consistent with the view that the memorial advantage for survival processing results from the encoding of both types of processing. Although the present study suggests the proximate mechanisms for the effect, the authors argue that survival processing may be fundamentally different from other memory phenomena for which item-specific and relational processing differences have been implicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Survival interval in earthquake entrapments: research findings reinforced during the 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Anthony G; Barbera, Joseph A; Petinaux, Bruno P

    2011-03-01

    Earthquakes can result in collapsed structures with the potential to entrap individuals. In some cases, people can survive entrapment for lengthy periods. The search for and rescue of entrapped people is resource intensive and competes with other postdisaster priorities. The decision to end search and rescue activities is often difficult and in some cases protracted. Medical providers participating in response may be consulted about the probability of continued survival in undiscovered trapped individuals. Historically, many espouse a rigid time frame for viability of entrapped living people (eg, 2 days, 4 days, 14 days). The available medical and engineering data and media reports demonstrate a wide variety in survival "time to rescue," arguing against the acceptance of a single time interval applicable to all incidents. This article presents historical evidence and reports from the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Factors that may contribute to survival after entombment are listed. Finally, a decision process for projecting viability that considers the critical factors in each incident rather than adhering to a single time frame for ceasing search and rescue activities is proposed. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, C; Newport, D J; Heit, S; Graham, Y P; Wilcox, M; Bonsall, R; Miller, A H; Nemeroff, C B

    2000-08-02

    Evidence suggests that early adverse experiences play a preeminent role in development of mood and anxiety disorders and that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems may mediate this association. To determine whether early-life stress results in a persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to mild stress in adulthood, thereby contributing to vulnerability to psychopathological conditions. Prospective controlled study conducted from May 1997 to July 1999 at the General Clinical Research Center of Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Forty-nine healthy women aged 18 to 45 years with regular menses, with no history of mania or psychosis, with no active substance abuse or eating disorder within 6 months, and who were free of hormonal and psychotropic medications were recruited into 4 study groups (n = 12 with no history of childhood abuse or psychiatric disorder [controls]; n = 13 with diagnosis of current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; n = 14 without current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; and n = 10 with diagnosis of current major depression and no history of childhood abuse). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and heart rate responses to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor compared among the 4 study groups. Women with a history of childhood abuse exhibited increased pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress compared with controls. This effect was particularly robust in women with current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Women with a history of childhood abuse and a current major depression diagnosis exhibited a more than 6-fold greater ACTH response to stress than age-matched controls (net peak of 9.0 pmol/L [41.0 pg/mL]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7-13.3 pmol/L [21.6-60. 4 pg/mL]; vs net peak of 1.4 pmol/L [6.19 pg/mL]; 95% CI, 0.2-2.5 pmol/L [1.0-11.4 pg/mL]; difference, 8.6 pmol/L [38.9 pg/mL]; 95% CI, 4

  17. Survival, growth and stress response of juvenile tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, to interspecific competition for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Daniel A; Flynn, Erin E; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Reintroduction of endangered fishes to historic habitat has been used as a recovery tool; however, these fish may face competition from other fishes that established in their native habitat since extirpation. This study investigated the physiological response of tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, an endangered California fish, when competing for food with threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a native species, and rainwater killifish, Lucania parva, a non-native species. Survival, growth and physiological indicators of stress (i.e. cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations) were assessed for juvenile fish held for 28 days in two food-limited conditions. When fed a 75% ration, survival of E. newberryi was significantly lower when held with G. aculeatus. In all fish assemblages, weight and relative condition decreased then stabilized over the 28 day experiment, while length remained unchanged. Whole-body cortisol in E. newberryi was not affected by fish assemblage; however, glucose and lactate concentrations were significantly higher with conspecifics than with other fish assemblages. When fed a 50% ration, survival of E. newberryi decreased during the second half of the experiment, while weight and relative condition decreased and length remained unchanged in all three fish assemblages. Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher for all fish assemblages compared with concentrations at the start of the experiment, whereas glucose and lactate concentrations were depressed relative to concentrations at the start of the experiment, with the magnitude of decrease dependent on the species assemblage. Our findings indicate that E. newberryi exhibited reduced growth and an elevated generalized stress response during low food availability. In response to reduced food availability, competition with G. aculeatus had the greatest physiological effect on E. newberryi, with minimal effects from the non-native L. parva. This study presents the first

  18. ECOG is as independent predictor of the response to chemotherapy, overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Álvarez, Rocío; Martin-Aguilar, Ana; Silva, Juan A.; De La Garza-Salazar, Jaime G.; Ruiz-García, Erika; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.; La Vega, Horacio Astudillo-De

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether age, gender, functional status, histology, tumor location, number of metastases, and levels of the tumor markers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin, are poor prognostic factors for the response to chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. A total of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site that was histologically confirmed, and treated with chemotherapy in the Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, ‘Century XXI’ IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico during the period between January 2002 to December 2009, were carefully selected for the present study. The analysis of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site revealed that the liver was the organ with the highest frequency of metastases (33.5%). The objective response rates to chemotherapy were ~30.2%. Notably, ECOG was an important predictor of response to chemotherapy (P=0.008). The median progression-free survival was 7.1 months. Upon multivariate analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Scale of Performance Status was observed as an independent predictor of progression (P<0.0001). The median overall survival was 14.2 months. The ECOG was also an independent predictor of mortality (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the data from the present study have demonstrated that ECOG is an independent predictor of a poor response to chemotherapy, lower overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site. PMID:28515916

  19. Long Term High Fat Diet Treatment: An Appropriate Approach to Study the Sex-Specificity of the Autonomic and Cardiovascular Responses to Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Ekeledo, Obioma J; Anderson, Ruchi; Le, Huy B; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves increased sympathetic activity in men and male animals. Although women exhibit increased visceral fat, metabolic disorders, inflammation and CVD with obesity, whether body weight gain affects autonomic control of cardiovascular function in females remain unknown. Due to the lack of adequate model to mimic the human pathology, this study aimed to develop a murine model, which would allow studying the sex-specificity of the response of the autonomic nervous system to obesity and identifying the origin of potential sex-differences. We tested the hypothesis that sexual dimorphisms in the autonomic response to obesity disappear in mice matched for changes in body weight, metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice were submitted to control (CD) or high fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks. Female mice gained more adipose mass and lost more lean mass than males but reached similar visceral adipose mass and body weight, as males, at the end of the diet. 24 weeks of HFD matched male and female mice for visceral adiposity, glycaemia, plasma insulin, lipids, and inflammatory cytokines levels, demonstrating the suitability of the model to study human pathology. HFD did not elevate BP, but similarly increased heart rate (HR) in males (CD: 571 ± 9 vs. HFD: 631 ± 14 bpm, P obesity-associated increases in HR could be caused by a reduced cardiac vagal tone in females, while HR increases in males may compensate for the reduced vascular adrenergic contractility to preserve baseline BP. These data suggest that obesity impairs autonomic control of cardiovascular function in males and females, via sex-specific mechanisms and independent of fat distribution, metabolic disorder or inflammation.

  20. Decoy Receptor 3 Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis by Suppressing the Inflammatory Response and Lymphocyte Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongYu Liang

    Full Text Available Unbalanced inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis is associated with high mortality in septic patients. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic factor. Recently, DcR3 expression was found to be increased in septic patients. This study evaluated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of DcR3 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP-induced sepsis in mice.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. DcR3 Fc was intravenously injected 30 min before and 6 h after CLP. Bacterial clearance, cytokine production, histology, lymphocyte apoptosis and survival were evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the systemic effects of DcR3 in in vitro lymphocyte apoptosis regulation.Our results demonstrated that DcR3 protein treatments significantly improved survival in septic mice (p <0.05. Treatment with DcR3 protein significantly reduced the inflammatory response and decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in the thymus and spleen. Histopathological findings of the lung and liver showed milder impairment after DcR3 administration. In vitro experiments showed that DcR3 Fc inhibited Fas-FasL mediated lymphocyte apoptosis.Treatment with the DcR3 protein protects mice from sepsis by suppressing the inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis. DcR3 protein may be useful in treatment of sepsis.

  1. Burkholderia pseudomallei Differentially Regulates Host Innate Immune Response Genes for Intracellular Survival in Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutha Malar Vellasamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis poses a serious threat to humankind. B. pseudomallei secretes numerous virulence proteins that alter host cell functions to escape from intracellular immune sensors. However, the events underlying disease pathogenesis are poorly understood.We determined the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 human lung epithelial cells, and also investigated the early transcriptional responses using an Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 microarray platform, after three hours of exposure to live B. pseudomallei (BCMS and its secreted proteins (CCMS.We found that the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly correlated with increase of multiplicity of infection and duration of contact. Activation of host carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis as well as suppression of amino acid metabolism and innate immune responses both by live bacteria and its secreted proteins were evident. These early events might be linked to initial activation of host genes directed towards bacterial dissemination from lungs to target organs (via proposed in vivo mechanisms or to escape potential sensing by macrophages.Understanding the early responses of A549 cells toward B. pseudomallei infection provide preliminary insights into the likely pathogenesis mechanisms underlying melioidosis, and could contribute to development of novel intervention strategies to combat B. pseudomallei infections.

  2. High Dietary Folate in Mice Alters Immune Response and Reduces Survival after Malarial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Meadows

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global health issue, with nearly 200 million cases in 2013 alone. Parasites obtain folate from the host or synthesize it de novo. Folate consumption has increased in many populations, prompting concerns regarding potential deleterious consequences of higher intake. The impact of high dietary folate on the host's immune function and response to malaria has not been examined. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate would affect response to malarial infection in a murine model of cerebral malaria. Mice were fed control diets (CD, recommended folate level for rodents or folic acid-supplemented diets (FASD, 10x recommended level for 5 weeks before infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Survival, parasitemia, numbers of immune cells and other infection parameters were assessed. FASD mice had reduced survival (p<0.01, Cox proportional hazards and higher parasitemia (p< 0.01, joint model of parasitemia and survival compared with CD mice. FASD mice had lower numbers of splenocytes, total T cells, and lower numbers of specific T and NK cell sub-populations, compared with CD mice (p<0.05, linear mixed effects. Increased brain TNFα immunoreactive protein (p<0.01, t-test and increased liver Abca1 mRNA (p<0.01, t-test, a modulator of TNFα, were observed in FASD mice; these variables correlated positively (rs = 0.63, p = 0.01. Bcl-xl/Bak mRNA was increased in liver of FASD mice (p<0.01, t-test, suggesting reduced apoptotic potential. We conclude that high dietary folate increases parasite replication, disturbs the immune response and reduces resistance to malaria in mice. These findings have relevance for malaria-endemic regions, when considering anti-folate anti-malarials, food fortification or vitamin supplementation programs.

  3. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  4. Autonomic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home. Accessed April 30, 2015. Tesfaye S. Neuropathy in diabetes. Medicine. 2015;43:26. Accessed May 13, 2015. Coon E (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 14, 2015. June 06, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autonomic- ...

  5. Hepatic arterial embolization and chemoembolization for the treatment of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: variables affecting response rates and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Sanjay; Johnson, Marcella M; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Madoff, David C; McRae, Stephen E; Hicks, Marshall E; Rao, Sujaya; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Ajani, Jaffer A; Yao, James C

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic variables that influence response and survival in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who are treated with hepatic arterial embolization (HAE...

  6. Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival Responses. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Boothman

    1999-08-11

    Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival responses (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed.

  7. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  8. Sweet waste extract uptake by a mosquito vector: Survival, biting, fecundity responses, and potential epidemiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Abang, Fatimah; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Ghani, Idris A; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Noor, Sabina; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahmad, Hamdan; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-05-01

    In nature, adult mosquitoes typically utilize nectar as their main energy source, but they can switch to other as yet unidentified sugary fluids. Contemporary lifestyles, with their associated unwillingness to consume leftovers and improper disposal of waste, have resulted in the disposal of huge amounts of waste into the environment. Such refuse often contains unfinished food items, many of which contain sugar and some of which can collect water from rain and generate juices. Despite evidence that mosquitoes can feed on sugar-rich suspensions, semi-liquids, and decaying fruits, which can be abundant in garbage sites, the impacts of sweet waste fluids on dengue vectors are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of extracts from some familiar sweet home waste items on key components of vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Adult mosquitoes were fed one of five diets in this study: water (WAT); sucrose (SUG); bakery product (remnant of chocolate cake, BAK); dairy product (yogurt, YOG); and fruit (banana (BAN). Differences in survival, response time to host, and egg production were examined between groups. For both males and females, maintenance on BAK extract resulted in marked survival levels that were similar to those seen with SUG. Sweet waste extracts provided better substrates for survival compared to water, but this superiority was mostly seen with BAK. Females maintained on BAK, YOG, and BAN exhibited shorter response times to a host compared to their counterparts maintained on SUG. The levels of egg production were equivalent in waste extract- and SUG-fed females. The findings presented here illustrate the potential of sweet waste-derived fluids to contribute to the vectorial capacity of dengue vectors and suggest the necessity of readdressing the issue of waste disposal, especially that of unfinished sweet foods. Such approaches can be particularly relevant in dengue endemic areas where rainfall is frequent and waste collection infrequent. Copyright

  9. Laser Phototherapy Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survival in Response to the Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Márcia Alves Diniz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the influence of laser phototherapy (LPT on the survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs submitted to substances leached from dental adhesives. Method. MSCs were isolated and characterized. Oral mucosa fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells were used as comparative controls. Cultured medium conditioned with two adhesive systems was applied to the cultures. Cell monolayers were exposed or not to LPT. Laser irradiations were performed using a red laser (GaAlAs, 780 nm, 0.04 cm2, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2, 0.4 J, 10 seconds, 1 point, 10 J/cm2. After 24 h, cell viability was assessed by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay. Data were statistically compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (P<0.05. Results. Different cell types showed different viabilities in response to the same materials. Substances leached from adhesives were less cytotoxic to MSCs than to other cell types. Substances leached from Clearfil SE Bond were highly cytotoxic to all cell types tested, except to the MSCs when applied polymerized and in association with LPT. LPT was unable to significantly increase the cell viability of fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells submitted to the dental adhesives. Conclusion. LPT enhances mesenchymal stem cells survival in response to substances leached from dental adhesives.

  10. Habitat quality affects stress responses and survival in a bird wintering under extremely low ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cīrule, Dina; Krama, Tatjana; Krams, Ronalds; Elferts, Didzis; Kaasik, Ants; Rantala, Markus J.; Mierauskas, Pranas; Luoto, Severi; Krams, Indrikis A.

    2017-12-01

    Animals normally respond to stressful environmental stimuli by releasing glucocorticoid hormones. We investigated whether baseline corticosterone (CORT), handling-induced corticosterone concentration(s), and body condition indices of members of willow tit ( Poecile montanus) groups differed while wintering in old growth forests and managed young forests in mild weather conditions and during cold spells. Willow tits spend the winter season in non-kin groups in which dominant individuals typically claim their priority to access resources, while subordinate individuals may experience greater levels of stress and higher mortality, especially during cold spells. We captured birds to measure baseline CORT and levels of handling-induced CORT secretion after 20 min of capture. Willow tits in the young forests had higher baseline CORT and a smaller increase in CORT in response to capture than individuals in the old forests. Baseline CORT was higher in females and juvenile birds compared to adult males, whereas handling-induced CORT secretion did not differ between birds of different ages. During cold spells, baseline CORT of willow tits increased and handling-induced CORT secretion decreased, especially in birds in young forests. Willow tits' survival was higher in the old forests, with dominant individuals surviving better than subordinates. Our results show that changes in CORT secretion reflect responses to habitat quality and climate harshness, indicating young managed coniferous forests as a suboptimal habitat for the willow tit.

  11. Association of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival according to ambulance response-times after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but it is unknown to what degree bystander CPR remains positively associated with survival with increasing time to potential defibrillation. The main objective...... was to examine the association of bystander CPR with survival as time to advanced treatment increases. Methods: We studied 7623 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients between 2005 and 2011, identified through the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest statistics, an additional 233 patients could potentially be saved annually if response time was reduced from 10 to 5 minutes and 119 patients if response time was reduced from 7 (the median response time in this study) to 5 minutes. Conclusions: The absolute survival...

  12. Respostas autonômicas cardíacas à manobra de tilt em adolescentes obesos Cardiac autonomic responses to head-up tilt in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernando Brunetto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A obesidade está associada às alterações do sistema nervoso autônomo. Estudos prévios em adultos têm mostrado que obesos apresentam resposta autonômica cardíaca diminuída frente a mudanças posturais. Contudo, pouco se sabe sobre o impacto do sobrepeso na adolescência quanto às respostas autonômicas ao estresse postural passivo. OBJETIVO: Comparar as respostas autonômicas cardíacas à manobra de tilt entre adolescentes obesos e não-obesos mediante análise da variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca (VFC. MÉTODOS: Quatorze adolescentes obesos (15,5±1,6 anos foram comparados com 20 adolescentes não-obesos (15,4±0,8 anos. A modulação autonômica cardíaca foi estudada mediante análise da variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca de trechos de cinco minutos de registro de intervalos RR antes e depois da inclinação da mesa de tilt a 70º. A VFC foi estudada no domínio do tempo (DT e no domínio da freqüência (DF. Os componentes espectrais foram estudados na baixa (LF e na alta freqüência (HF e pela razão LF/HF. RESULTADOS: Adolescentes obesos demonstraram menor HF em unidades normalizadas (38,2±11.1 vs 53,9±15,5, pINTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with alterations of the autonomic nervous system. Previous studies in adults have shown that obese individuals present a decreased cardiac autonomic response to postural challenges. However, little is known about the impact of overweight on autonomic responses to passive postural stress in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: to compare cardiac autonomic responses to the head-up tilt maneuver between obese and non-obese adolescents by analyzing heart rate variability. METHODS: Fourteen obese adolescents (15.5±1.6 years were compared with twenty non-obese subjects (15.4±0.8 years. Cardiac autonomic modulation was studied by heart rate variability (HRV analysis of 5 minute RR interval recordings before and after a 70º head-up tilt maneuver. HRV was analyzed according to

  13. Autonom UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Holtby, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In Abisko National Park there are a numberof weather stations. To be able toretrieve the data from the nodes in thefuture a Quadrocopter-prototype has beendeveloped during this master thesisproject as a first step. A quadrocopter isa helicopter with four rotors placed in across formation. The quadrocopter cannavigate autonomous between different GPSpositionsthat are updated during flighttrough Xbee-modules. All levels fromsources code, design of the electronics todevelopment of the chassis wa...

  14. ECOG is as independent predictor of the response to chemotherapy, overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Álvarez, Rocío; Martin-Aguilar, Ana; Silva, Juan A; De La Garza-Salazar, Jaime G; Ruiz-García, Erika; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A; La Vega, Horacio Astudillo-De

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether age, gender, functional status, histology, tumor location, number of metastases, and levels of the tumor markers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin, are poor prognostic factors for the response to chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. A total of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site that was histologically confirmed, and treated with chemotherapy in the Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, 'Century XXI' IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico during the period between January 2002 to December 2009, were carefully selected for the present study. The analysis of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site revealed that the liver was the organ with the highest frequency of metastases (33.5%). The objective response rates to chemotherapy were ~30.2%. Notably, ECOG was an important predictor of response to chemotherapy (P=0.008). The median progression-free survival was 7.1 months. Upon multivariate analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Scale of Performance Status was observed as an independent predictor of progression (Presponse to chemotherapy, lower overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site.

  15. Survival in Good Performance Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Patients; Prognostic Factors and Predictors of Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahouma, Mohamed; Aziz, Hala; Ghaly, Galal; Kamel, Mohamed; Loai, Iman; Mohamed, Abdelrahman

    2017-08-27

    Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a poor prognosis in general. Here we sought to evaluate prognostic factors and predictors of response to chemotherapy in good performance (PS=0-I) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our database and enrolled patients with MPM who received platinum containing chemotherapy (2012-2014). Clinico-pathological and laboratory data were retrieved and Cox and logistic regression multivariate analyses (MVA) were respectively used to identify predictors of survival and response to chemotherapy. Comparison of good vs poor performance status (PS≥II) was accomplished using the Chi (X2) test. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were also obtained and propensity-score matching was performed for survival comparison. Results: Among 114 patients listed during the study period, 82 had good PS=0-I (median age 45years, 43 men, 30 smokers, median weight=77Kg, pretreatment haemoglobin (Hb) level=12g/dL, platelet count=372,000/μL, leukocytes=9,700/μL, neutrophils=6,100/μL, lymphocytes=1,890/μL and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR)=3.60 ). Some 65 had asbestosis, 23 had chronic disease, 55 (67.1%) were responders to platinum containing first line chemotherapy. A total of 49 (59.8%) had epithelial MPM. Median-OS and PFS in good PS cases were 17 and 9 months, respectively, as compared to 16 and 8 months for the poor PS group. After matching, better OS was observed among good PS vs poor PS patients (p=0.024) but there was no PFS difference (p=0.176). Significant decrease in PFS was observed among those with advanced nodal N disease (median PFS in N0 and N+ was 10 and 5 months, respectively), non-responders (p=0.012), NLR (p=0.026) and those with an epithelial pathology (p=0.062). MVA demonstrated that advanced (N) status (p=0.015), being a non-responder (pgood PS. Early detection before development of metastasis warrants greater focus to allow better responses to be obtained. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): Incidence, risks and survivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangappan, Karthik; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C; Baram, Michael; Thoma, Brandi; Hirose, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is frequently observed after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) decannulation; however, these issues have not been investigated well in the past. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify post-ECMO SIRS phenomenon, defined by exhibiting 2/3 of the following criteria: fever, leukocytosis, and escalation of vasopressors. The patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with documented infections (Group I) and patients with true SIRS (Group TS) without any evidence of infection. Survival and pre-, intra- and post-ECMO risk factors were analyzed. Among 62 ECMO survivors, 37 (60%) patients developed the post-ECMO SIRS phenomenon, including Group I (n = 22) and Group TS (n = 15). The 30-day survival rate of Group I and TS was 77% and 100%, respectively (p = 0.047), although risk factors were identical. SIRS phenomenon after ECMO decannulation commonly occurs. Differentiating between the similar clinical presentations of SIRS and infection is important and will impact clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laser Phototherapy Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survival in Response to the Dental Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcia Martins

    2015-01-01

    Background. We investigated the influence of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) submitted to substances leached from dental adhesives. Method. MSCs were isolated and characterized. Oral mucosa fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells were used as comparative controls. Cultured medium conditioned with two adhesive systems was applied to the cultures. Cell monolayers were exposed or not to LPT. Laser irradiations were performed using a red laser (GaAlAs, 780 nm, 0.04 cm2, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2, 0.4 J, 10 seconds, 1 point, 10 J/cm2). After 24 h, cell viability was assessed by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay. Data were statistically compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P adhesives were less cytotoxic to MSCs than to other cell types. Substances leached from Clearfil SE Bond were highly cytotoxic to all cell types tested, except to the MSCs when applied polymerized and in association with LPT. LPT was unable to significantly increase the cell viability of fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells submitted to the dental adhesives. Conclusion. LPT enhances mesenchymal stem cells survival in response to substances leached from dental adhesives. PMID:25879065

  18. Salidroside attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and improves survival in murine endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shuang; Feng, Haihua; Song, Bocui; Guo, Weixiao; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Guoren; Zhong, Weiting; Huo, Meixia; Chen, Na; Lu, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2011-12-01

    Salidroside is a major component isolated from the Rhodiola rosea. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of salidroside on cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro, and the results showed that salidroside reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretions. This inspired us to further study the effects of salidroside in vivo. Salidroside significantly attenuated TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 productions in serum from mice challenged with LPS, and consistent with the results in vitro. In the murine model of endotoxemia, mice were treated with salidroside prior to or after LPS challenge. The results showed that salidroside significantly increased mouse survival. Further studies revealed that salidroside could downregulate LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-қB (NF-қB) DNA-binding activation and ERK/MAPKs signal transduction pathways production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These observations indicated that salidroside modulated early cytokine responses by blocking NF-қB and ERK/MAPKs activation, and thus, increased mouse survival. These effects of salidroside may be of potential usefulness in the treatment of inflammation-mediated endotoxemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Overall Survival and Response to Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Extrauterine Leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoushtari, A N; Landa, J; Kuk, D; Sanchez, A; Lala, B; Schmidt, N; Okoli, C; Chi, P; Dickson, M A; Gounder, M M; Keohan, M L; Crago, A M; Tap, W D; D'Angelo, S P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) represent a heterogeneous subset of soft tissue sarcomas. Factors influencing prognosis for patients with metastatic extrauterine LMS (euLMS) are not well described. Limited data are available regarding responses to systemic therapy. Methods. We collected clinical and pathologic information for all patients with metastatic euLMS seen at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1989 and 2012. Objective responses to first-line therapy were analyzed for a subset of patients with available baseline and on-treatment imaging using RECIST 1.1. Results. 215 patients with metastatic euLMS had a median overall survival (OS) of 2.6 years from the time of metastasis. Older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites of metastasis were associated with worse OS on multivariate analysis. Objective response rate (ORR) in N = 113 was 19% overall and 25%, 26%, and 25% for gemcitabine, gemcitabine plus docetaxel, and anthracycline-alkylator combinations. Patients whose tumors objectively responded to first-line therapy had a lower risk of death versus those who did not (Hazard Ratio 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26-0.79, p = 0.005). Conclusions. Anthracycline- and gemcitabine-based regimens have similar activity in this cohort of euLMS. Prognostic factors for OS include older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites.

  20. Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pereira

    Full Text Available High-grade serous ovarian and endometrial cancers are the most lethal female reproductive tract malignancies worldwide. In part, failure to treat these two aggressive cancers successfully centers on the fact that while the majority of patients are diagnosed based on current surveillance strategies as having a complete clinical response to their primary therapy, nearly half will develop disease recurrence within 18 months and the majority will die from disease recurrence within 5 years. Moreover, no currently used biomarkers or imaging studies can predict outcome following initial treatment. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA represents a theoretically powerful biomarker for detecting otherwise occult disease. We therefore explored the use of personalized ctDNA markers as both a surveillance and prognostic biomarker in gynecologic cancers and compared this to current FDA-approved surveillance tools.Tumor and serum samples were collected at time of surgery and then throughout treatment course for 44 patients with gynecologic cancers, representing 22 ovarian cancer cases, 17 uterine cancer cases, one peritoneal, three fallopian tube, and one patient with synchronous fallopian tube and uterine cancer. Patient/tumor-specific mutations were identified using whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing and ctDNA levels quantified using droplet digital PCR. CtDNA was detected in 93.8% of patients for whom probes were designed and levels were highly correlated with CA-125 serum and computed tomography (CT scanning results. In six patients, ctDNA detected the presence of cancer even when CT scanning was negative and, on average, had a predictive lead time of seven months over CT imaging. Most notably, undetectable levels of ctDNA at six months following initial treatment was associated with markedly improved progression free and overall survival.Detection of residual disease in gynecologic, and indeed all cancers, represents a diagnostic dilemma and a potential

  1. Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elena; Camacho-Vanegas, Olga; Anand, Sanya; Sebra, Robert; Catalina Camacho, Sandra; Garnar-Wortzel, Leopold; Nair, Navya; Moshier, Erin; Wooten, Melissa; Uzilov, Andrew; Chen, Rong; Prasad-Hayes, Monica; Zakashansky, Konstantin; Beddoe, Ann Marie; Schadt, Eric; Dottino, Peter; Martignetti, John A

    2015-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian and endometrial cancers are the most lethal female reproductive tract malignancies worldwide. In part, failure to treat these two aggressive cancers successfully centers on the fact that while the majority of patients are diagnosed based on current surveillance strategies as having a complete clinical response to their primary therapy, nearly half will develop disease recurrence within 18 months and the majority will die from disease recurrence within 5 years. Moreover, no currently used biomarkers or imaging studies can predict outcome following initial treatment. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) represents a theoretically powerful biomarker for detecting otherwise occult disease. We therefore explored the use of personalized ctDNA markers as both a surveillance and prognostic biomarker in gynecologic cancers and compared this to current FDA-approved surveillance tools. Tumor and serum samples were collected at time of surgery and then throughout treatment course for 44 patients with gynecologic cancers, representing 22 ovarian cancer cases, 17 uterine cancer cases, one peritoneal, three fallopian tube, and one patient with synchronous fallopian tube and uterine cancer. Patient/tumor-specific mutations were identified using whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing and ctDNA levels quantified using droplet digital PCR. CtDNA was detected in 93.8% of patients for whom probes were designed and levels were highly correlated with CA-125 serum and computed tomography (CT) scanning results. In six patients, ctDNA detected the presence of cancer even when CT scanning was negative and, on average, had a predictive lead time of seven months over CT imaging. Most notably, undetectable levels of ctDNA at six months following initial treatment was associated with markedly improved progression free and overall survival. Detection of residual disease in gynecologic, and indeed all cancers, represents a diagnostic dilemma and a potential critical inflection

  2. Altered G{sub 1} checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-11-04

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G{sub 1} (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells.

  3. Retinoid-X-receptors (α/β in melanocytes modulate innate immune responses and differentially regulate cell survival following UV irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Coleman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV induced melanoma formation is becoming crucial with more reported cases each year. Expression of type II nuclear receptor Retinoid-X-Receptor α (RXRα is lost during melanoma progression in humans. Here, we observed that in mice with melanocyte-specific ablation of RXRα and RXRβ, melanocytes attract fewer IFN-γ secreting immune cells than in wild-type mice following acute UVR exposure, via altered expression of several chemoattractive and chemorepulsive chemokines/cytokines. Reduced IFN-γ in the microenvironment alters UVR-induced apoptosis, and due to this, the survival of surrounding dermal fibroblasts is significantly decreased in mice lacking RXRα/β. Interestingly, post-UVR survival of the melanocytes themselves is enhanced in the absence of RXRα/β. Loss of RXRs α/β specifically in the melanocytes results in an endogenous shift in homeostasis of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in these cells and enhances their survival compared to the wild type melanocytes. Therefore, RXRs modulate post-UVR survival of dermal fibroblasts in a "non-cell autonomous" manner, underscoring their role in immune surveillance, while independently mediating post-UVR melanocyte survival in a "cell autonomous" manner. Our results emphasize a novel immunomodulatory role of melanocytes in controlling survival of neighboring cell types besides controlling their own, and identifies RXRs as potential targets for therapy against UV induced melanoma.

  4. The Effect of Clothing on the Responses of Autonomic Nervous System Activity while Walking and Running

    OpenAIRE

    小柴, 朋子; 斎藤, 嘉代

    2011-01-01

    To determine what kind of walking wear is suitable for one's health, we examined the changes in autonomic nervous system activity by analyzing heart rate variability and the changes of salivary a -amylase activity during exercise.First, ten female subjects were kept sedentary for 30 minutes in the experimental room at 25°C before the experiments. The subjects were asked to walk at 3km/h and run at 5krn/h on the treadmill for 5 minutes each after lying, sitting, and standing.Additionally, hear...

  5. Modeling post-fledging survival of lark buntings in response to ecological and biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackel Adams, A.A.; Skagen, S.K.; Savidge, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of several ecological, biological, and methodological factors on post-fledging survival of a shortgrass prairie bird, the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys). We estimated daily post-fledging survival (n = 206, 82 broods) using radiotelemetry and color bands to track fledglings. Daily survival probabilities were best explained by drought intensity, time in season (quadratic trend), ages ≤3 d post-fledging, and rank given drought intensity. Drought intensity had a strong negative effect on survival. Rank was an important predictor of fledgling survival only during the severe drought of 2002 when the smallest fledglings had lower survival. Recently fledged young (ages ≤3 d post-fledging) undergoing the transition from nest to surrounding habitat experienced markedly lower survival, demonstrating the vulnerable nature of this time period. Survival was greater in mid and late season than early season, corresponding to our assumptions of food availability. Neither mark type nor sex of attending parent influenced survival. The model-averaged product of the 22-d survival calculated using mean rank and median value of time in season was 0.360 ± 0.08 in 2001 and 0.276 ± 0.08 in 2002. Survival estimates that account for age, condition of young, ecological conditions, and other factors are important for parameterization of realistic population models. Biologists using population growth models to elucidate mechanisms of population declines should attempt to estimate species-specific of post-fledging survival rather than use generalized estimates.

  6. Autonomous cure of damaged human intestinal epithelial cells by TLR2 and TLR4-dependent production of IL-22 in response to Spirulina polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Akira; Konishi, Yuko; Taguchi, Takahiro; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Tokuichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Keiji

    2013-12-01

    In order to analyze the damage of human epithelial cells, we used human quasi-normal FPCK-1-1 cells derived from a colonic polyp in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis as a monolayer, which is co-cultured with peptidoglycan (PGN)-stimulated THP-1 cells. Co-cultured FPCK-1-1 cells showed a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the lower level of claudin-2. When Spirulina complex polysaccharides were added one day before the start of the co-culture, there was no decrease of TER and claudin-2 (early phase damage). In contrast, when Spirulina complex polysaccharides were added to FPCK-1-1 cells after the level of TER had decreased, there was no recovery at the level of claudin-2, though the TER level recovered (late phase damage). The mucosa reconstitution is suggested to be involved in the recovery from the damaged status. Interestingly, autonomous recovery of FPCK-1-1 cells from both the early and late phase damage requires the production of IL-22, because anti-IL-22 antibodies inhibited recovery in these cases. Antibodies against either TLR2 or TLR4 inhibited the production of IL-22 from FPCK-1-1 colon epithelial cells, suggesting that signals through TLR2 and TLR4 are necessary for autonomous recovery of FPCK-1-1 colon epithelial cells by producing IL-22. In conclusion, we have established a useful model for the study of intestinal damage and recovery using human colon epithelial cells and our data suggest that damage to human colon epithelial cells can, at least in part, be recovered by the autonomous production of IL-22 in response to Spirulina complex polysaccharides. © 2013.

  7. Roles of Diet and the Acid Tolerance Response in Survival of Common Salmonella Serotypes in Feces of Finishing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtak, Ursula; Boland, Fiona; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus

    2012-01-01

    The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is an important factor influencing the transmission of infection in pig production. This study evaluated the effects of acid tolerance response (ATR), organic acid supplementation, and physical properties of feed on the survival of a five-strain Salmonella mixture in porcine feces held at 4 and 22°C for 88 days. Acid-adapted or non-acid-adapted nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella strains were used to inoculate feces of pigs fed four different diets, which consisted of a nonpelleted, finely ground meal feed or a finely ground, pelleted feed that was left unsupplemented or was supplemented with K-diformate. Organic acid supplementation and physical properties of feed markedly influenced Salmonella survival, but the effects were highly dependent on storage temperature; survival was unaffected by ATR. The most pronounced effects were observed at 22°C, a temperature similar to that of finishing pig houses. The supplementation of meal diets with K-diformate significantly reduced the duration of survival (P salmonellae in feces compared to survival in feces of pigs fed unsupplemented meal. The pelleting of feed, compared to feeding meal, significantly reduced (P survival in feces held at 22°C. Only minor effects of feed form and acid supplementation on survivor numbers were observed at 4°C. Differences in the fecal survival of Salmonella could not be related to diet-induced changes in fecal physiochemical parameters. The predominant survival of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT193 and serotype 4,[5],12:i:- in porcine feces demonstrates the superior ability of these serotypes to survive in this environment. Fecal survival and transmission of Salmonella in pig herds may be reduced by dietary approaches, but effects are highly dependent on environmental temperature. PMID:22038599

  8. Roles of diet and the acid tolerance response in survival of common Salmonella serotypes in feces of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtak, Ursula; Boland, Fiona; Leonard, Nola; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus

    2012-01-01

    The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is an important factor influencing the transmission of infection in pig production. This study evaluated the effects of acid tolerance response (ATR), organic acid supplementation, and physical properties of feed on the survival of a five-strain Salmonella mixture in porcine feces held at 4 and 22°C for 88 days. Acid-adapted or non-acid-adapted nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella strains were used to inoculate feces of pigs fed four different diets, which consisted of a nonpelleted, finely ground meal feed or a finely ground, pelleted feed that was left unsupplemented or was supplemented with K-diformate. Organic acid supplementation and physical properties of feed markedly influenced Salmonella survival, but the effects were highly dependent on storage temperature; survival was unaffected by ATR. The most pronounced effects were observed at 22°C, a temperature similar to that of finishing pig houses. The supplementation of meal diets with K-diformate significantly reduced the duration of survival (P salmonellae in feces compared to survival in feces of pigs fed unsupplemented meal. The pelleting of feed, compared to feeding meal, significantly reduced (P survival in feces held at 22°C. Only minor effects of feed form and acid supplementation on survivor numbers were observed at 4°C. Differences in the fecal survival of Salmonella could not be related to diet-induced changes in fecal physiochemical parameters. The predominant survival of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT193 and serotype 4,[5],12:i:- in porcine feces demonstrates the superior ability of these serotypes to survive in this environment. Fecal survival and transmission of Salmonella in pig herds may be reduced by dietary approaches, but effects are highly dependent on environmental temperature.

  9. Emotion dysregulation and autonomic responses to film, rumination, and body awareness: Extending psychophysiological research to a naturalistic clinical setting and a chemically dependent female sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E; Price, Cynthia J; Puzia, Megan E; Yaptangco, Mona; Cheng, Sunny Chieh

    2017-05-01

    Substance use is a complex clinical problem characterized by emotion dysregulation and daily challenges that can interfere with laboratory research. Thus, few psychophysiological studies examine autonomic and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation with multidiagnostic, chemically dependent samples or extend this work into naturalistic settings. In this study, we used a within-subject design to examine changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), electrodermal activity (EDA), and self-reported affect across three tasks designed to elicit distinct psychophysiological and emotional response patterns. We also examined emotion dysregulation as a moderator of psychophysiological responses. Participants include 116 women with multiple comorbid mental health conditions enrolled in substance use treatment, many of whom also reported high emotion dysregulation. Participants were assessed in the treatment setting and completed three tasks: watching a sad movie clip, rumination on a stressful event, and a mindful interoceptive awareness meditation. Multilevel models were used to examine changes from resting baselines to the tasks. During the film, results indicate a significant decrease in RSA and an increase in EDA. For the rumination task, participants showed a decrease in RSA but no EDA response. For the body awareness task, there was an increase in RSA and a decrease in EDA. Emotion dysregulation was associated with differences in baseline RSA but not with EDA or with the slope of response patterns across tasks. Self-reported affect was largely consistent with autonomic patterns. Findings add to the literature on emotion dysregulation, substance use, and the translation of psychophysiological measurements into clinical settings with complex samples. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Does pretreatment human papillomavirus (HPV) titers predict radiation response and survival outcomes in cancer cervix?--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Niloy R; Kumar, Piyush; Singh, Shalini; Gupta, Dinesh; Srivastava, Anurita; Dhole, Tapankumar N

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate if pretreatment HPV titers in cancer cervix could predict radiation response and survival outcomes. Twenty-one patients of cancer cervix were treated by radiotherapy (RT) alone. HPV titers were estimated using DNA Hybrid Capture II test. Loco-regional response at 1 month of RT--complete or partial response (CR and PR respectively) and survival outcomes--local disease-free (LDFS), disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survivals were evaluated against pre- and posttreatment HPV titers. Pretreatment HPV titers ranged from 0.81 to 3966.10 RLU/cut off (mean +/- SD: 1264.39 +/- 1148.22, median: 1129.98). Of the demographic features evaluated, mean HPV titers were significantly different only for patients achieving CR or PR at completion of RT (mean +/- SD for CR vs. PR: 1616.31 +/- 1146.86 vs. 384.57 +/- 538.80, P = 0.022). HPV titers at end of RT ranged from 0.12 to 487.42 RLU/cut off (mean +/- SD: 37.31 +/- 108.60, median: 2.33). Patients with higher pretreatment HPV titers (>1000 RLU/cutoff) had a higher CR (P = 0.022) and better survival compared to those with or =99.5% fall in HPV had superior survival outcomes than those with 1000 RLU/cutoff) could be considered as a predictor of radiotherapy response and survival in cancer cervix. A reduction in these titers to 99.5% of their baseline values at end of radiotherapy is also associated with better survival outcomes.

  11. Survival of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) and saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) seedlings in response to flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, D.N.; Roelle, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the response of first year saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) and plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) seedlings to flooding in fall (25 days) and spring (28 days) using potgrown plants (12-18 individuals/26.5-liter pot). Seedlings were initially counted in all pots prior to fall treatment. Survival was calculated as the proportion of seedlings in each pot still alive following spring treatment. Mean survival rates of seedlings flooded in fall (saltcedar = 0.8%, cottonwood = 20.8%, n = 14 pots) were lower compared to the spring flooding treatment (saltcedar = 91.1%, cottonwood = 92.2%, n = 13) and control (saltcedar = 93.9%, cottonwood = 98.7%, n = 14). We used multiple response permutation procedures to detect omnibus distributional differences in survival data (total tests = 9) because assumptions of normality and equal variance were not met. Survival distributions differed between saltcedar and cottonwood fall flooding groups (P 0.07). Smaller size and consequent lack of energy reserves may account for lower survival of saltcedar compared to cottonwood in the fall treatment and for lower survival of both species in the fall treatment compared to the spring treatment. Fall flooding for controlling first year saltcedar seedlings is suggested as a potentially useful technique in riparian habitat restoration and management in the southwestern United States.

  12. Autonomic nervous system activation mediates the increase in whole-body glucose uptake in response to electroacupuncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benrick, Anna; Kokosar, Milana; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp during and after 45 min of low-frequency EA in 21 overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 controls matched for age, weight, and body mass index (experiment 1) and in rats receiving autonomic receptor blockers (experiment 2). GIR...... was higher after EA in controls and women with PCOS. Plasma serotonin levels and homovanillic acid, markers of vagal activity, decreased in both controls and patients with PCOS. Adipose tissue expression of pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) decreased, and the mature NGF/proNGF ratio increased after EA in PCOS...... of EA increases whole-body glucose uptake by activation of the sympathetic and partly the parasympathetic nervous systems, which could have important clinical implications for the treatment of insulin resistance.-Benrick, A., Kokosar, M., Hu, M., Larsson, M., Maliqueo, M., Marcondes, R. R., Soligo, M...

  13. Modeling the survival responses of a multi-component biofilm to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles Brangarí, Albert; Manzoni, Stefano; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Biofilms are consortia of microorganisms embedded in self-produced matrices of biopolymers. The survival of such communities depends on their capacity to improve the environmental conditions of their habitat by mitigating, or even benefitting from some adverse external factors. The mechanisms by which the microbial habitat is regulated remain mostly unknown. However, many studies have reported physiological responses to environmental stresses that include the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the induction of a dormancy state. A sound understanding of these capacities is required to enhance the knowledge of the microbial dynamics in soils and its potential role in the carbon cycle, with significant implications for the degradation of contaminants and the emission of greenhouse gases, among others. We present a numerical analysis of the dynamics of soil microbes and their responses to environmental stresses. The conceptual model considers a multi-component heterotrophic biofilm made up of active cells, dormant cells, EPS, and extracellular enzymes. Biofilm distribution and properties are defined at the pore-scale and used to determine nutrient availability and water saturation via feedbacks of biofilm on soil hydraulic properties. The pore space micro-habitat is modeled as a simplified pore-network of cylindrical tubes in which biofilms proliferate. Microbial compartments and most of the carbon fluxes are defined at the bulk level. Microbial processes include the synthesis, decay and detachment of biomass, the activation/deactivation of cells, and the release and reutilization of EPS. Results suggest that the release of EPS and the capacity to enter a dormant state offer clear evolutionary advantages in scenarios characterized by environmental stress. On the contrary, when the conditions are favorable, the diversion of carbon into the production of the aforementioned survival mechanisms does not confer any additional benefit and the population

  14. Autonomic responses to ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis of the patellar tendon in healthy male footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz Torres, Blanca; Albornoz Cabello, Manuel; García Bermejo, Paula; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach, which involves the application of a galvanic current via an acupuncture needle. As in any procedure involving needling, vagal reactions have been reported during PNE. To examine for changes in autonomic activity during the US-guided PNE technique on healthy patellar tendons by measurement and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty-two male footballers were randomly allocated to: a control group (11 players), for whom HRV was recorded for 10 min, both at rest and during an exhaustive US examination of the patellar tendon and adjacent structures; and an experimental group (11 players), for whom HRV was recorded for 10 min, both at rest and during application of US-guided PNE on the patellar tendon. The following HRV parameters were assessed: mean NN interval, mean heart rate, time domain parameters (SDNN, rMSSD, pNN50), diameters of the Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2), stress score, and sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio. There were no differences between groups in any baseline measurements, nor were there any significant differences between control group measurements (baseline vs intervention). The experimental group exhibited statistically significant increases in SDNN/SD1 (p=0.02/p=0.03) and SD2 (p=0.03), indicating increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic activity, respectively. US-guided PNE was associated with an autonomic imbalance characterised by greater parasympathetic activity, which could potentially result in a vasovagal reaction. Care should be taken to monitor for adverse reactions during US-guided PNE and simple HRV indicators may have a role in early detection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Spatially distinct response of rice yield to autonomous adaptation under the CMIP5 multi-model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Im, Eun-Soon; Jung, Il-Won

    2017-02-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is a very important staple crop, as it feeds more than half of the world's population. Numerous studies have focused on the negative impacts of climate change on rice production. However, there is little debate on which region of the world is more vulnerable to climate change and how adaptation to this change can mitigate the negative impacts on rice production. We investigated the impacts of climate change on rice yield, based on simulations combining a global crop model, M-GAZE, and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model projections. Our focus was the impact of mitigating emission forcings (representative concentration pathway RCP 4.5 vs. RCP 8.5) and autonomous adaptation (i.e., changing crop variety and planting date) on rice yield. In general, our results showed that climate change due to anthropogenic warming leads to a significant reduction in rice yield. However, autonomous adaptation provides the potential to reduce the negative impact of global warming on rice yields in a spatially distinct manner. The adaptation was less beneficial for countries located at a low latitude (e.g., Cambodia, Thailand, Brazil) compared to mid-latitude countries (e.g., USA, China, Pakistan), as regional climates at the lower latitudes are already near the upper temperature thresholds for acceptable rice growth. These findings suggest that the socioeconomic effects from rice production in lowlatitude countries can be highly vulnerable to anthropogenic global warming. Therefore, these countries need to be accountable to develop transformative adaptation strategies, such as adopting (or developing) heat-tolerant varieties, and/or improve irrigation systems and fertilizer use efficiency.

  16. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Summary points 1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) are headaches/facial pains classified together based on:a suspected common pathophysiology involving the trigeminovascular system, the trigeminoparasympathetic reflex and centres controlling circadian rhythms;a similar clinical presentation of trigeminal pain, and autonomic activation. 2. There is much overlap in the diagnostic features of individual TACs. 3. In contrast, treatment response is relatively specific and aids in establishing a definitive diagnosis. 4. TACs are often presentations of underlying pathology; all patients should be imaged. 5. The aim of the article is to provide the reader with a broad introduction to, and an overview of, TACs. The reading list is extensive for the interested reader. PMID:26516482

  17. Alpha-fetoprotein Response Correlates with EASL Response and Survival in Solitary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Trans-arterial Therapies: A Subgroup Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Kulik, Laura; Lewandowski, Robert J; Wang, Edward; Ryu, Robert K; Riaz, Ahsun; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Baker, Talia; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B; Mulcahy, Mary F; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a universally recognized tumor marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its utility in assessing response to treatment remains controversial. We sought to study the: a) correlation between AFP response and imaging response, and b) ability of AFP, EASL and WHO response to predict survival outcomes in patients with solitary HCC. Methods 629 HCC patients were treated with transarterial locoregional therapies over an 11-year period. To eliminate confounding factors, we included patients with single tumors, baseline AFP≥200 ng/mL, and no extrahepatic disease; this identified our study cohort of 51 patients. AFP response was defined as >50% decrease from baseline; this was correlated to EASL and WHO response criteria by Kappa agreement, Pearson correlation and receiver operating curves. Survival analyses were performed by Landmark, risk-of-death and Mantel-Byar methodologies. None of the patients received sorafenib. Results Three months post-treatment, AFP and EASL response correlated well (Kappa: 0.83; Pearson: 0.84); the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of AFP in predicting EASL response at 3 months were 96.6%, 85.7%, 92.3% and 93.3% respectively. Correlation with WHO response was low. From the 3-month landmark, WHO, EASL and AFP responders survived longer than nonresponders (P=0.006, 0.0001 and <0.0001 respectively). The risk of death was lower for EASL and AFP responders by both risk-of-death and Mantel-Byar methodologies (P<0.05). Conclusion Response by AFP and EASL are predictors of survival outcome in patients with solitary HCC. AFP correlates with imaging response assessment by EASL guidelines. Achieving AFP response should be one of the therapeutic intents of locoregional therapies. PMID:22245905

  18. Alpha-fetoprotein response correlates with EASL response and survival in solitary hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transarterial therapies: a subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Kulik, Laura; Lewandowski, Robert J; Wang, Edward; Ryu, Robert K; Riaz, Ahsun; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Baker, Talia; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B; Mulcahy, Mary F; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad

    2012-05-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a universally recognized tumor marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its utility in assessing response to treatment remains controversial. We sought to study the: (a) correlation between AFP response and imaging response, and (b) ability of AFP, EASL, and WHO response to predict survival outcomes in patients with solitary HCC. Six hundred and twenty-nine HCC patients were treated with transarterial locoregional therapies over an 11-year period. To eliminate confounding factors, we included patients with single tumors, baseline AFP ≥200ng/ml, and no extrahepatic disease; this identified our study cohort of 51 patients. AFP response was defined as>50% decrease from baseline; this was correlated to EASL and WHO response criteria by Kappa agreement, Pearson correlation and receiver operating curves. Survival analyses were performed by Landmark, risk-of-death and Mantel-Byar methodologies. None of the patients received sorafenib. Three months post-treatment, AFP and EASL response correlated well (Kappa: 0.83; Pearson: 0.84); the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of AFP in predicting EASL response at 3 months were 96.6%, 85.7%, 92.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. Correlation with WHO response was low. From the 3-month landmark, WHO, EASL, and AFP responders survived longer than non-responders (p=0.006, 0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively). The risk of death was lower for EASL and AFP responders by both risk-of-death and Mantel-Byar methodologies (p <0.05). Response by AFP and EASL are predictors of survival outcome in patients with solitary HCC. AFP correlates with imaging response assessment by EASL guidelines. Achieving AFP response should be one of the therapeutic intents of locoregional therapies (LRTs). Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Lindsay; Richardson, Bryce A.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata(big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-garden experiments were established at three sites with seedlings from 55 source-populations. Populations included each of the three predominant subspecies, and cytotype variations. Survival was monitored for 5 years to assess differences in survival between gardens and populations. We found evidence of adaptive genetic variation for survival. Survival within gardens differed by source-population and a substantial proportion of this variation was explained by seed climate of origin. Plants from areas with the coldest winters had the highest levels of survival, while populations from warmer and drier sites had the lowest levels of survival. Survival was lowest, 36%, in the garden that was prone to the lowest minimum temperatures. These results suggest the importance of climatic driven genetic differences and their effect on survival. Understanding how genetic variation is arrayed across the landscape, and its association with climate can greatly enhance the success of restoration and conservation.

  20. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. "Survival in air" of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. as a sensitive response to pollution-induced environmental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.; Wagenvoort, A.J.; Hummel, H.; Smaal, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed for periods of 6 weeks at various locations in Dutch coastal waters during 1989 and 1990. “Survival in air” showed to be a sensitive response parameter for indicating pollution induced environmental stress in transplanted mussels sampled from eight field sites.

  2. The intermedius nucleus of the medulla: a potential site for the integration of cervical information and the generation of autonomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ian J; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2009-11-01

    The intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM) is a small perihypoglossal brainstem nucleus, which receives afferent information from the neck musculature and also descending inputs from the vestibular nuclei, the gustatory portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and cortical areas involved in movements of the tongue. The InM sends monosynaptic projections to both the NTS and the hypoglossal nucleus. It is likely that the InM acts to integrate information from the head and neck and relays this information on to the NTS where suitable autonomic responses can be generated, and also to the hypoglossal nucleus to influence movements of the tongue and upper airways. Central to the integratory role of the InM is its neurochemical diversity. Neurones within the InM utilise the amino acid transmitters glutamate, GABA and glycine. A proportion of these excitatory and inhibitory neurones also use nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter. Peptidergic transmitters have also been found within InM neurones, although as yet the extent of the pattern of co-localisation between peptidergic and amino acid transmitters in neurones has not been established. The calcium binding proteins calretinin and parvalbumin are found within the InM in partially overlapping populations. Parvalbumin and calretinin appear to have complementary distributions within the InM, with parvalbumin being predominantly found within GABAergic neurones and calretinin being predominantly found within glutamatergic neurones. Neurones in the InM receive inputs from glutamatergic sensory afferents. This glutamatergic transmission is conducted through both NMDA and AMPA ionotropic glutamate receptors. In summary the InM contains a mixed pool of neurones including glutamatergic and GABAergic in addition to peptidergic neurones. Neurones within the InM receive inputs from the upper cervical region, descending inputs from brain regions involved in tongue movements and those involved in the coordination of the

  3. Embryonic Origin of Primary Colon Cancer Predicts Pathologic Response and Survival in Patients Undergoing Resection for Colon Cancer Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Suguru; Brudvik, Kristoffer Watten; Kopetz, Scott E; Maru, Dipen; Clarke, Callisia N; Passot, Guillaume; Conrad, Claudius; Chun, Yun Shin; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-12-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of embryonic origin in patients undergoing resection after chemotherapy for colon cancer liver metastases (CCLM). We identified 725 patients with primary colon cancer and known RAS mutation status who underwent hepatic resection after preoperative chemotherapy for CCLM (1990 to 2015). Survival after resection of CCLM from midgut origin (n = 238) and hindgut origin (n = 487) was analyzed. Predictors of pathologic response and survival were determined. Prognostic value of embryonic origin was validated with a separate cohort of 252 patients with primary colon cancer who underwent resection of CCLM without preoperative chemotherapy. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after hepatic resection were worse in patients with midgut origin tumors (RFS rate at 3 years: 15% vs 27%, P origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.55, P = 0.010], absence of bevacizumab (OR 1.42, P = 0.034), and mutant RAS (OR 1.41, P = 0.043). Independent factors associated with worse OS were midgut embryonic origin [hazard ratio (HR) 2.04, P origin had a worse 3-year OS rate (55% vs 78%, P = 0.003). Compared with CCLM from hindgut origin, CCLM from midgut origin are associated with worse pathologic response to chemotherapy and worse survival after resection. This effect appears to be independent of RAS mutation status.

  4. Pinpointing brainstem mechanisms responsible for autonomic dysfunction in Rett syndrome: therapeutic perspectives for 5-HT1A agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Ana P.; Bissonnette, John M.; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by loss of function of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Reduced function of this ubiquitous transcriptional regulator has a devastating effect on the central nervous system. One of the most severe and life-threatening presentations of this syndrome is brainstem dysfunction, which results in autonomic disturbances such as breathing deficits, typified by episodes of breathing cessation intercalated with episodes of hyperventilation or irregular breathing. Defects in numerous neurotransmitter systems have been observed in Rett syndrome both in animal models and patients. Here we dedicate special attention to serotonin due to its role in promoting regular breathing, increasing vagal tone, regulating mood, alleviating Parkinsonian-like symptoms and potential for therapeutic translation. A promising new symptomatic strategy currently focuses on regulation of serotonergic function using highly selective serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) “biased agonists.” We address this newly emerging therapy for respiratory brainstem dysfunction and challenges for translation with a holistic perspective of Rett syndrome, considering potential mood and motor effects. PMID:24910619

  5. Autophagy in response to photodynamic therapy: cell survival vs. cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Xue, Liang-yan; Chiu, Song-mao; Joseph, Sheeba

    2009-02-01

    Autophagy (or more properly, macroautophagy) is a pathway whereby damaged organelles or other cell components are encased in a double membrane, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes for digestion by lysosomal hydrolases. This process can promote cell survival by removing damaged organelles, but when damage is extensive, it can also be a mechanism of cell death. Similar to the Kessel and Agostinis laboratories, we have reported the vigorous induction of autophagy by PDT; this was found in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells whether or not they were able to efficiently induce apoptosis. One way to evaluate the role of autophagy in PDT-treated cells is to silence one of the essential genes in the pathway. Kessel and Reiners silenced the Atg7 gene of murine leukemia L1210 cells using inhibitory RNA and found sensitization to PDT-induced cell death at a low dose of PDT, implying that autophagy is protective when PDT damage is modest. We have examined the role of autophagy in an epithelium-derived cancer cell by comparing parental and Atg7-silenced MCF-7 cells to varying doses of PDT with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4. In contrast to L1210 cells, autophagy-deficient MCF-7 cells were more resistant to the lethal effects of PDT, as judged by clonogenic assays. A possible explanation for the difference in outcome for L1210 vs. MCF-7 cells is the greatly reduced ability of the latter to undergo apoptosis, a deficiency that may convert autophagy into a cell-death process even at low PDT doses. Experiments to investigate the mechanism(s) responsible are in process.

  6. HPV Integration in HNSCC Correlates with Survival Outcomes, Immune Response Signatures, and Candidate Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, Lada A; Zhang, Yanxiao; Virani, Shama; Hall, Pelle B; McHugh, Jonathan B; Chepeha, Douglas B; Wolf, Gregory T; Carey, Thomas E; Rozek, Laura S; Sartor, Maureen A

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharynx cancer has steadily increased over the past two decades and now represents a majority of oropharyngeal cancer cases. Integration of the HPV genome into the host genome is a common event during carcinogenesis that has clinically relevant effects if the viral early genes are transcribed. Understanding the impact of HPV integration on clinical outcomes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is critical for implementing deescalated treatment approaches for HPV + HNSCC patients. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from HNSCC tumors ( n = 84) were used to identify and characterize expressed integration events, which were overrepresented near known head and neck, lung, and urogenital cancer genes. Five genes were recurrent, including CD274 (PD-L1) A significant number of genes detected to have integration events were found to interact with Tp63, ETS, and/or FOX1A. Patients with no detected integration had better survival than integration-positive and HPV - patients. Furthermore, integration-negative tumors were characterized by strongly heightened signatures for immune cells, including CD4 + , CD3 + , regulatory, CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and B cells, compared with integration-positive tumors. Finally, genes with elevated expression in integration-negative specimens were strongly enriched with immune-related gene ontology terms, while upregulated genes in integration-positive tumors were enriched for keratinization, RNA metabolism, and translation. Implications: These findings demonstrate the clinical relevancy of expressed HPV integration, which is characterized by a change in immune response and/or aberrant expression of the integration-harboring cancer-related genes, and suggest strong natural selection for tumor cells with expressed integration events in key carcinogenic genes. Mol Cancer Res; 16(1); 90-102. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Irresponsibilities, inequalities and injustice for autonomous vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2017-01-01

    With their prospect for causing both novel and known forms of damage, harm and injury, the issue of responsibility has been a recurring theme in the debate concerning autonomous vehicles. Yet, the discussion of responsibility has obscured the finer details both between the underlying concepts...... of responsibility. Two different approaches are offered to the question of responsibility and autonomous vehicles: targeting and risk distribution. The article then introduces a thought experiment which situates autonomous vehicles within the context of crash optimisation impulses and coordinated or networked...

  8. Emmprin and survivin predict response and survival following cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne B; Dyrskjøt, Lars; von der Maase, Hans

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. The response rate is approximately 50% and tumor-derived molecular prognostic markers are desirable for improved estimation of response...... and survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Affymetrix GeneChip expression profiling was carried out using tumor material from 30 patients. A set of genes with an expression highly correlated to survival time after chemotherapy was identified. Two genes were selected for validation by immunohistochemistry.......0%, 21.1%, and 0%, respectively. Response to chemotherapy could also be predicted with an odds ratio of 4.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.91-10.1) and 2.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.5) for emmprin and survivin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Emmprin and survivin proteins were identified as strong...

  9. Emmprin and Survivin predict response and survival following cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne Birgitte; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Maase, Hans von der

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. The response rate is approximately 50% and tumor-derived molecular prognostic markers are desirable for improved estimation of response...... and survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Affymetrix GeneChip expression profiling was carried out using tumor material from 30 patients. A set of genes with an expression highly correlated to survival time after chemotherapy was identified. Two genes were selected for validation by immunohistochemistry.......0%, 21.1%, and 0%, respectively. Response to chemotherapy could also be predicted with an odds ratio of 4.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.91-10.1) and 2.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.5) for emmprin and survivin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Emmprin and survivin proteins were identified as strong...

  10. The regrowth kinetic of the surviving population is independent of acute and chronic responses to temozolomide in glioblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andrew Oliveira, E-mail: andrewbiomed@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dalsin, Eloisa, E-mail: dalsineloisa@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Onzi, Giovana Ravizzoni, E-mail: gioonzi@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Center of Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese, E-mail: eduardochiela@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lenz, Guido, E-mail: lenz@ufrgs.br [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Center of Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Chemotherapy acts on cancer cells by producing multiple effects on a cell population including cell cycle arrest, necrosis, apoptosis and senescence. However, often a subpopulation of cells survives and the behavior of this subpopulation, which is responsible for cancer recurrence, remains obscure. Here we investigated the in vitro short- and long-term responses of six glioblastoma cell lines to clinically relevant doses of temozolomide for 5 days followed by 23 days of recovery, mimicking the standard schedule used in glioblastoma patient for this drug. These cells presented different profiles of sensitivity to temozolomide with varying levels of cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence, followed by a regrowth of the surviving cells. The initial reduction in cell number and the subsequent regrowth was analyzed with four new parameters applied to Cumulative Population Doubling (CPD) curves that describe the overall sensitivity of the population and the characteristic of the regrowth: the relative end point CPD (RendCPD); the relative Area Under Curve (rAUC); the Relative Time to Cross a Threshold (RTCT); and the Relative Proliferation Rate (RPR). Surprisingly, the kinetics of regrowth were not predicted by the mechanisms activated after treatment nor by the acute or overall sensitivity. With this study we added new parameters that describe key responses of glioblastoma cell populations to temozolomide treatment. These parameters can also be applied to other cell types and treatments and will help to understand the behavior of the surviving cancer cells after treatment and shed light on studies of cancer resistance and recurrence. - Highlights: • Little is known about the behavior of the glioma cells surviving to TMZ. • The short- and long-term response of six glioma cells lines to TMZ varies considerably. • These glioma cells lines recovered proliferation after therapeutic levels of TMZ. • The growth velocity of the surviving cells was different from the

  11. Strong anti-Epstein Barr virus (EBV or cytomegalovirus (CMV cellular immune responses predict survival and a favourable response to anti-tuberculosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini Nagu

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Increased cellular immune responses to CMV and EBV antigens at the time of diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis are associated with increased survival after a standard six months anti-TB therapy. CVM and EBV antigens may represent “intrinsic markers for immune fitness” and guide improved TB therapies including host-directed therapies.

  12. Single Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy Session Dampens Acute Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to Mental Stress in Healthy Male Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Mauro; Carnevali, Luca; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) is supported by observational data and patient feedback, but there is still a need for objective, quantitative biomarkers that allow measurement of the underlying mechanisms. No study exploring the protective potential of OMTh for mental stress has been published, to the authors' knowledge. To explore the modulating effect of OMTh on autonomic neural regulation of the heart and verifiy its ability to influence the activity of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Healthy young adult men who had never received OMTh were exposed to either a brief protocol using craniosacral techniques or sham therapy (control) involving the same anatomical areas. A laboratory stress episode consisting of a 5-minute arithmetic task participants were required to perform in front of a committee preceded the therapy sessions. Continuous electrocardiograph recordings were done before, during, and after the stress episode. Heart rate and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability (specifically, high-frequency component power in normalized units and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power) were measured to quantify the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and the state of sympathovagal balance at the level of the heart, respectively. Saliva samples were also collected at points throughout the study to determine cortisol levels. Osteopathic manipulative therapy reduced the overall chronotropic effect of the stressor (t=-2.9, Pcontrol participants. Moreover, OMTh participants had a much lower overall cortisol level during the mental stressor compared with control participants (t=-2.3, Pcontrol counterparts after the stress episode (control: t=2.7, Psession to healthy participants induced a faster recovery of heart rate and sympathovagal balance after an acute mental stressor by substantially dampening parasympathetic withdrawal and

  13. Exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in London: incidence, survival and bystander response

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Melanie J; Fothergill, Rachael T

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to (1) establish the incidence of exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in London, (2) investigate survival from exercise-related SCA and (3) examine factors related to survival. Method This retrospective observational study examined 2 years’ data from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) cardiac arrest registry for patients in whom resuscitation was attempted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a cardiac cause was presumed and the arrest occurre...

  14. Autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to experimentally induced cold pain in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Rinnewitz, Lena; Warth, Marco; Kaess, Michael

    2015-07-07

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with altered sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. Adolescents engaging in NSSI report greater pain threshold and pain tolerance, as well as lower pain intensity and pain unpleasantness compared to healthy controls. The experience of pain is associated with reactivity of both the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, previous research has not yet systematically addressed differences in the physiological response to experimentally induced pain comparing adolescents with NSSI and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Adolescents with NSSI and healthy controls undergo repeated painful stimulation with the cold pressor task. ANS activity is continuously recorded throughout the procedure to assess changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. Blood pressure is monitored and saliva is collected prior to and after nociceptive stimulation to assess levels of saliva cortisol. The study will provide evidence whether lower pain sensitivity in adolescents with NSSI is associated with blunted physiological and endocrinological responses to experimentally induced pain compared to healthy controls. Extending on the existing evidence on altered pain sensitivity in NSSI, measured by self-reports and behavioural assessments, this is the first study to take a systematic approach in evaluating the physiological response to experimentally induced pain in adolescent NSSI. Deutsche Register Klinischer Studien, Study ID: DRKS00007807; Trial Registration Date: 13.02.2015.

  15. Transarterial hepatic chemoperfusion of uveal melanoma metastases: survival and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusner, T-A; Antoch, G; Wittkowski-Sterczewski, A; Ladd, S C; Forsting, M; Verhagen, R; Scheulen, M

    2011-12-01

    To assess the survival of patients with hepatic uveal melanoma metastases undergoing sequential transarterial hepatic chemoperfusion. 61 patients (mean age, 60.3 ± 13.8 y) underwent a total of 249 hepatic chemoperfusion procedures (mean: 4 chemoperfusion procedures; range, 1-7 chemoperfusion procedures; standard deviation, 2.3 chemoperfusion procedures). All patients started with melphalan. In the case of progressive disease, melphalan was replaced by a different chemoperfusion agent. 38 patients were treated with melphalan only, 23 patients were treated with a combination of melphalan and other drugs. The median overall survival time was calculated for the overall population and several sub-groups. Differences in the survival rate between the sub-groups were assessed for statistical significance. The complication rate was assessed. The median overall survival of the entire population was 10 months. The patients in the subgroups with a maximum number of 9 hepatic metastases as well as the patients in the subgroup without extrahepatic metastases at the beginning of therapy survived significantly longer than patients with more than 9 metastases/extrahepatic metastases (p = 0.019, p = 0.008). One patient (0.4%) died from liver failure after initial infusion of melphalan. Intraarterial sequential hepatic chemoperfusion offers a minimally invasive treatment in patients with hepatic uveal melanoma metastases with good survival times and an acceptable major complication rate. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Transarterial hepatic chemoperfusion of uveal melanoma metastases. Survival and response to treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusner, T.A.; Wittkowski-Sterczewski, A.; Ladd, S.C.; Forsting, M.; Verhagen, R. [Universitaetsklinik Essen, Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Antoch, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Scheulen, M. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (DE). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin (Tumorforschung)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the survival of patients with hepatic uveal melanoma metastases undergoing sequential transarterial hepatic chemoperfusion. Materials and Methods: 61 patients (mean age, 60.3 {+-} 13.8y) underwent a total of 249 hepatic chemoperfusion procedures (mean: 4 chemoperfusion procedures; range, 1 - 7 chemoperfusion procedures; standard deviation, 2.3 chemoperfusion procedures). All patients started with melphalan. In the case of progressive disease, melphalan was replaced by a different chemoperfusion agent. 38 patients were treated with melphalan only, 23 patients were treated with a combination of melphalan and other drugs. The median overall survival time was calculated for the overall population and several sub-groups. Differences in the survival rate between the sub-groups were assessed for statistical significance. The complication rate was assessed. Results: The median overall survival of the entire population was 10 months. The patients in the subgroups with a maximum number of 9 hepatic metastases as well as the patients in the subgroup without extrahepatic metastases at the beginning of therapy survived significantly longer than patients with more than 9 metastases/extrahepatic metastases (p = 0.019, p = 0.008). One patient (0.4 %) died from liver failure after initial infusion of melphalan. Conclusion: Intraarterial sequential hepatic chemoperfusion offers a minimally invasive treatment in patients with hepatic uveal melanoma metastases with good survival times and an acceptable major complication rate. (orig.)

  17. Treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with use of 90Y microspheres (TheraSphere): safety, tumor response, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J; Atassi, Bassel; Gordon, Stuart C; Gates, Vanessa L; Barakat, Omar; Sergie, Ziad; Wong, Ching-Yee O; Thurston, Kenneth G

    2005-12-01

    To present safety and efficacy results obtained in treatment of a cohort of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with use of 90Y microspheres (TheraSphere). Forty-three consecutive patients with HCC were treated with 90Y microspheres over a 4-year period. Patients were treated by liver segment or lobe on one or more occasions based on tumor distribution, liver function, and vascular flow dynamics. Patients were followed for adverse events, objective tumor response, and survival. Patients were stratified into three risk groups according to method of treatment and risk stratification (group 0, segmental; group 1, lobar low-risk; group 2, lobar high-risk) and Okuda and Child-Pugh scoring systems. Based on follow-up data from 43 treated patients, 20 patients (47%) had an objective tumor response based on percent reduction in tumor size and 34 patients (79%) had a tumor response when percent reduction and/or tumor necrosis were used as a composite measure of tumor response. There was no statistical difference among the three risk groups with respect to tumor response. Survival times from date of diagnosis were different among the risk groups (P < .0001). Median survival times were 46.5 months, 16.9 months, and 11.1 months for groups 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Median survival times of 24.4 months and 12.5 months by Okuda scores of I and II, respectively, were achieved (mean, 25.8 months vs 13.1). Patients had median survival times of 20.5 months and 13.8 months according to Child class A and class B/C disease, respectively (mean, 22.7 months vs 13.6 months). Patients classified as having diffuse disease exhibited decreased survival and reduced tumor response. There were no life-threatening adverse events related to treatment. Use of 90Y microspheres (TheraSpheres) provides a safe and effective method of treatment for a broad spectrum of patients presenting with unresectable HCC. Further investigation is warranted.

  18. Interdependence of response rates, survival rates, stage and histology after radio-/chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schratter, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Szalay, S.; Janisch, H.

    1982-11-01

    Between February 1977 and February 1981, 55 patients with ovarian cancer (45 at stage III and 10 at stage IV) underwent simultaneous radio-/chemotherapy and early therapeutic second-look operation. The overall response rate amounts to 94%, 63% of which are complete and 31% are partial emissions. Stage III comprises 74% complete and 26% partial remissions. Patients with complete remission at stage III have a significantly longer tumor-free survival time than patients with partial remission (median 16 vs. 8 months). A longer overall survival time (median 30 vs. 16 months) is also significant. At stage III there have been 74% successful therapeutic second operations. In all patients with residual tumors above 2 cm in diameter after primary operation a response rate of 92% could be achieved, 52% showed complete remissions. The survival time proved to be independent of both histological parameter and age. The remaining residual tumor above or under 2 cm in diameter in any single location is, however, a significant prognostic factor for long-time survival. Possible curative chances for patients with stage III disease are only to be expected through interdisciplinary oncological cooperation.

  19. Survival and growth of eucalypts clones seedlings in response to organic fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sula Janaína de Oliveira Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Fert-Bokashi® on survival and seedlings growth of two Eucalyptus urophylla clones propagated by minicutting technique. The experiment was conducted over a period of 28 days using a randomized block design and three replicates in an 6 x 2 factorial arrangement, with six Fert-Bokashi® concentrations (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.9% and two clones. Seedlings survival, height growth and shoot, root and total dry matter were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated no significant effect of Fert- Bokashi® on survival and seedlings growth of two Eucalyptus urophylla clones.

  20. Dihydroxyselenolane (DHS) supplementation improves survival following whole-body irradiation (WBI) by suppressing tissue-specific inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Amit; Verma, Prachi; Bhilwade, H N; Iwaoka, Michio; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2016-09-01

    Dihydroxyselenolane (DHS), a simple water-soluble organoselenium compound, was evaluated for radioprotection in BALB/c mice after whole-body irradiation (WBI) (8Gy (60)Co, 1Gy/min), by monitoring 30-d post-irradiation survival and biochemical/histological changes in radiosensitive organs. Intraperitoneal administration of DHS at 2mg/kg for five consecutive days before irradiation and three times per week during the post-irradiation period showed maximum benefit (40% improvement in 30 d post-irradiation survival). DHS treatment, despite inducing expression of glutathione peroxidases (GPx1, GPx2, and GPx4) in spleen and intestine, did not protect against radiation-induced acute (10-day) haematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicities. DHS treatment significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes and inflammatory responses in intestine, lung, and circulation. The anti-inflammatory effect of DHS was associated with reductions in lipid peroxidation, expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as Icam-1, Ccl-2, and iNos-2, and subsequent infiltration of inflammatory cells. Irradiated mice treated with DHS survived until day 30 post-irradiation and showed restoration of spleen cellularity and intestinal villi, but had moderately increased systemic and tissue-specific inflammatory responses. Another organoselenium compound, selenomethionine, evaluated in parallel with DHS at the same dose and treatment schedule, showed comparable radioprotective effects. The mechanism of radioprotection by DHS is mainly via suppression of inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources and the development of advanced information give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimise the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response as a way for modifying the consumption pattern...... of customers can be effectively applied to balance the demand and supply in electricity networks. This study presents a novel stochastic model from a microgrid (MG) operator perspective for energy and reserve scheduling considering risk management strategy. It is assumed that the MG operator can procure energy...... from various sources, including local generating units and demand-side resources to serve the customers. The operator sells electricity to customers under real-time pricing scheme and the customers response to electricity prices by adjusting their loads to reduce consumption costs. The objective...

  2. Effects of insula resection on autonomic nervous system activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, Helma; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Szabo, B.M.; Sitskoorn, Margriet; Kop, Wijo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The insula is an essential component of the central autonomic network and plays a critical role in autonomic regulation in response to environmental stressors. The role of the insula in human autonomic regulation has been primarily investigated following cerebrovascular accidents, but

  3. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) and the development of advanced information, give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimize the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response (DR) as a way for modifying the consumption...... is to determine the optimal scheduling with considering risk aversion and system frequency security to maximize the expected profit of operator. To deal with various uncertainties, a risk-constrained two-stage stochastic programming model is proposed where the risk aversion of MG operator is modeled using...

  4. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Survival and growth response of white spruce stock types to site preparation in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Elizabeth Cole; Michael Newton

    2011-01-01

    To identify suitable methods for reforestation, we evaluated the interacting effects of past disturbance, stock types, and site preparation treatments on white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedling survival and growth across a range of sites in Alaska. Replicated experiments were established in five regions. At each site, two complete...

  6. Surviving without a Brain: A response to McMahan on Personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life, Jeff McMahan defends what he calls the embodied mind view of identity, and then puts forward several arguments in support of the view that physical continuity of the brain is crucial to our survival. He ultimately denies that psychological continuity is of any importance.

  7. EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (UMAMI TASTE) WITH AND WITHOUT GUANOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE ON RAT AUTONOMIC RESPONSES TO MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEFFENS, AB; LEUVENINK, H; SCHEURINK, AJW

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used as a food additive to improve the taste of food. The effect of MSG on sweet taste is enhanced by guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). Because increased palatability is known to increase the vagally mediated preabsorptive insulin response (PIR), we hypothesized that

  8. The relationship between cardiac autonomic function and maximal oxygen uptake response to high-intensity intermittent-exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutcher, Stephen H; Park, Young; Dunn, Sarah Louise; Boutcher, Yati N

    2013-01-01

    Major individual differences in the maximal oxygen uptake response to aerobic training have been documented. Vagal influence on the heart has been shown to contribute to changes in aerobic fitness. Whether vagal influence on the heart also predicts maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training, however, is undetermined. Thus, the relationship between baseline vagal activity and the maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training was examined. Exercisers (n = 16) exercised three times a week for 12 weeks, whereas controls did no exercise (n = 16). Interval-sprinting consisted of 20 min of intermittent sprinting on a cycle ergometer (8 s sprint, 12 s recovery). Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed using open-circuit spirometry. Vagal influence was assessed through frequency analysis of heart rate variability. Participants were aged 22 ± 4.5 years and had a body mass of 72.7 ± 18.9 kg, a body mass index of 26.9 ± 3.9 kg · m(-2), and a maximal oxygen uptake of 28 ± 7.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1). Overall increase in maximal oxygen uptake after the training programme, despite being anaerobic in nature, was 19 ± 1.2%. Change in maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with initial baseline heart rate variability high-frequency power in normalised units (r = 0.58; P training response after 12 weeks of high-intensity intermittent-exercise. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between the aerobic training response and resting heart rate variability need to be established before practical implications can be identified.

  9. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Modestowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias are a group of primary headache disorders presenting as unilateral pain in the somatic distribution of the trigeminal nerve, associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. This clinicopathologic group includes cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, hemicrania continua and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing/cranial autonomic features, which differ mainly as regards the duration and frequency of pain as well as response to treatment. These disorders are not as rare as they were thought to be and due to the severity of the pain can substantially affect the patients’ quality of life. Many other forms of primary headaches, such as migraine, trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache, as well as secondary headaches, particularly those caused by pituitary, posterior fossa, orbital, paranasal sinus and vascular pathology, need to be carefully considered in the diagnosis of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Research in this field, particularly using functional neuroimaging, has resulted in a much better understanding of these disorders. Dysfunction in the nociceptive modulatory pathways in brain’s pain matrix is currently thought to produce a permissive state for the occurrence of a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia attack, with posterior hypothalamus serving as a terminator rather than the generator of the attack. The current treatment strategies include medical and surgical approaches; of the latter, neuromodulation techniques, particularly deep brain stimulation of posterior hypothalamus, have proven to be particularly effective and promising.

  10. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  11. American Heart Association Response to the 2015 Institute of Medicine Report on Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumar, Robert W; Eigel, Brian; Callaway, Clifton W; Estes, N A Mark; Jollis, James G; Kleinman, Monica E; Morrison, Laurie J; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Rea, Thomas D; Sendelbach, Sue

    2015-09-15

    The American Heart Association (AHA) commends the recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act (2015). The AHA recognizes the unique opportunity created by the report to meaningfully advance the objectives of improving outcomes for sudden cardiac arrest. For decades, the AHA has focused on the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease though robust support of basic, translational, clinical, and population research. The AHA also has developed a rigorous process using the best available evidence to develop scientific, advisory, and guideline documents. These core activities of development and dissemination of scientific evidence have served as the foundation for a broad range of advocacy initiatives and programs that serve as a foundation for advancing the AHA and IOM goal of improving cardiac arrest outcomes. In response to the call to action in the IOM report, the AHA is announcing 4 new commitments to increase cardiac arrest survival: (1) The AHA will provide up to $5 million in funding over 5 years to incentivize resuscitation data interoperability; (2) the AHA will actively pursue philanthropic support for local and regional implementation opportunities to increase cardiac arrest survival by improving out-of-hospital and in-hospital systems of care; (3) the AHA will actively pursue philanthropic support to launch an AHA resuscitation research network; and (4) the AHA will cosponsor a National Cardiac Arrest Summit to facilitate the creation of a national cardiac arrest collaborative that will unify the field and identify common goals to improve survival. In addition to the AHA's historic and ongoing commitment to improving cardiac arrest care and outcomes, these new initiatives are responsive to each of the IOM recommendations and demonstrate the AHA's leadership in the field. However, successful implementation of the IOM recommendations will require a timely

  12. Lrp5 is not required for the proliferative response of osteoblasts to strain but regulates proliferation and apoptosis in a cell autonomous manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Javaheri

    Full Text Available Although Lrp5 is known to be an important contributor to the mechanisms regulating bone mass, its precise role remains unclear. The aim of this study was to establish whether mutations in Lrp5 are associated with differences in the growth and/or apoptosis of osteoblast-like cells and their proliferative response to mechanical strain in vitro. Primary osteoblast-like cells were derived from cortical bone of adult mice lacking functional Lrp5 (Lrp5(-/-, those heterozygous for the human G171V High Bone Mass (HBM mutation (LRP5(G171V and their WT littermates (WT(Lrp5, WT(HBM. Osteoblast proliferation over time was significantly higher in cultures of cells from LRP5(G171V mice compared to their WT(HBM littermates, and lower in Lrp5(-/- cells. Cells from female LRP5(G171V mice grew more rapidly than those from males, whereas cells from female Lrp5(-/- mice grew more slowly than those from males. Apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal was significantly higher in cultures from Lrp5(-/- mice than in those from WT(HBM or LRP5(G171V mice. Exposure to a single short period of dynamic mechanical strain was associated with a significant increase in cell number but this response was unaffected by genotype which also did not change the 'threshold' at which cells responded to strain. In conclusion, the data presented here suggest that Lrp5 loss and gain of function mutations result in cell-autonomous alterations in osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis but do not alter the proliferative response of osteoblasts to mechanical strain in vitro.

  13. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tears) Urination Defecation Sexual response Many organs are controlled primarily by either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic ... help relieve some symptoms of autonomic disorders: Orthostatic hypotension: People are advised to elevate the head of ...

  14. Bacterial survival in response to desiccation and high humidity at above zero and subzero temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinjie; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2009-04-01

    Earthly microorganisms might have contaminated Mars for millions of years by intellectual activities or natural transfer. Knowledge on the preservation of microorganisms may help our searching for life on outer planets, particularly Mars-contaminated earthly microorganisms at ancient time. Extreme dryness is one of the current Mars characteristics. However, a humid or watery Mars at earlier time was suggested by evidence accumulated in recent decades. It raises the question that whether water helps preservation of the microorganisms or not, particularly those with high possibility of interplanetary transfer like spores and Deinococci. In this study, we examined the effects of desiccation and high humidity on survival and DNA double strand breaks (DSB) of Escherichia coli, Deinococcus radiodurans and spores of Bacillus pumilus at 25, 4 and -70 °C. They exhibited different survival rates and DSB patterns under desiccation and high humidity. Higher survival and less DSB occurred at lower temperature. We suggest that some Mars-contaminated bacteria might have been viably preserved on cold Mars regions for long periods, regardless of water availability. It is more likely to find ancient spores than ancient Deinococci on Mars. In our search for preserved extraterrestrial life, priority should be given to the Mars Polar Regions.

  15. A Simple Autonomous Current-Sharing Control Strategy for Fast Dynamic Response of Parallel Inverters in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel control strategy based on a virtual resistance and a phase locked loop for parallel three-phase inverters. The proposed controller can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional droop control such as slow transient response, complex design, and limited stability margins....... The load sharing capability can be also obtained under asymmetrical output impedances in which the conventional droop controller was not properly working. The proposed approach has been verified by means of simulations and experimental results in a laboratory-scale prototype....

  16. Triple Receptor–Negative Breast Cancer: The Effect of Race on Response to Primary Systemic Treatment and Survival Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Shaheenah; Broglio, Kristine; Kau, Shu-Wan; Green, Marjorie C.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Albarracin, Constance; Yang, Wei T.; Hennessy, Bryan T.J.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to describe the effect of race on pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and survival outcomes in women with triple receptor–negative (TN) breast cancers. Patients and Methods Four hundred seventy-one patients with TN breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2005 and treated with primary systemic chemotherapy were included. pCR was defined as no residual invasive cancer in the breast and axillary lymph nodes. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and compared between groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted for each survival outcome to determine the relationship of patient and tumor variables with outcome. Results Median follow-up time was 24.5 months. One hundred patients (21.2%) were black, and 371 patients (78.8%) were white/other race. Seventeen percent of black patients (n = 17) and 25.1% of white/other patients (n = 93) achieved a pCR (P = .091). Three-year RFS rates were 68% (95% CI, 56% to 76%) and 62% (95% CI, 57% to 67%) for black and white/other patients, respectively, with no significant difference observed between the two groups (P = .302). Three-year OS was similar for the two racial groups. After controlling for patient and tumor characteristics, race was not significantly associated with RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.68; P = .747) or OS (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.68; P = .735) when white/other patients were compared with black patients. Conclusion Race does not significantly affect pCR rates or survival outcomes in women with TN breast cancer treated in a single institution under the same treatment conditions. PMID:19047281

  17. Hemopathologic predisposition and survival time under continuous gamma irradiation: responses mediated by altered radiosensitivity of hemopoietic progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    These marked differences in radiosensitivity of individual animals within a relatively homogeneous, healthy pure bred group, as manifested by varying survival patterns and pathologic tendencies, have stimulated studies concerning the cellular bases of these responses. In previous studies, as in this one, the authors have attempted to characterize the cellular processes of hemopoietic recovery, an early occurring event characteristically observed in a select subgroup of MPD dogs exhibiting prolonged course of survival and a tendency to myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Hemopoietic recovery appears to be a broadly based process as indicated by: (a) increased concentrations of blood granulocytes; (b) expanded granulocyte reserves; and (c) increased concentration of hemopoietic progenitors in the marrow. The intent of the present study was to examine the possibility that the cellular basis of hemopoietic recovery resides in the acquisition of increased radioresistance by hemopoietic progenitors, i.e., the suspected cellular targets of the hemopathic effects of ionizing irradiation.

  18. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kody M. Unstad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water bodydrawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis is an invasiveaquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability ofB. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccationevents. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater amongadults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate.Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork forfuture management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures,predation, or molluscicides.

  19. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  20. Dose response severity functions for acoustic disturbance in cetaceans using recurrent event survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, C.M.; Sadykova, D.; DeRuiter, S.L.; Tyack, P.L.; Miller, P.J.O.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Thomas, L.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral response studies (BRSs) aim to enhance our understanding of the behavior changes made by animals in response to specific exposure levels of different stimuli, often presented in an increasing dosage. Here, we focus on BRSs that aim to understand behavioral responses of free-ranging whales

  1. Late Release of Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells after Chemotherapy Predicts Response and Survival in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine M. Roodhart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We and others have previously demonstrated that the acute release of progenitor cells in response to chemotherapy actually reduces the efficacy of the chemotherapy. Here, we take these data further and investigate the clinical relevance of circulating endothelial (progenitor cells (CE(PCs and modulatory cytokines in patients after chemotherapy with relation to progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS. Patients treated with various chemotherapeutics were included. Blood sampling was performed at baseline, 4 hours, and 7 and 21 days after chemotherapy. The mononuclear cell fraction was analyzed for CE(PC by FACS analysis. Plasma was analyzed for cytokines by ELISA or Luminex technique. CE(PCs were correlated with response and PFS/OS using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. We measured CE(PCs and cytokines in 71 patients. Only patients treated with paclitaxel showed an immediate increase in endothelial progenitor cell 4 hours after start of treatment. These immediate changes did not correlate with response or survival. After 7 and 21 days of chemotherapy, a large and consistent increase in CE(PC was found (P < .01, independent of the type of chemotherapy. Changes in CE(PC levels at day 7 correlated with an increase in tumor volume after three cycles of chemotherapy and predicted PFS/OS, regardless of the tumor type or chemotherapy. These findings indicate that the late release of CE(PC is a common phenomenon after chemotherapeutic treatment. The correlation with a clinical response and survival provides further support for the biologic relevance of these cells in patients' prognosis and stresses their possible use as a therapeutic target.

  2. Compartmental stress responses correlate with cell survival in bystander effects induced by the DNA damage agent, bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savu, Diana; Petcu, Ileana; Temelie, Mihaela; Mustaciosu, Cosmin; Moisoi, Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Physical or chemical stress applied to a cell system trigger a signal cascade that is transmitted to the neighboring cell population in a process known as bystander effect. Despite its wide occurrence in biological systems this phenomenon is mainly documented in cancer treatments. Thus understanding whether the bystander effect acts as an adaptive priming element for the neighboring cells or a sensitization factor is critical in designing treatment strategies. Here we characterize the bystander effects induced by bleomycin, a DNA-damaging agent, and compartmental stress responses associated with this phenomenon. Mouse fibroblasts were treated with increasing concentrations of bleomycin and assessed for DNA damage, cell death and induction of compartmental stress response (endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic stress). Preconditioned media were used to analyze bystander damage using the same end-points. Bleomycin induced bystander response was reflected primarily in increased DNA damage. This was dependent on the concentration of bleomycin and time of media conditioning. Interestingly, we found that ROS but not NO are involved in the transmission of the bystander effect. Consistent transcriptional down-regulation of the stress response factors tested (i.e. BiP, mtHsp60, Hsp70) occurred in the direct effect indicating that bleomycin might induce an arrest of transcription correlated with decreased survival. We observed the opposite trend in the bystander effect, with specific stress markers appearing increased and correlated with increased survival. These data shed new light on the potential role of stress pathways activation in bystander effects and their putative impact on the pro-survival pro-death balance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Family Growth and Survival Response to Two Simulated Water Temperature Environments in the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqing Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat tolerance is a target trait in the selective breeding of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, as it plays an important role in the survival and growth of cultured S. intermedius during summer. We investigated family growth and survival response to two temperature treatments to evaluate the genotype by temperature interaction (GEI in the family selection of S. intermedius. Sea urchins from 11 families were exposed to two simulated water temperature environments—high temperature (HE and control temperature (CE—for 12 months, with each experiment divided into four periods (P1, stress-free period I; P2, stress-full high period; P3, stress-response period; and P4, stress-free period II based on the temperature changes and the survival. Test diameter (TD, body weight (BW, and survival rate (SR in HE and CE were measured monthly. Effects of family, temperature, and family-temperature interaction on TD, BW, SR, and specific growth rate (SGR for BW were examined. In CE, BW differed significantly between families in P2, P3, and P4, while TD differed significantly between families in P3 and P4 (p < 0.05. In HE, family had significant effects on BW in P4, and on TD in P3 and P4, while temperature had significant effects on SR, TD, and BW in P3 and P4 (p < 0.05. GEI effects were not significant for TD or BW; however, family ranking changes revealed the existence of GEI in SR. The GEI results indicate the necessity of applying family selection in CE and HE for SR, but not for TD or BW. These results may provide a guide for aquaculture and selective breeding of S. intermedius under temperature pressure.

  4. Combined effect of temperature and ammonia on molecular response and survival of the freshwater crustacean Gammarus pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Y; Piscart, C; Charles, S; Colinet, H

    2017-03-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are experiencing mounting pressures from agriculture, urbanization, and climate change, which could drastically impair aquatic biodiversity. As nutrient inputs increase and temperatures rise, ammonia (NH 3 ) concentration is likely to be associated with stressful temperatures. To investigate the interaction between NH 3 and temperature on aquatic invertebrate survival, we performed a factorial experiment on the survival and molecular response of Gammarus pulex, with temperature (10, 15, 20, and 25°C) and NH 3 (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4mg NH 3 /L) treatments. We observed an unexpected antagonistic interaction between temperature and NH 3 concentration, meaning survival in the 4mg NH 3 /L treatment was higher at 25°C than at the control temperature of 10°C. A toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model was built to describe this antagonistic interaction. While the No Effect Concentration showed no significant variation across temperatures, the 50% lethal concentration at the end of the experiment increased from 2.7 (2.1-3.6) at 10°C to 5.5 (3.5- 23.4) mg NH 3 /L at 25°C. Based on qPCR data, we associated these survival patterns to variations in the expression of the hsp70 gene, a generic biomarker of stress. However, though there was a 14-fold increase in hsp70 mRNA expression for gammarids exposed to 25°C compared to controls, NH 3 concentration had no effect on hsp70 mRNA synthesis across temperatures. Our results demonstrate that the effects of combined environmental stressors, like temperature and NH 3 , may strongly differ from simple additive effects, and that stress response to temperature can actually increase resilience to nutrient pollution in some circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol-induced autonomic responses and risk taking increase in young adults with a positive family history of alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneto, Florencia; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Pilatti, Angelina

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the greater prevalence of alcohol use disorders in individuals with a positive family history (FH+) of alcohol abuse are still under investigation. These subjects may exhibit differential sensitivity to alcohol's effects on psychomotor stimulation and impulsivity. Alcohol-induced psychomotor stimulation, measured as the heart rate (HR) response, is a proxy for the positive rewarding effects of the drug. We analyzed alcohol-induced effects on time perception (Time Production Task), risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task [BART]), and HR in FH+ and FH- participants. In the FH+ and FH- groups, women and men received 0.6 and 0.7g/kg alcohol, respectively. The alcohol dose yielded a breath alcohol concentration of 0.08% throughout the experiment. The control groups received placebo, and the subjective perception of alcohol intoxication was assessed. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased HR and the adjusted average number of pumps on the BART (a measure of risk taking) in FH+ men and women but not in FH- participants. Behavioral impulsivity was unaffected by alcohol or a FH of alcohol abuse. FH- but not FH+ participants who received alcohol reported significantly greater subjective perception of alcohol's effects than their placebo counterparts. These results indicate that FH+ individuals presented heightened sensitivity to alcohol-induced HR stimulation and alcohol-induced risk taking compared with their FH- counterparts. FH+ subjects, however, were insensitive to the subjective effects of alcohol. This idiosyncratic response pattern may be a likely pathway by which a FH of alcohol problems promotes alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole induces significant cardiac autonomic responses in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Ogata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Flexible poles can provide rapid eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Muscle vibration is associated with a "tonic vibration reflex” that is stimulated by a sequence of rapid muscle stretching, activation of the muscle spindles and stimulation of a response that is similar to the myotatic reflex. Literature studies analyzing the acute cardiovascular responses to different exercises performed with this instrument are lacking. We investigated the acute effects of exercise with flexible poles on the heart period in healthy men. METHOD: The study was performed on ten young adult males between 18 and 25 years old. We evaluated the heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains. The subjects remained at rest for 10 min. After the rest period, the volunteers performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 30 min and their heart rate variability was analyzed. RESULTS: The pNN50 was reduced at 5-10 and 15-20 min after exercise compared to 25-30 min after exercise (p = 0.0019, the SDNN was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to at rest and 0-10 min after exercise (p = 0.0073 and the RMSSD was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-15 min after exercise (p = 0.0043. The LF in absolute units was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-20 min after exercise (p = 0.0184. CONCLUSION: A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole reduced the heart rate variability and parasympathetic recovery was observed approximately 30 min after exercise.

  7. Effect of Sleep/Wake Cycle on Autonomic Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Surriya

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the association between irregular sleep/wake cycle in shift workers and autonomic regulation. Cross-sectional, analytical study. Dow University Hospital, Karachi, from August to November 2013. All healthcare providers working in rotating shifts making a total (n=104) were included. Instrument was an integrated questionnaire applied to assess autonomic regulation, taken from Kröz et al. on scoring criteria, ranging from 18 - 54, where higher rating signifies strong autonomic regulation, indicating a stable Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and vice versa. Participants were interviewed and their response was recorded by the investigator. Influence of sleep misalignment was measured quantitatively to extract index of autonomic activity. There was a reduced trend in autonomic strength amongst shift workers. The mean score obtained on the Autonomic Scale was 37.8 ± 5.9. Circadian misalignment has an injurious influence on ANS which might be valuable in controlling autonomic dysfunction that leads to fatal triggers in rotating shift workers.

  8. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E; Cobble, Kacy R; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William; Shuey, Megan M; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L; Rocke, Tonie E; Wagner, David M

    2013-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  9. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E.; Cobble, Kacy R.; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  10. Bioimpedance-Based Wearable Measurement Instrumentation for Studying the Autonomic Nerve System Response to Stressful Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Álvarez, L.; Buendía, R.; Ayllón, D.; Llerena, C.; Gil-Pita, R.; Seoane, F.

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of mental stress on workers under hard and stressful conditions is critical to identify which workers are not ready to undertake a mission that might put in risk their own life and the life of others. The ATREC project aims to enable Real Time Assessment of Mental Stress of the Spanish Armed Forces during military activities. Integrating sensors with garments and using wearable measurement devices, the following physiological measurements were recorded: heart and respiration rate, skin galvanic response as well as peripheral temperature. The measuring garments are the following: a sensorized glove, an upper-arm strap and a repositionable textrode chest strap system with 6 textrodes. The implemented textile-enabled instrumentation contains: one skin galvanometer, two temperature sensors, for skin and environmental, and an Impedance Cardiographer/Pneumographer containing a 1 channel ECG amplifier to record cardiogenic biopotentials. The implemented wearable systems operated accordingly to the specifications and are ready to be used for the mental stress experiments that will be executed in the coming phases of the project in healthy volunteers.

  11. Autonomic nervous system responses during perception of masked speech may reflect constructs other than subjective listening effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Francis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking, and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct, and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1 Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2 Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by speech-shaped noise and (3 Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR, a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners’ subjective perception of task demand were comparable

  12. Sensitivity of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and cardiac autonomic responses to training in futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Victor H; Pereira, Lucas A; de Souza, Eberton A; Leicht, Anthony S; Bertollo, Maurizio; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of maximal (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery [IR] 1 and 2) and submaximal (5'-5') tests to identify training adaptations in futsal players along with the suitability of heart-rate (HR) and HR-variability (HRV) measures to identify these adaptations. Eleven male professional futsal players were assessed before (pretraining) and after (posttraining) a 5-wk period. Assessments included 5'-5' and Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 performances and HR and HRV at rest and during the IR and 5'-5' tests. Magnitude-based-inference analyses examined the differences between pre- and posttraining, while relationships between changes in variables were determined via correlation. Posttraining, Yo-Yo IR1 performance likely increased while Yo-Yo IR2 performance almost certainly increased. Submaximal HR during the Yo-Yo IR1 and Yo-Yo IR2 almost certainly and likely, respectively, decreased with training. HR during the 5'-5' was very likely decreased, while HRV at rest and during the 5'-5' was likely increased after training. Changes in both Yo-Yo IR performances were negatively correlated with changes in HR during the Yo-Yo IR1 test and positively correlated with the change in HRV during the 5'-5'. The current study has identified the Yo-Yo IR2 as more responsive for monitoring training-induced changes of futsal players than the Yo-Yo IR1. Changes in submaximal HR during the Yo-Yo IR and HRV during the 5'-5' were highly sensitive to changes in maximal performance and are recommended for monitoring training. The 5'-5' was recommended as a time-efficient method to assess training adaptations for futsal players.

  13. Effects of blood transfusion on the immune responsiveness and survival of cancer patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Buzzonetti, A; DiGirolamo, M; Iudicone, P; Guglielmetti, M; Martini, F; Scocchera, R; Terlizzi, F; Lapponi, P; Giuliani, E

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate whether blood transfusion exerts an adverse influence on cancer evolution, a prospective clinical and immunologic investigation was carried out on 58 surgical patients with gastric or colorectal adenocarcinoma. None had had previous transfusion; 35 received perioperative transfusion. Among preoperative variables, only red cell count and hemoglobin concentration were significantly reduced in the patients transfused at operation. Other clinical characteristics and immunologic functions (except interferon-gamma release) did not differ significantly from those of untransfused patients. The survival rate of transfused patients, although shorter, was not significantly different from that of untransfused patients. Immunologic tests done after surgery on 30 patients (17 transfused and 13 untransfused) did not show significant differences in the two groups. Significant increases in interleukin-2-stimulated production and immunoglobulin M synthesis were observed in transfused patients after surgery. Patients transfused perioperatively with more than 3 units of blood had some evidence of decreased immune function, but differences were not significant. While shorter survival and some immunologic changes may correlate with the number of transfusions, more patients must be studied to determine whether this relationship will be confirmed.

  14. Promoting responsible conduct in research through "survival skills" workshops: some mentoring is best done in a crowd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, B A; Zigmond, M J

    2001-07-01

    For graduate students to succeed as professionals, they must develop a set of general "survival skills". These include writing research articles, making oral presentations, obtaining employment and funding, supervising, and teaching. Traditionally, graduate programs have offered little training in many of these skills. Our educational model provides individuals with formal instruction in each area, including their ethical dimensions. Infusion of research ethics throughout a professional skills curriculum helps to emphasize that responsible conduct is integral to succeeding as a researcher. It also leads to the consideration of ethical dimensions of professional life not covered in traditional ethics courses.

  15. Artichoke compound cynarin differentially affects the survival, growth and stress response of normal, immortalized and cancerous human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezer, Ceren; Yücecan, Sevinç; Rattan, Suresh Inder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cynarin (CYN) is the main derivative of caffeoylquinic acid, found in leaves and heads of artichoke. Potential health-beneficial effects of CYN include as being choloretic-cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, and antioxidative. We have tested the effects of various doses...... of CYN on the proliferative potential, survival, morphology, and stress response (SR) markers haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) in normal human skin fibroblasts (FSF-1), telomerase-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSC) and cervical cancer cells, HeLa. Effects of CYN...

  16. The Growing Complexity of Cancer Cell Response to DNA-Damaging Agents: Caspase 3 Mediates Cell Death or Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely stated that wild-type p53 either mediates the activation of cell cycle checkpoints to facilitate DNA repair and promote cell survival, or orchestrates apoptotic cell death following exposure to cancer therapeutic agents. This reigning paradigm has been challenged by numerous discoveries with different human cell types, including solid tumor-derived cell lines. Thus, activation of the p53 signaling pathway by ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents hinders apoptosis and triggers growth arrest (e.g., through premature senescence in some genetic backgrounds; such growth arrested cells remain viable, secrete growth-promoting factors, and give rise to progeny with stem cell-like properties. In addition, caspase 3, which is best known for its role in the execution phase of apoptosis, has been recently reported to facilitate (rather than suppress DNA damage-induced genomic instability and carcinogenesis. This observation is consistent with an earlier report demonstrating that caspase 3 mediates secretion of the pro-survival factor prostaglandin E2, which in turn promotes enrichment of tumor repopulating cells. In this article, we review these and related discoveries and point out novel cancer therapeutic strategies. One of our objectives is to demonstrate the growing complexity of the DNA damage response beyond the conventional “repair and survive, or die” hypothesis.

  17. Overall survival and the response to radiotherapy among molecular subtypes of breast cancer brain metastases treated with targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob A; Kotecha, Rupesh; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S; Mohammadi, Alireza M; Chao, Samuel T; Barnett, Gene H; Murphy, Erin S; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Angelov, Lilyana; Peereboom, David M; Suh, John H

    2017-06-15

    The current study was conducted to investigate survival and the response to radiotherapy among patients with molecular subtypes of breast cancer brain metastases treated with or without targeted therapies. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer brain metastases at a single tertiary care institution were included. The primary outcome was overall survival, whereas secondary outcomes included the cumulative incidences of distant intracranial failure, local failure, and radiation necrosis. Competing risks regression was used to model secondary outcomes. Within the study period, 547 patients presented with 3224 brain metastases and met inclusion criteria. Among patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified disease, 80% received HER2 antibodies and 38% received HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The median survival was significantly shorter in the basal cohort (8.4 months), and progressively increased in the luminal A (12.3 months), HER2-positive (15.4 months), and luminal B (18.8 months) cohorts (Pbrain radiotherapy for salvage. Cancer 2017;123:2283-2293. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Survival outcome and treatment response of patients with late relapse from renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Nils; Choueiri, Toni K; Lee, Jae-Lyn; Bjarnason, Georg A; Knox, Jennifer J; MacKenzie, Mary J; Wood, Lori; Srinivas, Sandy; Vaishamayan, Ulka N; Rha, Sun-Young; Pal, Sumanta K; Yuasa, Takeshi; Donskov, Frede; Agarwal, Neeraj; Tan, Min-Han; Bamias, Aristotelis; Kollmannsberger, Christian K; North, Scott A; Rini, Brian I; Heng, Daniel Y C

    2014-06-01

    A subset of primarily localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients will experience disease recurrence ≥5 yr after initial nephrectomy. To characterize the clinical outcome of patients with late recurrence beyond 5 yr. Patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) treated with targeted therapy were retrospectively characterized according to time to relapse. Relapse was defined as the diagnosis of recurrent metastatic disease >3 mo after initial curative-intent nephrectomy. Patients with synchronous metastatic disease at presentation were excluded. Patients were classified as early relapsers (ERs) if they recurred within 5 yr; late relapsers (LRs) recurred after 5 yr. Demographics were compared with the Student t test, the chi-square test, or the Fisher exact test. The survival time was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and associations with survival outcome were assessed with univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Among 1210 mRCC patients treated with targeted therapy after surgery for localized disease, 897 (74%) relapsed within the first 5 yr and 313 (26%) (range: 5-35 yr) after 5 yr. LRs presented with younger age (pcell histology (p=0.001), and lower Fuhrman grade (ptherapy were better in LRs versus ERs (31.8% vs 26.5%; p=0.004). LRs had significantly longer progression-free survival (10.7 mo vs 8.5 mo; p=0.005) and overall survival (OS; 34.0 mo vs 27.4 mo; p=0.004). The study is limited by its retrospective design, noncentralized imaging and pathology review, missing information on metastatectomy, and nonstandardized follow-up protocols. A quarter of patients who eventually developed metastatic disease and were treated with targeted therapy relapsed over 5 yr from initial nephrectomy. LRs have more favorable prognostic features and consequently better treatment response and OS. Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  20. Survivin-specific T-cell reactivity correlates with tumor response and patient survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Jürgen C; Andersen, Mads H; Hofmeister-Müller, Valeska

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination directed to induce an anti-tumoral T-cell response is a field of extensive investigation in the treatment of melanoma. However, many vaccination trials in melanoma failed to demonstrate a correlation between the vaccine-specific immune response and therapy outcome. This has...... been mainly attributed to immune escape by antigen loss, rendering us in the need of new vaccination targets....

  1. Sensorized Garments and Textrode-Enabled Measurement Instrumentation for Ambulatory Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System Response in the ATREC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Llerena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in textile materials, technology and miniaturization of electronics for measurement instrumentation has boosted the development of wearable measurement systems. In several projects sensorized garments and non-invasive instrumentation have been integrated to assess on emotional, cognitive responses as well as physical arousal and status of mental stress through the study of the autonomous nervous system. Assessing the mental state of workers under stressful conditions is critical to identify which workers are in the proper state of mind and which are not ready to undertake a mission, which might consequently risk their own life and the lives of others. The project Assessment in Real Time of the Stress in Combatants (ATREC aims to enable real time assessment of mental stress of the Spanish Armed Forces during military activities using a wearable measurement system containing sensorized garments and textile-enabled non-invasive instrumentation. This work describes the multiparametric sensorized garments and measurement instrumentation implemented in the first phase of the project required to evaluate physiological indicators and recording candidates that can be useful for detection of mental stress. For such purpose different sensorized garments have been constructed: a textrode chest-strap system with six repositionable textrodes, a sensorized glove and an upper-arm strap. The implemented textile-enabled instrumentation contains one skin galvanometer, two temperature sensors for skin and environmental temperature and an impedance pneumographer containing a 1-channel ECG amplifier to record cardiogenic biopotentials. With such combinations of garments and non-invasive measurement devices, a multiparametric wearable measurement system has been implemented able to record the following physiological parameters: heart and respiration rate, skin galvanic response, environmental and peripheral temperature. To ensure the proper functioning of the

  2. Hemicrania continua with contralateral cranial autonomic features: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjay; Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Makwana, Prayag

    2015-03-11

    Hemicrania continua is characterized by continuous strictly unilateral head pain with episodic exacerbations. Episodic exacerbations are associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. We report a 24-year female with a 2-year history of continuous right-sided headache with superimposed exacerbations. Episodic exacerbations were associated with marked agitation and contralateral cranial autonomic features. The patient showed a complete response to indomethacin within 8 hours. The dichotomy of pain and autonomic features is in accordance with the concept about the possibility of two separate pathways for pain and autonomic features in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

  3. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition spectrum quantification and its efficacy in deciphering survival and drug responses of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Miow, Qing Hao; Miki, Yoshio; Noda, Tetsuo; Mori, Seiichi; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible and dynamic process hypothesized to be co-opted by carcinoma during invasion and metastasis. Yet, there is still no quantitative measure to assess the interplay between EMT and cancer progression. Here, we derived a method for universal EMT scoring from cancer-specific transcriptomic EMT signatures of ovarian, breast, bladder, lung, colorectal and gastric cancers. We show that EMT scoring exhibits good correlation with previously published, cancer-specific EMT signatures. This universal and quantitative EMT scoring was used to establish an EMT spectrum across various cancers, with good correlation noted between cell lines and tumours. We show correlations between EMT and poorer disease-free survival in ovarian and colorectal, but not breast, carcinomas, despite previous notions. Importantly, we found distinct responses between epithelial- and mesenchymal-like ovarian cancers to therapeutic regimes administered with or without paclitaxel in vivo and demonstrated that mesenchymal-like tumours do not always show resistance to chemotherapy. EMT scoring is thus a promising, versatile tool for the objective and systematic investigation of EMT roles and dynamics in cancer progression, treatment response and survival. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Mosquito control pesticides and sea surface temperatures have differential effects on the survival and oxidative stress response of coral larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cliff; Olsen, Kevin; Henry, Michael; Pierce, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The declining health of coral reefs is intensifying worldwide at an alarming rate due to the combined effects of land-based sources of pollution and climate change. Despite the persistent use of mosquito control pesticides in populated coastal areas, studies examining the survival and physiological impacts of early life-history stages of non-targeted marine organisms are limited. In order to better understand the combined effects of mosquito pesticides and rising sea surface temperatures, we exposed larvae from the coral Porites astreoides to selected concentrations of two major mosquito pesticide ingredients, naled and permethrin, and seawater elevated +3.5 °C. Following 18-20 h of exposure, larvae exposed to naled concentrations of 2.96 µg L(-1) or greater had significantly reduced survivorship compared to controls. These effects were not detected in the presence of permethrin or elevated temperature. Furthermore, larval settlement, post-settlement survival and zooxanthellae density were not impacted by any treatment. To evaluate the sub-lethal stress response of larvae, several oxidative stress endpoints were utilized. Biomarker responses to pesticide exposure were variable and contingent upon pesticide type as well as the specific biomarker being employed. In some cases, such as with protein carbonylation and catalase gene expression, the effects of naled exposure and temperature were interactive. In other cases pesticide exposure failed to induce any sub-lethal stress response. Overall, these results demonstrate that P. astreoides larvae have a moderate degree of resistance against short-term exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticides even in the presence of elevated temperature. In addition, this work highlights the importance of considering the complexity and differential responses encountered when examining the impacts of combined stressors that occur on varying spatial scales.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1987 induces Th2 immune responses and enhances Mycobacterium smegmatis survival in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Shanshan; Shi, Xiaoxia; Deng, Guoying; Chen, Lina; Xin, Yi; Ma, Yufang

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can interfere with host immune response and escape clearance through its specific antigens. M. tuberculosis Rv1987 encoded by region of difference (RD)-2 gene is a secretory protein with immunogenic potency. Here, we investigated the impact of Rv1987 on host cytokine responses and T cell polarization in mouse aerosol model. A recombinant M. smegmatis mc2155 strain that overexpressed Rv1987 protein (named MS1987) was constructed and used to infect C57BL/6 mice. The mc2155 harbored the empty vector (named MSVec) was as a control. The results showed that MS1987 challenged mice promoted Th2-biased cytokine responses with lower secretion of IFN-γ but higher production of IL-4 and Rv1987-specific IgG antibody compared to MSVec infected mice. Neutrophilic inflammation and high bacterial burden were observed in the lung tissues of MS1987 infected mice probably own to the failed Th1 cell immunity. Besides, subcutaneous injection of Rv1987 protein could mediate the Th1 cytokine responses caused by M. bovis BCG in mice. These results indicated that M. tuberculosis Rv1987 protein could modulate host immune response towards Th2 profile, which probably contributed to the immune evasion of bacteria from host elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Engineering autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Serbedzija N.; Bures T.; Keznikl J.

    2013-01-01

    Future technology needs adaptive, autonomous, self-aware and intelligent behavior offering solutions that are intuitively integrated in our everyday surroundings. One such approach is presented illustrating the major engineering process of autonomous systems construction. The dynamism and autonomous nature of the system elements is modeled by the novel communication/distribution principle that is knowledge- and predicate-based, allowing for late (in run-time) evaluation of communication and c...

  7. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  8. Acupuncture effect and central autonomic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  9. The time dimension in stress responses : relevance for survival and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksen, HR; Olff, M; Murison, R; Ursin, H

    1999-01-01

    Within the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), the stress response occurs whenever there is a discrepancy between what the organism is expecting, and what really exists. It affects the biochemistry of the brain, mobilizes resources, affects performance, and endocrine, vegetative, and

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of streptococcus suis capsule type on human dendritic cell responses, phagocytosis and intracellular survival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, M.; Ferrando, M.L.; Lammers, G.; Taverne, N.; Smith, H.E.; Wells, J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major porcine pathogen of significant commercial importance worldwide and an emerging zoonotic pathogen of humans. Given the important sentinel role of mucosal dendritic cells and their importance in induction of T cell responses we investigated the effect of different S.

  11. The time dimension in stress responses: relevance for survival and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksen, H. R.; Olff, M.; Murison, R.; Ursin, H.

    1999-01-01

    Within the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), the stress response occurs whenever there is a discrepancy between what the organism is expecting, and what really exists. It affects the biochemistry of the brain, mobilizes resources, affects performance, and endocrine, vegetative, and

  12. Transcriptional responses to fluctuating thermal regimes underpinning differences in survival in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcriptional responses of insects to long-term, ecologically relevant temperature stress are poorly understood. Long-term exposure to low temperatures, commonly referred to as chilling, can lead to physiological effects collectively known as chill injury. Periodically increasing temperatures ...

  13. INADEQUATE ANTIBODY-RESPONSE AGAINST RESPIRATORY VIRAL-INFECTION IN LONG-SURVIVING RAT LUNG ALLOGRAFTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, JB; GROEN, M; VANDERLOGT, K; WILDEVUUR, CRH; PROP, J

    1995-01-01

    Lung transplant recipients suffer from a high number of viral infections. It has been suggested that the defense against viral infections is impaired in lung transplants, Therefore, we investigated in rat lung transplants whether antibody responses against an intrapulmonary viral infection were

  14. Role of Listeria monocytogenes sigma(B) in survival of lethal acidic conditions and in the acquired acid tolerance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriana; Sue, David; O'Byrne, Conor P; Boor, Kathryn J

    2003-05-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can acquire enhanced resistance to lethal acid conditions through multiple mechanisms. We investigated contributions of the stress-responsive alternative sigma factor, sigma(B), which is encoded by sigB, to growth phase-dependent acid resistance (AR) and to the adaptive acid tolerance response in L. monocytogenes. At various points throughout growth, we compared the relative survival of L. monocytogenes wild-type and DeltasigB strains that had been exposed to either brain heart infusion (pH 2.5) or synthetic gastric fluid (pH 2.5) with and without prior acid adaptation. Under these conditions, survival of the DeltasigB strain was consistently lower than that of the wild-type strain throughout all phases of growth, ranging from 4 orders of magnitude less in mid-log phase to 2 orders of magnitude less in stationary phase. Survival of both DeltasigB and wild-type L. monocytogenes strains increased by 6 orders of magnitude upon entry into stationary phase, demonstrating that the L. monocytogenes growth phase-dependent AR mechanism is sigma(B) independent. sigma(B)-mediated contributions to acquired acid tolerance appear to be greatest in early logarithmic growth. Loss of a functional sigma(B) reduced the survival of L. monocytogenes at pH 2.5 to a greater extent in the presence of organic acid (100 mM acetic acid) than in the presence of inorganic acid alone (HCl), suggesting that L. monocytogenes protection against organic and inorganic acid may be mediated through different mechanisms. sigma(B) does not appear to contribute to pH(i) homeostasis through regulation of net proton movement across the cell membrane or by regulation of pH(i) buffering by the GAD system under the conditions examined in this study. In summary, a functional sigma(B) protein is necessary for full resistance of L. monocytogenes to lethal acid treatments.

  15. Surviving anoxia in marine sediments: The metabolic response of ubiquitous benthic foraminifera (Ammonia tepida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte LeKieffre

    Full Text Available High input of organic carbon and/or slowly renewing bottom waters frequently create periods with low dissolved oxygen concentrations on continental shelves and in coastal areas; such events can have strong impacts on benthic ecosystems. Among the meiofauna living in these environments, benthic foraminifera are often the most tolerant to low oxygen levels. Indeed, some species are able to survive complete anoxia for weeks to months. One known mechanism for this, observed in several species, is denitrification. For other species, a state of highly reduced metabolism, essentially a state of dormancy, has been proposed but never demonstrated. Here, we combined a 4 weeks feeding experiment, using 13C-enriched diatom biofilm, with correlated TEM and NanoSIMS imaging, plus bulk analysis of concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of total organic matter and individual fatty acids, to study metabolic differences in the intertidal species Ammonia tepida exposed to oxic and anoxic conditions. Strongly contrasting cellular-level dynamics of ingestion and transfer of the ingested biofilm components were observed between the two conditions. Under oxic conditions, within a few days, intact diatoms were ingested, degraded, and their components assimilated, in part for biosynthesis of different cellular components: 13C-labeled lipid droplets formed after a few days and were subsequently lost (partially through respiration. In contrast, in anoxia, fewer diatoms were initially ingested and these were not assimilated or metabolized further, but remained visible within the foraminiferal cytoplasm even after 4 weeks. Under oxic conditions, compound specific 13C analyses showed substantial de novo synthesis by the foraminifera of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as 20:4(n-6. Very limited PUFA synthesis was observed under anoxia. Together, our results show that anoxia induced a greatly reduced rate of heterotrophic metabolism in Ammonia

  16. Surviving anoxia in marine sediments: The metabolic response of ubiquitous benthic foraminifera (Ammonia tepida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Escrig, Stéphane; Meibom, Anders; Geslin, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    High input of organic carbon and/or slowly renewing bottom waters frequently create periods with low dissolved oxygen concentrations on continental shelves and in coastal areas; such events can have strong impacts on benthic ecosystems. Among the meiofauna living in these environments, benthic foraminifera are often the most tolerant to low oxygen levels. Indeed, some species are able to survive complete anoxia for weeks to months. One known mechanism for this, observed in several species, is denitrification. For other species, a state of highly reduced metabolism, essentially a state of dormancy, has been proposed but never demonstrated. Here, we combined a 4 weeks feeding experiment, using 13C-enriched diatom biofilm, with correlated TEM and NanoSIMS imaging, plus bulk analysis of concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of total organic matter and individual fatty acids, to study metabolic differences in the intertidal species Ammonia tepida exposed to oxic and anoxic conditions. Strongly contrasting cellular-level dynamics of ingestion and transfer of the ingested biofilm components were observed between the two conditions. Under oxic conditions, within a few days, intact diatoms were ingested, degraded, and their components assimilated, in part for biosynthesis of different cellular components: 13C-labeled lipid droplets formed after a few days and were subsequently lost (partially) through respiration. In contrast, in anoxia, fewer diatoms were initially ingested and these were not assimilated or metabolized further, but remained visible within the foraminiferal cytoplasm even after 4 weeks. Under oxic conditions, compound specific 13C analyses showed substantial de novo synthesis by the foraminifera of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as 20:4(n-6). Very limited PUFA synthesis was observed under anoxia. Together, our results show that anoxia induced a greatly reduced rate of heterotrophic metabolism in Ammonia tepida on a time

  17. Enhancing Organizational Survivability in a Crisis: Perceived Organizational Crisis Responsibility, Stance, and Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiYeon Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of enhancing organizational sustainability during a crisis, an organization takes a position in decision-making, how to respond toward its public, and that is supposed to determine which stance or tactic to employ. This study aims to examine whether publics’ perceptions of organizational crisis responsibility affect their expectations that an organization should choose certain stances and strategies toward the public in a crisis. To address these concerns, an experiment was conducted. As the specific public of this research, health journalists were selected, since they affect public perceptions significantly and public opinion can ultimately put pressure on an organization. Results from an analysis of the experimental data with health journalists confirm that they expect a more accommodative stance/strategy when they perceive that the organization is highly responsible for a health-related crisis. Conversely, when the journalists perceive that an organization has a low level of responsibility for a crisis, they expect a more advocative stance/strategy. By taking into account the health journalists’ expectations along with the needs of the organization, public relations practitioners are better able to make optimal decisions regarding their client organizations’ adopted stance and strategy, and finally, enhance organizational sustainability in a crisis.

  18. The Staphylococcus aureus response to unsaturated long chain free fatty acids: survival mechanisms and virulence implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Kenny

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important human commensal and opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections. Long chain unsaturated free fatty acids represent a barrier to colonisation and infection by S. aureus and act as an antimicrobial component of the innate immune system where they are found on epithelial surfaces and in abscesses. Despite many contradictory reports, the precise anti-staphylococcal mode of action of free fatty acids remains undetermined. In this study, transcriptional (microarrays and qRT-PCR and translational (proteomics analyses were applied to ascertain the response of S. aureus to a range of free fatty acids. An increase in expression of the sigma(B and CtsR stress response regulons was observed. This included increased expression of genes associated with staphyloxanthin synthesis, which has been linked to membrane stabilisation. Similarly, up-regulation of genes involved in capsule formation was recorded as were significant changes in the expression of genes associated with peptidoglycan synthesis and regulation. Overall, alterations were recorded predominantly in pathways involved in cellular energetics. In addition, sensitivity to linoleic acid of a range of defined (sigB, arcA, sasF, sarA, agr, crtM and transposon-derived mutants (vraE, SAR2632 was determined. Taken together, these data indicate a common mode of action for long chain unsaturated fatty acids that involves disruption of the cell membrane, leading to interference with energy production within the bacterial cell. Contrary to data reported for other strains, the clinically important EMRSA-16 strain MRSA252 used in this study showed an increase in expression of the important virulence regulator RNAIII following all of the treatment conditions tested. An adaptive response by S. aureus of reducing cell surface hydrophobicity was also observed. Two fatty acid sensitive mutants created during this study were also shown to diplay altered

  19. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  20. Biology of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora in oligotrophic environments: survival responses and virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Santander, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora es una bacteria fitopatógena de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, responsable del fuego bacteriano de las rosáceas. Los efectos destructivos de este patógeno sobre frutos, flores y prácticamente todos los órganos de las plantas hospedadoras afectadas constituyen una amenaza importante para la producción de pera y manzana, y suponen graves pérdidas económicas anuales en todo el mundo. E. amylovora está clasificada como un organismo de cuarentena en la Unión Europea y en otros pa...

  1. Response interval is important for survival until admission after prehospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Hien Quoc; Nielsen, Søren Loumann; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2010-01-01

    An increasing distance to the nearest hospital must be expected as a result of centralization of acute care at a small number of hospitals. This may have important consequences in emergency situations, such as prehospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) where the aim is to obtain return...... of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), i.e. successful resuscitation. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of response interval on sustained ROSC, i.e. ROSC at hospital admission, after OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology....

  2. Mesothelin-specific Immune Responses Predict Survival of Patients With Brain Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Liu; Rao, Martin; Luo, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    for cytokine production in response to a broad panel of defined viral and TAA target antigens, including full-length mesothelin. Incubation of immune cells with antigenic targets was carried out in i) medium alone, (ii) in a cytokine cocktail of interleukin (IL)-2/IL-15/IL-21, or (iii) IL-2/IL-7. Supernatants......BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced malignancies, e.g. lung cancer, ovarian cancer or melanoma, frequently present with brain metastases. Clinical presentation and disease progression of cancer is in part shaped by the interaction of the immune system with malignant cells. Antigen-targeted immune...

  3. Association between response rates and survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. A systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainou, Maria; Madenidou, Anastasia-Vasiliki; Liakos, Aris; Paschos, Paschalis; Karagiannis, Thomas; Bekiari, Eleni; Vlachaki, Efthymia; Wang, Zhen; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Kumar, Shaji; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized control trials to investigate the association between response to initial treatment and survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Response outcomes included complete response (CR) and the combined outcome of CR or very good partial response (VGPR), while survival outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We used random-effect meta-regression models and conducted sensitivity analyses based on definition of CR and study quality. Seventy-two trials were included in the systematic review, 63 of which contributed data in meta-regression analyses. There was no association between OS and CR in patients without autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) (regression coefficient: .02, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.06, 0.10), in patients undergoing ASCT (-.11, 95% CI -0.44, 0.22) and in trials comparing ASCT with non-ASCT patients (.04, 95% CI -0.29, 0.38). Similarly, OS did not correlate with the combined metric of CR or VGPR, and no association was evident between response outcomes and PFS. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. This meta-regression analysis suggests that there is no association between conventional response outcomes and survival in patients with newly diagnosed MM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course of the di...

  5. Toxin ζ Triggers a Survival Response to Cope with Stress and Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno-del Álamo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved complex regulatory controls in response to various environmental stresses. Protein toxins of the ζ superfamily, found in prominent human pathogens, are broadly distributed in nature. We show that ζ is a uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG-dependent ATPase whose activity is inhibited in vitro by stoichiometric concentrations of ε2 antitoxin. In vivo, transient ζ expression promotes a reversible multi-level response by altering the pool of signaling purine nucleotides, which leads to growth arrest (dormancy, although a small cell subpopulation persists rather than tolerating toxin action. High c-di-AMP levels (absence of phosphodiesterase GdpP decrease, and low c-di-AMP levels (absence of diadenylate cyclase DisA increase the rate of ζ persistence. The absence of CodY, a transition regulator from exponential to stationary phase, sensitizes cells to toxin action, and suppresses persisters formed in the ΔdisA context. These changes, which do not affect the levels of stochastic ampicillin (Amp persistence, sensitize cells to toxin and Amp action. Our findings provide an explanation for the connection between ζ-mediated growth arrest (with alterations in the GTP and c-di-AMP pools and persistence formation.

  6. Xuebijing injection reduces organ injuries and improves survival by attenuating inflammatory responses and endothelial injury in heatstroke mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiulin; Liu, Jingxian; Guo, Xiaohua; Tang, Youqing; Zhou, Gengbiao; Liu, Yanan; Huang, Qiaobing; Geng, Yan; Liu, Zhifeng; Su, Lei

    2015-02-05

    The pathogenesis of heatstroke is a multi-factorial process involved with an interplay among subsequent inflammation, endothelial injury and coagulation disturbances, which makes pharmacological therapy of heatstroke a challenging problem. Xuebijing injection (XBJ), a traditional Chinese medicine used to sepsis, has been reported to suppress inflammatory responses and restore coagulation disturbances. However, little is known about the role of XBJ in heatstroke. Mice were treated with indicated dose of XBJ before and/or after the induction of heatstroke. Serum inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endothelial markers, von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and E-selectin, were measured by ELISA. Liver, kidney and heart profiles including alanine aminotransferase, aspartic aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate dehydrogenase, were evaluated by UniCel DxC 800 Synchron Clinical Systems, and troponin was measured by ELISA. Coagulation profiles, including thrombin time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, and fibrinogen were examined by STA Compact® Hemostasis System. Jejunum injury was evaluated with H&E staining. Changes in mitochondrial structure in cardiac tissue were assesed by electron microscopy. Pretreatment with XBJ decreased serum pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6, as well as endothelial injury markers, vWF and E-selectin, in a dose-dependent manner in heatstroke mice. Similar protective effects were observed when XBJ was administered after, or both before and after heat insult. These protective effects lasted for over 12 h in mice receiving XBJ before and after heat insult. XBJ also improved survival rates in heatstroke mice, ameliorated liver, heart, and kidney injuries, including mitochondrial damage to the heart, and reduced coagulation disturbances. XBJ prevents organ injuries and improves survival in heatstroke mice by

  7. Locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma: Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival predicted by {sup [18F]}FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppi, Juha T.; Salo, Jarmo A.; Sihvo, Eero I.; Raesaenen, Jari V. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Div. of General Thoracic and Esophageal Surgery, Dept. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)], Email: jarmo.salo@hus.fi; Oksala, Niku [Dept. of Vascular Surgery, Tampere Univ. Central Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Helin, Heikki [HUSLAB/Dept. of Pathology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Karhumaeki, Lauri [HUSLAB/Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kemppainen, Jukka [PET-Center, Turku Univ., Turku (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Background. {sup [18F]}fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography ({sup [18F]}FDG-PET/CT) is commonly used in staging of locally advanced esophageal cancer. Its predictive value for response to neoadjuvant therapy and survival after multimodality therapy is controversial. Methods. Sixty-six consecutive patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or esophagogastric junction underwent surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Staging was done prospectively with {sup [18F]}FDG-PET/CT, before and after completion of neoadjuvant therapy. Pre- and post-therapy maximal standardized uptake values for the primary tumor (SUV1 and SUV2) were determined, and their relative change (SUV{Delta}%) calculated. Percentage change in SUV1 was compared with histopathologic response (HPR, complete or subtotal histologic remission), disease-free- (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results. Resection with negative margins was achieved in 60 patients. HPR rate was 14 of 66 (21.2%). Median follow-up was 16 months (range 4-72). For all patients, OS probability at three years was 59% and DFS 50%. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, HPR was optimally predicted by a > 67% change in baseline maximal SUV (sensitivity 79% and specificity 75%). In univariate survival analysis (Cox regression proportional hazards), HPR associated with improved DFS (HR 0.208, p = 0.033) but not OS (HR 0.030, p = 0.101), SUV % > 67% associated with improved OS (HR 0.249, p = 0.027) and DFS (HR 0.383, p 0.040). In a multivariate model (adjusted by age, sex, and ASA score), neither HPR nor SUV{Delta}% > 67% was predictive of improved OS and DFS. However, SUV{Delta}% as a continuous variable was an independent predictor of OS (HR 0.966, p < 0.0001) or DFS (HR 0.973, p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Our results support previous results showing that {sup [18F]}FDG-PET/CT can distinguish a group of patients with worse prognosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in

  8. Autonomous multifunctional nanobrushes-autonomous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Tius, Marcus A.

    2007-04-01

    In this work, taking advantage of carbon nanotubes' small size, and exceptional mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, we report on a series of nano-synthesis procedures that combine conventional chemical vapor deposition and selective substrate area growth followed by chemical functionalizations to fabricate functionalized nano-brushes from aligned carbon nanotube arrays and chemically selective functional groups. The high aspect ratio and small dimension, mechanical stability and flexibility, surface chemical and adhesive characteristics of carbon nanotubes provide opportunities to create nano-brushes with selected chemical functionalities. The nano-brushes are made from aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube bristles grafted onto long SiC fiber handles in various configurations and functionalized with various chemical functional groups. These nano-brushes can easily be manipulated physically, either manually or with the aid of motors. Here, we explain the autonomous characteristics of the functionalized nano-brushes employing functional chemical groups such that the nano-brush can potentially collect various metal particles, ions, and contaminants from liquid solutions and the air environment, autonomously. These functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube based nano-brushes can work swiftly in both liquid and air environments. With surface modification and functionalization, the nanotube nano-brushes can potentially become a versatile nano-devices in many chemical and biological applications, where they can autonomously pick up the particles they encounter since they can be chemically programmed to function as Autonomous Chemical Nano Robots (ACNR).

  9. Sirtuin 7 promotes cellular survival following genomic stress by attenuation of DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran, Shashi; Oddi, Vineesha [Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500001 (India); Ramakrishna, Gayatri, E-mail: gayatrirama1@gmail.com [Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500001 (India); Laboratory of Cancer Cell Biology, Department of Research, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Delhi 110070 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Maintaining the genomic integrity is a constant challenge in proliferating cells. Amongst various proteins involved in this process, Sirtuins play a key role in DNA damage repair mechanisms in yeast as well as mammals. In the present work we report the role of one of the least explored Sirtuin viz., SIRT7, under conditions of genomic stress when treated with doxorubicin. Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells to DNA damage induced cell death by doxorubicin. SIRT7 overexpression in NIH3T3 delayed cell cycle progression by causing delay in G1 to S transition. SIRT7 overexpressing cells when treated with low dose of doxorubicin (0.25 µM) showed delayed onset of senescence, lesser accumulation of DNA damage marker γH2AX and lowered levels of growth arrest markers viz., p53 and p21 when compared to doxorubicin treated control GFP expressing cells. Resistance to DNA damage following SIRT7 overexpression was also evident by EdU incorporation studies where cellular growth arrest was significantly delayed. When treated with higher dose of doxorubicin (>1 µM), SIRT7 conferred resistance to apoptosis by attenuating stress activated kinases (SAPK viz., p38 and JNK) and p53 response thereby shifting the cellular fate towards senescence. Interestingly, relocalization of SIRT7 from nucleolus to nucleoplasm together with its co-localization with SAPK was an important feature associated with DNA damage. SIRT7 mediated resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis and senescence was lost when p53 level was restored by nutlin treatment. Overall, we propose SIRT7 attenuates DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response thereby promoting cellular survival under conditions of genomic stress. - Highlights: • Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized cells to DNA damage induced apoptosis. • SIRT7 delayed onset of premature senescence by attenuating DNA damage response. • Overexpression of SIRT7 delayed cell cycle progression by delaying G1/S transition. • Upon DNA damage SIRT

  10. Response to [90Yttrium-DOTA]-TOC treatment is associated with long-term survival benefit in metastasized medullary thyroid cancer: a phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Fabienne; Müller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Rochlitz, Christoph; Oertli, Daniel; Mäcke, Helmut R; Müller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2007-11-15

    We aimed to explore the efficacy of (90)Yttrium-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane N,N',N'',N-'''-tetraacetic acid ((90)Y-DOTA)-Tyr(3)-octreotide (TOC) therapy in advanced medullary thyroid cancer. In a phase II trial, we investigated the response, survival, and long-term safety profile of systemic [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment in metastasized medullary thyroid cancer. Adverse events were assessed according to the criteria of the National Cancer Institute. Survival analyses were done using multiple regression models. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. A median cumulative activity of 12.6 GBq (range, 1.7-29.6 GBq) of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC was administered. Response was found in nine patients (29.0%). Four patients (12.9%) developed hematologic toxicities and seven patients (22.6%) developed renal toxicities. Response to treatment was associated with longer survival from time of diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02) and from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy (hazard ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.63; P = 0.009). The visual grade of scintigraphic tumor uptake was not associated with treatment response or survival. Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy in metastasized medullary thyroid cancer is associated with a long-term survival benefit. Treatment should be considered independently from the result of the pretherapeutic scintigraphy.

  11. Response, survival, and long-term toxicity after therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analogue [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized neuroendocrine cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Anna; Brunner, Philippe; Marincek, Nicolas; Briel, Matthias; Schindler, Christian; Rasch, Helmut; Mäcke, Helmut R; Rochlitz, Christoph; Müller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2011-06-10

    To investigate response, survival, and safety profile of the somatostatin-based radiopeptide (90)yttrium-labeled tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid modified Tyr-octreotide ([(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC) in neuroendocrine cancers. In a clinical phase II single-center open-label trial, patients with neuroendocrine cancers were treated with repeated cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC. Each cycle consisted of a single intravenous injection of 3.7GBq/m(2) body-surface [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC. Additional cycles were withheld in case of tumor progression and/or permanent toxicity. Overall, 1,109 patients received 2,472 cycles of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC (median, two; range, one to 10 cycles per patient). Of the 1,109 patients, 378 (34.1%) experienced morphologic response; 172 (15.5%), biochemical response; and 329 (29.7%), clinical response. During a median follow-up of 23 months, 491 patients (44.3%) died. Longer survival was correlated with each: morphologic (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.56; median survival, 44.7 v 18.3 months; P TOC treatment in a large cohort. Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC is associated with longer survival. Somatostatin receptor imaging is predictive for both survival after [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment and occurrence of renal toxicity.

  12. Responses to environmental stresses in woody plants: key to survive and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Kawaoka, Akiyoshi; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Osakabe, Keishi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses have adverse effects on plant growth and productivity, and are predicted to become more severe and widespread in decades to come. Especially, prolonged and repeated severe stresses affecting growth and development would bring down long-lasting effects in woody plants as a result of its long-term growth period. To counteract these effects, trees have evolved specific mechanisms for acclimation and tolerance to environmental stresses. Plant growth and development are regulated by the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals including plant hormones. Acclimation of land plants to environmental stresses is controlled by molecular cascades, also involving cross-talk with other stresses and plant hormone signaling mechanisms. This review focuses on recent studies on molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress responses in woody plants, functions of plant hormones in wood formation, and the interconnection of cell wall biosynthesis and the mechanisms shown above. Understanding of these mechanisms in depth should shed light on the factors for improvement of woody plants to overcome severe environmental stress conditions.

  13. Interactions between SNPs affecting inflammatory response genes are associated with multiple myeloma disease risk and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar René; Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Steffensen, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in the immune response and a subsequent statistical analysis that focusses on the association of SNPs, certain haplotypes or SNP-SNP interactions with MM risk and prognosis. We genotyped 348 Danish patients and 355 controls for 13 SNPs located in the TNFA, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and CHI...... were studied for expression in normal B-cell subsets and myeloma plasma cells. We observed a significantly reduced risk when harboring the TNFA-238A allele (OR = 0.51 (0.29-0.86)) and interactions between the TNFA-1031T/C * and IL-10 -3575T/A (p = .007) as well as the TNFA-308G/A * and IL-10-1082G/A (p...... = .008) allels. By statistical approaches, we observed association between prognosis and the TNFA-857CC genotype (HR = 2.80 (1.29-6.10)) and IL-10-1082GG + GA genotypes (HR = 1.93 (1.07-3.49)) and interactions between IL-6-174G/C and IL-10-3575T/A (p = .001) and between TNFA-308G/A and IL-4-1098T/G (p...

  14. Medical school survival versus social responsibility: finances as a driving force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, E N

    1989-01-01

    Medical educators are an interesting group of people. They thrive on new knowledge. They get excited and enthusiastic, and readily adopt new ways when the evidence is sufficient. Yet, at the same time, they resist with great vehemence change in the way they do their business. Ask how often the curriculum structure is examined. Indeed, the function of most curriculum committees is to ensure that that does not happen. Ask how often the criteria for medical school admission are examined, especially with respect to the knowledge requirements. Ask how often the faculty discusses, or even examines, the expectations of society as they are expressed by alumni, legislators, or members of the public. Ask how often faculties try to determine strategies for dealing with all of these external forces. Are those strategies approached with the same degree of objectivity and data-gathering skills that would be used in examining new therapeutic regimens? Medical educators are talented, creative people. They have a very large appetite for information and great ambition to be as fine academicians as possible. It is those characteristics that have served them well, as students and as responsible academicians. Indeed, the great strength of medical education, in my view, is that medical schools take some very bright people called faculty and some very bright people called students, mix them together for four years, and graduate a group of very smart people who will then spend three years or more mixed up with some very bright and creative people. That is a strength that can-not lost. Will the future allow us to continue that in an equally effective manner?

  15. Strong anti-Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) cellular immune responses predict survival and a favourable response to anti-tuberculosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagu, Tumaini; Aboud, Said; Rao, Martin; Matee, Mecky; Axelsson, Rebecca; Valentini, Davide; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Intact immune responses to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) represent a biologically and clinically relevant correlate of 'immunological fitness' in humans. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning anti-EBV or anti-CMV responses in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), in whom aberrant immune responses may promote progression of clinical disease. Venous blood samples were obtained at the time of (sputum smear positive) pulmonary TB diagnosis. A whole blood assay was performed by exposing PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) to a panel of infectious antigens, including CMV, EBV and mycobacterial proteins. Cell culture supernatants were collected after seven days and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was measured using a sandwich ELISA. Patients received standard first line anti-tuberculosis rifampicin (R)/isoniazid (H)/ethambutol (E)/pyrazinamide (Z) for two months followed by RH for four months. PBMCs from cured patients (after treatment completion) exhibited significantly stronger IFN-γ responses to CMV (p=0.035), EBV (p=0.006) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 (p=0.043) at the time of diagnosis as compared to patients who succumbed to TB during treatment. IFN-γ responses to other viral (H5N1, HSV-1) as well as other mycobacterial (Ag85A, Rv2958c, Rv0447c) antigens were not found to be significantly different among patients who were cured or those who succumbed to TB. Increased cellular immune responses to CMV and EBV antigens at the time of diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis are associated with increased survival after a standard six months anti-TB therapy. CVM and EBV antigens may represent "intrinsic markers for immune fitness" and guide improved TB therapies including host-directed therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sexual features of the old rats’ autonomic nervous system response to the development of necrotic process in heart on the background of melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Khara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. An effect of melatonin on the autonomic regulation of the heart in terms of damage was studied in adult and old male and female rats. Methods and results. Necrotic process in the myocardium was caused by the injection of epinephrine (1 mg / kg, single dose, intramuscular 1 h after injection of melatonin (5 mg / kg intravenous. In 1 and 24 hours after administration of epinephrine heart rate was determined and features of autonomic regulation of the heart on indicators Mo (mode, AMo (mode amplitude, ΔH (variation range of cardio intervals, and SI (stress index of regulatory mechanisms were evaluated. It was found that the effects of melatonin aimed at increasing the role of cholinergic ANS link in the formation of heart rate and reducing the adrenergic participation in the body of older individuals significantly decreased. To a greater extent this applies to older males. In the dynamics of adrenalin necrosis the character of vegetative regulation of heart rate of old rats reflects greater, than in adults, role of adrenergic link in animals of both sexes and reduce of the impact of cholinergic one – only in older males, which resulted in a significant tension of regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion. The obtained results show that with increasing age in rats effectiveness of melatonin as a drug which can affect the autonomic regulation of the heart by activating cardio-protective effects decreases, especially in male rats.

  17. Autonomic neural functions in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, T

    2005-08-01

    Autonomic neural functions are important to regulate vital functions in the living body. There are different methods to evaluate indirectly and directly autonomic, sympathetic and parasympathetic, neural functions of human body. Among various methods, microneurography is a technique to evaluate directly sympathetic neural functions in humans. Using this technique sympathetic neural traffic leading to skeletal muscles (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) can be recorded from human peripheral nerves in situ. MSNA plays essentially important roles to maintain blood pressure homeostasis against gravity. Orthostatic intolerance is an important problem as an autonomic dysfunction encountered after exposure of human beings to microgravity. There exist at least two different types of sympathetic neural responses, low and high responders to orthostatic stress in orthostatic hypotension seen in neurological disorders. To answer the question if post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance is induced by low or high MSNA responses to orthostatic stress, MSNA was microneurographically recorded for the first time before, during and after spaceflight in 1998 under Neurolab international research project. The same activity has been recorded during and/or after ground-based short- and long-term simulations of microgravity. MSNA was rather enhanced on the 12(th) and 13(th) day of spaceflight and just after landing day. Postflight MSNA response to head-up tilt was well preserved in astronauts who were orthostatically well tolerant. MSNA was suppressed during short-term simulation of microgravity less than 2 hours but was enhanced after long-term simulation of microgravity more than 3 days. Orthostatic intolerance after exposure to long-term simulation of microgravity was associated with reduced MSNA response to orthostatic stress with impaired baroreflex functions. These findings obtained from MSNA recordings in subjects exposed to space as well as short- and long-term simulations of

  18. [Autonomic provocative tests in the differential diagnostics of neurogenic syncope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort, A A; Lar'kin, V I

    2014-01-01

    To study the autonomic provision of orthostatic test in patients with neurogenic syncope. We examined 70 patients, aged from 18 to 56 years. Autonomic response was recorded by means of the autonomic index - minute volume of blood. The most informative indices were the minute volume of blood in the translation in orthostasis, minute the maximum volume of blood in the first half of orthostasis, the average minute volume of blood in the first half of the orthostasis.

  19. Plant survival in a changing environment: the role of nitric oxide in plant responses to abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eSimontacchi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide in plants may originate endogenously or come from surrounding atmosphere and soil. Interestingly, this gaseous free radical is far from having a constant level and varies greatly among tissues depending on a given plant´s ontogeny and environmental fluctuations.Proper plant growth, vegetative development, and reproduction require the integration of plant hormonal activity with the antioxidant network, as well as the maintenance of concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within a narrow range. Plants are frequently faced with abiotic stress conditions such as low nutrient availability, salinity, drought, high ultraviolet (UV radiation and extreme temperatures, which can influence developmental processes and lead to growth restriction making adaptive responses the plant´s priority. The ability of plants to respond and survive under environmental-stress conditions involves sensing and signalling events where nitric oxide becomes a critical component mediating hormonal actions, interacting with reactive oxygen species, and modulating gene expression and protein activity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of nitric oxide in adaptive plant responses to some specific abiotic stress conditions, particularly low mineral nutrient supply, drought, salinity and high UV-B radiation.

  20. Gene expression profiling of Corynebacterium glutamicum during Anaerobic nitrate respiration: induction of the SOS response for cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Taku; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2011-03-01

    The gene expression profile of Corynebacterium glutamicum under anaerobic nitrate respiration revealed marked differences in the expression levels of a number of genes involved in a variety of cellular functions, including carbon metabolism and respiratory electron transport chain, compared to the profile under aerobic conditions using DNA microarrays. Many SOS genes were upregulated by the shift from aerobic to anaerobic nitrate respiration. An elongated cell morphology, similar to that induced by the DivS-mediated suppression of cell division upon cell exposure to the DNA-damaging reagent mitomycin C, was observed in cells subjected to anaerobic nitrate respiration. None of these transcriptional and morphological differences were observed in a recA mutant strain lacking a functional RecA regulator of the SOS response. The recA mutant cells additionally showed significantly reduced viability compared to wild-type cells similarly grown under anaerobic nitrate respiration. These results suggest a role for the RecA-mediated SOS response in the ability of cells to survive any DNA damage that may result from anaerobic nitrate respiration in C. glutamicum.

  1. Infection of Burkholderia cepacia induces homeostatic responses in the host for their prolonged survival: the microarray perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Mariappan

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic human pathogen associated with life-threatening pulmonary infections in immunocompromised individuals. Pathogenesis of B. cepacia infection involves adherence, colonisation, invasion, survival and persistence in the host. In addition, B. cepacia are also known to secrete factors, which are associated with virulence in the pathogenesis of the infection. In this study, the host factor that may be the cause of the infection was elucidated in human epithelial cell line, A549, that was exposed to live B. cepacia (mid-log phase and its secretory proteins (mid-log and early-stationary phases using the Illumina Human Ref-8 microarray platform. The non-infection A549 cells were used as a control. Expression of the host genes that are related to apoptosis, inflammation and cell cycle as well as metabolic pathways were differentially regulated during the infection. Apoptosis of the host cells and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be inhibited by both live B. cepacia and its secretory proteins. In contrast, the host cell cycle and metabolic processes, particularly glycolysis/glycogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were transcriptionally up-regulated during the infection. Our microarray analysis provided preliminary insights into mechanisms of B. cepacia pathogenesis. The understanding of host response to an infection would provide novel therapeutic targets both for enhancing the host's defences and repressing detrimental responses induced by the invading pathogen.

  2. Impact of Molecular Subtypes in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer on Predicting Response and Survival after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Roland; Ashab, Hussam Al Deen; Erho, Nicholas; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Winters, Brian; Douglas, James; Van Kessel, Kim E; Fransen van de Putte, Elisabeth E; Sommerlad, Matthew; Wang, Natalie Q; Choeurng, Voleak; Gibb, Ewan A; Palmer-Aronsten, Beatrix; Lam, Lucia L; Buerki, Christine; Davicioni, Elai; Sjödahl, Gottfrid; Kardos, Jordan; Hoadley, Katherine A; Lerner, Seth P; McConkey, David J; Choi, Woonyoung; Kim, William Y; Kiss, Bernhard; Thalmann, George N; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Crabb, Simon J; North, Scott; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Boormans, Joost L; Wright, Jonathan; Dall'Era, Marc; van der Heijden, Michiel S; Black, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    An early report on the molecular subtyping of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) by gene expression suggested that response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) varies by subtype. To investigate the ability of molecular subtypes to predict pathological downstaging and survival after NAC. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed on pre-NAC transurethral resection specimens from 343 patients with MIBC. Samples were classified according to four published molecular subtyping methods. We developed a single-sample genomic subtyping classifier (GSC) to predict consensus subtypes (claudin-low, basal, luminal-infiltrated and luminal) with highest clinical impact in the context of NAC. Overall survival (OS) according to subtype was analyzed and compared with OS in 476 non-NAC cases (published datasets). Gene expression analysis was used to assign subtypes. Receiver-operating characteristics were used to determine the accuracy of GSC. The effect of GSC on survival was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. The models generated subtype calls in expected ratios with high concordance across subtyping methods. GSC was able to predict four consensus molecular subtypes with high accuracy (73%), and clinical significance of the predicted consensus subtypes could be validated in independent NAC and non-NAC datasets. Luminal tumors had the best OS with and without NAC. Claudin-low tumors were associated with poor OS irrespective of treatment regimen. Basal tumors showed the most improvement in OS with NAC compared with surgery alone. The main limitations of our study are its retrospective design and comparison across datasets. Molecular subtyping may have an impact on patient benefit to NAC. If validated in additional studies, our results suggest that patients with basal tumors should be prioritized for NAC. We discovered the first single-sample classifier to subtype MIBC, which may be suitable for integration into routine clinical practice. Different molecular

  3. Men and women should be separately investigated in studies of orthostatic challenge due to different gender-related dynamics of autonomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reulecke, S; Charleston-Villalobos, S; Voss, A; González-Camarena, R; González-Hermosillo, J; Gaitán-González, M J; Hernández-Pacheco, G; Schroeder, R; Aljama-Corrales, T

    2016-03-01

    In studies of autonomic regulation during orthostatic challenges only a few nonlinear methods have been considered without investigating the effect of gender in young controls. Especially, the temporal development of the autonomic regulation has not yet been explicitly analyzed using short-term segments in supine position, transition and orthostatic phase (OP). In this study, nonlinear analysis of cardiovascular and respiratory time series was performed to investigate how nonlinear indices are dynamically changing with respect to gender during orthostatic challenges. The analysis was carried out using shifted short-term segments throughout a head-up tilt test in 24 healthy subjects, 12 men (26  ±  4 years) and 12 age-matched women (26  ±  5 years), at supine position and during OP at 70°. The nonlinear methods demonstrated statistical differences in the autonomic regulation between males and females. Orthostatic stress caused significantly decreased heart rate variability due to increased sympathetic activity mainly in men, already at the beginning and during the complete OP, revealed by (a) increased occurrence of specific word types with constant fluctuations as pW111 from symbolic dynamics, (b) augmented fractal correlation properties by the short-term index alpha1 from detrended fluctuation analysis, (c) increased slope indices (21ati and 31ati) from auto-transinformation and (d) augmented time irreversibility indices demonstrating more temporal asymmetries and nonlinear dynamics in men than in women. After tilt-up, both men and women increased their sympathetic activity but in a different way. Time-dependent gender differences during orthostatic challenge were shown directly between men and women or indirectly comparing baseline and different temporal stages of OP. The proposed dynamical study of autonomic regulation has the advantage of screening the fluctuations of the sympathetic and vagal activities that can be quantified by the temporal

  4. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  5. Targeting Ongoing DNA Damage in Multiple Myeloma: Effects of DNA Damage Response Inhibitors on Plasma Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Herrero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs and a subset of myeloma patients with poor prognosis exhibit high levels of replication stress (RS, leading to DNA damage. In this study, we confirmed the presence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs in several HMCLs by measuring γH2AX and RAD51 foci and analyzed the effect of various inhibitors of the DNA damage response on MM cell survival. Inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR, the main kinase mediating the response to RS, using the specific inhibitor VE-821 induced more cell death in HMCLs than in control lymphoblastoid cells and U266, an HMCL with a low level of DNA damage. The absence of ATR was partially compensated by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM, since chemical inhibition of both kinases using VE-821 and KU-55933 significantly increased the death of MM cells with DNA damage. We found that ATM and ATR are involved in DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR in MM. Inhibition of both kinases resulted in a stronger inhibition that may underlie cell death induction, since abolition of HR using two different inhibitors severely reduced survival of HMCLs that exhibit DNA damage. On the other hand, inhibition of the other route involved in DSB repair, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ, using the DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441, did not affect MM cell viability. Interestingly, we found that NHEJ inhibition did not increase cell death when HR was simultaneously inhibited with the RAD51 inhibitor B02, but it clearly increased the level of cell death when HR was inhibited with the MRE11 inhibitor mirin, which interferes with recombination before DNA resection takes place. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that MM cells with ongoing DNA damage rely on an intact HR pathway, which thereby suggests therapeutic opportunities. We also show that inhibition of HR after the initial step of end resection might be more appropriate for inducing MM cell death, since it

  6. Targeting Ongoing DNA Damage in Multiple Myeloma: Effects of DNA Damage Response Inhibitors on Plasma Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Ana Belén; Gutiérrez, Norma Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and a subset of myeloma patients with poor prognosis exhibit high levels of replication stress (RS), leading to DNA damage. In this study, we confirmed the presence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in several HMCLs by measuring γH2AX and RAD51 foci and analyzed the effect of various inhibitors of the DNA damage response on MM cell survival. Inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR), the main kinase mediating the response to RS, using the specific inhibitor VE-821 induced more cell death in HMCLs than in control lymphoblastoid cells and U266, an HMCL with a low level of DNA damage. The absence of ATR was partially compensated by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM), since chemical inhibition of both kinases using VE-821 and KU-55933 significantly increased the death of MM cells with DNA damage. We found that ATM and ATR are involved in DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR) in MM. Inhibition of both kinases resulted in a stronger inhibition that may underlie cell death induction, since abolition of HR using two different inhibitors severely reduced survival of HMCLs that exhibit DNA damage. On the other hand, inhibition of the other route involved in DSB repair, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), using the DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441, did not affect MM cell viability. Interestingly, we found that NHEJ inhibition did not increase cell death when HR was simultaneously inhibited with the RAD51 inhibitor B02, but it clearly increased the level of cell death when HR was inhibited with the MRE11 inhibitor mirin, which interferes with recombination before DNA resection takes place. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that MM cells with ongoing DNA damage rely on an intact HR pathway, which thereby suggests therapeutic opportunities. We also show that inhibition of HR after the initial step of end resection might be more appropriate for inducing MM cell death, since it prevents the

  7. Survival and immune response of the Chagas vector Meccus pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) against two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Villegas, A Laura; Cabrera-Bravo, Margarita; Toriello, Conchita; Bucio-Torres, Martha I; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-24

    Chagas disease is a key health problem in Latin America and is caused and transmitted by Trypanosoma cruzi and triatomine bugs, respectively. Control of triatomines has largely relied on the use pyrethroids, which has proved to be ineffective in the long term. Alternatively, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been implemented to control triatomine bugs. These fungi are highly efficient as they induce a reduction in immune response on insects. Meccus pallidipennis is the main triatomine vector of Chagas disease in Mexico. In this work we investigated the effects of two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea, on M. pallidipennis nymphs in terms of insect survival and immune response. We had an infected and a control group for each fungal species and assessed: a) insect survival during 30 days; and, b) phenoloxidase (PO) and prophenoloxidase (proPO; two key traits in insect immune response) at 24, 48, 96 and 144 h. For survival we used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis while for immune response we used factorial, repeated-measures ANOVA for each fungal species. Animals treated with M. anisopliae died sooner than animals treated with I. fumosorosea. Infected animals showed lower PO and proPO values than sham individuals, with a clear decrease in these parameters at 24 h with no further changes after this time. Our study widens the possibility of entomopathogenic fungi being used for triatomine control. The negative effect on PO and proPO seems mediated by a down-regulation of the triatomine immune response.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: radiologic-pathologic correlation of the response and disease-free survival depending on molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Ciria, S; Jiménez Aragón, F; García Mur, C; Esteban Cuesta, H; Gros Bañeres, B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic and pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their correlation in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to analyze their impact in disease-free survival. We included 205 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the radiologic response by comparing MRI images acquired before and after chemotherapy. The pathologic response was classified on the Miller and Payne scale. For each subtype (HER2+, TN, luminal A, luminal B HER2-, and luminal B HER2+), we used the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and Kendall's Tau-b to evaluate the radiologic response and the pathologic response, the radiologic-pathologic correlation, and the disease-free survival. The subtypes HER2+ (62.1%) and TN (45.2%) had higher rates of complete radiologic response. The pathologic response was 65.5% in the HER2+ subtype, 38.1% in the TN subtype, 2.6% in the luminal A subtype, 8.2% in the luminal B HER2- subtype, and 31% in the luminal B HER2+ subtype. The rate of radiologic-pathologic correlation was significant in all subtypes, higher in TN and HER2 (Tau-b coefficients 0.805 and 0.717, respectively). Disease-free survival was higher in HER2+ (91.9±3.3 months) and lower in TN (69.5±6.3 months), with significant differences between the cases with poor and good radiologic responses (P=.040). Survival was greater in cases with good radiologic response, except in cases with luminal A subtype. MRI can be a useful tool that provides information about the evolution of breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which varies with the immunohistochemical subtype. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Galectin 3 acts as an enhancer of survival responses in H. pylori-infected gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Ho, Bow

    2016-02-01

    Galectin 3 (Gal-3) is upregulated in gastric epithelial cells as a host response to Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the significance of Gal-3 expression in H. pylori-infected cells is not well established. We analyzed Gal-3 intracellular expression, localization, and its effects in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. The predominantly nuclear confined Gal-3 was shown to be upregulated and exported out to the cytoplasm in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. The nuclear export was channeled through CRM-1 (exportin-1) protein. Interestingly, knock down of Gal-3 expression led to reduced NF-κB promoter activity and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion, suggesting its pro-inflammatory roles. Furthermore, Gal-3 was found to be pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic in nature, as its knock down caused a reduction in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis, respectively. Taken together, our data suggest the expression and upregulation of Gal-3 as a critical endogenous event in H. pylori infection that interferes with various intracellular events, causing prolonged cell survival, which is characteristic in carcinogenesis.

  10. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  11. Single- versus Triple-Drug Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Comparing Outcomes by Toxicity, Imaging Response, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouli, Samdeep K; Hickey, Ryan; Thornburg, Bartley; Sato, Kent T; Desai, Kush; Gabr, Ahmed; Kallini, Joseph R; Niemeri, Halla; Kircher, Sheetal; Mulcahy, Mary F; Benson Iii, Al B; Gupta, Ramona; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    To determine the efficacy of single- versus triple-drug chemoembolization for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, as measured by toxicity, tumor response, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS). A single-center retrospective review was performed on 337 patients who underwent chemoembolization over a 14-year period; 172 patients underwent triple-drug conventional transarterial chemoembolization, and 165 patients underwent single-agent doxorubicin chemoembolization. Imaging characteristics and clinical follow-up after conventional transarterial chemoembolization were evaluated to determine TTP. Imaging response was determined per World Health Organization and European Association for the Study of Liver criteria. OS from time of first chemoembolization was calculated. Median TTP was similar between groups: 7.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.1-9.4) and 6.8 months (95% CI, 4.6-8.6) for triple- and single-drug regimens, respectively (P > .05). For single-agent conventional transarterial chemoembolization, median OS varied significantly by Barcelona Clinic for Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage: A, 40.8 months; B, 36.4 months; C, 10.9 months (P < .01). Median OS for triple-drug therapy also varied significantly by BCLC: A, 28.9 months; B, 18.1 months; C, 9.0 months (P < .01). Single-drug conventional transarterial chemoembolization demonstrated longer median OS compared with triple-drug therapy (P < .05) for BCLC A/B patients. Single-agent chemoembolization with doxorubicin and ethiodized oil demonstrates acceptable efficacy as measured by TTP and OS. Results compare favorably with traditional triple-drug therapy. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Learner Behaviors and Perceptions of Autonomous Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekleyen, Nilüfer; Selimoglu, Figen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the learners' behaviors and perceptions about autonomous language learning at the university level in Turkey. It attempts to reveal what type of perceptions learners held regarding teachers' and their own responsibilities in the language learning process. Their autonomous language learning…

  13. Projecting demographic responses to climate change: adult and juvenile survival respond differently to direct and indirect effects of weather in a passerine population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybala, Kristen E.; Eadie, John M.; Gardali, Thomas; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively projected changes in demography in response to climate change, yet doing so can provide important insights into the processes that may lead to population declines and changes in species distributions. Using a long-term mark-recapture data set, we examined the influence of multiple direct and indirect effects of weather on adult and juvenile survival for a population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in California. We found evidence for a positive, direct effect of winter temperature on adult survival, and a positive, indirect effect of prior rainy season precipitation on juvenile survival, which was consistent with an effect of precipitation on food availability during the breeding season. We used these relationships, and climate projections of significantly warmer and slightly drier winter weather by the year 2100, to project a significant increase in mean adult survival (12-17%) and a slight decrease in mean juvenile survival (4-6%) under the B1 and A2 climate change scenarios. Together with results from previous studies on seasonal fecundity and postfledging survival in this population, we integrated these results in a population model and projected increases in the population growth rate under both climate change scenarios. Our results underscore the importance of considering multiple, direct, and indirect effects of weather throughout the annual cycle, as well as differences in the responses of each life stage to climate change. Projecting demographic responses to climate change can identify not only how populations will be affected by climate change but also indicate the demographic process(es) and specific mechanisms that may be responsible. This information can, in turn, inform climate change adaptation plans, help prioritize future research, and identify where limited conservation resources will be most effectively and efficiently spent.

  14. Projecting demographic responses to climate change: adult and juvenile survival respond differently to direct and indirect effects of weather in a passerine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybala, Kristen E; Eadie, John M; Gardali, Thomas; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Herzog, Mark P

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have quantitatively projected changes in demography in response to climate change, yet doing so can provide important insights into the processes that may lead to population declines and changes in species distributions. Using a long-term mark-recapture data set, we examined the influence of multiple direct and indirect effects of weather on adult and juvenile survival for a population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in California. We found evidence for a positive, direct effect of winter temperature on adult survival, and a positive, indirect effect of prior rainy season precipitation on juvenile survival, which was consistent with an effect of precipitation on food availability during the breeding season. We used these relationships, and climate projections of significantly warmer and slightly drier winter weather by the year 2100, to project a significant increase in mean adult survival (12-17%) and a slight decrease in mean juvenile survival (4-6%) under the B1 and A2 climate change scenarios. Together with results from previous studies on seasonal fecundity and postfledging survival in this population, we integrated these results in a population model and projected increases in the population growth rate under both climate change scenarios. Our results underscore the importance of considering multiple, direct, and indirect effects of weather throughout the annual cycle, as well as differences in the responses of each life stage to climate change. Projecting demographic responses to climate change can identify not only how populations will be affected by climate change but also indicate the demographic process(es) and specific mechanisms that may be responsible. This information can, in turn, inform climate change adaptation plans, help prioritize future research, and identify where limited conservation resources will be most effectively and efficiently spent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical response, drug survival and predictors thereof in 432 patients with ankylosing spondylitis switching anti tumor necrosis factor α therapy: Results from the Danish nationwide Danbio registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Østergaard, Mikkel; Krogh, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies and reasons for switching, treatment responses and drug survival in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) switching tumour-necrosis-factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) treatment in routine clinical care. METHODS: AS patients were identified in the Danish nationwide...

  16. TIMP-1 Is Significantly Associated with Objective Response and Survival in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Combination of Irinotecan, 5-Fluorouracil, and Folinic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna M; Byström, Per; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    the curve 0.66) butmuchless so. PlasmaTIMP-1was the only significant covariate in a multivariable analysis of best objective response (OR, 3.6; 95%CI,1.4-9.5; P = 0.001). PlasmaTIMP-1scoredas a continuous variable on the log scale (loge) was significantly associatedwith overall survival [OS; hazardr atio...

  17. Prognostic nutritional index serves as a predicative marker of survival and associates with systemic inflammatory response in metastatic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chenyue Zhang,1,2 Haiyong Wang,1,3 Zhouyu Ning,1,2 Litao Xu,1,2 Liping Zhuang,1,2 Peng Wang,1,2 Zhiqiang Meng1,2 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI has been widely reported and confirmed in many types of cancers. However, few studies are available indicating its prognostic power in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. Thus, we investigated its relationship with overall survival (OS to evaluate its role in predicting survival in patients with ICC. Patients and methods: Between October 2011 and October 2015, 173 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic ICC were enrolled. First, the correlations between PNI and clinical factors were analyzed among these patients. Next, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between PNI and OS among these patients with ICC. In addition, the relationships between PNI and three typical systemic inflammatory response (SIR markers – the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, the platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR – were also assessed. Results: A lower PNI was linked with a shorter OS in patients with ICC, as reflected obviously in the Kaplan–Meier analyses. The patients with ICC were divided into the locally advanced group and the metastatic group. Further analyses revealed that PNI is not associated with OS in the locally advanced group. However, in the subgroup of patients with metastatic ICC, a lower PNI significantly correlated with a worsened OS. The OS for patients with a low PNI is 5 months, whereas the OS is 10.17 months for patients with a high PNI. Multivariate analyses revealed

  18. Early survival prediction after intra-arterial therapies: a 3D quantitative MRI assessment of tumour response after TACE or radioembolization of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapiro, Julius; Savic, Lynn Jeanette [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-Francois [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lin, MingDe [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); U/S Imaging and Interventions (UII), Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Lesage, David [Philips Research, Medisys, Suresnes (France)

    2015-07-15

    This study evaluated the predictive role of 1D, 2D and 3D quantitative, enhancement-based MRI regarding overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following intra-arterial therapies (IAT). This retrospective analysis included 29 patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radioembolization and received MRI within 6 weeks after therapy. Tumour response was assessed using 1D and 2D criteria (such as European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines [EASL] and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]). In addition, a segmentation-based 3D quantification of overall (volumetric [v] RECIST) and enhancing lesion volume (quantitative [q] EASL) was performed on portal venous phase MRI. Accordingly, patients were classified as responders (R) and non-responders (NR). Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). Only enhancement-based criteria identified patients as responders. EASL and mRECIST did not predict patient survival (P = 0.27 and P = 0.44, respectively). Using uni- and multivariate analysis, qEASL was identified as the sole predictor of patient survival (9.9 months for R, 6.9 months for NR; P = 0.038; HR 0.4). The ability of qEASL to predict survival early after IAT provides evidence for potential advantages of 3D quantitative tumour analysis. (orig.)

  19. Skin rash in patients treated with neoadjuvant erlotinib (Tarceva in resectable non-small cell lung cancer: Predictor for tumor response and survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Gool MH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin rash during treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI has been reported to be predictive for response and survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether skin rash during treatment (as a biomarker in a preoperative setting was related to response and survival. Methods: This study was designed as an open-label phase II trial (also known as M06NEL. Patients received preoperative erlotinib (Tarceva 150 mg once daily for 3 weeks. Skin toxicity during treatment was analysed in relation to metabolic and histopathological response, overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. Results: In total 59 patients (25 male, 34 female were eligible for analysis. In 39 patients (66% skin toxicity occurred. According to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCICTC, Grade 1 toxicity was seen in 15 patients (25%, Grade 2 in 19 patients (32% and Grade 3 in five patients (8%. None of the patients showed skin toxicity Grade 4 and 5. The median follow up was 74 months. Thirty-six patients (61% were alive at time of analysis. Twenty-seven patients (46% showed disease progression during follow up. Hazard ratios (HR indicated lower risk of death (HR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.29 - 1.50 and progression (HR = 0.64, 0.30 - 1.36, although in this small group results were not significant. Skin rash did not adequately predict response. Conclusions: In this neoadjuvant setting with limited treatment time in patients with early stage NSCLC, skin rash was not associated with response and survival and cannot be used as an early biomarker.

  20. [(90)Yttrium-DOTA]-TOC response is associated with survival benefit in iodine-refractory thyroid cancer: long-term results of a phase 2 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Fabienne; Muller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Rasch, Helmut; Rochlitz, Christoph; Oertli, Daniel; Maecke, Helmut R; Muller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2009-05-15

    The authors aimed to explore the efficacy of (90)Yttrium-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid [(90)Y-DOTA]-Tyr(3)-octreotide (TOC) in advanced iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. In a phase 2 trial, the authors investigated biochemical response (assessed by serum thyroglobulin levels), survival, and the long-term safety profile of systemic [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. Adverse events were assessed according to the National Cancer Institute criteria. Survival analyses were performed by using multiple regression models. A total of 24 patients were enrolled. A median cumulative activity of 13.0 GBq (range, 1.7-30.3 GBq) was administered. Response was found in 7 (29.2%) patients. Eight (33.3%) patients developed hematologic toxicity grade 1-3, and 4 (16.7%) patients developed renal toxicity grade 1-4. The median survival was 33.4 months (range, 3.6-126.8 months) from time of diagnosis and 16.8 months (range, 1.8-99.1 months) from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. Response to treatment was associated with longer survival from time of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.92; P = .04) and from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94; P = .04). The visual grade of scintigraphic tumor uptake was not associated with treatment response (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.26-3.14; P = 1.00). Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer was associated with longer survival. Upcoming trials should aim to increase the number of treatment cycles.

  1. Long-Term Survival According to Histology and Radiologic Response to Preoperative Chemotherapy in 126 Patients Undergoing Resection of Non-GIST Sarcoma Liver Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumard, Claire; Marcal, Leonardo P; Wang, Wei-Lien; Somaiah, Neeta; Okuno, Masayuki; Roland, Christina L; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Chun, Yun Shin; Feig, Barry W; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Conrad, Claudius

    2018-01-01

    Non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas (NGSs) have heterogeneous histology, and this heterogeneity may lead to uncertainty regarding the prognosis of patients with liver metastases from NGS (NGSLM) and decision regarding their surgical management. Furthermore, the role of preoperative chemotherapy in treatment of NGSLM remains poorly defined. We investigated long-term survival and its correlation to response to preoperative chemotherapy in patients with NGSLM. Patients who underwent liver resection for NGSLM during 1998-2015 were identified. Clinical, histopathologic, and survival data were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. 126 patients [62 (49%) with leiomyosarcoma] were included. Five-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 49.3 and 14.9%, respectively. Survival did not differ by histologic subtype, primary tumor location, or use of preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy. NGSLM ≥ 10 cm and extrahepatic metastases at NGSLM diagnosis were the only independent risk factors for OS. In the 83 (66%) patients with metachronous NSGLM, disease-free interval > 6 months was associated with improved OS and RFS. Among the 65 patients (52%) who received preoperative chemotherapy, radiologic response according to Choi criteria specifically was associated with improved OS (p = 0.04), but radiologic response according to RECIST 1.1 criteria was not. Resection of NGSLM led to a 5-year OS rate of 49%, independent of histologic subtype and primary tumor location. Choi criteria (which take into account tumor density) are superior to RECIST 1.1 in assessing radiologic response and should be used to assess response to preoperative chemotherapy.

  2. Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

    1996-10-01

    The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology.

  3. p53/Surviving Ratio as a Parameter for Chemotherapy Induction Response in Children with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Lenggana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a malignancy that is often found in children. Many studies into the failure of apoptosis function, or programmed cell death, is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms of cellular hemostasis which is closely linked to the development of cancer, are important. Also, regulation of the apoptotic (p53 and anti-apoptotic (surviving proteins influence treatment outcome. One role of p53 is to monitor cellular stress necessary to induce apoptosis. Surviving (BIRC5 is a group of proteins in the apoptosis inhibitor which works by inhibiting caspase-3. The role of surviving is considered very important in oncogenesis proliferation and cell growth regulation. Chemotherapy in childhood AML can inhibit cell growth and induce slowing as well as stopping the cell cycle. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare p53 and surviving before and after receiving induction chemotherapy in children with AML and also to determine the p53/surviving ratio. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from AML children before treatment and three months after starting their induction therapy. p53 and surviving were measured by flowcytometry using monoclonal antibodies. Data were analyzed by t-test for comparison between groups and Spearman’s test to find out the correlation between variables with a significant value of p < 0.05. A total of 8 children were evaluated. The intensity of p53 expression was not significantly increased after induction phase chemotherapy (p = 0.224, but surviving expression and the ratio of p53/surviving were significantly increased in the treatment group compared with the levels prior to chemotherapy (p = 0.002, p = 0.034, and there was a strong negative correlation between p53 and surviving after chemotherapy (r = −0.63, p = 0.049.

  4. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  5. Autonomous Language Learning: The Teachers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a large-scale study on learner autonomy in language learning carried out with students and English teachers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Examines the teachers' views of their roles and responsibilities, their assessment of their students'decision-making abilities and the autonomous language learning activities that they have…

  6. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  7. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  8. The Autonomous Helicopter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes an autonomous airborne vehicle being developed at the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station. The Autonomous Helicopter System (AHS) is a multi-mission system consisting of three distinct sections: vision, planning and control. Vision provides the local and global scene analysis which is symbolically represented and passed to planning as the initial route planning constraints. Planning generates a task dependent path for the vehicle to traverse which assures maximum mission system success as well as safety. Control validates the path and either executes the given route or feeds back to previous sections in order to resolve conflicts.

  9. SLCO1B1 and SLC19A1 gene variants and irinotecan-induced rapid response and survival: a prospective multicenter pharmacogenetics study of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huang

    Full Text Available Rapid response to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC patients (response within 12 weeks of chemotherapy may increase the chance of complete resection and improved survival. Few molecular markers predict irinotecan-induced rapid response and survival. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in solute carrier genes are reported to correlate with the variable pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and folate in cancer patients. This study aims to evaluate the predictive role of 3 SNPs in mCRC patients treated with irinotecan and fluoropyrimidine-containing regimens.Three SNPs were selected and genotyped in 137 mCRC patients from a Chinese prospective multicenter trial (NCT01282658. The chi-squared test, univariate and multivariable logistic regression model, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to evaluate correlations between the genotypes and rapid response. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between genotypes and survival outcomes. Benjamini and Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction was used in multiple testing.Genotype GA/AA of SNP rs2306283 of the gene SLCO1B1 and genotype GG of SNP rs1051266 of the gene SLC19A1 were associated with a higher rapid response rate (odds ratio [OR] =3.583 and 3.521, 95%CI =1.301-9.871 and 1.271-9.804, p=0.011 and p=0.013, respectively. The response rate was 70% in patients with both genotypes, compared with only 19.7% in the remaining patients (OR = 9.489, 95%CI = 2.191-41.093, Fisher's exact test p=0.002. Their significances were all maintained even after multiple testing (all p c < 0.05. The rs2306283 GA/AA genotype was also an independent prognostic factor of longer progression-free survival (PFS (hazard ratio = 0.402, 95%CI = 0.171-0.945, p=0.037. None of the SNPs predicted overall survival.Polymorphisms of solute carriers' may be useful to predict rapid response to irinotecan plus fluoropyrimidine and PFS in m

  10. Effect of HPV-associated p16INK4A expression on response to radiotherapy and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Eriksen, Jesper G; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    with improved locoregional tumor control (5-year actuarial values 58% v 28%; P = .0005), improved disease-specific survival (72% v 34%; P = .0006), and improved overall survival (62% v 26%; P = .0003). In multivariate analysis, p16(INK4A) remained a strong independent prognostic factor for locoregional failure......PURPOSE: A subset of head and neck cancers is associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Viral infection is closely correlated with expression of p16(INK4A) in these tumors. We evaluated p16(INK4A) as a prognostic marker of treatment response and survival in a well-defined and prospectively...... collected cohort of patients treated solely with conventional radiotherapy in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) 5 trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4A) was analyzed in pretreatment paraffin-embedded tumor blocks from 156 patients treated with conventional...

  11. The Transcriptional Response of Neurotrophins and Their Tyrosine Kinase Receptors in Lumbar Sensorimotor Circuits to Spinal Cord Contusion is Affected by Injury Severity and Survival Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougland, M. Tyler; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in changes to the anatomical, neurochemical, and physiological properties of cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurotrophins, acting by binding to their cognate Trk receptors on target cell membranes, contribute to modulation of anatomical, neurochemical, and physiological properties of neurons in sensorimotor circuits in both the intact and injured spinal cord. Neurotrophin signaling is associated with many post-SCI changes including maladaptive plasticity leading to pain and autonomic dysreflexia, but also therapeutic approaches such as training-induced locomotor improvement. Here we characterize expression of mRNA for neurotrophins and Trk receptors in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord after two different severities of mid-thoracic injury and at 6 and 12 weeks post-SCI. There was complex regulation that differed with tissue, injury severity, and survival time, including reversals of regulation between 6 and 12 weeks, and the data suggest that natural regulation of neurotrophins in the spinal cord may continue for months after birth. Our assessments determined that a coordination of gene expression emerged at the 12-week post-SCI time point and bioinformatic analyses address possible mechanisms. These data can inform studies meant to determine the role of the neurotrophin signaling system in post-SCI function and plasticity, and studies using this signaling system as a therapeutic approach. PMID:23316162

  12. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  13. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Nederend

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted.

  14. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederend, Ineke; Jongbloed, Monique R M; de Geus, Eco J C; Blom, Nico A; Ten Harkel, Arend D J

    2016-04-15

    Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted.

  15. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  16. Developing Autonomous Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  17. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  18. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  19. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  20. High RBM3 expression is associated with an improved survival and oxaliplatin response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Siesing

    Full Text Available High expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3 has been shown to correlate, with prolonged survival in several malignant diseases and with the benefit of platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate RBM3 in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC as a prognostic factor for overall survival and in relation to benefit of first-line chemotherapy.Immunohistochemical staining was conducted and evaluated in tumours from 455 mCRC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression proportional hazards models were used to access the impact of RBM3 expression on overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS.High RBM3 expression, both nuclear and cytoplasmic, was an independent prognostic factor for prolonged OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.90 and HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.91, respectively. PFS was significantly longer in patients with high RBM3 expression who had received first-line oxaliplatin based treatment, compared to those who had received irinotecan based treatment, both regarding nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (p-value 0.020 and 0.022 respectively.High RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of prolonged survival in mCRC patients, in particular in patients treated with first-line oxaliplatin based chemotherapy.

  1. Responses Of Subalpine Conifer Seedling Germination And Survival To Soil Microclimate In The Alpine Treeline Warming Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, C.; Moyes, A. B.; Torn, M. S.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    At Niwot Ridge, Colorado, we used common gardens and climate manipulations to investigate potential subalpine tree species range shifts due to climate change. In Fall 2009 we harvested seed from local populations of limber pine and Englemann spruce, which we sowed in 3 experimental sites spanning an elevation gradient from lower subalpine forest (3080m asl), to the upper subalpine treeline ecotone (3400m asl), to the alpine tundra (3550m asl). In October we turned on overhead infrared heaters designed to increase growing season surface soil temperature by 4-5°C, and following snowmelt in 2010 we crossed this heating treatment with manual watering, adding 3mm of water each week. Here we report on the species, site, and treatment effects on seedling emergence and survival as mediated by snowmelt date, soil temperature, and soil moisture. Depending on the site and plot, heating accelerated germination by 1 to 4 weeks. Germination degree days (heat accumulation required for seed germination) were greater for pine than for spruce and greater in drier plots. Seedling survival was explained by date of emergence, with older seedlings more likely to survive the season. Survival was also explained by drought degree days -- the number of days below critical soil moisture thresholds compounded by high temperature -- with lower thresholds for spruce than for pine. Our preliminary results indicate that a warmer environment will stimulate germination for both species, but that, survival - especially for spruce - will be critically modulated by summer soil moisture.

  2. High RBM3 expression is associated with an improved survival and oxaliplatin response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siesing, Christina; Sorbye, Halfdan; Dragomir, Anca

    2017-01-01

    Background: High expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has been shown to correlate, with prolonged survival in several malignant diseases and with the benefit of platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate RBM3 in metastatic colorectal cancer...... (mCRC) as a prognostic factor for overall survival and in relation to benefit of first-line chemotherapy. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was conducted and evaluated in tumours from 455 mCRC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression proportional hazards models were used to access...... RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of prolonged survival in mCRC patients, in particular in patients treated with first-line oxaliplatin based chemotherapy....

  3. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Kunbootsri, Narupon; Arayawichanon, Preeda; Chainansamit, Seksun; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients. Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks. There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u.), PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u.) at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group. Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergic rhinitis patients.

  4. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederend, I.; Jongbloed, M.R.M.; de Geus, J.C.N.; Blom, N.A.; ten Harkel, A.D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long

  5. Early 18F-FDG-PET/CT as a predictive marker for treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan and cetuximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skougaard, Kristin; Nielsen, Dorte; Jensen, Benny Vittrup

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To clarify if early reduction in standard uptake value (SUV) could predict metabolic response, radiologic response and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving third-line treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were regardless of KRAS status......, included in this phase II trial. They were treated with the monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and the chemotherapeutic drug, irinotecan, every second week. A F18-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) was scheduled before the first and second treatment, respectively......, and then after every fourth treatment. Early metabolic response after one treatment and best overall metabolic response was calculated according to EORTC criteria (responders: ≥15% decrease in ∑SUVmax) and PERCIST (responders: ≥30% decrease in SULpeak). Best overall radiologic response was calculated according...

  6. Decreased myocardial perfusion reserve in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, Mustafa; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Verner

    2002-01-01

    conditions and after Dipyridamole-induced vasodilatation in nine type 1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy (AN+), defined by cardiovascular tests, as well as in 10 type 1 diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (AN-) and 10 healthy control subjects. Baseline myocardial perfusion index (K......The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for increased cardiovascular mortality in diabetic autonomic neuropathy are unknown. To investigate the effect of autonomic neuropathy on myocardial function, we performed dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion imaging during baseline......(i)) was similar in the three groups (AN+ 88.6 +/- 8.7 ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), AN- 82.6 +/- 7.2, control subjects 93.7 +/- 9.0) (means +/- SE). K(i) during Dipyridamole vasodilatation was significantly lower in the patients with autonomic neuropathy (P

  7. A Prospective Study Assessing Tumour Response, Survival, and Palliative Care Outcomes in Patients with HIV-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Francis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus- (HIV- related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS has a high prevalence in Africa; however, there is minimal published data on treatment and outcomes in this population. Objective and Design. This was a prospective study of 50 patients, aiming to assess the impact of vincristine therapy on tumour response and survival and to assess palliative care outcomes in patients with HIV-related KS. Methods. 50 consecutive patients were recruited during 2008. Vincristine therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were given. Tumour response, survival, and chemotherapy-related toxicities were documented. Palliative care outcomes were assessed using the African Palliative Care Association (APCA Palliative Outcome Scale (POS. Results. The majority of patients were male, and the median age was 33 years. At baseline assessment, the median CD4 T-cell count was 263, and 50% patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. The overall response rate was 64% at 6 weeks, and median progression-free survival was 30 weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with peripheral neuropathy the main dose-limiting toxicity. Conclusion. The combination of vincristine and HAART is feasible and effective in a low resource setting, although peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting factor. This patient group carries a high mortality and as such adequate access to palliative care is crucial.

  8. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival compared with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer only after complete pathologic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla S; Ma, Cynthia X; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca L; Eberlein, Timothy J; Gao, Feng; Margenthaler, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is known to be chemosensitive. In patients with TNBC, we sought to compare survival outcomes between patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with and without complete pathologic response (pCR), and those receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective chart review and identified 385 patients with stage I-III TNBC who were treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy between 2000 and 2008. Patients were divided according to receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with pCR, neoadjuvant chemotherapy without pCR, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Kaplan-Meier curves were generated. Of 385 patients, 151 (39%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 234 (61%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Twenty-six (17%) of those patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had pCR. After controlling for covariates associated with survival in unadjusted tests, patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with residual tumor had significantly worse survival compared with patients receiving adjuvant therapy [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51, P = 0.007] and a trend towards worse survival compared with patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy with pCR (HR = 0.19, P = 0.10). Although previous clinical trials have not demonstrated a survival difference between patients receiving neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, our study suggests an overall survival benefit in patients with pCR following neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients receiving adjuvant therapy. It is clear that a prospective study needs to be carried out to better elucidate the timing of chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.

  9. Level of HER2 gene amplification predicts response and overall survival in HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Martin, Carlos; Plaza, Jose Carlos; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; Salud, Antonieta; Pons, Francesc; Fonseca, Paula; Leon, Ana; Alsina, Maria; Visa, Laura; Rivera, Fernando; Galan, M Carmen; Del Valle, Elena; Vilardell, Felipe; Iglesias, Mar; Fernandez, Soledad; Landolfi, Stefania; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Mayorga, Marta; Jose Paulés, M; Sanz-Moncasi, Pilar; Montagut, Clara; Garralda, Elena; Rojo, Federico; Hidalgo, Manuel; Lopez-Rios, Fernando

    2013-12-10

    Previous studies have highlighted the importance of an appropriate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) evaluation for the proper identification of patients eligible for treatment with anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Today, the relationship remains unclear between the level of HER2 amplification and the outcome of HER2-positive gastric cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with trastuzumab. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of HER2 gene amplification determined by the HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number could significantly predict some benefit in overall survival and response to therapy in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. Ninety patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated with first-line trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were studied. The optimal cutoff values for HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number (GCN) for discriminating positive results in terms of response and prolonged survival were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves analyses. In this study, a median HER2/CEP17 ratio of 6.11 (95% CI, 2.27 to 21.90) and a median HER2 gene copy number of 11.90 (95% CI, 3.30 to 43.80) were found. A mean HER2/CEP17 ratio of 4.7 was identified as the optimal cutoff value discriminating sensitive and refractory patients (P = .005). Similarly, the optimal cutoff for predicting survival longer than 12 months was 4.45 (P = .005), and for survival longer than 16 months was 5.15 (P = .004). For HER2 GCN, the optimal cutoff values were 9.4, 10.0, and 9.5, respectively (P = .02). The level of HER2 gene amplification significantly predicts sensitivity to therapy and overall survival in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.

  10. Anoxic or aerial survival of bivalves and other euryoxic invertebrates as a useful response to environmental stress - A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zwaan, A.; Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the applicability of anoxic/aerial survival as an early warning indicator of contaminant induced stress. The effects of xenobiotics, including heavy metals, organometals and organics as well as contaminated field sediments have been investigated. The

  11. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  13. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  14. Correlation between cardiac autonomic modulation in response to orthostatic stress and indicators of quality of life, physical capacity, and physical activity in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thiago R; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras; Gurgel, Jonas L; da Silva Soares, Pedro P

    2015-05-01

    Increased heart rate variability (HRV) at rest is frequently associated to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), physical activity, and markers of quality of life (QoL). However, the HRV has not been observed during physical exercise or orthostatic (ORT) challenge. This study investigated the associations of HRV changes (ΔHRV) from rest at supine (SUP) to ORT positions with (VO2max), physical activity level, and QoL in young adults. Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed by spectral analysis of R-R time series measured from SUP to ORT positions in 15 healthy volunteers (26 ± 7 years). Questionnaires were applied for evaluation of QoL (SF-36 score), to estimate (VO2max), and to quantify physical activity (Baecke Sport Score). All HRV indices at SUP, but not ORT, strongly correlated to QoL, estimated (VO2max), and physical activity. The ΔHRV from SUP to ORT showed significant correlations with all questionnaire scores (r = 0.52-0.61 for low frequency and r = -0.61 to -0.65 for high frequency, p ≤ 0.05). Higher vagal activity at rest and greater changes in adrenergic and parasympathetic modulation from SUP to ORT were detected in the volunteers exhibiting higher scores of QoL, estimated (VO2max), and physical activity. Taken together, the level of neural adaptations from resting SUP position to active standing, and physical activity and QoL questionnaires seem to be a simple approach to understand the physiological and lifestyle adaptations to exercise that may be applied to a large sample of subjects in almost any sports facilities at a low cost.

  15. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  16. Assessment of predictors of response and long-term survival of patients with neuroendocrine tumour treated with peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, G.; Thompson, M.; Johnston, V.; Eu, P. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Collins, M.; Herschtal, A. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hofman, M.S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Michael, M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    To review the response and outcomes of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate chemoradionuclide therapy (LuTate PRCRT) in patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET) expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors with uncontrolled symptoms or disease progression. A total of 68 patients (39 men; 17 - 76 years of age) who had completed an induction course of at least three cycles of LuTate PRCRT between January 2006 and June 2010 were reviewed. Ten patients were treated for uncontrolled symptoms and 58 had disease progression despite conventional treatment. The majority had four induction LuTate cycles (median treatment duration 5 months and cumulative activity 31 GBq), and 63 patients had concomitant 5-FU radiosensitizing infusional chemotherapy. Factors predicting overall survival were assessed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of those treated for uncontrolled symptoms, 70 % received benefit maintained for at least 6 months after treatment. Among patients with progressive disease 68 % showed stabilization or regression on CT, 67 % on molecular imaging and 56 % biochemically up to 12 months after treatment; 32 patients died. Overall survival rates at 2 and 5 year were 72.1 % and 52.1 %, respectively. Median overall survival was not estimable at a median follow-up of 60 months (range 5 - 86 months). Nonpancreatic primary sites, dominant liver metastases, lesion size <5 cm and the use of 5-FU chemotherapy were statistically significantly associated with objective response. A disseminated pattern and a high disease burden (whole-body retention index) were associated with an increased risk of death. Objective biochemical, molecular imaging and CT responses were all associated with longer overall survival. A high proportion of patients with progressive NET or uncontrolled symptoms received therapeutic benefit from LuTate with concomitant 5-FU chemotherapy. The achievement of objective biochemical, molecular or CT responses within 12 months was

  17. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  18. Wood-smoke exposure as a response and survival predictor in erlotinib-treated non-small cell lung cancer patients: an open label phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Martinez-Barrera, Luis; Treviño, Sergio; Guzman, Enrique; Castillo-Gonzalez, Patricia; Rios-Trejo, Miguel Angel; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Téllez, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Cesar; de la Cruz Vargas, Johny; Gonzalez-De la Rosa, Claudia Haydee; Hernandez-Pedro, Norma; Morales-Barrera, Rafael; De la Garza, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    Erlotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has improved survival and quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after first- or second-line chemotherapy. Asian origin, adenocarcinoma histology, female gender, lack of tobacco use, and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor are significant independent predictors of response to Erlotinib. Although tobacco use is considered a major cause of NSCLC, other risk factors such as wood-smoke exposure (WSE) are associated. Almost 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid fuels as their primary source of domestic energy for cooking and heating. In this study, 150 consecutive unselected patients with histologically proven NSCLC with progression after prior first- or second-line chemotherapy and/or poor performance status were treated with Erlotinib 150 mg/d. Clinical and pathologic characteristics were associated with response. Overall response to Erlotinib was observed in 51 patients [34%; 95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 29.9-37.6]. In multivariate analysis, clinical features associated with response to Erlotinib were adenocarcinoma (35 versus 20%; p = 0.05) and WSE (83 versus 13%; p < 0.001). Factors associated with longer progression-free survival in Cox analysis included adenocarcinoma (7.9 versus 2.3 months; p = 0.009), female gender (8.4 versus 5.3 months; p = 0.04), and WSE (17.6 versus 5.3 months; p = 0.006). WSE is associated with better response to Erlotinib and improved progression-free survival in patients with NSCLC. Additional studies in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway in WSE-associated NSCLC are warranted.

  19. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  20. HIF-1α- Targeting Acriflavine Provides Long Term Survival and Radiological Tumor Response in Brain Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangraviti, Antonella; Raghavan, Tula; Volpin, Francesco; Skuli, Nicolas; Gullotti, David; Zhou, Jinyuan; Asnaghi, Laura; Sankey, Eric; Liu, Ann; Wang, Yuan; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Gorelick, Noah; Serra, Riccardo; Peters, Michael; Schriefer, Destiny; Delaspre, Fabien; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Eberhart, Charles G; Brem, Henry; Olivi, Alessandro; Tyler, Betty

    2017-11-02

    Tumor progression, limited efficacy of current standard treatments, and the rise in patient mortality are associated with gene expression caused by the synergistic action of intratumoral hypoxia and HIF-1α activation. For this reason, recent investigations have focused on HIF-targeting therapeutic agents, with encouraging preclinical and clinical results in solid tumors. Here we describe the efficacy of a HIF-1α inhibitor, Acriflavine, and demonstrate its potency against brain cancer. This safe antibacterial dye induces cell death and apoptosis in several glioma cell lines, targets HIF-1α-mediated pathways, and decreases the level of PGK1, VEGF and HIF-1α in vitro and in vivo. Administered locally via biodegradable polymers, Acriflavine provides significant benefits in survival resulting in nearly 100% long term survival, confirmed by MRI and histological analyses. This study reports preclinical evidence that this safe, small molecule can contribute to brain tumor therapy and highlights the significance of HIF-1α-targeting molecules.

  1. Survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC treated by percutaneous radio-frequency ablation (RFA is affected by complete radiological response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cabibbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radio-frequency ablation (RFA has been employed in the treatment of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC as curative treatments. AIM: To assess the effectiveness and the safety of RFA in patients with early HCC and compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: A cohort of 151 consecutive patients with early stage HCC (122 Child-Pugh class A and 29 class B patients treated with RFA were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory and radiological follow-up data were collected from the time of first RFA. A single lesion was observed in 113/151 (74.8%, two lesions in 32/151 (21.2%, and three lesions in 6/151 (4% of patients. RESULTS: The overall survival rates were 94%, 80%, 64%, 49%, and 41% at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, respectively. Complete response (CR at 1 month (p<0.0001 and serum albumin levels (p = 0.0004 were the only variables indipendently linked to survival by multivariate Cox model. By multivariate analysis, tumor size (p = 0.01 is the only variable associated with an increased likehood of CR. The proportion of major complications after treatment was 4%. CONCLUSIONS: RFA is safe and effective for managing HCC with cirrhosis, especially for patients with HCC ≤3 cm and higher baseline albumin levels. Complete response after RFA significantly increases survival.

  2. Early response of C-reactive protein as a predictor of survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Yosuke; Saito, Kazutaka; Yuasa, Takeshi; Uehara, Sho; Kawamura, Naoko; Yokoyama, Minato; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Yamamoto, Shinya; Okuno, Tetsuo; Yonese, Junji; Kihara, Kazunori; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2017-12-01

    Pretreatment C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We further evaluated the early response of CRP after the initiation of TKIs. A total of 103 patients (80 men and 23 women) were treated with TKIs for mRCC from 2008-2013. Patients were divided into three groups according to their early CRP kinetics-patients whose baseline CRP levels were 20% at 4 weeks after the initiation of TKIs (early CRP responder), and the remaining patients (non-early CRP responder). The endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The median follow-up period was 21 (interquartile range 10-34) months. The numbers of patients classified as non-elevated, early CRP responder, and non-early CRP responder were 62, 19, and 22, respectively. The 1-year PFS rates of patients in the non-elevated, early CRP responder, and non-early CRP responder groups were 50, 23, and 9.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). The 1-year OS rates of patients in these three groups were 79, 62, and 36%, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the early CRP kinetics assessment was a significant independent factor for PFS and OS. Early CRP response at 4 weeks is predictive of survival for patients with mRCC treated with TKI.

  3. PET/CT Response Criteria (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) Predict Survival Better Than Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Won; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Won Jun; Nam, Eun Ji

    2016-09-01

    To investigate whether the ratio of SUVs measured with F-FDG PET/CT between pretreatment and posttreatment has prognostic value in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with primary chemoradiation therapy. Cases of locally advanced cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1 to IVA) treated with a nonsurgical curative modality (172 cases including chemoradiation or radiation therapy) were reviewed. F-FDG PET/CT parameters, including SUVmax and SUVmean, were evaluated by F-FDG PET/CT performed prior to treatment and 6 weeks after the end of treatment. Metabolic response was evaluated according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines and was compared with radiologic response measured according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST). In total, 142 patients receiving chemoradiation showed radiologic responses (median 56% decrease in maximal diameter), whereas 160 and 146 patients showed metabolic responses measured with SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively (73% decrease in SUVmax; 48% decrease in SUVmean). Radiologic response and metabolic response were significantly correlated for SUVmax and SUVmean (P = 0.0009; P = 0.0457, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significant differences in overall survival and progression-free survival between the responder and nonresponder groups, based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria (both P PET/CT parameters are good prognostic markers for the response of cervical cancer patients to concurrent chemoradiation therapy, as compared with the RECIST criteria.

  4. Integrative analysis of deep sequencing data identifies estrogen receptor early response genes and links ATAD3B to poor survival in breast cancer.

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    Kristian Ovaska

    Full Text Available Identification of responsive genes to an extra-cellular cue enables characterization of pathophysiologically crucial biological processes. Deep sequencing technologies provide a powerful means to identify responsive genes, which creates a need for computational methods able to analyze dynamic and multi-level deep sequencing data. To answer this need we introduce here a data-driven algorithm, SPINLONG, which is designed to search for genes that match the user-defined hypotheses or models. SPINLONG is applicable to various experimental setups measuring several molecular markers in parallel. To demonstrate the SPINLONG approach, we analyzed ChIP-seq data reporting PolII, estrogen receptor α (ERα, H3K4me3 and H2A.Z occupancy at five time points in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line after estradiol stimulus. We obtained 777 ERa early responsive genes and compared the biological functions of the genes having ERα binding within 20 kb of the transcription start site (TSS to genes without such binding site. Our results show that the non-genomic action of ERα via the MAPK pathway, instead of direct ERa binding, may be responsible for early cell responses to ERα activation. Our results also indicate that the ERα responsive genes triggered by the genomic pathway are transcribed faster than those without ERα binding sites. The survival analysis of the 777 ERα responsive genes with 150 primary breast cancer tumors and in two independent validation cohorts indicated the ATAD3B gene, which does not have ERα binding site within 20 kb of its TSS, to be significantly associated with poor patient survival.

  5. Avoiding radical surgery improves early survival in elderly patients with rectal cancer, demonstrating complete clinical response after neoadjuvant therapy: results of a decision-analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fraser McLean; Rao, Christopher; Oliva Perez, Rodrigo; Bujko, Krzysztof; Athanasiou, Thanos; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Faiz, Omar

    2015-02-01

    In elderly and comorbid patients with rectal cancer, radical surgery is associated with significant perioperative mortality. Data suggest that a watch-and-wait approach where a complete clinical response is obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy might be oncologically safe. This study aimed to determine whether patient age and comorbidity should influence surgeon and patient decision making where a complete clinical response is obtained. Decision-analytic modeling consisting of a decision tree and Markov chain simulation was used. Modeled outcome parameters were elicited both from comprehensive literature review and from a national patient outcomes database. Outcomes for 3 patient cohorts treated with neoadjuvant therapy were modeled after either surgery or watch and wait. Patients included 60-year-old and 80-year-old men with mild comorbidities (Charlson score 3). Absolute survival, disease-free survival, and quality-adjusted life years were measured. The model found that absolute survival was similar in 60-year-old patients but was significantly improved in fit and comorbid 80-year-old patients at 1 year after treatment where watch and wait was implemented instead of radical surgery, with a survival advantage of 10.1% (95% CI, 7.9-12.6) and 13.5% (95% CI, 10.2-16.9). At all of the other time points, absolute survival was equivalent for both techniques. There were no short- or long-term differences among any patient groups managed either by radical surgery or watch and wait in terms of either disease-free survival or quality-adjusted life years. Oncologic data for the watch-and-wait approach used for this study is derived from only a small number of studies pertaining to a highly selected group of patients. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate derived from the United Kingdom population-based study might be lower in other countries or individual institutions. This study suggests competing effects of oncologic and surgical risk when using watch

  6. Areca nut is associated with younger age of diagnosis, poor chemoradiotherapy response, and shorter overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Han Chen

    Full Text Available Areca nut chewing is carcinogenic to humans. However, little is known about the impact of areca nut chewing on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC.We retrospectively reviewed 286 ESCC patients who received surgery or preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery at our institution. Background characteristics including areca nut chewing history were analyzed. The 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model was used to test the impact of arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, on ESCC.Compared to patients without areca nut chewing history, patients with areca nut chewing history had overall a younger age of onset (Mean age: 56.75 versus 52.68 yrs, P<0.001 and significantly worse overall survival than those without areca nut chewing history (P = 0.026. Among patients who received surgery, the overall survival rates were not significantly different between those with or without areca nut chewing history. Among patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, those with areca nut chewing history had a significantly lower pathologic complete response rate (P = 0.002 and lower overall survival rate (P = 0.002 than those without. In the murine ESCC model, the incidence of esophageal invasive squamous cell carcinoma was 40% in mice exposed to concomitant 4-NQO and arecoline treatment for 8 weeks and 6% in mice exposed to 4-NQO only for 8 weeks (P = 0.037.Our results indicate that areca nut chewing history is significantly associated with younger age of onset, poor response to chemoradiotherapy, and shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, accelerates esophageal tumorigenesis in the 4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model.

  7. The natural killer cell response and tumor debulking are associated with prolonged survival in recurrent glioblastoma patients receiving dendritic cells loaded with autologous tumor lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegatta, Serena; Eoli, Marica; Frigerio, Simona; Antozzi, Carlo; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Cantini, Gabriele; Nava, Sara; Anghileri, Elena; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuccarini, Valeria; Ciusani, Emilio; Dossena, Marta; Pollo, Bianca; Mantegazza, Renato; Parati, Eugenio A; Finocchiaro, Gaetano

    2013-03-01

    Recurrent glioblastomas (GBs) are highly aggressive tumors associated with a 6-8 mo survival rate. In this study, we evaluated the possible benefits of an immunotherapeutic strategy based on mature dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with autologous tumor-cell lysates in 15 patients affected by recurrent GB. The median progression-free survival (PFS) of this patient cohort was 4.4 mo, and the median overall survival (OS) was 8.0 mo. Patients with small tumors at the time of the first vaccination (< 20 cm3; n = 8) had significantly longer PFS and OS than the other patients (6.0 vs. 3.0 mo, p = 0.01; and 16.5 vs. 7.0 mo, p = 0.003, respectively). CD8+ T cells, CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and other immune parameters, such as the levels of transforming growth factor β, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-12 and interferon γ (IFNγ), were measured in the peripheral blood and serum of patients before and after immunization, which enabled us to obtain a vaccination/baseline ratio (V/B ratio). An increased V/B ratio for NK cells, but not CD8+ T cells, was significantly associated with prolonged PFS and OS. Patients exhibiting NK-cell responses were characterized by high levels of circulating IFNγ and E4BP4, an NK-cell transcription factor. Furthermore, the NK cell V/B ratio was inversely correlated with the TGFβ2 and VEGF V/B ratios. These results suggest that tumor-loaded DCs may increase the survival rate of patients with recurrent GB after effective tumor debulking, and emphasize the role of the NK-cell response in this therapeutic setting.

  8. Autonomic Road Transport Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, T.L.; Kotsialos, A.; Müller, J.P.; Klugl, F.; Schumann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The work on Autonomic Road Transport Support (ARTS) presented here aims at\\ud meeting the challenge of engineering autonomic behavior in Intelligent Transportation\\ud Systems (ITS) by fusing research from the disciplines of traffic engineering\\ud and autonomic computing. Ideas and techniques from leading edge artificial intelligence\\ud research have been adapted for ITS over the last years. Examples include\\ud adaptive control embedded in real time traffic control systems, heuristic algorithm...

  9. Association of Pretreatment Anemia with Pathological Response and Survival of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhu

    Full Text Available Anemia related to adjuvant chemotherapy might predict compromised survival in patients with breast cancer. The present population-based study was to investigate the correlation of pretreatment anemia with pathological response and long-term prognosis of breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT.From 1999 to 2011, a total of 655 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer who underwent NCT before definitive surgery were reviewed. The patients were subdivided into anemic (baseline hemoglobin (Hb<12.0 g/dL and non-anemic (Hb≥12.0 g/dL groups. Comparison was made between anemic and non-anemic groups concerning the rate of pathological complete response (pCR, relapse-free survival (RFS, overall survival (OS and cancer-specific survival (CSS. Logistic and Cox regression models were utilized to determine the predictive value of pretreatment anemia in outcomes of patients undergoing NCT.166 women (25.3% were anemic before treatment. Patients in the anemic group were less likely to achieve pCR in NCT than their non-anemic counterparts (odds ratio (OR 0.428, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.198-0.927, p = 0.031. Patients with baseline anemia displayed inferior 10-year RFS (59.1% vs 66.0%, p = 0.022 by log-rank, OS (75.3% vs 90.9%, p<0.001 and CSS (82.4% vs 94.4%, p<0.001 compared with those without. After adjustment for confounders, pretreatment anemia was demonstrated to correlate with elevated risk of relapse (hazard ratio (HR 1.453, 95% CI 1.077-1.962, p = 0.015, cancer-specific mortality (HR 2.961, 95% CI 1.679-5.222, p<0.001 and all-cause mortality (HR 2.873, 95% CI 1.757-4.699, p<0.001.Pretreatment anemia was associated with worse pathological response to NCT as well as survival status in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to identify optimal interventions and improve the prognosis of this subgroup.

  10. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K eSasse

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on HPA axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid and cardiovascular (tachycardia response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across multiple response

  11. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  12. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  13. Survival and growth responses of Jatropha curcas L. to three restoration techniques on degraded soils in Burkina Faso

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    François Wenemi Kagambèga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a major problem in the Sahelian countries. Erosion control through establishment of vegetation cover is at important strategy to reverse the trend. Our research objective was to analyse the e-ffects of three restoration techniques on Jatropha curcas L. seedlings growth and survivorship. Were conducted two separate field trials, involving the sowing and planting of J. curcas, in which several different soil restoration techniques were applied. The trial was monitored using a ran-domized block study design over a period of two years. The design included ten different treatments, six in the sowing trial and four in the planting trial, each with three replicates. In the first experiment, growth rate was found to be significantly higher in the Sub-Soiling treatment, that received additional organic matter than other treatments. However, overall survival rate was low (18%. In the second experiment, the Half-moon treatment yielded a significantly higher growth both in height (df = 3, F = 56.74, p < 0.05 and diameter (df = 3, F = 31.76, p < 0.05 and survival rate compared to those of the other treatments (df = 3, F = 50.4, p < 0.05. In conclusion, planting seedlings produced a greater survival rate than sowing seeds. Among tested the soil restoration and water conservation techniques the Half-moon technique was found as the most effective. This is recommended to be used for improving the revegetation of J. curcas in the future. 

  14. Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa-sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

  15. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  16. PROGRAMMABLE AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian PESTRITU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present how technology has advanced in terms of programmable microcontrollers and how circuits can be equipped with complex software so they can to act on their own, becoming a so-called autonomous robot or agent. To illustrate this, the 3PI robot is used, which is faced with solving a problem by itself, namely: solving a maze on its own. To make this possible so we had to implement this robot with a computer algorithm that helps it to remember the route that it had just travelled and then find the shortest and fastest way to the destination point.

  17. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  18. A systematic review of clinical response and survival outcomes of downsizing systemic chemotherapy and rescue liver surgery in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vincent W T; Spiro, Calista; Laurence, Jerome M; Johnston, Emma; Hollands, Michael J; Pleass, Henry C C; Richardson, Arthur J

    2012-04-01

    Selected patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM) may be rendered resectable after systemic chemotherapy. We reviewed the evidence of downsizing systemic chemotherapy followed by rescue liver surgery in patients with initially unresectable CLM. Literature search of databases (Medline and PubMed) to identify published studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection in patients with initially unresectable CLM was undertaken and focused on response rate of chemotherapy and survival outcomes. Ten observational studies were reviewed. A total of 1,886 patients with initially unresectable CLM underwent systemic chemotherapy. An objective response was observed in 64% (range, 43-79%) of patients after systemic chemotherapy. Of these, 22.5% underwent macroscopically curative liver resection. Median overall survival was 45 (range, 36-60) months with 19% of patients alive and recurrence-free. Current evidence suggests that downsizing systematic chemotherapy followed by rescue liver resection is safe and effective for selected patients with initially unresectable CLM. Further studies are required to examine response rates and secondary resectability using new targeted molecular therapy-based regimens.

  19. Determining the sensitivity of the Antarctic amphipod Orchomenella pinguides to metals using a joint model of survival response to exposure concentration and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfiligoj, Bianca J; King, Catherine K; Candy, Steven G; Mondon, Julie A

    2015-04-01

    Developing water quality guidelines for Antarctic marine environments requires understanding the sensitivity of local biota to contaminant exposure. Antarctic invertebrates have shown slower contaminant responses in previous experiments compared to temperate and tropical species in standard toxicity tests. Consequently, test methods which take into account environmental conditions and biological characteristics of cold climate species need to be developed. This study investigated the effects of five metals on the survival of a common Antarctic amphipod, Orchomenella pinguides. Multiple observations assessing mortality to metal exposure were made over the 30 days exposure period. Traditional toxicity tests with quantal data sets are analysed using methods such as maximum likelihood regression (probit analysis) and Spearman-Kärber which treat individual time period endpoints independently. A new statistical model was developed to integrate the time-series concentration-response data obtained in this study. Grouped survival data were modelled using a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) which incorporates all the data obtained from multiple observation times to derive time integrated point estimates. The sensitivity of the amphipod, O. pinguides, to metals increased with increasing exposure time. Response times varied for different metals with amphipods responding faster to copper than to cadmium, lead or zinc. As indicated by 30 days lethal concentration (LC50) estimates, copper was the most toxic metal (31 µg/L), followed by cadmium (168 µg/L), lead (256 µg/L) and zinc (822 µg/L). Nickel exposure (up to 1.12 mg/L) did not affect amphipod survival. Using longer exposure durations and utilising the GAMM model provides an improved methodology for assessing sensitivities of slow responding Antarctic marine invertebrates to contaminants.

  20. Survival, growth, detoxifying and antioxidative responses of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to soils with industrial DDT contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajuan; Zhang, Qiangbin; Huang, Dunqi; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Yajing

    2016-03-01

    The survival, growth, activity of the biotransformation system phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the oxidative defense enzyme catalase (CAT) of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils from a former DDT plant and reference soils were investigated, and compared with the corresponding indicators in simulated soil-earthworm system, unpolluted natural soils with spiked-in DDT series, to identify the toxic effects of DDT on earthworms and their cellular defense system in complex soil system. The results indicated that DDT level in the contaminated soils was significantly higher than that in the reference soils with similar level of other pollutants and soil characters. The mortality, growth inhibition rates, GST and CST activities of earthworms exposed to the contaminated soils were significantly higher than that in reference soils. The contribution of historical DDT in contaminated soils to earthworms was confirmed by the DDT spiked tests. DDT spiked in soils at rates of higher than 200 mg·kg(-1) was significantly toxic to both the survival and the growth of earthworms. DDT significantly stimulated GST and CAT activity in earthworms after 14 days. The CAT and GST activities were also stimulated by DDT exposure at rates of 100 mg·kg(-1) after chronic exposure (42 days). The results provide implications for validating the extrapolation from laboratory simulated soils criteria to contaminated soils and for making site risk assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  2. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  3. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  4. Stress Survival Islet 2, Predominantly Present in Listeria monocytogenes Strains of Sequence Type 121, Is Involved in the Alkaline and Oxidative Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Eva; Wagner, Eva Maria; Zaiser, Andreas; Halecker, Sabrina; Wagner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive a variety of stress conditions leading to the colonization of different niches like the food processing environment. This study focuses on the hypervariable genetic hot spot lmo0443 to lmo0449 haboring three inserts: the stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1), the single-gene insert LMOf2365_0481, and two homologous genes of the nonpathogenic species Listeria innocua: lin0464, coding for a putative transcriptional regulator, and lin0465, encoding an intracellular PfpI protease. Our prevalence study revealed a different distribution of the inserts between human and food-associated isolates. The lin0464-lin0465 insert was predominantly found in food-associated strains of sequence type 121 (ST121). Functional characterization of this insert showed that the putative PfpI protease Lin0465 is involved in alkaline and oxidative stress responses but not in acidic, gastric, heat, cold, osmotic, and antibiotic stresses. In parallel, deletion of lin0464 decreased survival under alkaline and oxidative stresses. The expression of both genes increased significantly under oxidative stress conditions independently of the alternative sigma factor σB. Furthermore, we showed that the expression of the protease gene lin0465 is regulated by the transcription factor lin0464 under stress conditions, suggesting that lin0464 and lin0465 form a functional unit. In conclusion, we identified a novel stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2), predominantly present in L. monocytogenes ST121 strains, beneficial for survival under alkaline and oxidative stresses, potentially supporting adaptation and persistence of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes strains of ST121 are known to persist for months and even years in food processing environments, thereby increasing the risk of food contamination and listeriosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this remarkable niche

  5. Effects of release procedures on the primary stress response and post-release survival and growth of hatchery-reared spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, T W; Rakocinski, C F; Evans, A N; Blaylock, R B

    2017-03-01

    To help explain the apparent poor post-release success of hatchery-reared (HR) spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, this study examined the effects of handling, transport and release procedures on the stress response of two age classes [48 and 80 day post-hatch (dph)] of HR C. nebulosus, as measured by cortisol concentrations and the post-release survival and growth of 48 and 80 dph HR C. nebulosus. As a proxy for stress, tissue cortisol was measured at various times during the handling, tagging (80 dph), transport, acclimation and release process. To consider the implications of the pre-release stressors, growth and survival were monitored in separate field experiments for each age class of acclimated post-transport C. nebulosus using control C. nebulosus that only experienced anaesthesia, transport, acclimation and a net release v. experimental C. nebulosus that underwent the entire routine procedure, including anaesthesia, tagging, transport, acclimation and gravity release through a pipe. For 48 dph C. nebulosus, mean cortisol varied significantly throughout handling and transport, increasing more than six-fold from controls before decreasing in mean concentration just prior to release. For 80 dph C. nebulosus, cortisol varied throughout handling, tagging and transport, first increasing more than three-fold compared with control C. nebulosus, before decreasing and rising slightly just prior to release. For 48 dph C. nebulosus within field enclosures, survival was high and similar for control and experimental groups; experimental C. nebulosus, however, were shorter, lighter and lower in condition than control C. nebulosus. For 80 dph C. nebulosus within field enclosures, fewer experimental C. nebulosus survived and those that did survive were of lower condition than C. nebulosus from the control group. Small untagged C. nebulosus may survive the release procedure better than larger C. nebulosus carrying a coded-wire tag. These findings document

  6. Stress Survival Islet 2, Predominantly Present in Listeria monocytogenes Strains of Sequence Type 121, Is Involved in the Alkaline and Oxidative Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Eva; Wagner, Eva Maria; Zaiser, Andreas; Halecker, Sabrina; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2017-08-15

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive a variety of stress conditions leading to the colonization of different niches like the food processing environment. This study focuses on the hypervariable genetic hot spot lmo0443 to lmo0449 haboring three inserts: the stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1), the single-gene insert LMOf2365_0481, and two homologous genes of the nonpathogenic species Listeria innocua: lin0464, coding for a putative transcriptional regulator, and lin0465, encoding an intracellular PfpI protease. Our prevalence study revealed a different distribution of the inserts between human and food-associated isolates. The lin0464-lin0465 insert was predominantly found in food-associated strains of sequence type 121 (ST121). Functional characterization of this insert showed that the putative PfpI protease Lin0465 is involved in alkaline and oxidative stress responses but not in acidic, gastric, heat, cold, osmotic, and antibiotic stresses. In parallel, deletion of lin0464 decreased survival under alkaline and oxidative stresses. The expression of both genes increased significantly under oxidative stress conditions independently of the alternative sigma factor σB Furthermore, we showed that the expression of the protease gene lin0465 is regulated by the transcription factor lin0464 under stress conditions, suggesting that lin0464 and lin0465 form a functional unit. In conclusion, we identified a novel stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2), predominantly present in L. monocytogenes ST121 strains, beneficial for survival under alkaline and oxidative stresses, potentially supporting adaptation and persistence of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments.IMPORTANCEListeria monocytogenes strains of ST121 are known to persist for months and even years in food processing environments, thereby increasing the risk of food contamination and listeriosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this remarkable niche-specific adaptation is still

  7. Baicalin improves survival in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis via suppressing inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An imbalance between overwhelming inflammation and lymphocyte apoptosis is the main cause of high mortality in patients with sepsis. Baicalin, the main active ingredient of the Scutellaria root, exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and even antibacterial properties in inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of baicalin on polymicrobial sepsis remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were infused with baicalin intraperitoneally at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h after CLP. Survival rates were assessed over the subsequent 8 days. Bacterial burdens in blood and peritoneal cavity were calculated to assess the bacterial clearance. Neutrophil count in peritoneal lavage fluid was also calculated. Injuries to the lung and liver were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17, in blood and peritoneum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adaptive immune function was assessed by apoptosis of lymphocytes in the thymus and counts of different cell types in the spleen. Baicalin significantly enhanced bacterial clearance and improved survival of septic mice. The number of neutrophils in peritoneal lavage fluid was reduced by baicalin. Less neutrophil infiltration of the lung and liver in baicalin-treated mice was associated with attenuated injuries to these organs. Baicalin significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines but increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine in blood and peritoneum. Apoptosis of CD3(+ T cell was inhibited in the thymus. The numbers of CD4(+, CD8(+ T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs were higher, while the number of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells was lower in the baicalin group compared with the CLP group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Baicalin improves survival of mice

  8. Potent, transient inhibition of BCR-ABL with dasatinib 100 mg daily achieves rapid and durable cytogenetic responses and high transformation-free survival rates in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, suboptimal response or intolerance to imatinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neil P.; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kantarjian, Hagop; Rousselot, Philippe; Llacer, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac; Enrico, Alicia; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Silver, Richard T.; Khoury, Hanna Jean; Müller, Martin C.; Lambert, Alexandre; Matloub, Yousif; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background Dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves intermittent BCR-ABL kinase inhibition and is approved for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant or intolerant to imatinib. To better assess durability of response to and tolerability of dasatinib, data from a 2-year minimum follow-up for a dose-optimization study in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia are reported here. Design and Methods In a phase 3 study, 670 chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, intolerance, or suboptimal response to imatinib were randomized to dasatinib 100 mg once-daily, 50 mg twice-daily, 140 mg once-daily, or 70 mg twice-daily. Results Data from a 2-year minimum follow-up demonstrate that dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response rates comparable to those in the other treatment arms, and reduces the frequency of key side effects. Comparable 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were observed (80% and 91%, respectively, for 100 mg once daily, and 75%–76% and 88%–94%, respectively, in other arms). Complete cytogenetic responses were achieved rapidly, typically by 6 months. In patients treated with dasatinib 100 mg once daily for 6 months without complete cytogenetic response, the likelihood of achieving such a response by 2 years was 50% for patients who had achieved a partial cytogenetic response, and only 8% or less for patients with minor, minimal, or no cytogenetic response. Less than 3% of patients suffered disease transformation to accelerated or blast phase. Conclusions Intermittent kinase inhibition can achieve rapid and durable responses, indistinguishable from those achieved with more continuous inhibition. PMID:20139391

  9. "Suddenly a Binge Drinking Episode Has Happened to Him": Locus of Control, Notion of Responsibility, Alcoholism and Suicide in the Taz Region, Yamal Nenets Autonomous Okrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Istomin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the notion of responsibility is often invoked by mass-media reports, activists and lay people when discussing alcoholism and suicides, anthropological discussions of this topic seem to deliberately avoid the notion. Based on the example of the Taz Nenets of western Sibera, this paper explores how cross-cultural differences in the notion of responsibility, if approached in a non-moralising way, can enrich our understanding of several aspects of the drinking and suicidal behaviours of native northerners. The Nenets seem to believe that both positive and negative events in their lives happen more due to chance or for highly localised reasons that they do not control rather than being caused by their own informed and wilful actions (external locus of control. Particularly, acts of suicide and binge drinking episodes just happen to people and, therefore, people cannot be held responsible for them. This attitude can be a compensatory mechanism for the flat attribution style observed among Nenets in previous studies. It should be taken into account in programs of suicide prevention and the treatment of alcoholism.

  10. Association of p53 protein expression with responses and survival of patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Kei; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Boku, Narikazu; Chin, Keisho; Oda, Yasushi; Fujii, Takahiro; Hosokawa, Koichi; Yoshida, Shigeaki [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Hasebe, Takahiro

    1996-04-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine the clinical role of p53 mutations in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinomas treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The subjects of this study were 20 patients with previously untreated esophageal carcinomas with evidence of T4 disease and/or distant node metastases. Treatment comprised protracted 5-fluorouracil and 2-h cisplatinum infusions along with radiation treatment with a total radiation dose of 60 Gy. Tumor specimens from 18 of the 20 patients were analyzed immunohistochemically. Mutant p53 protein expression in the biopsy materials from the primary tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal antibody, RSP53. Expression of p53 was detected immunohistochemically in 10 (56%) of the 18 esophageal tumors, the cancer cell nuclei of which were diffusely stained. There were no significant differences between the patient backgrounds of the p53-`positive` and `negative` groups. Four (40%) of the 10 patients with p53 expression achieved overall complete remissions (CRs) and 7 (70%) of these 10 achieved CRs of their primary tumors. In contrast, none of the 8 p53-negative patients achieved overall CRs and two (25%) achieved CRs of their primary tumors. The CR rates overall and of primary tumors tended to be higher in the p53-positive than negative group, but the differences were not significant. The survival rate for the 10 patients with p53 expression was better than that for the 8 negative ones (P>0.01): their median survival times were 12 and 4.5 months, respectively. Expression of p53 protein may be an indicator of a favorable prognosis in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinomas treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. (author).

  11. Surviving but not thriving: inconsistent responses of zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps to ocean warming and future UV-B scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes to UV radiation at the Earth’s surface are occurring concurrently with ocean warming. Despite few empirical tests, jellyfish are hypothesised to be increasing in some parts of the world because they are robust to environmental stressors. Here we examine the effects of UV-B and ocean warming projections on zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps. We exposed Cassiopea sp. polyps to three levels of UV-B (future-low (1.43 Wm2), current (1.60 Wm2), future-high (1.77 Wm2)) and two levels of temperature (current-day (25 °C) and future (28 °C)) over 6 weeks. The intensity of UV-B was varied throughout the day to mimic diel variation in UV-B irradiance. Polyp survival, asexual reproduction and YII were measured. In the current and future-high UV-B treatments, more polyps were produced in 25 °C than 28 °C. This pattern, however, was reversed under future-low UV-B conditions, where more polyps were produced at 28 °C. YII was highest under current summer conditions and future conditions of low UV-B and increased temperature. YII, however, was reduced under high UV-B conditions but was further reduced with warming. Our results suggest that although Cassiopea polyps may survive elevated UV-B and warming conditions, they are unlikely to thrive. If, however, UV-B radiation decreases then ocean warming may facilitate increases in Cassiopea populations.

  12. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  13. Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Survival, Immune Response, and Gut Bacteria Changes after Exposure to Azadirachta indica (Sapindales: Meliaceae) Volatiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gricelda Nuñez-Mejía; José A. Valadez-Lira; Ricardo Gomez-Flores; Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla; Patricia Tamez-Guerra

    2016-01-01

    ...) are known to alter growth and development of several insects. Additionally, the insect's gut microbiota and immune response are key components in insect development and have been linked to increased resistance to insecticides...

  14. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  15. High psychosis liability is associated with altered autonomic balance during exposure to Virtual Reality social stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; van Roon, Arie M.; Hoskam, Olivier; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    Background: Social stressors are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Stress sensitisation is thought to be an underlying mechanismand may be reflected in an altered autonomic stress response. Using an experimental Virtual Reality design, the autonomic stress response to social

  16. Autonomous Rovers for Polar Science Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    -emissions rover could travel more than 500 km per week during Polar summers and provide 100 - 200 W to power instrument payloads to help investigate the atmosphere, magnetosphere, glaciology and sub-glacial geology in Antarctica and Greenland. We are currently upgrading Cool Robot's navigation and solar-power systems and will deploy it during 2013 to map the emissions footprint around Summit Station to demonstrate its potential to execute long-endurance Polar science campaigns. These rovers could assist science traverses to chart safe routes into the interior of Antarctica and Greenland or conduct autonomous, remote science campaigns to extend spatial and temporal coverage for data collection. Our goals include 1,000 - 2,000-km summertime traverses of Antarctica and Greenland, safe navigation through 0.5-m amplitude sastrugi fields, survival in blizzards, and rover-network adaptation to research events of opportunity. We are seeking Polar scientists interested in autonomous, mobile data collection and can adapt the rovers to meet their requirements.

  17. Chemomechanical Characterization of Autonomic Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Heitfeld, Kevin; Kramb, Ryan; Tchoul, Maxim; Gallagher, Daniel; Vaia, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Autonomic behavior is a distinctive attribute of complex biological systems. Like biological tissue, self-oscillating hydrogels driven by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction can convert chemical signals into a mechanical response. Under appropriate conditions BZ gels exhibit sustained mechanical swell-deswell oscillations; and arrays of these gels have the potential to form networks of coupled oscillators. One of the key challenges to developing criteria for device design and assessing practical performance limits of these materials is the need for detailed knowledge of the chemomechanical characteristics of the BZ gels at various states of autonomic behavior. Recently we developed an easily synthesized BZ gel system based on polyacrylamide. Here in, the swell-deswell amplitude, mechanical forces produced during uniform oscillations, and the chemical response to external loads are discussed in context with current poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based systems. These studies establish the parameter space leading to robust chemomechanical oscillations and provide an experimental foundation to refine currently available theoretical models to guide the design of autonomic materials and devices.

  18. [Autonomic profile of patients with migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, H; Birouk, N; Slaoui, I; Coghlan, L; Bencheikh, B Oulad Amar; Jroundi, I; Benomar, M

    2005-10-01

    Dysfunction of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is implicated in the genesis and persistence of migraine. The objective of this study was to compare autonomic nervous system (ANS) profile of migraineurs during headache-free periods to a group of normal subjects based on cardio-vascular reactivity. Patients with migraine according to the criteria of IHS 2004 were selected for the study. After a 30 min resting blood pressure (BP), the following standard tests were performed: deep-breathing (DB), hand grip (HG) of 15 s and 3 min, valsalva maneuver, echo stress, (ES) and tilt test (TT). Results were compared to 44 normal subjects, age similar, 37 female, (84.1%) using the Student test, with P < 0.005 as significant. Thirty-two patients (27 female (84.38%), 16-51 years, mean 40.41 +/- 7.8) were studied. Twenty-two patients (69%) had systolic blood pressure below 94 mmHg and 25 patients (78%) had diastolic blood pressure below 60 mmHg. Compared to normal, migraineurs exhibited a significantly higher vagal response (P < 0.001) and a significantly lower alpha sympathetic response, central by using ES as well as peripheral by using HG of 3 min (P < 0.001). Autonomic cardiovascular reactivity of patients with migraine showed a vagal hyperactivity and a deficiency of the alpha sympathetic system. This leads to further studies with new therapeutical approaches.

  19. [Features of autonomic dysfunction in myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Морозова, О Г; Ярошевский, А А; Липинская, Я В

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of this study is due to the prevalence of autonomic disorders and musculoskeletal pain, especially among the young people of working age. In recent years, many authors in scientific works have been highlighted aspects of mutual development myofascial and autonomic dysfunction, which is caused by neurophysiological preconditions and anatomical and topographical relationships that need to be considered in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. To study the characteristics of the formation and flow of autonomic dysfunction syndrome with paroxysmal and permanent types of flow in patients with myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. Using clinical neurological, vertebral neurological, neuropsychological methods of studying the severity of pain (visual analogue scale and Pain questionnaire of Mac Gill) examined 84 patients suffering from autonomic dysfunction on the background of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. To identify the features of vegetative regulation of patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (51 people) - with a permanent type of course; group 2 (33 patients) - a type of paroxysmal of course of autonomic dysfunction. It was found more pronounced disturbances in patients with paroxysmal type of course of autonomic dysfunction. The frequency and severity of autonomic paroxysms associated with the severity of musculo-tonic syndrome and location of active trigger points in the muscles of the neck and shoulder girdle, due to anatomic and topographic features of these muscles, namely the proximity of their location to the sympathetic formations neck. The formation and development of emotional and affective disorders in both groups played a significant role of pain and musculo-tonic syndrome. The syndrome of autonomic dysfunction, in particular its paroxysmal type of flow, on the one hand is a response to the development of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization, with another - a factor

  20. Growth, water relations, and survival of drought-exposed seedlings from six families of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa): responses to CO{sub 2} enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, H. W.; Tischler, C. R.; Johnson, H. B.; Pennington, R. E. [USDA, ARS, Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on seedling survival in response to uniform rates of water depletion were studied in six maternal families of the shrub honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Three families were selected each from the arid and mesic extremes of the species distribution in the United States. Results showed that relative water content at turgor loss and osmotic potential were not affected by CO{sub 2} treatment, however, increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations increased growth, leaf production and areas, as well as midday xylem pressure potential. Transpiration per unit leaf area of seedlings decreased as the soil dried. Maternal families differed in drought resistance and several other characteristics, but differences were of similar or of smaller magnitude compared with differences between CO{sub 2} treatments. No evidence as to genetic variation in responsiveness to CO{sub 2} survivorship was discovered. It was concluded that honey mesquite abundance could be increased by elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, assuming that seedling survival of drought can be increased. 36 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Insight into post-transcriptional gene regulation: stress-responsive microRNAs and their role in the environmental stress survival of tolerant animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-05-01

    Living animals are constantly faced with various environmental stresses that challenge normal life, including: oxygen limitation, very low or high temperature, as well as restriction of water and food. It has been well established that in response to these stresses, tolerant organisms regularly respond with a distinct suite of cellular modifications that involve transcriptional, translational and post-translational modification. In recent years, a new mechanism of rapid and reversible transcriptome regulation, via the action of non-coding RNA molecules, has emerged into post-transcriptional regulation and has since been shown to be part of the survival response. However, these RNA-based mechanisms by which tolerant organisms respond to stressed conditions are not well understood. Recent studies have begun to show that non-coding RNAs control gene expression and translation of mRNA to protein, and can also have regulatory influence over major cellular processes. For example, select microRNAs have been shown to have regulatory influence over the cell cycle, apoptosis, signal transduction, muscle atrophy and fatty acid metabolism during periods of environmental stress. As we are on the verge of dissecting the roles of non-coding RNA in environmental stress adaptation, this Commentary summarizes the hallmark alterations in microRNA expression that facilitate stress survival. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  3. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... vehicles, cooperative flight of autonomous aerial vehicles using GPS and vision information, cooperative and sharing of information in search missions involving multiple autonomous agents, multi-scale...

  4. Sequential transition of the injury phenotype, temperature-dependent survival and transcriptional response in Listeria monocytogenes following lethal H2O2 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Fumiya; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Mochizuki, Mariko; Takano, Takashi; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2017-10-16

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is present persistently in food processing environments, where this bacterium is exposed to various stress factors, including oxidative stress. This study aimed to elucidate the temperature-dependent response of L. monocytogenes to H2O2 exposure and the phenotypic changes in colony formation by H2O2-treated bacteria. Survival curves indicated an increase in the resistance to H2O2 in L. monocytogenes as the temperature decreased during the stress exposure procedure. Transcriptional induction of genes with key roles in response to H2O2, including sigB and kat, was observed at 37°C, but not at 20°C, whereas other stress response genes were induced at both temperatures. Following H2O2 exposure, L. monocytogenes produced small colony phenotypes and the colony size decreased in a stress exposure duration-dependent manner. Resuscitated cells with no ability to form colonies in the absence of sodium pyruvate were also found. Our findings show the possibility that a sequential transition in the injury phenotype from small colony phenotype to resuscitated cells occurred during the course of exposure to H2O2. The higher H2O2 resistance at 20°C than 37°C suggests further investigation of the response to H2O2 exposure under the lower temperatures, including refrigeration temperature, which may contribute to elucidation of bacterial survival over extended time periods in food-processing environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Durón, R. R., E-mail: roberto.rivera@ipicyt.edu.mx; Campos-Cantón, E., E-mail: eric.campos@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Matemáticas Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A. C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4 Sección, C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Campos-Cantón, I. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, C.P. 78000, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Duke University, Box 90305, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics.

  6. Autonomous System Technologies for Resilient Airspace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing autonomous systems within the aircraft cockpit begins with an effort to understand what autonomy is and developing the technology that encompasses it. Autonomy allows an agent, human or machine, to act independently within a circumscribed set of goals; delegating responsibility to the agent(s) to achieve overall system objective(s). Increasingly Autonomous Systems (IAS) are the highly sophisticated progression of current automated systems toward full autonomy. Working in concert with humans, these types of technologies are expected to improve the safety, reliability, costs, and operational efficiency of aviation. IAS implementation is imminent, which makes the development and the proper performance of such technologies, with respect to cockpit operation efficiency, the management of air traffic and data communication information, vital. A prototype IAS agent that attempts to optimize the identification and distribution of "relevant" air traffic data to be utilized by human crews during complex airspace operations has been developed.

  7. Retinoblastoma protein expression is an independent predictor of both radiation response and survival in muscle invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbæk, Mads; Alsner, Jan; Marcussen, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the predictive value of various clinical, biochemical, and histopathological parameters, with special emphasis on the expression of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB), on the radiation response in bladder cancer. In order to obtain a truly objective....... Expression of pRB was assessed by immunohistochemical staining as present or absent. Complete response to radiotherapy was obtained in 42 of 106 evaluable patients (40%). Predictive for CR to radiotherapy, in univariate analysis, was transurethral resection (as opposed to biopsy), B-haemoglobin, no upper...... urinary retention, and loss of pRB staining. Loss of pRB staining was the strongest independent predictor of radiation response in multivariate logistic regression analysis and absence of upper urinary retention was the only other significant factor. Loss of pRB was the only parameter showing...

  8. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Feng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Effect of Long-Term Music Therapy Intervention on Autonomic Function in Anthracycline-Treated Breast Cancer Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Han, Wei-Ru; Li, Pei-Chun; Song, Mi-Yun; Young, Shuenn-Tsong

    2011-01-01

    ...). This decreases survival rates. This study aimed to determine whether music therapy intervention improves autonomic function in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients, and if so, whether such improvements persist...

  10. Atg7 deficiency impairs host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae by impacting bacterial clearance, survival and inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenxue; Ouedraogo, Kiswendsida Claude; Li, Yi; Gan, Changpei; Tan, Shirui; Zhou, Xikun; Wu, Min

    2014-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause serious infections in humans. Autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) has been implicated in certain bacterial infections; however, the role of Atg7 in macrophage-mediated immunity against Kp infection has not been elucidated. Here we showed that Atg7 expression was significantly increased in murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) upon Kp infection, indicating that Atg7 participated in host defense. Knocking down Atg7 with small-interfering RNA increased bacterial burdens in MH-S cells. Using cell biology assays and whole animal imaging analysis, we found that compared with wild-type mice atg7 knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased susceptibility to Kp infection, with decreased survival rates, decreased bacterial clearance, and intensified lung injury. Moreover, Kp infection induced excessive proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in the lung of atg7 KO mice. Similarly, silencing Atg7 in MH-S cells markedly increased expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these findings reveal that Atg7 offers critical resistance to Kp infection by modulating both systemic and local production of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. The predictive value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for assessing pathological response and survival in locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leccisotti, Lucia; Stefanelli, Antonella; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Valentini, Vincenzo [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Radiation Oncology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Public Health, Roma (Italy); Barbaro, Brunella [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Vecchio, Fabio Maria [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Pathology, Rome (Italy); Coco, Claudio; Persiani, Roberto; Crucitti, Antonio; Tortorelli, Antonino Pio [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Surgical Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether metabolic changes in the primary tumour during and after preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) can predict the histopathological response in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer as well as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Consecutive patients with cT2-4 N0-2 rectal adenocarcinoma were included. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed at baseline, at the end of the second week of RCT (early PET/CT) and before surgery (late PET/CT). The PET/CT results were compared with histopathological data (ypT0 N0 vs. ypT1-4 N0-2 as well as TRG1 vs.TRG2-5) and survival. The study included 126 patients. Among 124 patients in whom TNM classification was available, 28 (22.6 %) were ypT0 N0, and among all 126 patients, 31 (24.6 %) were TRG1. The areas under the curve of the early response index (RI) for identifying non-complete pathological response (non-cPR) were 0.74 (95 % CI 0.61 - 0.87) for ypT1-4 N0-2 patients and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.62 - 0.88) for TRG2-5 patients. The optimal cut-off for differentiating patients with non-cPR and cPR was found to be a reduction of 61.2 % (83.1 % sensitivity and 65 % specificity in ypT1-4 N0-2 patients; 85.4 % sensitivity and 65.2 % specificity in TRG2-5 patients). The optimal cut-off for late RI could not be found. The qualitative analysis of images obtained after RCT demonstrated 81.5 % sensitivity and 61.3 % specificity in predicting TRG2-5. After a median follow-up of 68 months, the low number of patients with local/distant recurrence or who had died did not allow the value of PET/CT for predicting DFS and OS to be calculated. The early assessment of response to RCT by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can predict non-cPR allowing practical modification of preoperative treatment. Conversely, late RI is not sufficiently accurate for guiding the decision as to whether local excision or even observation is appropriate in an individual patient. Qualitative analysis of late PET/CT images is also not sensitive enough

  12. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...

  13. Virtual Institute of Microbial Stress and Survival: Deduction of Stress Response Pathways in Metal and Radionuclide Reducing Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-04-17

    The projects application goals are to: (1) To understand bacterial stress-response to the unique stressors in metal/radionuclide contamination sites; (2) To turn this understanding into a quantitative, data-driven model for exploring policies for natural and biostimulatory bioremediation; (3) To implement proposed policies in the field and compare results to model predictions; and (4) Close the experimental/computation cycle by using discrepancies between models and predictions to drive new measurements and construction of new models. The projects science goals are to: (1) Compare physiological and molecular response of three target microorganisms to environmental perturbation; (2) Deduce the underlying regulatory pathways that control these responses through analysis of phenotype, functional genomic, and molecular interaction data; (3) Use differences in the cellular responses among the target organisms to understand niche specific adaptations of the stress and metal reduction pathways; (4) From this analysis derive an understanding of the mechanisms of pathway evolution in the environment; and (5) Ultimately, derive dynamical models for the control of these pathways to predict how natural stimulation can optimize growth and metal reduction efficiency at field sites.

  14. Survival and immune response of drones of a Nosemosis tolerant honey bee strain towards N. ceranae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Kryger, Per; Le Conte, Yves; Moritz, Robin F A

    2012-03-01

    Honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) have been selected for low level of Nosema in Denmark over decades and Nosema is now rarely found in bee colonies from these breeding lines. We compared the immune response of a selected and an unselected honey bee lineage, taking advantage of the haploid males to study its potential impact on the tolerance toward Nosema ceranae, a novel introduced microsporidian pathogen. After artificial infections of the N. ceranae spores, the lineage selected for Nosema tolerance showed a higher N. ceranae spore load, a lower mortality and an up-regulated immune response. The differences in the response of the innate immune system between the selected and unselected lineage were strongest at day six post infection. In particular genes of the Toll pathway were up-regulated in the selected strain, probably is the main immune pathway involved in N. ceranae infection response. After decades of selective breeding for Nosema tolerance in the Danish strain, it appears these bees are tolerant to N. ceranae infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Survival and immune response of drones of a Nosemosis tolerant honey bee strain towards N. ceranae infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huanga, Qiang; Kryger, Per; Le Conte, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) have been selected for low level of Nosema in Denmark over decades and Nosema is now rarely found in bee colonies from these breeding lines. We compared the immune response of a selected and an unselected honey bee lineage, taking advantage of the haploid males...

  16. Effects of feeding ration on larval swimming speed and responsiveness to predator attacks: Implications for cohort survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effects of feeding ration on the routine swimming speed of larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and their responsiveness to simulated-predator attacks. Striped bass were reared in low (7 prey ?? L-1), medium (354 prey ?? L-1), or high (740 prey ?? L-1) prey treatments from age 4 to 14 days posthatch. Larvae reared in the low-prey treatment had slower routine swimming speeds and shorter reactive distances and were less responsive to simulated-predator attacks. These differences were most pronounced after age 10 and appeared to be an effect of deteriorating larval condition rather than an effect of size. Simulation models were constructed for two potential fish predators, Alosa aestivalis and Pomoxis nigromaculatus, to examine how variation in growth rate, swimming speed, and responsiveness to predator attacks might influence mortality rate. Our simulations predicted that cohort mortality rate would decrease with increasing larval growth rates, even though faster routine swimming speed and growth rate increased encounter rates with predators. The influence of larval growth rate and responsiveness on mortality rate varied between the two predators, but cohorts experiencing no growth always had the greatest mortality rate.

  17. Micro-miniature autonomous optical sensor array for monitoring ions and metabolites 2: color responses to pH, K+ and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Koji; Gratzl, Miklós

    2006-07-01

    In Part 1 of this series (Anal. Sci., 2006, 22, 383), design, fabrication, and optical data acquisition of an array of tiny color changing capsules embedded in a cellulose acetate bar, called the "sliver sensor", have been described. Capsule colors are read by a CCD camera and translated into blue, red and green Kubelka-Munk variables for quantitative analysis. The respective concentrations are determined using prior calibration. The approach may be adapted to different non-biological analytical problems, as well as in vitro and in vivo applications. To demonstrate this adaptability to potential in vivo use as an example, sensitivity for each target ion was tuned to cover the respective interstitial levels by varying the relative amount of ionophore used in the corresponding microscopic beads. After optimizing the ratio of glucose oxidase (GOX)-containing beads relative to the coupled pH sensing beads and their composition, reversible color response to glucose was obtained in the entire clinically relevant glucose concentration range (10 to 600 mg/dL, 0.55 to 33 mM). Decoupling of pH and glucose sensing from possible variations in interstitial sodium level and buffer capacity is currently being optimized for future in vivo use. In vitro and non-biological applications are also being explored.

  18. Female Listeners' Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners' respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners' respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listeners' heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research on the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  19. Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and the Kinetics of Heart Rate Responses in the On- and Off-Transient during Exercise in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. B. E. Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses.Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35–55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19 and a control group (CG, n = 17. R-R intervals (RRi and heart rate variability (HRV were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET.Results: MSG showed lower aerobic capacity and lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest compared with CG. HR values in on-transient phase were significantly lower in MSG compared with CG. The exponential amplitudes “amp” and the parameters “τ” [speed of heart rate recovery (HRR] were lower in MSG. MSG exhibited higher HR values in comparison to CG during the off-transient indicating a slower HRR. In MSG, there was an inverse and significant correlation between fasting plasma vs. ΔF and glucose vs. exponential “τ” of HRR dynamics.Conclusion: MS is associated with poor heart rate kinetics. The altered HR kinetics seems to be related to alterations in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, and glucose metabolism seems to be the major determinant.

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and the Kinetics of Heart Rate Responses in the On- and Off-Transient during Exercise in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas R. B. E.; Zamunér, Antonio R.; Gentil, Paulo; Alves, Fagner M.; Leal, Acácia G. F.; Soares, Viviane; Silva, Maria S.; Vieira, Marcus F.; Simões, Karina; Pedrino, Gustavo R.; Rebelo, Ana C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS) have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses. Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35–55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19) and a control group (CG, n = 17). R-R intervals (RRi) and heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR) at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Results: MSG showed lower aerobic capacity and lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest compared with CG. HR values in on-transient phase were significantly lower in MSG compared with CG. The exponential amplitudes “amp” and the parameters “τ” [speed of heart rate recovery (HRR)] were lower in MSG. MSG exhibited higher HR values in comparison to CG during the off-transient indicating a slower HRR. In MSG, there was an inverse and significant correlation between fasting plasma vs. ΔF and glucose vs. exponential “τ” of HRR dynamics. Conclusion: MS is associated with poor heart rate kinetics. The altered HR kinetics seems to be related to alterations in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, and glucose metabolism seems to be the major determinant. PMID:28798697

  1. Female listeners’ autonomic responses to dramatic shifts between loud and soft music/sound passages: a study of heavy metal songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Han eCheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners’ respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners’ respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listener’s heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research of the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  2. Prevalence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy measured by simple bedside tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech; Benn, Jette; Christiansen, J S

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, five simple bedside tests, beat-to-beat variation during quiet respiration, beat-to-beat variation during forced respiration, heart rate and blood pressure response to standing, heart rate response to exercise, and heart rate respons...

  3. Global mapping of binding sites for Nrf2 identifies novel targets in cell survival response through ChIP-Seq profiling and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepti; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Singh, Anju; Srivastava, Siddhartha; Arenillas, David; Happel, Christine; Shyr, Casper; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Biswal, Shyam

    2010-09-01

    The Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2) transcription factor responds to diverse oxidative and electrophilic environmental stresses by circumventing repression by Keap1, translocating to the nucleus, and activating cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 responses provide protection against chemical carcinogenesis, chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, emphysema, asthma and sepsis in murine models. Nrf2 regulates the expression of a plethora of genes that detoxify oxidants and electrophiles and repair or remove damaged macromolecules, such as through proteasomal processing. However, many direct targets of Nrf2 remain undefined. Here, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) with either constitutive nuclear accumulation (Keap1(-/-)) or depletion (Nrf2(-/-)) of Nrf2 were utilized to perform chromatin-immunoprecipitation with parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and global transcription profiling. This unique Nrf2 ChIP-Seq dataset is highly enriched for Nrf2-binding motifs. Integrating ChIP-Seq and microarray analyses, we identified 645 basal and 654 inducible direct targets of Nrf2, with 244 genes at the intersection. Modulated pathways in stress response and cell proliferation distinguish the inducible and basal programs. Results were confirmed in an in vivo stress model of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. This study reveals global circuitry of the Nrf2 stress response emphasizing Nrf2 as a central node in cell survival response.

  4. The effect of different concentrations of bee propolis on skin wound healing and immune response and survival of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasrin choubkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics use to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals. But due to the residual effects of a drug, Antibiotics and used to increase the immune response and propolis wound healing is aquadic animals. But due to their residual, researchers are looking to replace them with natural materials. One of these natural materials that has many health benefits is bee propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of propolis on wound healing and immune system response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Propolis extracts were prepared from Kashan Barij essence with different concentrations of 0 , 2 , 5 and 10% with carrier substances (to dissolve the propolis  in water, and were evaluated on wound healing and immune response and survival  of common carp on a 21 –day cycle of short baths once a day . The results showed that, compared with the control group (0%, the use of bee propolis in concentration of 2% has statistically significant difference on wound healing and immune system response in common carp. The use of higher concentrations of propolis healed wound, but increased the number of blood cells (red blood cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils and increased mortality of fish, so it is better to use lower concentrations of propolis in fish. The use bee propolis as additive in water is effective in low concentrations and stimulates the immune system.

  5. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  6. DNA mismatch repair protein MSH2 dictates cellular survival in response to low dose radiation in endometrial carcinoma cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Lynn M

    2013-07-10

    DNA repair and G2-phase cell cycle checkpoint responses are involved in the manifestation of hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS). The low-dose radioresponse of MSH2 isogenic endometrial carcinoma cell lines was examined. Defects in cell cycle checkpoint activation and the DNA damage response in irradiated cells (0.2 Gy) were evaluated. HRS was expressed solely in MSH2+ cells and was associated with efficient activation of the early G2-phase cell cycle checkpoint. Maintenance of the arrest was associated with persistent MRE11, γH2AX, RAD51 foci at 2 h after irradiation. Persistent MRE11 and RAD51 foci were also evident 24 h after 0.2 Gy. MSH2 significantly enhances cell radiosensitivity to low dose IR.

  7. EBOV Protection Is Supported by T Cell-Dependent Humoral Responses But Is Not Requisite for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-03

    guinea pigs , or nonhuman primates with virus-8 like particles (eVLP) expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP) elicited full protection. More recently, we...of antibodies can be achieved; however, B cells are obligate. 17 18 Introduction 19 Humoral immune responses are a hallmark for successful...23 key initiating events including: 1) the onset and duration of germinal center (GC) B cell reactions 2) 24 activation -induced cytidine deaminase

  8. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  9. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

    1999-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  10. General response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to desiccation: A new role for the virulence factors sopD and sseD in survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserati, Alice; Fink, Ryan C; Lourenco, Antonio; Julius, Matthew L; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella can survive for long periods under extreme desiccation conditions. This stress tolerance poses a risk for food safety, but relatively little is known about the molecular and cellular regulation of this adaptation mechanism. To determine the genetic components involved in Salmonella's cellular response to desiccation, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis comparing S. enterica serovar Typhimurium cells equilibrated to low water activity (aw 0.11) and cells equilibrated to high water activity (aw 1.0). The analysis revealed that 719 genes were differentially regulated between the two conditions, of which 290 genes were up-regulated at aw 0.11. Most of these genes were involved in metabolic pathways, transporter regulation, DNA replication/repair, transcription and translation, and, more importantly, virulence genes. Among these, we decided to focus on the role of sopD and sseD. Deletion mutants were created and their ability to survive desiccation and exposure to aw 0.11 was compared to the wild-type strain and to an E. coli O157:H7 strain. The sopD and sseD mutants exhibited significant cell viability reductions of 2.5 and 1.3 Log (CFU/g), respectively, compared to the wild-type after desiccation for 4 days on glass beads. Additional viability differences of the mutants were observed after exposure to aw 0.11 for 7 days. E. coli O157:H7 lost viability similarly to the mutants. Scanning electron microscopy showed that both mutants displayed a different morphology compared to the wild-type and differences in production of the extracellular matrix under the same conditions. These findings suggested that sopD and sseD are required for Salmonella's survival during desiccation.

  11. General response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to desiccation: A new role for the virulence factors sopD and sseD in survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maserati

    Full Text Available Salmonella can survive for long periods under extreme desiccation conditions. This stress tolerance poses a risk for food safety, but relatively little is known about the molecular and cellular regulation of this adaptation mechanism. To determine the genetic components involved in Salmonella's cellular response to desiccation, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis comparing S. enterica serovar Typhimurium cells equilibrated to low water activity (aw 0.11 and cells equilibrated to high water activity (aw 1.0. The analysis revealed that 719 genes were differentially regulated between the two conditions, of which 290 genes were up-regulated at aw 0.11. Most of these genes were involved in metabolic pathways, transporter regulation, DNA replication/repair, transcription and translation, and, more importantly, virulence genes. Among these, we decided to focus on the role of sopD and sseD. Deletion mutants were created and their ability to survive desiccation and exposure to aw 0.11 was compared to the wild-type strain and to an E. coli O157:H7 strain. The sopD and sseD mutants exhibited significant cell viability reductions of 2.5 and 1.3 Log (CFU/g, respectively, compared to the wild-type after desiccation for 4 days on glass beads. Additional viability differences of the mutants were observed after exposure to aw 0.11 for 7 days. E. coli O157:H7 lost viability similarly to the mutants. Scanning electron microscopy showed that both mutants displayed a different morphology compared to the wild-type and differences in production of the extracellular matrix under the same conditions. These findings suggested that sopD and sseD are required for Salmonella's survival during desiccation.

  12. The combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms and external factors enables Listeria monocytogenes to express a strong starvation survival response during multiple-nutrient starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Bwalya; Saldivar, Joshua C; Story, Robert; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the starvation survival response (SSR) of a wild-type Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant strain during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions over 28 days. This study examined the effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the proton motive force, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation on the SSR of L. monocytogenes 10403S and a DeltasigB mutant during multiple-nutrient starvation. The effects of starvation buffer changes on viability were also examined. During multiple-nutrient starvation, both strains expressed a strong SSR, suggesting that L. monocytogenes possesses SigB-independent mechanism(s) for survival during multiple-nutrient starvation. Neither strain was able to express an SSR following starvation buffer changes, indicating that the nutrients/factors present in the starvation buffer could be a source of energy for cell maintenance and survival. Neither the wild-type nor the DeltasigB mutant strain was able to elicit an SSR when exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol within the first 4 h of starvation. However, both strains expressed an SSR when exposed to chloramphenicol after 6 h or more of starvation, suggesting that the majority of proteins required to elicit an effective SSR in L. monocytogenes are likely produced somewhere between 4 and 6 h of starvation. The varying SSRs of both strains to the different metabolic inhibitors under aerobic or anaerobic conditions suggested that (1) energy derived from the proton motive force is important for an effective SSR, (2) L. monocytogenes utilizes an anaerobic electron transport during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions, and (3) the glycolytic pathway is an important energy source during multiple-nutrient starvation when oxygen is available, and less important under anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that the combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms

  13. Overall survival and response pattern of castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer to multiple cycles of radioligand therapy using [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-PSMA-617

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    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Wegen, Simone; Yordanova, Anna; Kuerpig, Stefan; Eppard, Elisabeth; Wei, Xiao; Schlenkhoff, Carl; Essler, Markus [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Institute for Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Hauser, Stefan [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Urology, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Up to 30% of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) do not show any response to the first cycle of radioligand therapy (RLT) with [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 (Lu-PSMA). We evaluated patient response to the second and third cycles of RLT in patients that underwent at least three cycles. The second aim of this study was to calculate the median overall survival (OS) of responders and non-responders after the first cycle and after all three cycles of RLT. CRPC patients were treated with Lu-PSMA, with a median interval of 8 weeks between each cycle. The tumour marker prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was used as the marker for response evaluation. Fifty-two patients underwent a total of 190 cycles of RLT (3-6 cycles per patient). Of these, 80.8% showed a decline in PSA 2 months after the first cycle, with 44.2% showing a PSA decline of ≥50%. When compared to baseline PSA, 73.1% showed a PSA decline after the third cycle. 50% of patients that did not show any response to the first cycle also did not respond to the second and third cycles. The median OS was 60 weeks in all patients. The median OS was significantly longer for patients that showed any PSA decline after the first cycle compared to patients without PSA decline (68 vs. 33 weeks). There was a significant difference in median OS between responders and non-responders for a change in PSA after the