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Sample records for surveys south dakota

  1. South Dakota Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Dept. of Human Services, Pierre.

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey was cooperatively developed by Centers for Disease Control and state and local departments of health to assess six health risk behaviors of adolescents that result in the greatest number of morbidity, mortality, and social problems. All public, private, and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools in South Dakota, containing…

  2. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Huron quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Huron map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1459 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

  3. A survey of locally endemic mollusca of Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a culmination of field, laboratory, and bibliographic work begun in August, 1974. The project as originally contracted called for a survey of Utah and...

  4. Generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. The...

  5. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  6. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  7. Libraries in South Dakota: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southdakota.html Libraries in South Dakota To use the sharing features ... Sioux Falls Wegner Health Science Information Center Wegner Library 1400 W 22nd Street Suite 100 Sioux Falls, ...

  8. North Dakota Piping Plover Survey : 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Packet of information on conducting piping plover surveys in North Dakota for 1992. These surveys are part of a cooperative effort with other resource agencies and...

  9. American Burying Beetle Meeting and Correspondence : South Dakota : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum from a South Dakota Area Biologist, to all refuges in South Dakota, sharing the notes from a meeting held on March 24, 1995...

  10. Grizzly Gulch Fire, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Burning next door to the South Dakota towns of Deadwood and Lead, the Grizzly Gulch fire forced the evacuation of many residents in the first week of July, 2002. In addition, smoke closed many of the roads in the area. At the time the fire's behavior was extreme, with 'torching, spotting, and running.' In other words, the fire was primarily burning along the ground, with entire trees occasionally erupting into flame (torching). At the same time, burning embers were being thrown ahead of the fire (spotting). In some areas the fire was spreading from the crown of one tree to another (running). (This glossary of fire terms has a good list of definitions) The above image shows the fire on the morning of July 1, 2002. Actively burning areas, concentrated on the east (right) side of the fire, are colored red and orange. Dark red areas indicate burn scars, while forest and other vegetation appears green. The exposed rock of the Homestake gold mine, now the National Underground Science Laboratory, is pinkish-brown. The total extent of the fire is oulined in yellow. The image was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. More news about current wildfires in the United States is available from the National Fire Information Center. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  11. South Dakota's System of Financing Public Education: Is It Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Lee A.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the South Dakota system of financing education in light of major cases considering the constitutionality of state finance systems and of the approaches courts have used in determining constitutionality. Examines the particular finance problems that face the school systems of South Dakota. Available from University of South Dakota School…

  12. U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River system, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1985-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Kimball E.

    1988-01-01

    The Cheyenne River system in Western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1985 and 1986 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers, and for the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water quality to very complex photon-correlation spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (USGS)

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Water resources of the Lake Traverse Reservation, South and North Dakota, and Roberts County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ryan F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe; Roberts County; and the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Geological Survey Program, began a 6-year investigation to describe and quantify the water resources of the area within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. Roberts County is located in extreme northeastern South Dakota, and the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation encompasses much of Roberts County and parts of Marshall, Day, Codington, and Grant Counties in South Dakota and parts of Richland and Sargent Counties in southeast North Dakota. This report includes descriptions of the quantity, quality, and availability of surface and ground water, the extent of the major glacial and bedrock aquifers and named outwash groups, and surface- and ground-water uses within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. The surface-water resources within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County include rivers, streams, lakes, and wetlands. The Wild Rice and Bois de Sioux Rivers are tributaries of the Red River within the Souris-Red-Rainy River Basin; the Little Minnesota, Jorgenson, and North Fork Whetstone Rivers are tributaries of the Minnesota River within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, and the James and Big Sioux Rivers are tributaries within the Missouri River Basin. Several of the larger lakes within the study area have been developed for recreation, while many of the smaller lakes and wetlands are used for livestock watering or as wildlife production areas. Statistical summaries are presented for the water-quality data of six selected streams within the study area, and the dominant chemical species are listed for 17 selected lakes within the study area. The glacial history of the study area has led to a rather complex system of glacial

  15. Results of the Four Square Mile waterfowl populations survey in the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture area of North Dakota, South Dakota and northeast Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the Four Square Mile Survey in the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture from 1989-2006. Information presented in this report is a summary of the survey results...

  16. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

  17. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-19

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  18. Atlas of water resources in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Lindquist, Van A.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills area is an important resource center that provides an economic base for western South Dakota through tourism, agriculture, the timber industry, and mineral resources. In addition, water originating from the area is used for municipal, industrial, agricultural, and recreational purposes throughout much of western South Dakota. The Black Hills area also is an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains.Population growth, resource development, and periodic droughts have the potential to affect the quantity, quality, and availability of water within the Black Hills area. Growth has resulted in competing interests for available water supplies. The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to address these concerns. This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators.

  19. The Arts in South Dakota: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Ron, Comp.; Bell, Rebecca L., Comp.; Amiotte, Arthur D., Comp.; Murray, Janette K., Comp.; Huenemann, Lynn F., Comp.

    This bibliography pulls together some of the available resources on the arts in South Dakota and the Dakota Territory. In preparing this bibliography, the arts were defined as broadly as possible. The major arts areas identified are: (1) Visual Arts (painting, sculpture, photography, graphic arts and printing, architecture, decorative and…

  20. Distance Education in South Dakota: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauck, Tamara

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the history of distance education in South Dakota. Highlights include interactive videoconferencing on the Digital Dakota Network (DDN); four video consortiums for K-12 schools; the Rural Development Telecommunications Network; the Electronic University Consortium; higher Education opportunities via the Internet, satellites,…

  1. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  2. Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

  3. Implementation guidance for accelerated bridge construction in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate implementation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) in South Dakota. Accelerated bridge construction is defined as construction practices that employ innovative techniques to reduce on-site construction time a...

  4. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : final business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-18

    This report defines an Intelligent Transportation Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS/CVO) program for the State of South Dakota. Structured as a business plan, the document includes the following components: 1) description of the current CVO ...

  5. South Dakota rangelands: More than a sea of grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Robert Gartner; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1996-01-01

    Presettlement explorers described the region’s landscape as a “sea of grass.” Yet, this “sea” was quite varied, and included a wealth of less obvious forested communities. Both physiographic and climatic gradients across the state of South Dakota contributed to the development of variable vegetation types of South Dakota. The diverse flora truly identifies the state as...

  6. The Gorge of the Missouri: An Archeological Survey of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    purely social purposes. The secret societies dealt with "mysteries and concerning healing rituals and occult and shamanistic proceedings" (Fletcher...and social 54 responsibilities; descent in the clan is patrilineal. A complex of dancing societies concerned with war, healing , and entertainment... dance before they were inarched to Okla. by force. On the south there is a ridge they call Ma ah zee burying place on top of the ridge (Howard 1970

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  8. Implementation Guidance for Accelerated Bridge Construction in South Dakota : Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Investigate typical accelerated bridge construction methods and their applicability in South Dakota. A study was conducted to investigate the implementation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) in South Dakota. The main objective of this study wa...

  9. Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Jewel Cave National Monument and Vicinity, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRI, JECA, JECA digital map) adapted from U.S. Geological Survey mylars by DeWitt (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Jewel Cave National Monument and Vicinity, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  10. South Dakota – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    At the state level, South Dakota has no formal laws banning discrimination based on sexual orientation. However, South Dakota State University, one city, and two counties in South Dakota have ordinances prohibiting discrimination in employment based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity.

  11. [1981 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 5-9, 1981 across North Dakota.

  12. [1980 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 2-8, 1980 across North Dakota.

  13. First detection of Aster Yellows caused by phytoplasma on Camelina sativa L. in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina is an oilseed crop that has been introduced to South Dakota primarily for biofuel production. Camelina plants (cv. ‘S0-40’) exhibiting symptoms typical of aster yellows infection were observed in a 10-acre demonstration plot at the Dakota Lakes Research Farm in Hughes County, South Dakota ...

  14. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  15. 76 FR 7810 - Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), United States... technical documents to conduct wetland determinations on agriculture land as part of the National Food...

  16. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  17. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  18. 2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second

  19. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the High Plains aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the High Plains aquifer in the States of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota,...

  20. Generalized average annual yield efficiency (in percent of annual precipitation) for the Black Hills area, South Dakota, water years 1950-98

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides lines of equal average annual yield efficiency for water years 1950-98 in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming.

  1. Compilation of selected hydrologic data, through water year 1992, Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell

    1994-01-01

    This report presents water-level, water-quailty, and springflow data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1992, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). Water-level data are presented for 32 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tabular data. Water- quality data are presented for 12 surface-water sites and 5 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, cyanide, phenols, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Spring data are presented for 83 springs and 21 stream reaches with significant springflow components. Data presented include site information, discharge, and field water-quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH.

  2. Selenium in foods purchased or produced in South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, O.E.; Palmer, I.S.

    Selenium contents of 222 foods obtained in east-central South Dakota are presented, the best sources being foods of high protein content, such as: meats; South Dakota cheeses; semolina products; breads; breakfast cereals prepared from soybeans, hard wheat, or oats; poultry and eggs; and some seafoods. Average values from this study are generally lower than those reported for similar foods from Canada, higher than those reported from Washington, DC, and considerably higher than those reported from Ohio. A study of milk samples from eight processing plants over the state, gave an overall average and standard deviation of 61 +/- 12 ..mu..g/L. Values were highest in December and lowest in May. 14 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  3. Climate and streamflow characteristics for selected streamgages in eastern South Dakota, water years 1945–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Stamm, John F.

    2015-11-02

    Upward trends in precipitation and streamflow have been observed in the northeastern Missouri River Basin during the past century, including the area of eastern South Dakota. Some of the identified upward trends were anomalously large relative to surrounding parts of the northern Great Plains. Forcing factors for streamflow trends in eastern South Dakota are not well understood, and it is not known whether streamflow trends are driven primarily by climatic changes or various land-use changes. Understanding the effects that climate (specifically precipitation and temperature) has on streamflow characteristics within a region will help to better understand additional factors such as land-use alterations that may affect the hydrology of the region. To aid in this understanding, a study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the East Dakota Water Development District and James River Water Development District, to assess trends in climate and streamflow characteristics at 10 selected streamgages in eastern South Dakota for water years (WYs) 1945–2013 (69 years) and WYs 1980–2013 (34 years). A WY is the 12-month period, October 1 through September 30, and is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. One streamgage is on the Whetstone River, a tributary to the Minnesota River, and the other streamgages are in the James, Big Sioux, and Vermillion River Basins. The watersheds for two of the James River streamgages extend into North Dakota, and parts of the watersheds for two of the Big Sioux River streamgages extend into Minnesota and Iowa. The objectives of this study were to document trends in streamflow and precipitation in these watersheds, and characterize the residual streamflow variability that might be attributed to factors other than precipitation. Residuals were computed as the departure from a locally-weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) model. Significance of trends was based on the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test at a 0

  4. Surficial geology within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains information about the surficial geology for the area within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson...

  5. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  6. 76 FR 3926 - Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant Service... Comments--LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant Service Areas. SUMMARY: The Legal Services Corporation will eliminate the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming migrant service areas...

  7. 78 FR 22901 - United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota Proposed Final Judgment... States of America v. Chiropractic Associates Ltd, of South Dakota, (CASD), Civil Case No. 13-CV-4030-LLP... same time as the Complaint, enjoins CASD from establishing prices or terms for chiropractic services...

  8. Bird species associated with green ash woodlands in the Slim Buttes, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Hodorff; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1986-01-01

    In western South Dakota, native deciduous woodlands are uncommon, constituting less than 1% of the total land area (Boldt et al. 1978). The Green Ash/Common Chokecherry (Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana) habitat type is the major deciduous habitat type in northwestern South Dakota (Hansen and Hoffman 1985). This type occurs in depressions,...

  9. Phonological individuation in a former Danish settlement in South Dakota, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Jutland in Denmark, as well as speakers born in South Dakota to parents who emigrated from Northwest Jutland. The analysis shows that dialectal convergence has not occurred to any significant degree, in spite of what may be expected; speakers born in South Dakota have significantly more dialectal features...

  10. Characteristics of successful puma kill sites of elk in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2017-01-01

    Elk Cervus canadensis nelsoni in the Black Hills, South Dakota, have been declining since 2006 and there is concern by resource managers and hunters that puma Puma concolor predation may be contributing to declining herds. We evaluated characteristics at sites where puma successfully killed elk in the Black Hills of South Dakota. We evaluated characteristics at coarse...

  11. Newcastle folio, Wyoming-South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, N. H.

    1904-01-01

    The Newcastle quadrangle embraces the quarter of a square degree which lies between parallels 43° 30' and 44° north latitude and meridians 104° and 104° 30' west longitude.  It measures approximately 34 1/2 miles from north to south and 25 1/8 from east to west, and its area is 863 4/5 square miles.  It lies mainly in the eastern portion of Weston County, Wyo., but includes also a narrow area of western Custer and Pennington counties, S. Dak.  The northeastern portion of the quadrangle lies on the slopes of the Black Hills, but the larger part of it belongs to the Great Plains, although these plains are lower here than in the greater part of adjoining portions of Nebraska and Wyoming.  The district is drained by branches of the South Branch of Cheyenne River.

  12. South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota solar-energy-system performanceevaluation, June 1980-April 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    The South Dakota School of Mines site is the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Visitor's Center in Keystone, South Dakota. The active solar energy system is a retrofit designed to supply 45% of the heating load and 53% of the observation room cooling load. The system is equipped with 2000 square feet of flat-plate collector panels double-glazed with a black chrome absorber surface; 3000 gallons of water in an insulated tank for sensible heat storage; a two-stage fuel oil furnace for auxiliary heating; and direct expansion electric air conditioning units for auxiliary cooling. The actual heating and cooling provided are 42% and 12% respectively. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fueld savings, electrical energy expense, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are among the performance data listed. A control problem is reported that kept the collector pump running 24 hours a day for 18 days. Performance data are given for each subsystem as well as for the overall system. Typical system operation and the system operating sequence for a day are given. The system's use of solar energy and the percentage of losses are given. Also included are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, long-term weather data, chemical analysis of the antifreeze solutions, sensor technology, and typical weather and performance data for a month. (LEW)

  13. Status Assessment and Conservation Guidelines : Dakota Skipper Hesperia dacotae (Skinner) : (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) : Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Manitoba

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This status report summarizes background information on the habitat, biology, and ecology of the Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae) based on numerous publications,...

  14. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  15. Phase 1 Watershed Assessment Final Report: Lake Andes Watershed, Charles Mix County, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Andes was included in the 1998 South Dakota 303(d) list as an impairment-related Total Maximum Daily Load waterbody. In 1922 Congress passed a bill that...

  16. Digital Geologic Map of the Boland Ridge quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Boland Ridge quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  17. Digital Geologic Map of the Mount Coolidge quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Mount Coolidge quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  18. Digital Geologic Map of the Argile quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Argile quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map...

  19. The Trail Inventory of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stations in South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to summarize the baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on National Wildlife Refuges in South Dakota. Trails in this inventory...

  20. Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  1. Bovine hydrocephalus in North Dakota: a survey and morphologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoferson, L A; Leech, R W; Hazen, G A

    1977-04-01

    A survey of hydrocephalus in cattle in North Dakota in 1975 and 1976 included 26 proven cases falling into categories comparable to that seen in the human situation. The largest group was hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis with the second largest group being hydranencephaly. Other groups included the Dandy-Walker malformation, porencephaly and a miscellaneous group having a variety of central nervous system malformations. All cases were sporadic with no evidence to suggest a genetic basis. The similarity suggests that calves could serve as a useful model for the human situation.

  2. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  3. Distribution (presence / absence) of Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Clarifying the Epidemiology of Bluetongue Disease in the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence or absence of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a primary vector of bluetongue viruses (BTV) in North America, was assessed on ranches and farms across the north-central region of the United States (U.S.), specifically the states of Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, as pa...

  4. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Ground-survey and water-quality data for selected wetlands on or near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in South Dakota, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2015-08-20

    Numerous lakes, ponds, and wetlands are located within the Lower Brule Indian Reservation. Wetlands are an important resource providing aquatic habitat for plants and animals, and acting as a natural water filtration system. Several of the wetlands on or near the reservation are of particular interest, but information on the physical and biological integrity of these wetlands was needed to provide a base-line reference when planning for future water management needs. A reconnaissance-level study of selected wetlands on and near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation was completed in 2012–13 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe using ground surveys and water-quality analyses. Ground surveys of six wetland areas (Dorman Slough, Little Bend Wetlands, Miller Pond, Potter Slough, an unnamed slough, and West Brule Community wetlands) were completed to map land, water, vegetation, and man-made features of the selected wetland areas using real-time kinematic global navigation satellite systems equipment. Water samples were collected from four of the selected wetlands. Two separate waterbodies were sampled at one of the wetlands for a total of five sampling locations. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties, selected inorganics, metals, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentrations of calcium, sodium, and sulfate were greater at the two wetland sites fed by ground water, compared to the wetland sites fed by surface runoff.

  6. Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation area, South Dakota, water years 1980-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Putnam, Larry D.; LaBelle, Anneka R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are the largest sources of groundwater on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and are used extensively for irrigation and public and domestic water supplies. To assess the potential for decreased water levels and discharge to streams in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers in southwestern South Dakota were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oglala Sioux Tribe. The study area includes most of the Pine Ridge Reservation in Jackson and Shannon Counties and Indian trust lands in Bennett County in southwestern South Dakota.

  7. Long-distance dispersal of a subadult male cougar from South Dakota to Connecticut documented with DNA evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason E. Hawley; Paul W. Rego; Adrian P. Wydeven; Michael K. Schwartz; Tabitha C. Viner; Roland Kays; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Jonathan A. Jenks

    2016-01-01

    We report the long-distance dispersal of a subadult male cougar (Puma concolor) from South Dakota to Milford, Connecticut, where it was struck and killed by a vehicle. Genetic samples suggest this animal originated from the Black Hills of South Dakota while isotope analysis and physical inspection revealed no evidence that the animal had been held in captivity...

  8. State of South Dakota's Child 2004 continued: out of home care for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ann

    2005-02-01

    South Dakota leads the nation in its percent of women in the workforce who have children under the age of six. Nationally, 64% of women with children this young are employed and this is the case for 78% of women in the state. Further, 60% of South Dakota's infants live in homes where either their single mother is employed or both their parents are employed outside of their home. Nearly half of all the state's infants and children under six receive nonparental care during their parents' working hours. The significance of this reality is profound as young children's experiences, during early formative periods of life, affect their current and future development. The dimensions of quality care for infants are described as well as the economic and policy dynamics that affect its delivery in South Dakota.

  9. Availability of shallow ground-water resources within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains information about the probability of obtaining a water supply within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and...

  10. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 19,900 LGBT workers in South Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, nine more complaints would be filed in South Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or a...

  11. The South Dakota Model: Health Care Professions Student Disaster Preparedness and Deployment Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matt P; Buffington, Cheri; Frost, Michael P; Waldner, Randall J

    2017-10-26

    The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework. Pre-test and post-test analyses were presented to the students. Small group activities covered leadership, anaphylaxis, mass fatality, points of dispensing deployment training, psychological first aid, triage, and personal protective equipment. Students were given the option to sign up for statewide deployment through the South Dakota Statewide Emergency Registry of Volunteers (SERV SD). DTD data and student satisfaction surveys from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed. Since 2004, DTD has provided disaster preparedness training to 2246 students across 13 health professions. Significant improvement was shown on CDLS post-test performance with a t-score of -14.24 and a resulting P value of high levels of satisfaction on a 5-level Likert scale with overall training, small group sessions, and perceived self-competency relating to disaster response. SERV SD registration increased in 2015, and 77.5% of the participants registered in 2016. DTD at the USD SSOM provides for an effective 1-day disaster training course for health professions students. Resources from around the state were coordinated to provide training, liability coverage, and deployment organization for hundreds of students representing multiple health professions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017; page 1 of 6).

  12. Selected hydrologic data, through water year 1994, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, D.G.; Bradford, W.L.; Neitzert, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents water-level, water-quality, and spring data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1994, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). This report is the second in a series of biennial project data reports produced for the study. Daily water-level data are presented for 39 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tables of daily water levels. Annual measurements of water levels collected during water years 1993-94 from a network of 20 additional, miscellaneous wells are presented. These wells are part of a Statewide network of wells completed in bedrock aquifers that was operated from 1959 through 1989 in cooperation with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Site descriptions and hydrographs for the entire period of record for each site also are presented. Drawdown and recovery data are presented for five wells that were pumped (or flowed) for collection of water-quality samples. These wells are part of the network of observation wells for which daily water-level records are compiled. Water-quality data are presented for 20 surface-water sites and 22 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics and isotopes, cyanide, phenols, and suspended sediment. Spring data are

  13. Violinists Run Amuck in South Dakota: Screen Doors Down in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violinists Run Amuck in South Dakota: Screen Doors Down in the Badlands! Damien Cox, Michael Levine. Abstract. Re-Reading: Judith Jarvis Thompson, 'A Defense of Abortion'. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/05568640609485183 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  14. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  15. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  16. Conservation assessment for bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis L. (Papaveraceae), is a common spring flowering herb in the deciduous forests of eastern North America. It is disjunctly distributed in the northeastern Black Hills of South Dakota. There are 22 known occurrences of bloodroot on Black Hills National Forest in hardwood forests, shrub thickets, and floodplain habitats of limited...

  17. Where We'Re At . . . Statistical Report on Status of Minorities and Women in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEldowney, Mary Ellen

    The Commission on Human Rights enforces the South Dakota Human Relations Act of 1972 which prohibits discrimination because of race, color, creed, religion, sex, national origin or ancestry in employment, labor unions, housing, property rights, education, public accomodations and public services in the state. The purpose of this paper was to draw…

  18. 75 FR 61414 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... wind turbine generators; 6,000-square-foot operations and maintenance building and fence perimeter; 64... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project AGENCY... Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western interconnection...

  19. Faculty Internationalization: Experiences, Attitudes, and Involvement of Faculty at Public Universities in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Internationalization in higher education is an issue of growing importance as the forces of globalism continue to push both social and economic connections from local to global. While this topic is becoming increasingly vital to the health and influence of educational institutions, many, including those within South Dakota, are unaware of the…

  20. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: A Plan of Operation has been submitted by Pete Lien and Sons, Inc., for.... The proposal is to mine within Pennington County, South Dakota, totaling approximately 100 acres about... Intent and the new estimated Final EIS publication date. DATES: The final environmental impact statement...

  1. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder, and Challenge System. A Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Donald G.; Gildseth, Wayne M.

    The South Dakota Core Curriculum Project involving the career ladder approach to health manpower training, which began in 1970, had seven objectives including the following: (1) To organize a Health Manpower Council for the entire State; (2) to define the areas of basic commonality among the various training programs; and (3) to develop a core…

  3. A New Species of Lasconotus (Coleoptera: Colydiidae) from Arizona and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kingsolver; Karl Stephan; John C. Moser

    2006-01-01

    Lasconotus fitzgibbonae, a new species in the Colydiidae, is described. It is compared with Lasconotus coronatus (Hinton) from Mexico, originally described in the genus Chrysopogonius Hinton, now a synonym of Lasconotus Erichson. The South Dakota specimens were found under the root bark of

  4. South Dakota's Third-Year Program of Integrated Clerkships in Ambulatory-Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lori A.; Talley, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    In the University of South Dakota's medical school clerkship program, students may choose one of three ambulatory-care settings. In one, the curriculum is problem based and student centered to enhance student interest in primary care. The new program has been successful and well received and is being further developed. (MSE)

  5. Geothermal applications on the Madison (Pahasapa) aquifer system in South Dakota. Final report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, J.P.

    1977-09-01

    Pertinent geologic, hydrologic, and chemical data for the Madison Formation underlying western South Dakota are presented in text and in graphic form. A temperature anomaly in west central South Dakota makes 130 to 160/sup 0/F water available at depths of less than 3500 ft. A central geothermal space heating system designed for Midland, South Dakota indicates that by 1980 geothermal heat will be competitive with existing energy sources. Preliminary tests indicate the superiority of 304 or 316 stainless steel for fabrication of equipment to utilize the warm, corrosive Madison water. South Dakota has no statutes governing geothermal resources; under existing water law, geothermal water would be classified as a top priority domestic use. Suggestions are made for state legislation pertaining to the development of geothermal energy.

  6. Conservation assessment for groundcedar and stiff clubmoss in the Black Hills National Forest South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Hope Hornbeck; Deanna J. Reyher; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Reed W. Crook

    2002-01-01

    Stiff clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum L.) and groundcedar (Lycopodium complanatum L.; synonym = Diphasiastrum complanatum [L.] Holub.) (Lycopodiaceae) are circumboreal clubmoss species that are widely distributed in North American boreal habitats. In the northern Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming,...

  7. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  8. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moo Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  9. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  10. Understory-overstory relationships in ponderosa pine forests, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Kieth E. Severson

    1989-01-01

    Under-story-overstory relationships were examined over 7 different growing stock levels(GSLs) of 2 size classes(saplings,8-10 cm d.b.h. and poles, 15-18 cm d.b.h.) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Generally, production of graminoids, forbs, and shrubs was similar between sapling and pole stands. Trends among GSLs were also similar...

  11. "So long as I can read": farm women's reading experiences in Depression-era South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Lisa R

    2009-01-01

    During the Great Depression, with conditions grim, entertainment scarce, and educational opportunities limited, many South Dakota farm women relied on reading to fill emotional, social, and informational needs. To read to any degree, these rural women had to overcome multiple obstacles. Extensive reading (whether books, farm journals, or newspapers) was limited to those who had access to publications and could make time to read. The South Dakota Free Library Commission was valuable in circulating reading materials to the state's rural population. In the 1930s the commission collaborated with the USDA's Extension Service in a popular reading project geared toward South Dakota farm women. This "Reading in the Home" program greatly increased reading opportunities and motivations. Of particular interest to rural women were tales of pioneer life featuring strong protagonists. Through these stories, farm women found validation and encouragement to persevere. Reading also broadened horizons and challenged assumptions. For the depression-era farm woman, reading books and other materials provided recreation, instruction, and inspiration in a discouraging time.

  12. Inmigrants to the Northern Great Plains: Survey Results from Nebraska and North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistritz, F. Larry; Cordes, Sam; Sell, Randall S.; Allen, John C.; Filkins, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    A study of characteristics and motives of migrants to the Northern Great Plains surveyed 1,590 new residents in Nebraska and North Dakota. New arrivals were younger and had higher educational levels than existing residents. Most often cited reasons for moving were desire to be closer to relatives, safety concerns, and quality of the natural…

  13. Archeological Investigations within Federal Lands Located on the East Bank of the Lake Sharpe Project Area, South Dakota: 1978-1979. Volume 3. Appendix 1. Contributing Reports I-O. Appendix 2. Scope of Work, Amendment P00001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    of the University of South Dakota Museum, and Freeman Ward, State Geologist , visited the area while jointly surveying the geology and natural history...resources in the contract area, and (4) consultations with amateur archeologists and individuals knowledgeable of local history. The Contractor shall

  14. Attitudes and gender differences of high school seniors within one-to-one computing environments in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mathew

    In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.

  15. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  16. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River Basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  17. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Lac qui Parle River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Sanocki, C.A.; Winterstein, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Lac qui Parle River basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical charac- teristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length. and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  18. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3507. (e) The following provisions of South..., S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 38-22. (4) Protection of fishing waters, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 41.... Chap. 34A-2. (8) Solid waste disposal, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 34A-6. (9) Groundwater, S. D. Comp...

  19. Interrelationships between Fish Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Water Quality for South Dakota Natural Lakes and Impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Steven R.; Stetler, Larry; Stone, James J.; McCutcheon, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether water quality parameters commonly associated with primary productivity may be used to predict the susceptibility of a specific water body to exceed proposed fish consumption advisory limitation of 0.3 mg kg−1. South Dakota currently has nine lakes and impoundments that exceed fish tissue mercury advisory limits of 1.0 mg kg−1 total mercury, far exceeding US Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration 0.3 mg kg−1 consumption criteria. Previous studies suggest that increased aquatic productivity may mitigate the effects of biological production and subsequent uptake of methyl mercury through bio-dilution; however, it is uncertain whether these trends may exist within highly alkaline and highly productive aquatic conditions common to South Dakota lakes and impoundments. Water quality parameters and fish tissue mercury data for northern pike and walleye were collected and assessed using existing South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Game Fish and Parks data. The data was initially screened using both parametric linear regression and non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum comparisons and further assessed using binary logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression methodology. Three separate phosphorus measurements (total, total dissolved, and Trophic State Index) and pH were determined to significantly correlate with increased mercury concentrations for the northern pike-in-impoundments model. However, phosphorus surprisingly was not a strong predictor for the remaining scenarios modeled. For the northern pike-in-natural lakes models, alkalinity was the most significant water quality parameter predicting increased mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations for the walleye-in-natural lakes models were further influenced by pH and alkalinity. The water quality and fish tissue mercury interrelationships determined within this study suggest aquatic

  20. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Dakota: focused insight into prevalence, physiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Wael E

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the significant comorbidities of obesity. This review addresses the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus nationally and in South Dakota. It elaborates on some of the mechanisms of association of obesity with diabetes mellitus, including effects related to adipokines, lipotoxicity, vitamin D deficiency and apolipoprotein C1. This review addresses the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus in the obese population through life style changes, medications and/or surgery. Future directions in the management of diabetes are explored in the obese population.

  1. Geothermal heating project at St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota, with the assistance of the US Department of Energy, drilled a 2176 ft well into the Madison Aquifer ot secure 108/sup 0/F artesian flow water at 385 gpm (475 psig shut-in pressure). The objective was to provide heat for domestic hot water and to space heat 163,768 sq. ft. Cost savings for the first three years were significant and, with the exception of a shutdown to replace some corroded pipe, the system has operated reliably and continuously for the last four years.

  2. A new fossil mustelid from the Miocene of South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Deock; Martin, L. D.

    2002-03-01

    A skull from the Barstovian of South Dakota has typical leptarctine characteristics, including robust zygomatic arches, double sagittal crests, grooves on the lingual side of the lower canines, and bony projections from the tympanic bullae. The robust mandibles and expanded masseteric fossa of this specimen indicate that it had large jaw muscles. Dental morphology and other characters lead us to agree with earlier suggestions that Hypsoparia is a valid genus. The morphology of Hypsoparia suggests that leptarctines were more herbivorous than most other Carnivora.

  3. JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-11-01

    Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

  4. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  5. Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Pelican Survey, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — June 10, 2014 marks the first use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Chase Lake Wildlife Refuge for pelican surveys. The U.S. Geological Survey teamed up with the...

  6. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Successes In Silviculture; Rapid City, South Dakota; May 13-16, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. McCoy; Larry Gross; Henry Lachowski; Jim Chew; John W. Joy; Jerry Henderson; Mike Murphy; Nelson S. Loftus; Glenn Jacobsen; Richard L. Kracht; Lloyd A. Musser; Brian H. Avery; David F. Thomas; Max Williamson; Mike Znerold; Roger Belanger; John Nesbitt; Tom Beckman; James B. Baker; John B. Amundson; Gary O. Fiddler; Robert J. Laacke; Mike Rauscher; Hrishi Saha; Pierre Robert; David Winn; Darwin L. Richards; Marianne Burke; Bobby Kitchens; John Murphy; Hyun-Chung Kang

    1985-01-01

    The 1985 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Rapid City, South Dakota, and the Black Hills National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss, review, and share information and experiences regarding successful silvicultural treatment that may have application in other Regions.

  7. Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; Jose F. Negron; William R. Jacobi

    2008-01-01

    Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants...

  8. Flora and fauna associated with prairie dog colonies and adjacent ungrazed mixed-grass prairie in western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Agnew; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1986-01-01

    Vegetation, small rodents, and birds were sampled during the growing seasons of 2 years on prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies and adjacent mixed-grass prairie in western South Dakota. Prairie dog grazing decreased mulch cover, maximum height of vegetation, plant species richness, and tended to decrease live plant canopy cover compared to...

  9. Habitat of birds in ponderosa pine and aspen/birch forest in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd R. Mills; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake

    2000-01-01

    Birds with both eastern and western distributions occur in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. This forest is mostly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and is managed for timber. Logging alters forest characteristics and the bird community. We studied habitat relations of breeding songbirds at the stand- and site-level scales in ponderosa pine and...

  10. Resource selection for foraging by female Merriam's wild turkeys with poults in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Daniel J. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) resource selection in the context of landscape attributes is an important asset for managing resources on multiple-use public lands. We investigated resource selection for foraging by Merriam's wild turkey broods in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We collected macro- and microhabitat...

  11. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  12. Factors affecting road mortality of white-tailed deer in eastern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Galster, Dwight H.; Schauer, Ron J.; Morlock, Wilbert W.; Delger, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 – 0.12 [percentage tree coverage] + 0.0002 [county area] + 5.39 [county hunter success rate] + 0.0023 [vehicle proxy 96–104 km/hr roads], model deviance = 33.43, χ2 = 27.53, df = 27) was chosen using a combination of a priori model selection and AICc. Management options include use of the model to predict road mortalities and to increase the number of hunting licenses, which could result in fewer DVCs.

  13. Characterization of the seismic environment at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, J; Dorsher, S; Kandhasamy, S; Mandic, V [University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Acernese, F; Barone, F [Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Bartos, I; Marka, S [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Beker, M; Van den Brand, J F J; Rabeling, D S [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Christensen, N; Coughlin, M [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); DeSalvo, R [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Heise, J; Trancynger, T [Sanford Underground Laboratory, 630 East Summit Street, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Mueller, G [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Naticchioni, L [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); O' Keefe, T [Saint Louis University, 3450 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Sajeva, A, E-mail: janosch@caltech.ed [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-11-21

    An array of seismometers is being developed at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, the former Homestake mine, in South Dakota to study the properties of underground seismic fields and Newtonian noise, and to investigate the possible advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. Seismic data were analyzed to characterize seismic noise and disturbances. External databases were used to identify sources of seismic waves: ocean-wave data to identify sources of oceanic microseisms and surface wind-speed data to investigate correlations with seismic motion as a function of depth. In addition, sources of events contributing to the spectrum at higher frequencies are characterized by studying the variation of event rates over the course of a day. Long-term observations of spectral variations provide further insight into the nature of seismic sources. Seismic spectra at three different depths are compared, establishing the 4100 ft level as a world-class low seismic-noise environment.

  14. Insights from health care professionals regarding palliative care options on South Dakota reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Mary; Karel, Beth; Varilek, Brandon M; Steenstra, Whitney J; Tanis-Heyenga, Jordan P; Wagner, Amanda

    2015-11-01

    Palliative care options are limited for Native Americans (NA) in South Dakota (SD). This exploratory study offers the perspectives of Native and non-Native health care professionals regarding palliative care specific to NAs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted (N = 7) with participants representing NA (4) and non-Native (3) ethnicities. Non-Native participants were practicing health care professionals in palliative medicine, whereas the NA health care professionals had experience with palliative care. Concept analysis revealed two main themes and five subthemes: (a) barriers to palliative care, for example, insufficient funding, lack of infrastructure, and misconceptions; and (b) implementation strategies, for example, openness and listening and creating the right team. Genuine interest and concern exists for the provision of palliative care to NA communities using collaborative and innovative approaches. To address the health disparities of the NA population specific to palliative care, public health policy reform and education for health professionals are necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  16. Summit-Watertown transmission line project, South Dakota. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to rebuild the existing Summit-Watertown 115-kV transmission line, located in northeastern South Dakota, and western Minnesota. Nearly 60 percent of the existing facility was replaced in 1965 after severe ice-loading broke structures and wires. Because of the extensive loss of the line, surplus poles had to be used to replace the damaged H-frame structures. These were of varying sizes, causing improper structure loading. Additionally, the conductors and overhead shield wires have been spliced in numerous places. This provides additional space on these wires for icing and wind resistance, which in turn create problems for reliability. Finally, a progressive fungal condition has weakened the poles and, along with the improper loading, has created an unsafe condition for maintenance personnel and the general public.

  17. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Jack A.; DeWitt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map details the complex Early Proterozoic granitic rocks, Early Proterozoic supracrustal metamorphic rocks, and Archean crystalline basement of the Black Hills. The granitic rocks host pegmatite deposits renowned for their feldspar, mica, spodumene, and beryl. The supracrustal rocks host the Homestake gold mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold over a 125-year lifetime. The map documents the Laramide deformation of Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks; and shows the distribution of Laramide plutonic rocks associated with precious-metals deposits. Four 1:300,000-scale maps summarize Laramide structures; Early Proterozoic structures; aeromagnetic anomalies; and gravity anomalies. Three 1:500,000-scale maps show geophysical interpretations of buried Early Proterozoic to Archean rocks in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming.

  18. An Archaeological Survey: Shoreline of Lake Darling and Proposed Burlington Dam. Flood Control Project Area, Upper Souris River, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Sakakawea (Garrison Reservoir) by Haberman and Schneider (1975) and Leaf (1976), surveys in Dunn and Mercer counties (Fox et al. 1976; Lawrence Loendorf...Department of Botony, North Dakota State University, Fargo. Leaf, Gary 1976 Shoreline Survey of Lake Sakakawea : The Badlands in Southern Dunn County, North

  19. MODFLOW-NWT groundwater flow model used to evaluate conditions in the Northern High Plains Aquifer in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to characterize groundwater resources and the interaction of groundwater with streams and other hydrologic...

  20. Management of acute sports injuries and medical conditions by South Dakota high school head coaches: assessment via case scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Patrick S; Karges, Joy R; Horkey, Melissa Ann; Kolb, Ginger A; Alexander, Krystle L; Knippling, Amy L; Jacobsen, Jordan Anthony

    2012-03-01

    When medical coverage does not exist at games and practices, coaches are often responsible for the management of acute conditions. The question that arises is whether they make proper medical decisions concerning the health and safety of their athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess high school head coaches' decision-making skills related to acute medical condition management through the use of case scenarios. A cover letter/web link to the web-based survey was e-mailed to all 2008-2009 school year South Dakota high school head athletic coaches. Head coaches were found to be responsible for the immediate care of injured athletes at practice (87.2 percent) and home competitions (72.3 percent). Less than 75.0 percent of coaches reported feeling "prepared" or "somewhat prepared" to handle 11 of the 16 types of acute athletic injuries and medical conditions presented, with less than 75.0 percent of coaches giving "appropriate" or "overly cautious" responses to eight of the 17 cases. Little to no relationship was found between perceived level of preparedness for treating various conditions and appropriateness of responses. A significant difference was found in appropriateness of decisions based on level of athlete (68.9 percent starters, 79.3 percent non-starters) and event situation (66.5 percent important events, 76.6 percent non-important events). In South Dakota, high school coaches are most often responsible for the initial management of acute injuries; yet, a large percentage of coaches did not feel "prepared" to manage various conditions and/or gave "inappropriate" responses to multiple cases. Furthermore, the level of athlete and the event situation may influence coaches' decisions. Further education may include the proper management of head and neck injuries, multiple concussions, dislocations, heat emergencies, eye injuries and internal organ injuries. Health care workers can be an integral part of training coaches in the care of acute conditions, as

  1. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, Evan J.; Elliott, Terran J.; Sani, Rajesh K.; Vahrenkamp, Jefferey M.; Roggenthen, William M.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Bang, Sookie S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil–like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulfur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal ph...

  2. American Indian Parents’ Assessment of and Concern About Their Kindergarten Child’s Weight Status, South Dakota, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is highly prevalent among American Indians, and effective prevention efforts require caregiver involvement. We examined American Indian (AI) parents' assessment of and level of concern about their kindergarten child's weight status. Methods We collected baseline data (fall of 2005 and fall of 2006) on children and their parents or caregivers for a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on an AI reservation in South Dakota. The current study uses 413 parent-c...

  3. Reconnaissance-level assessment of water quality near Flandreau, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents water-quality data that have been compiled and collected for a reconnaissance-level assessment of water quality near Flandreau, South Dakota. The investigation was initiated as a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe. Members of the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe have expressed concern that Tribal members residing in the city of Flandreau experience more health problems than the general population in the surrounding area. Prior to December 2000, water for the city of Flandreau was supplied by wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer within the city of Flandreau. After December 2000, water for the city of Flandreau was supplied by the Big Sioux Community Water System from wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer along the Big Sioux River near Egan, about 8 river miles downstream of Flandreau. There is some concern that the public and private water supplies provided by wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer near the Big Sioux River may contain chemicals that contribute to the health problems. Data compiled from other investigations provide information about the water quality of the Big Sioux River and the Big Sioux aquifer in the Flandreau area from 1978 through 2001. The median, minimum, and maximum values are presented for fecal bacteria, nitrate, arsenic, and atrazine. Nitrate concentrations of water from Flandreau public-supply wells occasionally exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter for public drinking water. For this study, untreated-water samples were collected from the Big Sioux River in Flandreau and from five wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer in and near Flandreau. Treated-water samples from the Big Sioux Community Water System were collected at a site about midway between the treatment facility near Egan and the city of Flandreau. The first round of sampling occurred during July 9-12, 2001, and the second round of sampling occurred during August 20

  4. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  5. Peak-flow frequency estimates based on data through water year 2001 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Parrett, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Numerous users, including the South Dakota Department of Transportation, have continuing needs for peak-flow information for the design of highway infrastructure and many other purposes. This report documents results from a cooperative study between the South Dakota Department of Transportation and the U.S. Geological Survey to provide an update of peak-flow frequency estimates for South Dakota. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals are reported for 272 streamflow-gaging stations, which include most gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of systematic peak-flow records through water year 2001. Recommended procedures described in Bulletin 17B were used as primary guidelines for developing peak-flow frequency estimates. The computer program PEAKFQ developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to run the frequency analyses. Flood frequencies for all stations were initially analyzed by using standard Bulletin 17B default procedures for fitting the log-Pearson III distribution. The resulting preliminary frequency curves were then plotted on a log-probability scale, and fits of the curves with systematic data were evaluated. In many cases, results of the default Bulletin 17B analyses were determined to be satisfactory. In other cases, however, the results could be improved by using various alternative procedures for frequency analysis. Alternative procedures for some stations included adjustments to skew coefficients or use of user-defined low-outlier criteria. Peak-flow records for many gaging stations are strongly influenced by low- or zero-flow values. This situation often results in a frequency curve that plots substantially above the systematic record data points at the upper end of the frequency curve. Adjustments to low-outlier criteria reduced the influence of very small peak flows and generally focused the analyses on the upper parts of the frequency curves (10- to 500-year

  6. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  7. A new fossil mustelid from the Miocene of South Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Deock; Martin, L D

    2002-06-01

    A skull from the Barstovian of South Dakota has typical leptarctine characteristics, including robust zygomatic arches, double sagittal crests, grooves on the lingual side of the lower canines, and bony projections from the tympanic bullae. The robust mandibles and expanded masseteric fossa of this specimen indicate that it had large jaw muscles. Dental morphology and other characters lead us to agree with earlier suggestions that Hypsoparia is a valid genus. The morphology of Hypsoparia suggests that leptarctines were more herbivorous than most other Carnivora. Mustelids vary greatly in size and include 67 extant species in 25 genera. These species occupy many habitats, including fresh and salt water, and all land areas of the world except the West Indies, Madagascar, Sulawesi, Antarctica, and most oceanic islands (Nowak 1999). Qiu and Schmidt-Kittler (1982) considered Leptarctinae to be a subfamily of mustelids including Craterogale (North America, Middle Miocene), Trocharion (Europe, Middle Miocene), Hypsoparia (North America, Upper Miocene), and Leptarctus (North America and Asia, Lower to Upper Miocene). Leptarctus ranges from basal Hemingfordian strata to the Early Hemphillian (Lim 1999). The characters diagnosing Leptarctus as a mustelid include absence of M2, absence of a notch between the paracone and the metacone of the upper carnassial, and a reduced dentition with loss of P1 and p1. Among mustelids, Leptarctus also has many unique characters, including prominent double sagittal crests, a well-developed hypocone on P4, grooved lower canines, heavy zygomatic arches, and bony projections on the tympanic bullae (Lim 1999). Dorr (1954) erected a new genus and species of leptarctine mustelid from the Late Miocene of Montana, USA: Hypsoparia bozemanensis. Qiu and Schmidt-Kittler (1982) confirmed it as a taxon separate from Leptarctus. However, McKenna and Bell (1997) and Baskin (1998) synonymized H. bozemanensis with Leptarctus primus. The new specimen from

  8. South Dakota Space Grant Consortium: Balancing Indigenous Earth System and Space Science with Western/Contemporary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.; Nall, J.

    2005-05-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth system and space science education, outreach and services to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five Tribal Colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight and reinforce the balance of Indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in Western/Contemporary Science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College and Tribal Community partnerships with the Rosebud Sioux Reservation (Sinte Gleska University), Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (Oglala Lakota College), Standing Rock Sioux Reservation (Sitting Bull College) and Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation (Si Tanka) amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include but not limited to: NASA Workforce Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), NSF "Bridges to Success" Summer Research Program, NSF "Fire Ecology" Summer Research Experience, as well as geospatial and space science programs for students and general community members. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi (Black Hills Pow Wow - attendance of 14,000 Natives) to host Native Space

  9. Impacts of Alterations of Organic Inputs on the Bacterial Community within the sediments of Wind Cave, South Dakota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelius Marisa K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind Cave (WICA in the Black Hills of South Dakota, like many mostly dry caves in temperate regions is an energy-starved system.The biotic communities that reside in these systems are low in diversity and simple in structure, and sensitive to changes in externalinputs of organic matter. Caves open to tourist traffic offer an opportunity to study the impacts of organic matter amendments in theform of human and rodent hair and dander, clothing lint, material from rodent activity (nesting materials and feces, and algal growthin and around artificial lighting. This study reports on the impacts of carbon amendments from humans and rodents on the bacterialand archaeal communities within the sediments of WICA from annual surveys and from a manipulative study that added lint (‘L’;cellulose plus rodent dander and rodent hair, rodent feces (‘F’, and a combination of both (‘LF’. The survey confirmed that bacterialbiomass was higher in regions of the cave with the highest rates of lint (hair and natural clothing fibers input. The manipulative studyfound that organic amendments in the forms of lint (L and rodent feces (F altered the WICA bacterial community structure in bothabundance and diversity, with the combined lint and feces (LF amendment having the most significant response. The high similarityof the LF and L communities suggests that the cave bacterial community is more carbon than nitrogen limited. The implication ofcave development to management practices is immediate and practical. Even small amounts of lint and organic matter foreign tocave bacteria significantly compromise the integrity of the endemic community resulting in the replacement of undescribed speciesby assemblages with at best, unknown impacts to natural cave features.

  10. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  11. Physical Processes Affecting the Distribution of Diydymosphenia Geminata Biomass Bloom in Rapid Creek, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessa, M. B.; Sundareshwar, P. V.; Updhayay, S.

    2010-12-01

    Didymosphenia geminata is a freshwater diatom that has invaded and colonized many of the world’s oligotrophic streams and rivers, including Rapid Creek in Western South Dakota - a perennial oligotrophic stream that emerges from the Black Hills and is fed by cold water release from the Pactola Reservoir. Since 2002, D. geminata blooms have been observed in certain stretches of the Rapid Creek. These massive blooms are localized to certain segments of the Creek where the flow is mainly slow, stable and shallow dominated by boulder type bed material and submerged large woody debris. Water chemistry data from this Creek showed the variability of major nutrients such as phosphate, nitrates/nitrites and ammonium are insignificant across our study sites while the nature of the stream flow is quite irregular. We measured flow rates, depth, temperature, stream bed characteristics, water chemistry, and D. geminata biomass in regions with and without blooms. The presentation will discuss how changes in physical parameters along the various reaches of the Creek impact the biomass distribution of this invasive alga.

  12. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  13. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of South Dakota. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  16. Suitability of river delta sediment as proppant, Missouri and Niobrara Rivers, Nebraska and South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Piatak, Nadine

    2017-11-16

    Sediment management is a challenge faced by reservoir managers who have several potential options, including dredging, for mitigation of storage capacity lost to sedimentation. As sediment is removed from reservoir storage, potential use of the sediment for socioeconomic or ecological benefit could potentially defray some costs of its removal. Rivers that transport a sandy sediment load will deposit the sand load along a reservoir-headwaters reach where the current of the river slackens progressively as its bed approaches and then descends below the reservoir water level. Given a rare combination of factors, a reservoir deposit of alluvial sand has potential to be suitable for use as proppant for hydraulic fracturing in unconventional oil and gas development. In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey began a program of researching potential sources of proppant sand from reservoirs, with an initial focus on the Missouri River subbasins that receive sand loads from the Nebraska Sand Hills. This report documents the methods and results of assessments of the suitability of river delta sediment as proppant for a pilot study area in the delta headwaters of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Results from surface-geophysical surveys of electrical resistivity guided borings to collect 3.7-meter long cores at 25 sites on delta sandbars using the direct-push method to recover duplicate, 3.8-centimeter-diameter cores in April 2015. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey collected samples of upstream sand sources in the lower Niobrara River valley.At the laboratory, samples were dried, weighed, washed, dried, and weighed again. Exploratory analysis of natural sand for determining its suitability as a proppant involved application of a modified subset of the standard protocols known as American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice (RP) 19C. The RP19C methods were not intended for exploration-stage evaluation of raw materials. Results for the washed samples are

  17. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  18. Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, R.D.; Hoffman, E.B.; Wipf, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of flood flow frequency were made for 111 continuous-record gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council. The procedure characterizes flood occurrence at a single site as a sequence of annual peak flows. The magnitudes of the annual peak flows are assumed to be independent random variables following a log-Pearson Type III probability distribution, which defines the probability that any single annual peak flow will exceed a specified discharge. By considering only annual peak flows, the flood-frequency analysis becomes the estimation of the log-Pearson annual-probability curve using the record of annual peak flows at the site. The recorded data are divided into two classes: systematic and historic. The systematic record includes all annual peak flows determined in the process of conducting a systematic gaging program at a site. In this program, the annual peak flow is determined for each and every year of the program. The systematic record is intended to constitute an unbiased and representative sample of the population of all possible annual peak flows at the site. In contrast to the systematic record, the historic record consists of annual peak flows that would not have been determined except for evidence indicating their unusual magnitude. Flood information acquired from historical sources almost invariably refers to floods of noteworthy, and hence extraordinary, size. Although historic records form a biased and unrepresentative sample, they can be used to supplement the systematic record. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Co-producing simulation models to inform resource management: a case study from southwest South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Frid, Leonardo; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation models can represent complexities of the real world and serve as virtual laboratories for asking “what if…?” questions about how systems might respond to different scenarios. However, simulation models have limited relevance to real-world applications when designed without input from people who could use the simulated scenarios to inform their decisions. Here, we report on a state-and-transition simulation model of vegetation dynamics that was coupled to a scenario planning process and co-produced by researchers, resource managers, local subject-matter experts, and climate change adaptation specialists to explore potential effects of climate scenarios and management alternatives on key resources in southwest South Dakota. Input from management partners and local experts was critical for representing key vegetation types, bison and cattle grazing, exotic plants, fire, and the effects of climate change and management on rangeland productivity and composition given the paucity of published data on many of these topics. By simulating multiple land management jurisdictions, climate scenarios, and management alternatives, the model highlighted important tradeoffs between grazer density and vegetation composition, as well as between the short- and long-term costs of invasive species management. It also pointed to impactful uncertainties related to the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation. More broadly, a scenario-based approach to model co-production bracketed the uncertainty associated with climate change and ensured that the most important (and impactful) uncertainties related to resource management were addressed. This cooperative study demonstrates six opportunities for scientists to engage users throughout the modeling process to improve model utility and relevance: (1) identifying focal dynamics and variables, (2) developing conceptual model(s), (3) parameterizing the simulation, (4) identifying relevant climate scenarios and management

  20. Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Brinkman, T.J.; Burris, B.M.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population ecology. During 2002–2004, we captured and radiocollared 78 neonates in eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota, of which 16 died before 1 September. Predation accounted for 80% of mortality; the remaining 20% was attributed to starvation. Canids (coyotes [Canis latrans], domestic dogs) accounted for 100% of predation on neonates. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on survival. We developed 2 a priori model sets, including intrinsic variables (model set 1) and habitat variables (model set 2; forested cover, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands). For model set 1, model {Sage-interval} had the lowest AICc (Akaike's information criterion for small sample size) value, indicating that age at mortality (3-stage age-interval: 0–2 weeks, 2–8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Model set 2 indicated that habitat variables did not further influence survival in the study area; β-estimates and 95% confidence intervals for habitat variables in competing models encompassed zero; thus, we excluded these models from consideration. Overall survival rate using model {Sage-interval} was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83–0.91); 61% of mortalities occurred at 0–2 weeks of age, 26% at 2–8 weeks of age, and 13% at >8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that variables influencing survival may be area specific. Region-specific data are needed to determine influences of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonate survival before wildlife managers can determine which habitat management activities influence neonate populations.

  1. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  2. Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and

  3. Missouri River, Gavins Point Dam - Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota, Embankment Criteria and Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    25 - Wave Erosion Scarp Photo No. 26 - Ice Action on Riprap TC-4 MISSOURI RIMR GAVIES POIfr DAN - IZUIS AND CLAK LAU !URASI AND SOOTH DAZOTA UMAElTM...Seasonal Flood Control Pool 1204.5 Feet, m.s.l. PD-2 MISSOURI RIVR GAVIS POIJIT DAM - LEWIS AND CLARK LAKE NEBRASKA AND SOUTH DAKOTA IANKrNT CRITERIA...00 .00U AMCW0F0110141LL JS 91 t JAS 1/ .71 3.7 x#2i UMNR UV 4,/i /04. IN.Z ov. usyfn GAVI N S POINT RESERVOIR .1.4 JJ 42 -y -"r’- --- - PRESSURE

  4. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula; Chamberlain, John A.; Terry, Dennis O.

    2001-01-01

    A marine K-T boundary interval has been identified throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments suggest that deposits from two asteroid impacts (one close, one far away) may be preserved in the Badlands. These impact-generated deposits may represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event. Interpretation is supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology. This research is founded on nearly a decade of NPS approved field work in Badlands National Park and a foundation of previously published data and interpretations. The K-T boundary occurs within or near the base of a stratigraphic interval referred to as the "Interior Zone." We interpret the stratigraphy of the Interior Zone as a series of distinct, recognizable lithologic members and units from oldest to youngest, an upper weathered interval of the Elk Butte Member of the Pierre Shale (early late Maestrichtian), a complete (albeit condensed) interval of Fox Hill Formation, a pedogenically altered K-T Boundary "Disturbed Zone," and a generally unresolved sequence of marine to marginal marine units ranging in age from possibly latest Maestrichtian to late Paleocene (the "Yellow Mounds"), that underlie a basal red clay unit (the late Eocene overbank channel facies of the Chamberlain Pass Formation at the base of the White River Group). Within this sequence is a series of unconformities that all display some degree of subaerial weathering and erosion. The dating of marine fossils above and below these unconformities are in line with generally accepted global sea-level changes recognized for the late Campanian through early Eocene. Within the greater framework of regional geology, these findings support that the Western Interior Seaway and subsequent Cannonball Seaway were dependently linked to the changing base-level controlled by sea-level of the global ocean through the Gulf of

  5. Geology and water resources of the northern portion of the Black Hills and adjoining regions in South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, N.H.

    1909-01-01

    This paper, which supplements the report on the geology and water resources of the southern half of the Black Hills, published in 1901, is the result of studies made at intervals during the years 1899 to 1907. It relates to an area of about 7,500 square miles, situated about half in South Dakota and half in the northeast corner of Wyoming (Pl. II), and covering the northern half of the Black Hills uplift and a wide area of adjacent plains. The report describes the geology of the sedimentary rocks - their stratigraphy, structure, and history - and discusses their mineral resources, including underground water, coal, gypsum, etc. It also contains information respecting surface waters available for irrigation and stock raising, timber, climate, and the history of the topographic development of the region. The crystalline rocks of the central portion of the Black Hills area and the various igneous rocks of later age are shown on some of the accompanying maps but without differentiation, as the study of their geology was not within the scope of the investigation; neither are their mineral resources considered here, for these are treated in other publications.In the field work I have been assisted mainly by Prof. C. C. O'Harra, of the School of Mines at Rapid, who has mapped the geology of large areas about Aladdin, the Devils Tower, Belle Fourche, and Rapid. Dr. W. S. Tangier Smith has mapped portions of the Bear Lodge and Nigger Hill uplifts, and Mr. C. A. Fisher has assisted in portions of the work. The geology of the region from Sturgis to a point beyond Spearfish Canyon was mapped by Prof. T. A. Jaggar, jr., with the assistance of Mr. J. M. Boutwell, in 1898 and 1899.It is desirable to repeat here the statement made in my previous report that all who study the geology of the Black Hills must feel impressed by the remarkably clear general conceptions of the geologic relations of this region afforded by the survey made by Mr. Henry Newton over a quarter of a century

  6. Resource management and operations in southwest South Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary January 20-21, 2016, Rapid City, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ray, Andrea; Miller, Brian; Cross, Molly; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the southwest South Dakota grasslands focal area, with an emphasis on Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland. The report explains scenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held January 20-21, 2016 in Rapid City, South Dakota, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  7. Microgravity methods for characterization of groundwater-storage changes and aquifer properties in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koth, Karl R.; Long, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater storage in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota using microgravity methods was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with West Dakota Water Development District, South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and Lawrence County. Microgravity measurements from 2009 to 2012 were used to investigate groundwater-storage changes and effective porosity in unconfined areas of the Madison aquifer. Time-lapse microgravity surveys that use portable high-sensitivity absolute and relative gravimeters indicated temporal-gravity changes as a result of changing groundwater mass. These extremely precise measurements of gravity required characterization and removal of internal instrumental and external environmental effects on gravity from the raw data. The corrected data allowed groundwater-storage volume to be quantified with an accuracy of about plus or minus 0.5 foot of water per unit area of aquifer. Quantification of groundwater-storage change, coupled with water-level data from observation wells located near the focus areas, also was used to calculate the effective porosity at specific altitudes directly beneath gravity stations. Gravity stations were established on bedrock outcrops in three separate focus areas for this study. The first area, the Spring Canyon focus area, is located to the south of Rapid City with one gravity station on the rim of Spring Canyon near the area where Spring Creek sinks into the Madison aquifer. The second area, the Doty focus area, is located on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation to the northwest of Rapid City, and consists of nine gravity stations. The third area, the Limestone Plateau focus area, consists of a single gravity station in the northwestern Black Hills located on an outcrop of the Madison Limestone. An absolute-gravity station, used to tie relative-gravity survey data together, was established on a relatively impermeable

  8. Water-quality characteristics for selected streams in Lawrence County, South Dakota, 1988-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Hayes, Timothy Scott

    2000-01-01

    During the 1980?s, significant economic development and population growth began to occur in Lawrence County in the northern part of the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Rising gold prices and heap-leach extraction methods allowed the economic recovery of marginal gold ore deposits, resulting in development of several large-scale, open-pit gold mines in Lawrence County. There was increasing local concern regarding potential impacts on the hydrologic system, especially relating to the quantity and quality of water in the numerous streams and springs of Lawrence County. In order to characterize the water quality of selected streams within Lawrence County, samples were collected from 1988 through 1992 at different times of the year and under variable hydrologic conditions. During the time of this study, the Black Hills area was experiencing a drought; thus, most samples were collected during low-flow conditions.Streamflow and water-quality characteristics in Lawrence County are affected by both geologic conditions and precipitation patterns. Most streams that cross outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation lose all or large part of their streamflow to aquifer recharge. Streams that are predominantly spring fed have relatively stable streamflow, varying slightly with dry and wet precipitation cycles.Most streams in Lawrence County generally have calcium magnesium bicarbonate type waters. The sites from the mineralized area of central Lawrence County vary slightly from other streams in Lawrence County by having higher concentrations of sodium, less bicarbonate, and more sulfate. False Bottom Creek near Central City has more sulfate than bicarbonate. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and cyanide concentrations were at or near the laboratory reporting limits for most sites and did not exceed any of the water-quality standards. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations at Annie Creek near Lead, Whitetail Creek at Lead, Squaw Creek near Spearfish, and Spearfish Creek

  9. Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Timothy Scott

    1999-01-01

    Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework. X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs. Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the

  10. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Intrusive Rocks, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, B. A.; Fawcett, T. C.; Gregiore, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming are a large Precambrian-cored Laramide uplift. Intruding the Black Hills are a diverse suite of igneous rocks, which include phonolites, trachytes, latites, garnet-bearing rhyolites, and pyroxenites. These intrusive bodies range in size from several meter outcrop-scale bodies, to several 10s of km wide intrusive complexes. New geochronology (40Ar-39Ar) data indicate many of these intrusive rocks are between 58 and 45 Ma in age (Duke at al, 2002). As part of a larger paleomagnetic study aimed at Jurassic strata surrounding the Black Hills, a collection of 20 sites and 145 samples of the Eocene intrusive rocks was made. A combination of alternating field, thermal, and liquid nitrogen step-wise demagnetization revealed that, with a few exceptions, these rocks have two well-defined magnetization components. The first-removed component is interpreted to be a present (dipole) field magnetization, and is removed by 10 to 30 mT a.f., or 200 C thermal demagnetization steps. The second-removed components have either positive or negative inclinations, and are defined by demagnetization steps between 30 and 200 mT a.f., or 300 to 630 C thermal demagnetization steps. These components are interpreted to be ancient, presumably Eocene, magnetizations. A preliminary mean of the normal-polarity sites is D=352, I=59.3, k=26.7, a95=18.2, N=4, and of the reverse-polarity sites is D=154.9, I=-61.3, k=23.1, a95=18.2, N=4. The combined mean direction is D=344.9, I=60.3, k=28.8, a95=10.5, N=8. Two sites of rhyolites at Mt. Theodore Roosevelt have well-defined magnetization components, but either mixed polarity (Site 99Trr1), or reverse-polarity with what might be a transitional-field direction (D=27.7, I=-37.4, k=18.0, a95=18.6, n=5), and are not included in the calculation of means. The magnetizations recorded by these Eocene rocks are essentially identical to the expected direction for the Black Hills calculated from the Diehl et al., 1983

  11. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.

  12. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Haakon School District, South Dakota. Final report, January 1977-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengel, R.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report is a summary of a project which demonstrates the successful use of geothermal energy for service water and space heating of school, business and commercial buildings in the city of Philip, South Dakota. The project included a new well into the Madison limestone formation, a pipe line to the school and through the central business district to a treatment plant, the treatment plant and settling ponds, conversion of the existing space heating systems of the buildings to equipment suitable for heating with the geothermal energy and monitoring the system to determine operating characteristics and efficiency. The treated water is discharged into the north fork of the Bad River for use by down stream irrigators. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Exploring the Uptake of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in South Dakota Women and the Importance of Provider Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tess L; Briggs, Ashley; Hanson, Jessica D

    2017-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, including the intrauterine device (IUD) and the birth control implant, are the most effective form of prescribed birth control for pregnancy prevention. However, uptake of this highly effective form of birth control is slow. The purpose of this study was to explore use of the LARC methods in South Dakota women prescribed contraception and the importance of the provider in promoting this type of contraception. This was a cross-sectional study of female patients who had been prescribed contraception at one of five locations in a South Dakota hospital system. Records were obtained through electronic health records for a six-month period. Descriptive analysis was performed using chi-square with counts and percentages. Logistic regression was used to determine differences in LARC prescriptions by patient age and provider title. A total of 2,174 individual patients were included in analysis. Of the 378 (17.4 percent) who were prescribed LARC methods, most (78.6 percent) were prescribed an IUD. Younger women (aged 11-19) were less likely to be prescribed LARCs compared to women aged 30-34. There were also significant differences in LARC prescriptions by provider type. Futhermore, we noted differences in LARC prescriptions for a provider who received a specific education and training on LARC from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. There are many important factors to consider by the patient when choosing the most appropriate contraceptive method, including safety, effectiveness, accessibility, and affordability. Provider education may play an important role in promoting LARC methods.

  14. Report to the Department of Energy on the DOE/EPSCoR planning activities for the state of South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    An extensive review of the current status of energy-related research and educational activities within the state of South Dakota was carried out. Information exchange meetings were conducted at the major research institutions as well as with many representatives of state government. Visits were also made to professional educators who are deeply involved with the state`s principal minority group, the American Indian. Several activities in the human resource development area that will be carried out in the five-year implementation project were identified. Many of these will be closely coordinated with other efforts currently in progress under the auspices of the NSF SSI (Statewide Systemic Initiatives in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education) office. The authors will also work closely with AWU and other regional consortia to foster a higher level of participation in existing DOE programs and to develop adaptations and {open_quotes}follow-ons{close_quotes} that are tailored to the specific needs of South Dakota. Many of these programs will involve extensive interaction with DOE laboratories. Special programs will be carried out that are designed to keep a larger number of the Native American population in the science and engineering pipeline. An assessment of the research strengths of this state was made. With the assistance of external consultants, the authors identified two principal areas in which they have the potential to develop nationally competitive research programs that fall within DOE objectives. One is a comprehensive biomass systems study, and the other a water quality study as it relates to energy production.

  15. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  16. Groundwater-flow model of the northern High Plains aquifer in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Traylor, Jonathan P.

    2016-12-13

    The High Plains aquifer is a nationally important water resource underlying about 175,000 square miles in parts of eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Droughts across much of the Northern High Plains from 2001 to 2007 have combined with recent (2004) legislative mandates to elevate concerns regarding future availability of groundwater and the need for additional information to support science-based water-resource management. To address these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey began the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study to provide a tool for water-resource managers and other stakeholders to assess the status and availability of groundwater resources.A transient groundwater-flow model was constructed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model with Newton-Rhapson solver (MODFLOW–NWT). The model uses an orthogonal grid of 565 rows and 795 columns, and each grid cell measures 3,281 feet per side, with one variably thick vertical layer, simulated as unconfined. Groundwater flow was simulated for two distinct periods: (1) the period before substantial groundwater withdrawals, or before about 1940, and (2) the period of increasing groundwater withdrawals from May 1940 through April 2009. A soil-water-balance model was used to estimate recharge from precipitation and groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. The soil-water-balance model uses spatially distributed soil and landscape properties with daily weather data and estimated historical land-cover maps to calculate spatial and temporal variations in potential recharge. Mean annual recharge estimated for 1940–49, early in the history of groundwater development, and 2000–2009, late in the history of groundwater development, was 3.3 and 3.5 inches per year, respectively.Primary model calibration was completed using statistical techniques through parameter estimation using the parameter

  17. Diagrammatic restored section of the Inyan Kara group, Morrison formation, and Unkpapa sandstone of the western side of the Black Hills, Wyoming and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapel, W.J.; Gott, G.B.

    1959-01-01

    The Inyan Kara group of Early Creaceous age and the underlying Morrison formation and Unkapa sandstone of Late Jurassic age comprise about 300 to 850 feet of gently dipping predominantly nonmarine rocks that crop out along the flanks of the Black Hills in northeastern Wyoming and western South Dakota. Terailed mapping and stratigraphic studies of these rocks were made from 1952 to 1957 by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. One of the results of the studies is a correlation of formational and informational units along the western side of the Black Hills for a distance of about 140 miles. The generalized section above, which has a greatly exaggerated vertical scale, shoes the main lithologic units that have been traced and correlated, and  the stratigraphic position of uranium deposits in various parts of the Black Hills in relation to these units. Geologists who have this sheet and the areas for which each is responsible are shown on the accompanying map. The brief text below summarizes some of the broad stratigraphic relations within the Inyan Kara group and underlying formations.

  18. Data collected to support monitoring of constructed emergent sandbar habitat on the Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has constructed emergent sandbar habitat on sections of the Missouri River bordering South Dakota and Nebraska downstream from Gavins Point Dam to create and enhance habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. Two areas near river miles 761.3 and 769.8 were selected for construction of emergent sandbar habitat. Pre- and postconstruction data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, to evaluate the success of the habitat management techniques. Data collected include pre- and postconstruction channel-geometry data (bathymetric and topographic) for areas upstream from, downstream from, and within each construction site. Water-velocity data were collected for selected parts of the site near river mile 769.8. Instruments and methods used in data collection, as well as quality-assurance and quality-control measures, are described. Geospatial channel-geometry data are presented for transects of the river channel as cross sections and as geographical information system shapefiles. Geospatial land-surface elevation data are provided for part of each site in the form of a color-shaded relief map. Geospatial water-velocity data also are provided as color-shaded maps and geographical information system shapefiles.

  19. Hydrologic characterization for Spring Creek and hydrologic budget and model scenarios for Sheridan Lake, South Dakota, 1962-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Norton, Parker A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks to characterize hydrologic information relevant to management of water resources associated with Sheridan Lake, which is formed by a dam on Spring Creek. This effort consisted primarily of characterization of hydrologic data for a base period of 1962 through 2006, development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake for this timeframe, and development of an associated model for simulation of storage deficits and drawdown in Sheridan Lake for hypothetical release scenarios from the lake. Historically, the dam has been operated primarily as a 'pass-through' system, in which unregulated outflows pass over the spillway; however, the dam recently was retrofitted with an improved control valve system that would allow controlled releases of about 7 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or less from a fixed depth of about 60 feet (ft). Development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake involved compilation, estimation, and characterization of data sets for streamflow, precipitation, and evaporation. The most critical data need was for extrapolation of available short-term streamflow records for Spring Creek to be used as the long-term inflow to Sheridan Lake. Available short-term records for water years (WY) 1991-2004 for a gaging station upstream from Sheridan Lake were extrapolated to WY 1962-2006 on the basis of correlations with streamflow records for a downstream station and for stations located along two adjacent streams. Comparisons of data for the two streamflow-gaging stations along Spring Creek indicated that tributary inflow is approximately proportional to the intervening drainage area, which was used as a means of estimating tributary inflow for the hydrologic budget. Analysis of evaporation data shows that sustained daily rates may exceed maximum monthly rates by a factor of about two. A long-term (1962-2006) hydrologic budget was developed for computation of reservoir outflow from

  20. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on

  1. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, E J; Elliott, T J; Vahrenkamp, J M; Roggenthen, W M; Sani, R K; Anderson, C M; Bang, S S

    2010-01-01

    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil-like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulphur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota, typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU belonging to a potentially novel phylum that fell sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and were grouped most closely to an ammonia-oxidizing, carbon-fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that have often been identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulphur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community, with unique phylotypes identified within each sample.

  2. Motivations for enrollment into the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program in the James River Basin of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimmer, Jarrett; Gigliotti, Larry M.; Stafford, Joshua; Schumann, David; Bertrand, Katie

    2017-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) targets high-priority conservation needs (e.g., water quality, wildlife habitat) by paying landowners an annual rental rate to remove environmentally sensitive or agriculturally unproductive lands from rowcrop production, and then implement conservation practices on these lands. This study examined motivations of South Dakota landowners for enrolling in the James River Basin CREP. All 517 newly enrolled landowners were mailed a questionnaire in 2014 measuring demographics, behaviors, opinions, and motivations (60% response rate). Cluster analysis of 10 motivations for enrolling identified three motivation groups (wildlife = 40%, financial = 35%, environmental = 25%). The financial group had the youngest mean age (62 years), followed by the wildlife (65) and environmental groups (68). Among respondents, 43% favored the public access requirement of this CREP with the environmental group most in favor. Understanding landowner enrollment motivations and decision criteria will assist in strategies (e.g., financial incentives, increasing yield via habitat restoration) for increasing future participation.

  3. Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

  4. Larval gizzard shad characteristics in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: A species at the northern edge of its range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincel, Mark J.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Edwards, Kris R.

    2013-01-01

    Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, have generally been restricted to the lower Missouri River impoundments in South Dakota. In recent years, gizzard shad numbers have increased in Lake Oahe, marking the northern-most natural population. These increases could potentially affect recreational fishes. Specifically, questions arise about larval gizzard shad growth dynamics and if age-0 gizzard shad in Lake Oahe will exhibit fast or slow growth, both of which can have profound effects on piscivore populations in this reservoir. In this study, we evaluated larval gizzard shad hatch timing, growth, and density in Lake Oahe. We collected larval gizzard shad from six sites from May to July 2008 and used sagittal otoliths to estimate the growth and back-calculate the hatch date. We found that larval gizzard shad hatched earlier in the upper part of the reservoir compared to the lower portion and that hatch date appeared to correspond to warming water temperatures. The peak larval gizzard shad density ranged from 0.6 to 33.6 (#/100 m3) and varied significantly among reservoir sites. Larval gizzard shad growth ranged from 0.24 to 0.57 (mm/d) and differed spatially within the reservoir. We found no relationship between the larval gizzard shad growth or density and small- or large-bodied zooplankton density (p > 0.05). As this population exhibits slow growth and low densities, gizzard shad should remain a suitable forage option for recreational fishes in Lake Oahe.

  5. Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2010-03-13

    A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

  6. American Indian parents' assessment of and concern about their kindergarten child's weight status, South Dakota, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is highly prevalent among American Indians, and effective prevention efforts require caregiver involvement. We examined American Indian (AI) parents' assessment of and level of concern about their kindergarten child's weight status. We collected baseline data (fall of 2005 and fall of 2006) on children and their parents or caregivers for a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on an AI reservation in South Dakota. The current study uses 413 parent-child pairs. Age- and sex-adjusted body mass index percentiles were categorized as very underweight (weight (15th to child's weight status as well as sociodemographic characteristics. We used mixed-model multivariable analysis to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the probability of parents underclassifying or overclassifying their child's weight status; analyses were adjusted for school as a random effect. Children were evenly divided by sex and had a mean age of 5.8 years. Twenty-nine percent of children and 86% of parents were overweight or obese. Approximately 33% (n = 138) of parents underclassified and 7% (n = 29) of parents overclassified their child's weight status. Higher parental weight status and higher concern about their child's weight status increased the probability of underclassification (P for trend = .02 for both). In this sample of at-risk children, one-third of parents underclassified their child's weight status. Childhood obesity prevention programs need to increase awareness and recognition of childhood obesity and address parental weight issues.

  7. Walk-through survey report, Cooperative Power Association, Underwood, North Dakota, February 27, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matanoski, G.M.; Whitman, N.E.

    1979-10-22

    Worker exposures to paint materials were studied at the Coal Creek Station, Cooperative Power Association in Underwood, North Dakota, on February 27, 1979. The facility was under consideration for inclusion in a NIOSH study of the health effects of occupational paint materials exposure. Approximately 30 painters were employed under contract at the facility. The company had no formal safety and industrial hygiene program. Medical services were furnished by two staff nurses. Personnel records were thought to be maintained by the painters union. About 20,000 gallons of paint were expected to be used for the current contract project, and consisted of acrylic and oil alkyd, polyamine cured epoxy, epoxy coal tar, inorganic zinc primer, and modified silicone. The authors conclude that this work force should be considered for inclusion in the painting-hazard study.

  8. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  9. Fire history in interior ponderosa pine communities of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Brown; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1996-01-01

    Chronologies of fire events were reconstructed from crossdated fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees for four sites in the south-central Black Hills. Compared to other ponderosa pine forests in the southwest US or southern Rocky Mountains, these communities burned less frequently. For all sites combined, and using all fires detected, the mean fire interval (MFI), or number...

  10. Sedimentation Survey Report: South Unit, Lake Andes, Charles Mix County, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report addresses the procedures used to obtain sediment data, how they analyzed the data, and the potential restoration alternatives for Lake Andes. The purpose...

  11. Perchlorate and selected metals in water and soil within Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2016-04-14

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial is located in the east-central part of the Black Hills area of South Dakota and is challenged to provide drinking water to about 3 million annual visitors and year-round park personnel. An environmental concern to water resources within Mount Rushmore National Memorial has been the annual aerial fireworks display at the memorial for the Independence Day holiday during 1998–2009. A major concern of park management is the contamination of groundwater and surface water by perchlorate, which is used as an oxidizing agent in firework displays. A study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was completed to characterize the occurrence of perchlorate and selected metals (constituents commonly associated with fireworks) in groundwater and surface water within and adjacent to Mount Rushmore National Memorial during 2011–15. Concentrations of perchlorate and metals in 106 water samples (collected from 6 groundwater sites and 14 surface-water sites) and 11 soil samples (collected from 11 soil sites) are reported.Within the Mount Rushmore National Memorial boundary, perchlorate concentrations were greatest in the Lafferty Gulch drainage basin, ranging from less than 0.20 to 38 micrograms per liter (μg/L) in groundwater samples and from 2.2 to 54 μg/L in surface-water samples. Sites within the Starling Gulch drainage basin also had some evidence of perchlorate contamination, with concentrations ranging from 0.61 to 19 μg/L. All groundwater and surface-water samples within the unnamed tributary to Grizzly Bear Creek drainage basin and reference sites outside the park boundary had concentrations less than 0.20 μg/L. Perchlorate concentrations in samples collected at the 200-foot-deep production well (Well 1) ranged from 17 to 38 μg/L with a median of 23 μg/L, whereas perchlorate concentrations in samples from the 500-foot-deep production well (Well 2) ranged from 2.1 to 17 μg/L, with a median of 6

  12. Breast milk DHA levels may increase after informing women: a community-based cohort study from South Dakota USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juber, Brian A; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Johnson, Kristopher B; Harris, William S; Baack, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid found in breast milk, has many health benefits for both mother and baby. A 2007 meta-analysis found U.S. women had breast milk DHA levels (0.20% of total fatty acids) below the worldwide mean (0.32%). In 2008, international dietary recommendations were made for pregnant and lactating women to consume 200 mg of DHA per day. This community-based study aimed to define current milk DHA levels from upper Midwest USA lactating mothers and to determine if providing information about their own level along with dietary recommendations would incite changes to increase breast milk DHA content. New mothers attending lactation classes or using hospital pumping rooms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA participated by providing one drop of breast milk on a card for fatty acid analysis at baseline and 1 month after initial reporting. DHA levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Mothers received a report of their own breast milk level along with dietary recommendations on DHA intake for lactating women. Median baseline and follow-up DHA levels were determined and differences were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. At baseline, breast milk DHA content (n = 84) was highly variable (range 0.05 to 0.73%) with a median of 0.18% (IQR, 0.13, 0.28; mean ± SD, 0.22 ± 0.13%), well below the worldwide average (0.32%). Women who reported taking DHA supplements (n = 43) had higher levels than those who did not (0.23% vs. 0.15%, P DHA content increased from 0.19 to 0.22% (P DHA level and education about DHA intake while breastfeeding motivates change to increase DHA levels.

  13. Use of geochemical tracers for estimating groundwater influxes to the Big Sioux River, eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Mehan, Sushant; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and variability of geochemical tracers is crucial for estimating groundwater influxes into a river and can contribute to better future water management strategies. Because of the much higher radon (222Rn) activities in groundwater compared to river water, 222Rn was used as the main tracer to estimate groundwater influxes to river discharge over a 323-km distance of the Big Sioux River, eastern South Dakota, USA; these influx estimates were compared to the estimates using Cl- concentrations. In the reaches overall, groundwater influxes using the 222Rn activity approach ranged between 0.3 and 6.4 m3/m/day (mean 1.8 m3/m/day) and the cumulative groundwater influx estimated during the study period was 3,982-146,594 m3/day (mean 40,568 m3/day), accounting for 0.2-41.9% (mean 12.5%) of the total river flow rate. The mean groundwater influx derived using the 222Rn activity approach was lower than that calculated based on Cl- concentration (35.6 m3/m/day) for most of the reaches. Based on the Cl- approach, groundwater accounted for 37.3% of the total river flow rate. The difference between the method estimates may be associated with minimal differences between groundwater and river Cl- concentrations. These assessments will provide a better understanding of estimates used for the allocation of water resources to sustain agricultural productivity in the basin. However, a more detailed sampling program is necessary for accurate influx estimation, and also to understand the influence of seasonal variation on groundwater influxes into the basin.

  14. Comparison of HSPF and PRMS model simulated flows using different temporal and spatial scales in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, D. R.; Haj, Adel E.; Fontaine, T.A.

    2018-01-01

    The hydrological simulation program Fortran (HSPF) [Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran version 12.2 (Computer software). USEPA, Washington, DC] and the precipitation runoff modeling system (PRMS) [Precipitation Runoff Modeling System version 4.0 (Computer software). USGS, Reston, VA] models are semidistributed, deterministic hydrological tools for simulating the impacts of precipitation, land use, and climate on basin hydrology and streamflow. Both models have been applied independently to many watersheds across the United States. This paper reports the statistical results assessing various temporal (daily, monthly, and annual) and spatial (small versus large watershed) scale biases in HSPF and PRMS simulations using two watersheds in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (r">rr), and coefficient of determination (R2">R2R2) statistics for the daily, monthly, and annual flows were used to evaluate the models’ performance. Results from the HSPF models showed that the HSPF consistently simulated the annual flows for both large and small basins better than the monthly and daily flows, and the simulated flows for the small watershed better than flows for the large watershed. In comparison, the PRMS model results show that the PRMS simulated the monthly flows for both the large and small watersheds better than the daily and annual flows, and the range of statistical error in the PRMS models was greater than that in the HSPF models. Moreover, it can be concluded that the statistical error in the HSPF and the PRMSdaily, monthly, and annual flow estimates for watersheds in the Black Hills was influenced by both temporal and spatial scale variability.

  15. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Clemma J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235 or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246. Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01 and reported more sexual partners (p p p = 0.001. Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001. AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

  16. A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in the northern three-fourths of Brown County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate groundwater flow in a complex glacial-aquifer system that includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers in South Dakota. The average thickness of the aquifers ranges from 16 to 32 ft and the average hydraulic conductivity ranges from 240 to 300 ft/day. The maximum steady-state recharge to the aquifer system was estimated to be 7.0 in./yr, and the maximum potential steady- state evapotranspiration was estimated to be 35.4 in/yr. Maximum monthly recharge for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 2.5 in in May. The potential monthly evapotranspiration for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 7.0 in in July. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from steady-state conditions (pre-1983) was 0. 78 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.59 ft for aquifer layer 1 (the Elm aquifer) from 22 observation wells and 3.49 ft and 5.10 ft, respectively, for aquifer layer 2 (the Middle James aquifer) from 13 observation wells. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from simulated monthly potentiometric heads for 1985 in aquifer layer 1 ranged from -2.54 ft in July to 0.59 ft in May and in aquifer layer 2 ranged from -1.22 ft in April to 4.98 ft in November. Sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that it is most sensitive to changes in recharge and least sensitive to changes in hydraulic conductivity. (USGS)

  17. Generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills,...

  18. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  19. South African marine pollution survey report 1974-1975

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cloete, CE

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available A national marine pollution survey was initiated in 1974 to determine and assess pollution around the coast of South Africa. Impact area surveys, coastal (including estuarine) reference surveys and oceanic reference surveys were undertaken...

  20. Influence of drought conditions on brown trout biomass and size structure in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of drought conditions on the biomass of brown trout Salmo trutta in Spearfish Creek, upper Rapid Creek, and lower Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Stream discharge, mean summer water temperature, the biomass of juvenile and adult brown trout, and brown trout size structure were compared between two time periods: early (2000–2002) and late drought (2005–2007). Mean summer water temperatures were similar between the early- and late-drought periods in Spearfish Creek (12.4°C versus 11.5°C), lower Rapid Creek (19.2°C versus 19.3°C), and upper Rapid Creek (9.8°C in both periods). In contrast, mean annual discharge differed significantly between the two time periods in Spearfish Creek (1.95 versus 1.50 m3/s), lower Rapid Creek (2.01 versus 0.94 m3/s), and upper Rapid Creek (1.41 versus 0.84 m3/s). The mean biomass of adult brown trout in all three stream sections was significantly higher in the early-drought than in the late-drought period (238 versus 69 kg/ha in Spearfish Creek, 272 versus 91 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and 159 versus 32 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek). The biomass of juvenile brown trout was similar (43 versus 23 kg/ha) in Spearfish Creek in the two periods, declined from 136 to 45 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and increased from 14 to 73 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek. Size structure did not differ between the early- and late-drought periods in lower Rapid and Spearfish creeks, but it did in upper Rapid Creek. In addition to drought conditions, factors such as angler harvest, fish movements, and the nuisance algal species Didymosphenia geminata are discussed as possible contributors to the observed changes in brown trout biomass and size structure in Black Hills streams.

  1. Soot and palynologic analysis of Manson impact-related strata (Upper Cretaceous) of Iowa and South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, D.J.; Raven, R.F.; Wolbach, W.S.; Elsik, W.C.; Witzke, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Campanian Manson impact structure of Iowa represents the best-preserved, large-diameter complex crater within the continental U.S. To assess the timing and potential mode of crater infilling and the possible presence of an impact event horizon, we analyzed samples from both within and distal to the impact structure for their elemental carbon, soot and palynomorphs. Within the impact structure, identifiable soot occurred in fragmented impact breccia and suevite but not in lower impact-melt breccia. Although most of this soot likely represents reworking of material from older Cretaceous marine shales, one high soot concentration occurs with melt material in a Keweenawan Shale-Phanerozoic clast breccia mix. This represents the first association of soot and impact-generated materials within an impact structure and the best sample candidate for Manson impact-generated soot. No palynomorphs occurred in the impact melt breccia. Overlying suevite (Keweenawan Shale clast breccia) of the central peak yielded sparse and thermally altered palynomorphs, indicating deposition prior to full cooling of the crater debris. Presence of easily degraded soot also argues for rapid backfilling of the crater. Distal samples from South Dakota represent the Sharon Springs and Crow Creek members of the Pierre Shale 230 km northwest of the Manson impact structure. Although containing shocked grains, the Crow Creek preserves no soot. In contrast, the Sharon Springs, generally considered as predating the Manson impact, has significant soot quantities. Palynomorphs differ markedly across the unconformity separating the two members with the Crow Creek containing more terrestrial forms, normapolles, and older reworked palynomorphs, consistent with a terrestrial impact to the east. Origin of the Sharon Springs soot remains unclear. Given soot occurrence within four of the five Cretaceous marine units sampled, the relatively shallow, anoxic bottom conditions of the Western Interior Cretaceous

  2. 75 FR 70021 - South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... increase in regional demands for electricity produced from renewable resources. Several States within Basin... Dakota, on which the Service holds an easement for waterfowl habitat protection. The action selected by... 108 turbines) on lands on which the Service holds an easement for waterfowl habitat protection...

  3. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  4. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the 4 subareas of the Lower Cretaceous aquifer, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets which represent the Lower Cretaceous aquifer system in the States of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North...

  5. Streamflow and Water-Quality Characteristics for Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-year study of streamflow and water-quality characteristics in Wind Cave National Park was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service. During this study, streamflow and water-quality data were collected for three of the park's perennial streams (Cold Spring, Beaver, and Highland Creeks) from January 2002 through November 2003. The potential influence of parking lot runoff on cave drip within Wind Cave also was investigated by collecting and analyzing several time-dependent samples from a drainage culvert downstream from the parking lot and from Upper Minnehaha Falls inside the cave following a series of simulated runoff events. The primary focus of the report is on data collected during the 2-year study from January 2002 to November 2003; however, data collected previously also are summarized. Losing reaches occur on both Beaver and Highland Creeks as these streams flow across outcrops of bedrock aquifers within the park. No streamflow losses occur along Cold Spring Creek because its confluence with Beaver Creek is located upstream from the outcrop of the Madison aquifer, where most streamflow losses occur. Physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, benthic macroinvertebrates, organic (wastewater) compounds, bottom sediment, and suspended sediment are summarized for samples collected from 2 sites on Cold Spring Creek, 2 sites on Beaver Creek, and 1 site on Highland Creek. None of the constituent concentrations for any of the samples collected during 2002-03 exceeded any of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards, with the exception of the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for pH, which was exceeded in numerous samples from Beaver Creek and Highland Creek. Additionally, the pH values in several of these same samples also exceeded beneficial-use criteria for coldwater permanent fisheries and coldwater marginal fisheries. Water temperature exceeded the coldwater

  6. Developing management guidelines that balance cattle and timber production with ecological interests in the Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Kurt M.

    Forested lands contribute to the United States (US) economy by providing livestock and timber production. Livestock grazing of forested lands has been widespread throughout the western US since the settlement era, and currently occurs on 51.4 million hectares (ha) representing 16% of all US grazing land and 22% of all US forested land (Nickerson et al. 2011). While livestock grazing and timber harvest are occurring on a substantial amount of forested land, relationships between management practices, tree stocking, timber production, forage production, livestock grazing, wildlife, aesthetics, and ecological integrity are not well documented. Whether considering timber or cattle, finding a balance between production and resource conservation is a fundamental challenge to agricultural producers, and is often a tradeoff between short term gains and long term sustainability. This dissertation aims to identify livestock and timber management practices that optimize production and are ecologically conservative. Specifically, I focused on three objectives. First, I reviewed the published literature and summarized what is known about best-practices for concurrent management of livestock and timber production in pine forests in the US. I found most studies came from the southeastern and western US where timber and livestock production on the same land unit are common. The relationship between pine cover and forage seemed fairly consistent across the US, and production was optimized when cattle grazed open canopy forests with basal areas between 5 and 14 m2 ha-1 (15-35% tree canopy cover). Second, I developed forest cover maps to estimate forage production in the Black Hills, South Dakota (SD) for the period from 1999 to 2015. I developed a regression model based on Landsat and Ikonos satellite imagery and was able to detect large changes in forest cover over time. I then used these maps in combination with maps of soil type and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) to update

  7. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  8. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  9. Herpetological surveys of south-western and south-eastern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herpetofauna of part of the south-western (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States) and south-eastern (Cross River State) regions were investigated. Specimens were located opportunistically during visual surveys. Both regions fall in the tropical zone, and the south-western region surveyed, was mostly lowland, degraded forests ...

  10. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both

  11. Concentrations of selected metals in Quaternary-age fluvial deposits along the lower Cheyenne and middle Belle Fourche Rivers, western South Dakota, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    The headwaters of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers drain the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, an area that has been affected by mining and ore-milling operations since the discovery of gold in 1875. A tributary to the Belle Fourche River is Whitewood Creek, which drains the area of the Homestake Mine, a gold mine that operated from 1876 to 2001. Tailings discharged into Whitewood Creek contained arsenopyrite, an arsenic-rich variety of pyrite associated with gold ore, and mercury used as an amalgam during the gold-extraction process. Approximately 18 percent of the tailings that were discharged remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along Whitewood Creek, and approximately 25 percent remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along the Belle Fourche River, downstream from Whitewood Creek. In 1983, a 29-kilometer (18-mile) reach of Whitewood Creek and the adjacent flood plain was included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly referred to as a "Superfund site." Listing of this reach of Whitewood Creek was primarily in response to arsenic toxicity of fluvial deposits on the flood plain. Lands along the lower Cheyenne River were transferred to adjoining States and Tribes in response to the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1999. An amendment in 2000 to WRDA required a study of sediment contamination of the Cheyenne River. In response to the WRDA amendment, the U.S. Geological Survey completed field sampling of reference sites (not affected by mine-tailing disposal) along the lower Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers. Reference sites were located on stream terraces that were elevated well above historical stream stages to ensure no contamination from historical mining activity. Sampling of potentially contaminated sites was performed on transects of the active flood plain and adjacent terraces that could

  12. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32...

  13. Digital map of geologic faults for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of faults for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost...

  14. Compilation of Data to Support Development of a Pesticide Management Plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe, Charles Mix County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is working with the Yankton Sioux Tribe to develop a pesticide management plan to reduce potential for contamination of ground water that may result from the use of registered pesticides. The purpose of this study was to compile technical information to support development of a pesticide management plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe for the area within the Yankton Sioux Reservation, Charles Mix County, South Dakota. Five pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine) were selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the management plan approach because they had been identified as probable or possible human carcinogens and they often had been associated with ground-water contamination in many areas and at high concentrations. This report provides a compilation of data to support development of a pesticide management plan. Available data sets are summarized in the text of this report, and actual data sets are provided in one Compact Disk?Read-Only Memory that is included with the report. The compact disk contains data sets pertinent to the development of a pesticide management plan. Pesticide use for the study area is described using information from state and national databases. Within South Dakota, pesticides commonly are applied to corn and soybean crops, which are the primary row crops grown in the study area. Water-quality analyses for pesticides are summarized for several surface-water sites. Pesticide concentrations in most samples were found to be below minimum reporting levels. Topographic data are presented in the form of 30-meter digital elevation model grids and delineation of drainage basins. Geohydrologic data are provided for the surficial deposits and the bedrock units. A high-resolution (30-by-30 meters) land-cover and land-use database is provided and summarized in a tabular format. More than 91 percent of the study area is used for row crops, pasture, or hay, and almost 6

  15. A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in Sanborn and parts of Beadle, Miner, Hanson, Davison, and Jerauld counties, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The drought in South Dakota from 1974-76 and the near drought conditions in 1980-81 have resulted in increased demands on the groundwater resources within many of the irrigated areas of the James River basin in eastern South Dakota. These increases in demand for irrigation water from the glacial aquifer system, and continued requests to the State for additional irrigation well permits, have created a need for a systematic water management program to avoid over-development of this system in the James River basin. An equally spaced grid containing 56 rows and 52 columns used to simulate the glacial aquifer system, was calibrated using water level data collected before significant groundwater development (before 1973). The aquifer was also simulated in 11 annual transient stress periods from 1973 through 1983 and in 12 monthly transient stress periods for 1976. The simulated pre-development potentiometric heads were compared to average water levels from 32 observation wells to check the accuracy of the simulate potentiometric surface. The average arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels was 1.68 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.38 ft. The non-pumping steady-state simulated water budget indicates that recharge from precipitation accounts for 97.1% of the water entering the aquifer and evapotranspiration accounts for 98.2% of the water leaving the aquifer. The sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that the model is most sensitive to reductions in recharge and least to changes in hydraulic conductivity. The maximum annual recharge varied from 0.10 inch in 1976 to 8.14 inches in 1977. The potential annual evapotranspiration varied from 29.9 inches in 1982 to 48.9 inches in 1976. Withdrawals from the glacial aquifer system increased 2.6 times between 1975 and 1976. The average annual arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels ranged from 3.88 ft in 1974 to 2.23 ft in 1982; the average

  16. 78 FR 25464 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will... or appeals. Authority: 43 U.S.C. Chap. 3. James D. Claflin, Chief Cadastral Surveyor, Division of...

  17. Survey of organophosphate insecticides in wetlands near Sunflower Fields in South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Prairie Pothole region of North America contains the most productive waterfowl habitat on the continent. The region also supports intensive agricultural activity...

  18. Investigation of remote sensing techniques as inputs to operational resource management. [Butte County, Black Hills, South Dakota, Blackhawk Quadrangle, and Belle Fouche Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, F. A. (Principal Investigator); Isakson, R. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual interpretation of 1:125,000 color LANDSAT prints produced timely level 1 maps of accuracies in excess of 80% for agricultural land identification. Accurate classification of agricultural land via digital analysis of LANDSAT CCT's required precise timing of the date of data collection with mid to late June optimum for western South Dakota. The LANDSAT repetitive nine day cycle over the state allowed the surface areas of stockdams and small reservoir systems to be monitored to provide a timely approximation of surface water conditions on the range. Combined use of DIRS, K-class, and LANDSAT CCT's demonstrated the ability to produce aspen maps of greater detail and timeliness than was available using US Forest Service maps. Visual temporal analyses of LANDSAT imagery improved highway map drainage information and were used to prepare a seven county drainage network. An optimum map of flood-prone areas was developed, utilizing high altitude aerial photography and USGS maps.

  19. Use of multi-temporal Landsat images to monitor forest disturbance (1987-2007) in the Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring forest disturbance is important for studying carbon pools and fluxes. The goal of this study is to observe forest disturbance of different burn severity levels using multi-temporal Landsat images. The Jasper Fire occurred in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, during August and September of 2000. The fire disturbance to ecosystem characteristics has a widespread and long-term impact. We used 18 Landsat images acquired from 1987 to 2007 to monitor the land cover changes due to the fire disturbance. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), and Integrated Forest Index (IFI) were calculated from the Landsat at-sensor-reflectance data. Based on IFI in 2000 and Composite Burn Index data collected in May 2002, nine field plots were selected and monitored. The results showed that all four spectral indices were capable of detecting and monitoring the forest disturbance caused by thinning and fire. IFI and NBR are more suitable for long-term monitoring while NDVI and EVI are more sensitive to rapid changes within a one-year period.

  20. Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of consent practices among healthcare professionals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. C Jack, M Mars. Abstract. Background. The Health Professions Council of South Africa is drafting guidelines to regulate the practice of telemedicine. These emphasise the need for ...

  1. Drug Administration Errors by South African Anaesthetists – a Survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    TRAVEL FELLOWSHIP. Objectives. To investigate the incidence, nature of and factors contributing towards “wrong drug administrations” by South African anaesthetists. Design. A confidential, self-reporting survey was sent out to the 720 anaesthetists on the database of the South African Society of. Anaesthesiologists.

  2. South African Capital Structure Decisions: A Survey of Listed Companies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Lambert H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors that influence capital structure decisions in South Africa from the perspective of the Chief Financial Officer (CFO). The results of a survey of 33 CFOs of JSE listed companies find that South African CFOs are equally...

  3. The transformation of South African librarianship: survey results and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research project seeks to investigate the status and role of the South African library profession within the current neo-liberal context, and to explore ways that socially responsible initiatives might provide some support for a more democratic and equitable South African future. The survey questions addressed four major ...

  4. Electronic business survey on South African tour operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhoest, P

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of a pilot project on ICT usage by South African SMMEs in the tourism industry. The Electronic Business Survey (EBS) methodology, which was tested for applicability in a developing country, in this case South...

  5. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance in Dewey County, South Dakota from Below the Moreau River to the Forest City Recreation Area. Volume 2: Support Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    community or family plots. 11 Euroamerican settlement of the area began largely after the Civil War in 1868, when military posts providing protection from... Mesoamerica . Peter Winham, assistant director, has extensive field and academic experience in Great Britain, Europe and the Great Plains. Research...Robinson, Will G. 1973 Dakota’s Own Civil War . In Dakota Panorama, edited by J. Leonard Jennewein and Jane Boorman, pp. 277-323. Pine Hill Press

  6. Conservation assessment for southern maidenhair fern and stream orchid in the Black Hills National Forest South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Deanna J. Reyher; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Reed W. Crook

    2003-01-01

    Southern maidenhair fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris L.; Pteridaceae) is a cosmopolitan species that is widely distributed in southern North America. Stream orchid (Epipactis gigantea Dougl. ex Hook.; Orchidaceae) occurs in western North America from British Columbia, Canada; south to California, Arizona and New Mexico; and east to...

  7. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Along the Cheyenne River Arm of Lake Oahe in Dewey, Haakon, Stanley, and Ziebach Counties, South Dakota. Volume 1. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    19. Frison, George C., Michael Wilson, and Diane J. Wilson 1976 Fossil Bison and Artifacts from an Early Altithermal Period Arroyo Trap in Wyoming...Resource Surveys at Pass Creek, Nelson Butte, Babby Butte, Squaw-Humper Creek and Cuny Table in Jackson (Washabaugh) and Shannon Counties, South

  8. Impact of tile drainage on evapotranspiration in South Dakota, USA, based on high spatiotemporal resolution evapotranspiration time series from a multi-satellite data fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Anderson, Martha C.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Kustas, William P.; Meyers, Tilden P.; Crow, Wade; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Otkin, Jason; Sun, Liang; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Soil drainage is a widely used agricultural practice in the midwest USA to remove excess soil water to potentially improve the crop yield. Research shows an increasing trend in baseflow and streamflow in the midwest over the last 60 years, which may be related to artificial drainage. Subsurface drainage (i.e., tile) in particular may have strongly contributed to the increase in these flows, because of its extensive use and recent gain in the popularity as a yield-enhancement practice. However, how evapotranspiration (ET) is impacted by tile drainage on a regional level is not well-documented. To explore spatial and temporal ET patterns and their relationship to tile drainage, we applied an energy balance-based multisensor data fusion method to estimate daily 30-m ET over an intensively tile-drained area in South Dakota, USA, from 2005 to 2013. Results suggest that tile drainage slightly decreases the annual cumulative ET, particularly during the early growing season. However, higher mid-season crop water use suppresses the extent of the decrease of the annual cumulative ET that might be anticipated from widespread drainage. The regional water balance analysis during the growing season demonstrates good closure, with the average residual from 2005 to 2012 as low as -3 mm. As an independent check of the simulated ET at the regional scale, the water balance analysis lends additional confidence to the study. The results of this study improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural drainage practices on regional ET, and can affect future decision making regarding tile drainage systems.

  9. Upward lightning observations from towers in Rapid City, South Dakota and comparison with National Lightning Detection Network data, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tom A.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Orville, Richard E.

    2012-10-01

    We report on upward lightning observations from ten tall towers (91-191 m) in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA and compare with National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) data. A total of 81 upward flashes were observed from 2004-2010 using GPS time-stamped optical sensors, and in all but one case, visible flash activity preceded the development of the upward leaders. Time-correlated analysis showed that the NLDN recorded an event within 50 km of towers and within 500 ms prior to upward leader development from the tower(s) for 83% (67/81) of the upward flashes. A preceding positive cloud-to-ground stroke (+CG) was detected in 57% (46/81) of the cases, and a preceding positive intracloud flash (+IC) in 23% (19/81) of the cases. However, 8 of the 19 NLDN-indicated +IC events were actually +CG strokes based on optical observations. Preceding negative intracloud flashes (-IC) were recorded for 2% (2/81) of the cases. Analysis also showed that for 44% (36/81) of the upward flashes, the NLDN reported subsequent negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) strokes and/or -IC events at one or more tower locations. Of the 151 subsequent events, 70% (105/151) were -CG reports and 30% (46/151) were listed as -IC events. The geometric mean/median location accuracy and peak current for subsequent events were 194 m/206 m and -12.9 kA/-12.4 kA respectively. These correlated observations suggest that a majority of the upward lightning flashes were triggered by a preceding flash with the dominant triggering type being the +CG flash.

  10. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  11. The Role of Wildfire, Prescribed Fire, and Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations on the Population Dynamics of Black-Backed Woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A.; Lehman, Chad P.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

  12. Isolation and characterization of cellulose-degrading bacteria from the deep subsurface of the Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Muppidi, Geetha L; Gurram, Raghu N; Adhikari, Akash; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Hughes, Stephen R; Apel, William A; Bang, Sookie S; Dixon, David J; Sani, Rajesh K

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the cultivable mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (60 degrees C) cellulose-degrading bacterial diversity in a weathered soil-like sample collected from the deep subsurface (1.5 km depth) of the Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA. Chemical characterization of the sample by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a high amount of toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Molecular community structures were determined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from enrichment cultures growing in presence of microcrystalline cellulose as the sole source of carbon. All phylotypes retrieved from enrichment cultures were affiliated to Firmicutes. Cellulose-degrading mesophilic and thermophilic pure cultures belonging to the genera Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Bacillus, and Geobacillus were isolated from enrichment cultures, and selected cultures were studied for enzyme activities. For a mesophilic isolate (DUSELG12), the optimum pH and temperature for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) were 5.5 and 55 degrees C, while for a thermophilic isolate (DUSELR7) they were 5.0 and 75 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, DUSELG12 retained about 40% CMCase activity after incubation at 60 degrees C for 8 h. Most remarkably, thermophilic isolate, DUSELR7 retained 26% CMCase activity at 60 degrees C up to a period of 300 h. Overall, the present work revealed the presence of different cellulose-degrading bacterial lineages in the unique deep subsurface environment of the mine. The results also have strong implications for biological conversion of cellulosic agricultural and forestry wastes to commodity chemicals including sugars.

  13. Thunderstorms and flooding of August 17, 2007, with a context provided by a history of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007

  14. Breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson's hawks, and northern harriers in south-central North Dakota : Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report of research survey to document the breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainsons hawk, and northern harrier in Kulm Wetland Management District WMD...

  15. Breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson’s hawks, and northern harriers in south-central North Dakota : Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Project proposal for research survey to document the breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson’s hawk, and northern harrier in Kulm Wetland Management District...

  16. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  17. Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ≤ 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ≤ 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ≤ 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were

  18. Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James aquifers in the Aberdeen area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was < 10 ft. Using these criteria, about 14 sq mi of the study area are suitable for artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in

  19. Entrepreneurship Education in South Africa: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Mary Jesselyn; Mitchell, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the state of development of entrepreneurship education, determine the importance of entrepreneurship in the South African higher education institutions (HEIs), and offer recommendations for improving preparations for the developing field. Design/methodology/approach: An e-mail survey has been conducted on South…

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES South African national household survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African national household survey of HIV/AIDS prevalence, behavioural risks and mass media impact ... Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town. Olive Shisana, SeD. Leickness Chisamu Simbayi .... and perceptions of HIV I AIDS, mass media and health status. In addition to the above and in common with the ...

  1. Survey of canine babesiosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog

  2. South Dakota secondary school students' science attitudes and the implementation of NASA's Digital Learning Network's "Can a Shoebox Fly? Challenge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa Ogle

    2011-12-01

    This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to data collection from secondary science students. A parallel pre- and post science attitudes survey, developed by Ingrid Novodvorsky, was used in addition to face-to-face interviews and evidence collected from the students' notebooks. The findings in this study indicate the students' attitude towards science was more positive after the "Can A Shoebox Fly? Challenge" with regards to interest in science class and activities in science class (Factor 1); confidence in their ability to do science (Factor 2) as well as their overall interest in science in general. Additionally, both genders showed a positive change in attitudes for the above factors and there was no significant difference between males and females. A negative change in attitudes occurred pertaining to student interest in science-related activities outside of school (Factor 3). The same negative change occurred among males and females with no significant difference between the two genders. The implication of this study provides future research with all of NASA's Digital Learning Network modules to enhance students' interest in STEM careers and STEM student achievement.

  3. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses of four reservoirs in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive information about the construction of dams or potential downstream hazards in the event of a dam breach is not available for many small reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest. In 2009, the U.S. Forest Service identified the need for reconnaissance-level dam-breach assessments for four of these reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest (Iron Creek, Horsethief, Lakota, and Mitchell Lakes) with the potential to flood downstream structures. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses for the four selected reservoirs were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Forest service to estimate the areal extent of downstream inundation. Three high-flow breach scenarios were considered for cases when the dam is in place (overtopped) and when a dam break (failure) occurs: the 100-year recurrence 24-hour precipitation, 500-year recurrence peak flow, and the probable maximum precipitation. Inundation maps were developed that show the estimated extent of downstream floodwaters from simulated scenarios. Simulation results were used to determine the hazard classification of a dam break (high, significant, or low), based primarily on the potential for loss of life or property damage resulting from downstream inundation because of the flood surge.The inflow design floods resulting from the two simulated storm events (100-year 24-hour and probable maximum precipitation) were determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS). The inflow design flood for the 500-year recurrence peak flow was determined by using regional regression equations developed for streamflow-gaging stations with similar watershed characteristics. The step-backwater hydraulic analysis model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), was used to determine water-surface profiles of in-place and dam-break scenarios for the three inflow design floods that were

  4. Food security in South Africa: a review of national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadarios, Demetre; McHiza, Zandile June-Rose; Steyn, Nelia Patricia; Gericke, Gerda; Maunder, Eleni Maria Winifred; Davids, Yul Derek; Parker, Whadi-ah

    2011-12-01

    To assess the status of food security--i.e., access to food, food availability and food utilization--in South Africa. A systematic search of national surveys that used the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) index to measure food security in South Africa over a period of 10 years (1999-2008) was conducted. Anthropometric data for children aged 1-9 years were used to assess food utilization, and household food inventory data were used to assess food availability. Only three national surveys had used the CCHIP index, namely, the 1999 and 2005 National Food Consumption Surveys (NFCS) and the 2008 South African Social Attitudes Survey. These surveys showed a relatively large decrease in food insecurity between 1999 and 2008. However, the consistent emerging trend indicated that in poorer households women were either feeding their children a poor diet or skipping meals so their children could eat. In terms of food access and availability, the 1999 NFCS showed that households that enjoyed food security consumed an average of 16 different food items over 24 hours, whereas poorer households spent less money on food and consumed fewer than 8 different food items. Moreover, children had low mean scores for dietary diversity (3.58; standard deviation, SD: ± 1.37) and dietary variety (5.52; SD: ± 2.54) scores. In terms of food utilization, the NFCS showed that stunting in children decreased from 21.6% in 1999 to 18% in 2005. The South African government must implement measures to improve the undesirably high level of food insecurity in poorer households.

  5. CASL Dakota Capabilities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simmons, Chris [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The Dakota software project serves the mission of Sandia National Laboratories and supports a worldwide user community by delivering state-of-the-art research and robust, usable software for optimization and uncertainty quantification. These capabilities enable advanced exploration and riskinformed prediction with a wide range of computational science and engineering models. Dakota is the verification and validation (V&V) / uncertainty quantification (UQ) software delivery vehicle for CASL, allowing analysts across focus areas to apply these capabilities to myriad nuclear engineering analyses.

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  7. FLOODPLAIN, SANBORN COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  9. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  10. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  11. Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer in Gregory and Tripp Counties, South Dakota, water years 1985--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer is an important water resource for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in Gregory and Tripp Counties in south-central South Dakota and is used for irrigation, public supply, domestic, and stock water supplies. To better understand groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer, conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow were developed for the aquifer. A conceptual model of the Ogallala aquifer was used to analyze groundwater flow and develop a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in the aquifer. The MODFLOW–NWT model was used to simulate transient groundwater conditions for water years 1985–2009. The model was calibrated using statistical parameter estimation techniques. Potential future scenarios were simulated using the input parameters from the calibrated model for simulations of potential future drought and future increased pumping. Transient simulations were completed with the numerical model. A 200-year transient initialization period was used to establish starting conditions for the subsequent 25-year simulation of water years 1985–2009. The 25-year simulation was discretized into three seasonal stress periods per year and used to simulate transient conditions. A single-layer model was used to simulate flow and mass balance in the Ogallala aquifer with a grid of 133 rows and 282 columns and a uniform spacing of 500 meters (1,640 feet). Regional inflow and outflow were simulated along the western and southern boundaries using specified-head cells. All other boundaries were simulated using no-flow cells. Recharge to the aquifer occurs through precipitation on the outcrop area. Model calibration was accomplished using the Parameter Estimation (PEST) program that adjusted individual model input parameters and assessed the difference between estimated and model-simulated values of hydraulic head and base flow. This program was designed to estimate parameter values that are statistically the most likely set of values to result in the

  12. 8 June 2010 - South Dakota Governor M. Rounds signing the guest book with External Relations Office Adviser R. Voss, visiting the LHC superconducting Magnet test hall with Technology Department L. Bottura, in the CERN Control Centre with Beams Department Head P. Collier, ATLAS visitor Centre with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson A. Lankford and visiting CMS Control Centre with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela. LHC Communications and FNAL member K. Yurkewicz accompanies throughout (see complete delegation list below).

    CERN Multimedia

    Teams (M. Brice/J.C. Gadmer)

    2010-01-01

    CERN-HI-1006100 24: from left to right: Permanent Mission Representative A. Shybut; External Relations Office Adviser R. Voss; LHC Communications and FNAL K. Yurkewicz, Washington CSG Director for internationl programmes S. Sutcliffe-Stephenson; Technology Department Representative L. Bottura; South Dakota State Patrol D. Svendsen; CSG Executive Director and Former State Senator from Kansas D. Atkins;Office of the First Lady L. Svendsen; Office of the Governor K. Mueller; First Lady J. Rounds; South Dakota Governor M. Rounds; Washington State Senator T. Eide;Judge M. Eide; Assemblyman J. Oceguera and G. Oceguera (with son Jackson Oceguera, 5 months).

  13. Archeological Testing of Sites 32CS42 and 32CS44, Cass County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Project Historian, Cultural Resources Survey of Lake Sakakawea , McKenzie and Williams Counties, North Dakota. Undertaken for the U.S. Army Corps of...Resources of Lake Sakakawea in Williams and McKenzie Count-ies, North Dakota: A Study in Culture and Taxonomy. I 1983. Principal Investigator...adjacent to and across Lake Sakakawea in North Dakota. This project included establishment of research procedures, procurement of necessary federal

  14. South Korean anthropometric data and survey methodology: 'Size Korea' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Yong; You, Jae Woo; Kim, Mi Sook

    2017-11-01

    Considering the many emerging markets in East Asia, access to contemporary anthropometric data for this region is important for designers and manufacturers seeking to produce the best fitting products and living environments for consumers. The purpose of this paper is to describe Korean anthropometric data collection and survey techniques for those who are interested in ethnic characteristics, conducting surveys, and formulating ergonomic product designs for South Korean and, more broadly, East Asian populations. The Size Korea survey was conducted in 2003-2004 and 2010. A total of 14,200 civilians aged 0-90 years participated in the survey, with 119 body and weight dimensions measured in 2004. Twenty new dimensions from Inbody measurement were added in 2010 and the data were continuously updated. We referred to ISO 7250, 8559 and 15535 to ensure validity and reliability. Fifty major body dimensions, including weight, are summarised in this paper, and 34 of these dimensions can be compared with 11 multinational data already reported  in other publications. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents the up-to-date anthropometric database of East Asian physical characteristics and survey methodology. These data satisfy the ISO standards and comprise 50 physical dimensions including weight. Thirty-four dimensions of these can be directly compared with available multinational data.

  15. Who participates in communal violence? Survey evidence from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Claassen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the thousands of people who take part in communal violence. Existing research is largely based on interviews, impressionistic accounts and government records of arrestees. In contrast, this paper examines data from a novel survey of a representative sample of residents of Alexandra, a township in South Africa where a 2008 nation-wide wave of anti-immigrant riots began. Data on participation in the attacks were collected using a method ensuring the privacy of responses, thus potentially reducing response bias. In contrast to the conclusions of existing research, which emphasize the participation of young males, the survey data reveal that a significant number of participants were female and participants were not particularly young, being 34 years old on average. Participants are more likely to support an opposition party, attend community policing meetings and have a high-school education.

  16. Water-quality effects and characterization of indicators of onsite wastewater disposal systems in the east-central Black Hills area, South Dakota, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Sawyer, J. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) are used extensively in the Black Hills of South Dakota where many of the watersheds and aquifers are characterized by fractured or solution-enhanced bedrock with thin soil cover. A study was conducted during 2006-08 to characterize water-quality effects and indicators of OWDS. Water samples were collected and analyzed for potential indicators of OWDS, including chloride, bromide, boron, nitrite plus nitrate (NO2+NO3), ammonia, major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, isotopes of nitrate, microbiological indicators, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). The microbiological indicators were fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), and coliphages. Sixty ground-water sampling sites were located either downgradient from areas of dense OWDS or in background areas and included 25 monitoring wells, 34 private wells, and 1 spring. Nine surface-water sampling sites were located on selected streams and tributaries either downstream or upstream from residential development within the Precambrian setting. Sampling results were grouped by their hydrogeologic setting: alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian. Mean downgradient dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations in ground water for the alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian settings were 0.734, 7.90, 8.62, and 2.25 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved chloride concentrations in ground water for these settings were 324, 89.6, 498, and 33.2 mg/L, respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved boron concentrations in ground water for these settings were 736, 53, 64, and 43 micrograms per liter (ug/L), respectively. Mean dissolved surface-water concentrations for NO2+NO3, chloride, and boron for downstream sites were 0.222 mg/L, 32.1 mg/L, and 28 ug/L, respectively. Mean values of delta-15N and delta-18O (isotope ratios of 14N to 15N and 18O to 16O relative to standard ratios) for

  17. A morbidity survey of South African primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have described the burden of disease in South Africa. However these studies do not tell us which of these conditions commonly present to primary care providers, how these conditions may present and how providers make sense of them in terms of their diagnoses. Clinical nurse practitioners are the main primary care providers and need to be better prepared for this role. This study aimed to determine the range and prevalence of reasons for encounter and diagnoses found among ambulatory patients attending public sector primary care facilities in South Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was a multi-centre prospective cross-sectional survey of consultations in primary care in four provinces of South Africa: Western Cape, Limpopo, Northern Cape and North West. Consultations were coded prior to analysis by using the International Classification of Primary Care-Version 2 in terms of reasons for encounter (REF and diagnoses. Altogether 18856 consultations were included in the survey and generated 31451 reasons for encounter (RFE and 24561 diagnoses. Women accounted for 12526 (66.6% and men 6288 (33.4%. Nurses saw 16238 (86.1% and doctors 2612 (13.9% of patients. The top 80 RFE and top 25 diagnoses are reported and ongoing care for hypertension was the commonest RFE and diagnosis. The 20 commonest RFE and diagnoses by age group are also reported. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ambulatory primary care is dominated by non-communicable chronic diseases. HIV/AIDS and TB are common, but not to the extent predicted by the burden of disease. Pneumonia and gastroenteritis are commonly seen especially in children. Women's health issues such as family planning and pregnancy related visits are also common. Injuries are not as common as expected from the burden of disease. Primary care providers did not recognise mental health problems. The results should guide the future training and assessment of primary care providers.

  18. Hydrodynamic simulations of physical aquatic habitat availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6–263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6–673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9–748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8–808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities.A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties.To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach

  19. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, predevelopment (about 1950) to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The...

  20. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, predevelopment (about 1950) to 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The High Plains aquifer extends from south of 32 degrees to almost 44 degrees north latitude and from 96 degrees 30 minutes to 104 degrees west longitude. The...

  1. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  2. Diagnostic nutrient mass balance on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Souris River, an international river originating in Canada’s Saskatchewan Province, flows south into the State of North Dakota and then back north into Canada’s...

  3. Missouri River bed elevations at pipeline crossing near Yankton, South Dakota surveyed during 2011 flood on July, 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — A RESON SeaBat™ 7125 multibeam echosounder in conjunction with an Applanix Position Orientation Solution for Marine Vessels (POS MV™) WaveMaster system motion...

  4. Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, NarayananNair

    2011-05-01

    Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticide residues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India.

  5. Flooding of S. Dakota mine stalls plans for laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2003-01-01

    The owner of a former gold mine in South Dakota turned off the pumps allowing water to begin accumulating in the tunnels below ground. The site had previously been proposed as the location for a new underground particle physics and astronomy laboratory (1 page).

  6. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  7. DS-777 Spatial Location the Model Cell Boundaries for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project and the U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report: Geodatabase...

  8. DS-777 Spatial Location of the Model Cell Centroids for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project and the U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report: Geodatabase...

  9. Avian inventory and monitoring at Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota : 1995-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, a breeding bird inventory and monitoring program was initiated at Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota. Surveys were conducted annually through...

  10. Contaminant concerns for West River National Wildlife Refuges: Slope and Dunn Counties, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1990 to 1993 three National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) located west of the Missouri River in North Dakota were surveyed for contaminants. Trace element...

  11. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  12. Proposed South San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Level III preaquisition survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Level III Contaminant Preaquisition Survey was conducted during 1992 in the south San Diego Bay area to evaluate potential hazards to trustee resources and/or...

  13. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were

  14. 9th state of logistics survey for South Africa: connecting neighbours - engaging the world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 9th State of Logistics survey for South Africa 2012 delivers a message of action. South Africa must make great strides in addressing critical issues relating to the road freight sector, shifting freight from road to rail and addressing rampant...

  15. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents results of a survey by the Geo-information Society of South Africa (GISSA) to gain a better understanding of who the members of the South ... members of the GISc community fulfil roles of data analysis and interpretation, together with data acquisition, data management, and/or visualization/mapping.

  16. E-tourism: a survey of e-business among South African tour operators.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhoest, PI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of a pilot project on ICT usage by South African SMMEs in the tourism industry. The Electronic Business Survey (EBS) methodology which was tested for applicability in a developing country, in this case South...

  17. Does landscape structure affect patterns of grassland songbird habitat selection and abundance in south-central North Dakota : FY 2012 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress report for fiscal year 2012 on the research survey obtaining baseline information on patterns and abundance of grassland songbirds on Waterfowl Production...

  18. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square...

  19. Digital map of the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and Wyoming, 1996-97

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of saturated thickness contours for the High Plains aquifer in Central United States, 1996-97. The High Plains aquifer extends from...

  20. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Deadwood Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Deadwood...

  1. Digital map of predevelopment water levels for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of contours for predevelopment water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains...

  2. Digital map of hydraulic conductivity for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of hydraulic conductivity contours and polygons for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer...

  3. Digital Map Of Base of Aquifer for High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital base of aquifer elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High Plains aquifer extends from...

  4. JV Task 99-Integrated Risk Analysis and Contaminant Reduction, Watford City, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry W. Botnen

    2007-05-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a limited site investigation and risk analyses for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a Construction Services, Inc., site in Watford City, North Dakota. Site investigation confirmed the presence of free product and high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants in several wells, the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane, and extremely high levels of electrical conductivity indicative of brine residuals in the tank area south of the facility. The risk analysis was based on compilation of information from the site-specific geotechnical investigation, including multiphase extraction pilot test, laser induced fluorescence probing, evaluation of contaminant properties, receptor survey, capture zone analysis and evaluation of well head protection area for municipal well field. The project results indicate that the risks associated with contaminant occurrence at the Construction Services, Inc. site are low and, under current conditions, there is no direct or indirect exposure pathway between the contaminated groundwater and soils and potential receptors.

  5. Basin characteristics, history of stream gaging, and statistical summary of selected streamflow records for the Rapid Creek basin, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Zogorski, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a summary of basin characteristics affecting streamflow, a history of the U.S. Geological Survey 's stream-gaging program, and a compilation of discharge records and statistical summaries for selected sites within the Rapid Creek basin. It is the first in a series which will investigate surface-water/groundwater relations along Rapid Creek. The summary of basin characteristics includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeology, physiography and climate, land use and vegetation, reservoirs, and water use within the basin. A recounting of the U.S. Geological Survey 's stream-gaging program and a tabulation of historic stream-gaging stations within the basin are furnished. A compilation of monthly and annual mean discharge values for nine currently operated, long-term, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations on Rapid Creek is presented. The statistical summary for each site includes summary statistics on monthly and annual mean values, correlation matrix for monthly values, serial correlation for 1 year lag for monthly values, percentile rankings for monthly and annual mean values, low and high value tables, duration curves, and peak-discharge tables. Records of monthend contents for two reservoirs within the basin also are presented. (USGS)

  6. A survey of South African provincial netball coaches\\' opinions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attributes. The opinions, abilities and limitations regarding MST, necessitate further coach education regarding MST programmes and the implementation thereof. Keywords: Coaches; Mental Skills Training; Netball. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol. 29 (2) 2007: pp. 27-40 ...

  7. A Snapshot Survey of ICT Integration in South African Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshnee Padayachee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information Communication Technology (ICT integration in the classroom is often viewed as a panacea towards resolving South Africa’s education challenges. However, ICT integration in education in South Africa has been severely limited by operational, strategic and pedagogic challenges. In part, addressing the strategic and operational challenges involves understanding the current landscape of ICT integration in schools. There is scant information on the practical enforcement of ICTs in the classroom. The aim of this research is to determine the extent of ICT usage in South African schools in order to obtain an understanding of the practical enforcement of ICTs at the school level. This study combines both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods in order to provide a rich nuanced perspective of ICT integration in South African schools. The study found that the uptake of technology remains low, on average the frequency of usage per tool type was as follows: contextual tools (41%, sharing information and ideas tools (29%, experiential tools (26% and reflective dialogue tools (18%. It was found that teachers are uncertain with respect to the enforcement of e-education while being encumbered by poor infrastructure and lack of skills.

  8. Quartz exposure in agriculture: literature review and South African survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanepoel, A.J.; Rees, D.; Renton, K.; Swanepoel, C.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Gardiner, K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the published literature on respirable quartz exposure and associated disease in agricultural related settings systematically and to describe personal respirable dust and quartz measurements collected on a sandy soil farm in the Free State province of South Africa. METHODS: The

  9. South African marine pollution survey report 1976-1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gardner, BD

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available on the Cape Peninsula and Saldanha Bay. Estuaries visited included Kosi Bay, St Lucia, Richards Bay, Durban Bay, and the Umgababa, Umzimvubu, Mngazana, Bashee, Buffalo and Swartkops estuaries. Further south, Knysna and the Storms, Groot, Keurbooms and Bietou...

  10. Locatable Mineral Reports for Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming provided to the USDA Forest Service in Fiscal Years 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is required by Congress (under Public Law 86-509) to provide Locatable Mineral Reports to the USDA Forest Service whenever National Forest System lands are sold or exchanged. This volume is a compilation of the reports already provided to the Forest Service by the author in fiscal years 2006-2009 (October 2006-September 2009). Altogether, the reports describe the geology and locatable mineral resource potential of 57 properties offered in 10 land-exchange proposals. Approximately 41,084 acres were evaluated: 19,068 acres in Federal parcels and 22,016 acres in non-Federal parcels. The parcels are located in eight National Forests and one National Grassland in three States. Locatable Mineral Reports provide a summary of the geology and a subjective appraisal of the mineral resource potential of land parcels considered for exchange. Information in each report is based on a review of published maps and reports, unpublished data in U.S. Geological Survey files, the professional expertise of the writer, and interviews with other knowledgeable geoscientists. No visits were conducted to support the reports included in this volume. The mineral resource information provided is used in making relative comparisons of the potential future mineral value of lands being offered in an exchange and in appraising the value of the land. Future mineral potential value is subjectively expressed in qualitative terms using a three-tier nomenclature of 'high,' 'moderate,' and 'low.' In general, 'high' is applied where mineral deposits are present on the property or adjacent to it or there are other indications that the area has been mineralized. 'Moderate' is applied where mineralization is only suspected or where an area possesses some of the same geologic characteristics that are common to areas around known mineral deposits. A 'low' value is routinely applied to all remaining areas, with the understanding that the information required to prove the absence of

  11. The Survey of Ermia mangshanensis Resource in South China Tiger Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Heping; Li, Shizhou; Wang, Jianrong; Chen, Yuanhui; Chen, Lianchao; Lei, Shengqiao

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, one living Ermia mangshanensis was found in the Shapingpian area at the junction of South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve. To learn more about Ermia mangshanensis resource, the researchers in South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve conducted field survey of Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area during the period 2010-2012. The results show that there is Ermia mangshan...

  12. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley Eagar; Gerry Swan; Moritz van Vuuren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed...

  13. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  14. Electrical Resistance Tomography to Monitor Mitigation of Metal-Toxic Acid-Leachates Ruby Gulch Waste Rock Repository Gilt Edge Mine Superfund Site, South Dakota USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R.; Heath, G.; Richardson, A.; Paul, D.; Wangerud, K.

    2003-12-01

    At a cyanide heap-leach open-pit mine, 15-million cubic yards of acid-generating sulfides were dumped at the head of a steep-walled mountain valley, with 30 inches/year precipitation generating 60- gallons/minute ARD leachate. Remediation has reshaped the dump to a 70-acre, 3.5:1-sloped geometry, installed drainage benches and runoff diversions, and capped the repository and lined diversions with a polyethylene geomembrane and cover system. Monitoring was needed to evaluate (a) long-term geomembrane integrity, (b) diversion liner integrity and long-term effectiveness, (c) ARD geochemistry, kinetics and pore-gas dynamics within the repository mass, and (d) groundwater interactions. Observation wells were paired with a 600-electrode resistivity survey system. Using near-surface and down-hole electrodes and automated data collection and post-processing, periodic two- and three-dimensional resistivity images are developed to reflect current and changed-conditions in moisture, temperature, geochemical components, and flow-direction analysis. Examination of total resistivity values and time variances between images allows direct observation of liner and cap integrity with precise identification and location of leaks; likewise, if runoff migrates from degraded diversion ditches into the repository zone, there is an accompanying and noticeable change in resistivity values. Used in combination with monitoring wells containing borehole resistivity electrodes (calibrated with direct sampling of dump water/moisture, temperature and pore-gas composition), the resistivity arrays allow at-depth imaging of geochemical conditions within the repository mass. The information provides early indications of progress or deficiencies in de-watering and ARD- mitigation that is the remedy intent. If emerging technologies present opportunities for secondary treatment, deep resistivity images may assist in developing application methods and evaluating the effectiveness of any reagents

  15. Water-quality characteristics and trends for selected sites in or near the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, South Dakota, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents data on water-quality samples that were collected in and near the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center from 1973 through 2000. The investigation is a collaborated effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Discipline (WRD), and Geography (formerly National Mapping) Discipline, EROS Data Center. A water-quality monitoring program was initiated in 1973, when the EROS Data Center was constructed, and continues at the present time (2003). Under this program, water-quality samples were collected at various sites on the EROS Data Center's property and in the surrounding area. These sites include 4 wastewater-treatment lagoons, 1 site on EROS Lake located behind the EROS Data Center, 2 stream sites near the EROS Data Center, and 9 ground-water wells surrounding the EROS Data Center. Additionally, 3 sites on EROS Lake, 7 stream sites, and 9 ground-water sites are located within the study area and have been sampled during the period covered in the report. Some of these additional sites were part of the initial water-quality monitoring conducted during and immediately after the construction of the EROS Data Center. For other sites, some special sampling (depth-profile and bottom material) has occurred at times during the sampling history; however, these sites have little water-quality data and were not used for statistical or trend analysis. A trend-analysis program, Estimate TREND (ESTREND), was used to analyze for trends for one surface-water site, the Big Sioux River, which was the only site that had a substantial number of samples collected during an extensive period. The ESTREND trend-analysis program was used to analyze 16 constituents. Specific conductance and dissolved orthophosphate were the only constituents determined to have statistically significant trends. Results showed an increasing trend for specific conductance and a decreasing trend for dissolved orthophosphate. Scatter plots with regression smoothing

  16. Summary of Surface-Water Quality, Ground-Water Quality, and Water Withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinning, Kevin C; Cates, Steven W

    2006-01-01

    .... The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Depth to the top of the Dakota Sandstone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows depth ranges to the top of the Dakota Sandstone within the Uinta-Piceance Province, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah.

  18. Modeled sulfate concentrations in North Dakota streams, 1993-2008, based on spatial basin characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate concentration data collected from North Dakota streams during recent (1993–2008) years indicates generally higher sulfate concentrations across much of the State compared to concentrations during earlier years. The higher sulfate concentrations have been attributed in other studies to wetter climatic conditions, associated increases in contributing drainage areas, and rising water tables. The State’s current (2013) stream classification system, which includes a standard for 30-day average sulfate concentration, is based on earlier data and thus may not reflect natural conditions for more recent years. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health and the North Dakota State Water Commission, completed a study to evaluate the relation of maximum seasonal (30-day moving average) sulfate concentrations during 1993–2008 to characteristics of the contributing basins to model expected naturally-occurring sulfate concentrations in North Dakota streams.

  19. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  20. The results of the Survey of Employment in the South Moravian Region in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Konečný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of 2008, significant impacts of the world economic crisis became evident in the Czech labour market. In 2009, employment and the number of vacancies gradually declined and the number of the unemployed continually increased. This paper aims to show the impact of the crisis on the development (2008–2009 of the structure of employment according to industries and sectors of national economy in South Moravia as revealed by the unique “Survey of Employment in the South Moravian Region on the date of 31 December 2009”. This paper is a presentation of the general parameters of this survey – the number of companies participating in this survey, the number of their employees and regional differences of these characteristics are evaluated. Brief attention is also paid to the expected development of employment in 2010, which is compiled on the basis of the assumed recruitment/release of employees of businesses participating in the survey.

  1. Community health survey of Oukasie, 1987 | Barron | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second survey into the nutritional and immunisation status of children aged under 5 years showed that 20% of children were underweight and nearly half were incompletely immunised at 1 year of age. These studies, involving local community and student volunteers, were rapidly and inexpensively done and provide ...

  2. Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To examine doctors' practices with regard to informed consent. Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive survey. Participants 'and setting. All full-time consultants and registrars in the Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Child Health, Paediatric Surgery and Surgery at the University ...

  3. Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related ethics - who should decide? S Afr Med J. 1991; 79: 527-528. 13. Harris L, Boyle JM, Bronstein PJ. Views of informed consent and decisionmaking: Parallel surveys of physicians and the public. In: President's Commission for the. StUdy of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Bahavioral Research.

  4. Wage trends in post-apartheid South Africa: Constructing an earnings series from household survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Rulof Burger; Derek Yu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines South African wage earnings trends using all the available post-1994 household survey datasets. This allows us to identify and address the sources of data inconsistencies across surveys in order to construct a more comparable earnings time series. Taking account of the inconsistencies in questionnaire design and the presence of outliers, we find that it is possible to construct a fairly stable earnings series for formal sector employees. We find that claims that workers ha...

  5. North Dakota Drama Content Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Roger; Lindekugel-Willis, Paula; Nilsen, Cheryl; Opp, Dean; Rauschenberger, Paula

    This document outlines the content standards for drama in North Dakota public schools, grades K-12. Following an introduction, the document lists the drama content standards: (1) Dramatic Literature; (2) Acting; (3) Production; (4) Cultural Context of Drama; (5) Consumer of Theatre; (6) Drama and Human Development; and (7) Drama and Other…

  6. Prevalence of household food poverty in South Africa: results from a large, nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Rose, Donald

    2002-06-01

    Household food insecurity is a major determinant of undernutrition, yet there is little information on its prevalence in the South African population. This paper assesses household food insecurity in South Africa using a quantitative and objective measure, known as food poverty, and provides prevalence estimates by geographic area and socio-economic condition. Secondary data analysis combining two sources: Statistics South Africa's household-based 1995 Income and Expenditure Survey; and the University of Port Elizabeth's Household Subsistence Level series, a nationally-conducted, market-based survey. South Africa. A nationally representative sample of the entire country - stratified by race, province, and urban and non-urban areas - consisting of 28 704 households. A household is defined to be in food poverty when monthly food spending is less than the cost of a nutritionally adequate very low-cost diet. The prevalence of food poverty in South Africa in 1995 was 43%. Food poverty rates were highest among households headed by Africans, followed by coloureds, Indians and whites. Higher food poverty rates were found with decreasing income, increasing household size, and among households in rural areas or those headed by females. The widespread nature of household food insecurity in South Africa is documented here. Prevalence rates by geographic and socio-economic breakdown provide the means for targeting of nutritional interventions and for monitoring progress in this field. The corroboration of these findings with both internal validation measures and external sources suggests that food poverty is a useful, objective measure of household food insecurity.

  7. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... in local media. ] In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321... with aboriginal or tribal interests, local media, and other members of the public that were identified... local media. Approximately 50 landowners, citizens, and elected representatives attended the meetings...

  8. Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance of this with respect to inshore trawling is noted. ... Most studies on the biology of South African ichthyofauna ... marine fish. With this in mind, this study provides some infor- mation on fish that occur in the shallow marine environment. Methods. The survey was conducted along the southern Cape coast be-.

  9. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  10. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  11. Survey of snail intermediate hosts of trematodes in Jos South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streams and irrigation schemes in selected areas of Jos South Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria were surveyed for snail intermediate hosts of Trematodes. A total of 1045 snails were collected from streams with long handled scoop net and in some areas manually with hand in gloves. The snails were put in ...

  12. Preservation and Conservation in South Europe: A Survey among National Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Maria Luisa

    The issue of the permanent absence of some countries and/or libraries in the Preservation and Conservation sessions at the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) has been raised in years past. Within Europe, contributions from South Europe have been scarce. This paper discusses responses to a survey of national…

  13. Multinational corporations as channels for international technology transfer: Evidence from the South African innovation survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeem Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the importance of South African subsidiaries of foreign multinationals as channels to introduce foreign innovations in the South African market. We use firm-level data from the 2008 wave of the South African Innovation Survey, which covers the period 2005-07. We find that subsidiaries of foreign multinationals are significantly more likely to introduce product and process innovations, as well as foreign new products and processes than domestic firms. However, we also find that they are not more likely to introduce foreign innovations developed in collaboration with or mostly by another firm outside their own multinational, or innovations that are new to the South African market.

  14. 2015 State Geodatabase for South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. Level IV Ecoregions of South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  16. HYDRAULICS, TURNER COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. FLOODPLAIN, YANKTON COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bringing any type of live or dead vegetation onto the refuge for any purpose at any time. B. Upland Game... Ponds. 3. No person may violate the “no-wake zone” that includes all waters within 500 feet (150 m) of....93 and 27.94 of this chapter). We prohibit bringing any type of live or dead vegetation onto the...

  19. Level III Ecoregions of South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  20. 'Lost' Ladybugs Found Again in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this article is to give a first-person account of involvement in research directly related to the NSF-sponsored Lost Ladybug Project. I have summarized research findings in in which three previously common kinds of lady beetles have become difficult to detect in eastern states, but c...

  1. Tiospaye Teca: Working with Young Native American Families in the Dakotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Describes Tiospaye Teca (Young Families), a program which offers services to pregnant teens, adolescent parents and their children in South Dakota. Programs include summer employment, teen parent camp, and a welcome baby program. Factors that account for the program's progress in services for pregnant teens and adolescent parents are discussed.…

  2. A survey of skin conditions and concerns in South Asian Americans: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal K; Bhanusali, Dhaval G; Sachdev, Amit; Geria, Aanand N; Alexis, Andrew F

    2011-05-01

    South Asians represent a rapidly growing part of the U.S. population, increasing 188 percent from 1990 to 2000 (0.27% to 0.78%). Studies investigating the epidemiology of skin disorders in South Asian Americans are lacking. We sought to determine common skin conditions and concerns among this population. This was a community-based survey study. The IRB-approved survey tool was distributed to South Asians adults in the New York City area. All data was self-reported. 190 surveys were completed. 54 percent of responders were female and 46 percent were male. The age of participants ranged from 18-74 years. The respondents were predominantly foreign born (76%), but a large minority (32%) reported living in the U.S. for over 20 years. Nearly half (49%) of the study population reported having visited a dermatologist in the past. The five most common dermatologic diagnoses included: acne (37%), eczema (22%), fungal infection (11%), warts (8%) and moles (8%). The five most common concerns included: dry skin (25%), hair loss (22%), uneven tone (21%), dark spots (18%) and acne (17%). Our results suggest that the leading skin conditions and concerns in South Asian Americans are similar to those reported in other populations with skin of color.

  3. A survey of filariasis among refugees in south Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangco, B G; Vincent, A L; Vickery, A C; Nayar, J K; Sauerman, D M

    1984-03-01

    Between January 1981 and March 1982, a filariasis survey was conducted among 668 Haitian immigrants and 155 Southeast Asian refugees residing in Florida, U.S.A. Microfilariae were detected only in Haitians, with 6.7% positive for Wuchereria bancrofti and 1.3% positive for Mansonella ozzardi. The majority of individuals with bancroftian filariasis came from five coastal urban areas including Port-au-Prince, Duvalierville, Gonaïves, Leógane and Cap-Haitien. No unequivocal signs of bancroftian filariasis or mansonellosis were seen. Membrane feeding of several species and strains of laboratory-reared mosquitoes on blood from a volunteer microfilaremic with W. bancrofti showed that Aedes aegypti and A. taeniorhynchus, but not Culex quinquefasciatus, were susceptible to infection with the Haitian strain of W. bancrofti. Culicoides furens, a known vector of M. ozzardi in Haiti and present in Florida, was not tested. Further studies are needed to determine the competence of Florida vectors for transmitting W. bancrofti and M. ozzardi to the indigenous human population.

  4. A comparison of inflation expectations and inflation credibility in South Africa: results from survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Rossouw

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a comparison of South African household inflation expectations and inflation credibility surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. It tests for possible feed-through between inflation credibility and inflation expectations. It supplements earlier research that focused only on the 2006 survey results. The comparison shows that inflation expectations differed between different income groups in both 2006 and 2008. Inflation credibility differed between male and female respondents, but this difference did not feed through to inflation expectations. More periodic survey data will be required for developing final conclusions on the possibility of feed-through effects. To this end the structure of credibility surveys should be reconsidered, as a large percentage of respondents indicated that they ‘don’t know’ whether the historic rate of inflation is an accurate indication of price increases.

  5. Synoptic surveys of major reservoirs in South Carolina, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Comprehensive synoptic surveys of ten South Carolina airs (L Lake, Savannah River Site (SRS), Par Pond, SRS, Pond B, SRS, Lake Moultrie, Lake Marion, Lake Murray, Lake Monticello, Lake Robinson, Lake Richard B. Russell, and Lake Greenwood) were performed to characterize and compare these basins with regard to water quality, trophic status, and community structure during September 1988 and September 1989. All of the reservoirs were mesoeutrophic to eutrophic having significantly greater productivity rates than oligotrophic ecosystems. This report presents and discusses the results of these surveys.

  6. 1990 South Carolina Physician Survey of tick, spider and fire ant morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, S H; Caldwell, S T

    1991-08-01

    A population of 2,366 primary care physicians in South Carolina was surveyed by mail to estimate the number of cases of insect morbidity treated in 1990. A response rate of 42.3 percent was obtained. Cases reported totaled 414 for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 334 for Lyme disease, 143 black widow and 478 brown recluse spider bites and 4,975 fire ant stings. These are counts of cases from a mail survey, not from a research-based study. Five deaths were also reported; two for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, two due to black widow spider bites and one fire ant anaphylaxis.

  7. Care of patients with Huntington's disease in South America: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Ricardo Oliveira Horta; Cardoso, Francisco Eduardo Costa; Chana-Cuevas, Pedro; Cosentino, Carlos; Fernandez, William; Rieder, Carlos R. M.; Serrano-Duenas, Marcos; Weiser, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a multitude of symptoms, which requires access to specialized multidisciplinary care for adequate management. The aim of this study was to survey the characteristics of care in various HD centers in South America (SA). Methods A questionnaire was sent to 24 centers involved in the care for HD patients in SA. Results Of the total 24 centers, 19 (79.2%) are academic units. The majority of centers (62.5%) are general movement ...

  8. Results of a gravity survey of the south-west margin of Dartmoor, Devon

    OpenAIRE

    Tombs, J.M.C.

    1980-01-01

    A gravity survey (station density 4-6 per km2) of the south-western margin of Dartmoor, including the Hemerdon stockwork, was interpreted using previously developed computer techniques, with some refinements, to indicate the depth to buried granite. The results showed (i) that the Hemerdon Ball granite is an isolated block and does not extend to depth, and (ii) that no vertically-continuous shallow granite occurs at any distance from the known outcrop. Various computer-graph...

  9. A benchmark survey of the common plants of South Northumberland and Durham, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Quentin J; Durkin, John Liam; O'Reilly, John; Mclay, Andy; Richards, A John; Angel, Janet; Horsley, Angela; Rogers, Megs; Young, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious to anyone studying plants in the landscape that man-made environmental change is having profound effects on the abundance, distribution and composition of plant communities. Nevertheless, quantifying these changes and estimating the impact of the different drivers of change is extremely difficult. Botanical surveying can potentially provide insights to the changes that are occurring and inform decisions related to conservation, agriculture and forestry policy. However, much of botanical surveying is conducted in such a way that it is not comparable between dates and places. Any comparison of historical and modern data has to account for biases in the recording of different taxonomic groups, geographic biases and varying surveying effort in time. In 2010 botanical recorders in the Vice Counties of Durham and South Northumberland in the United Kingdom decided to conduct a four year survey specifically to benchmark the abundance and distribution of common plants in their counties. It is intended that this survey will provide a relatively unbiased assessment with which to compare future and past surveys of the area and a means to study the drivers of biodiversity change in the North-east of England. This survey of Durham and South Northumberland has been designed with two goals, firstly to provide information on common vascular plant species and secondly to provide a dataset that will be versatile with respect to the sorts of questions that can be answered with the data. The survey is primarily an occupancy study of 1km(2) grid squares, however, observers were also asked to provide a relative abundance estimate of the species in each grid square. The collection of relative abundance estimate data was an experiment to assess the repeatablity and useablity of such estimates.

  10. Measurement of innovation in South Africa: An analysis of survey metrics and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso T. Manzini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The National System of Innovation (NSI is an important construct in South Africa’s policy discourse as illustrated in key national planning initiatives, such as the National Development Plan. The country’s capacity to innovate is linked to the prospects for industrial development leading to social and economic growth. Proper measurement of innovation activity is therefore crucial for policymaking. In this study, a constructive analytical critique of the innovation surveys that are conducted in South Africa is presented, the case for broadening current perspectives of innovation in the national policy discourse is reinforced, the significance of a broad perspective of innovation is demonstrated and new metrics for use in the measurement of the performance of the NSI are proposed. Current NSI survey instruments lack definition of non-technological innovation. They emphasise inputs rather than outputs, lack regional and sectoral analyses, give limited attention to innovation diffusion and are susceptible to respondent interpretation. Furthermore, there are gaps regarding the wider conditions of innovation and system linkages and learning. In order to obtain a comprehensive assessment of innovation in South Africa, there is a need to sharpen the metrics for measuring non-technological innovation and to define, account for and accurately measure the ‘hidden’ innovations that drive the realisation of value in management, the arts, public service and society in general. The new proposed indicators, which are mostly focused on innovation outputs, can be used as a basis for plugging the gaps identified in the existing surveys.

  11. Intention to switch to smokeless tobacco use among South African smokers: results from the 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan A Ayo-Yusuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some smokeless tobacco products (SLT have been shown to be associated with only a fraction of the risks of cigarettes. This study assessed South African smokers' interest in switching to a hypothetical reduced harm SLT product. METHODS: The 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey was analysed for 678 exclusive cigarette smokers. Respondents were asked about their perceptions about relative harm of snuff compared to cigarettes, and their interest in switching to snuff if informed it was 99% less harmful than cigarettes. RESULTS: About 49.7% of exclusive cigarette smokers believed that snuff was equally as harmful as cigarettes; 12.9% thought snuff was more harmful; 5.7% thought snuff was less harmful; while 31.8% did not know if there was a difference in harm between snuff and cigarettes. Approximately 24.2% of exclusive cigarette smokers indicated interest in switching to snuff, with significantly greater interest observed among those exposed to 100% smoke-free work environment. Interest in switching was highest (34.7% among smokers who believed a priori that using snuff was more harmful than cigarettes, and lowest (14.5% among those who did not know if there was a difference in harm. In a multi-variable adjusted logistic regression model, this latter group remained less likely to be interested in harm reduction switching (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91. CONCLUSION: About a quarter of smokers indicated interest in harm reduction switching to snuff. SLT products have a potential role in reducing the harm from smoking in South Africa, but only if they are not used to circumvent smoke-free laws that have been associated with reduced smoking.

  12. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H.-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Doucouliagos, A. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; von der Linden, A.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O ii] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m ⋆). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ˜20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.

  13. A Survey of Educational Research in the Second Decade of South Africa's Democracy: A Focus on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Grange, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I survey educational research conducted in South Africa based on articles published in the "South African Journal of Education" ("SAJHE") over the past five years. The themes that feature prominently in "SAJHE" over the past five years are: "Africanisation and indigenous knowledge,"…

  14. Digital Data from the Great Sand Dunes and Poncha Springs Aeromagnetic Surveys, South-Central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, B.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Bankey, Viki; New Sense Geophysics, Ltd.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for two high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in south-central Colorado: one in the eastern San Luis Valley, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, and the other in the southern Upper Arkansas Valley, Chaffee County. In the San Luis Valley, the Great Sand Dunes survey covers a large part of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and extends south along the mountain front to the foot of Mount Blanca. In the Upper Arkansas Valley, the Poncha Springs survey covers the town of Poncha Springs and vicinity. The digital files include grids, images, and flight-line data. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including two grids of reduced-to-pole aeromagnetic data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  15. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

  16. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Eagar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  17. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Hayley; Swan, Gerry; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and 'other' dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications) to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  18. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  19. Studies on Factors affecting the Evolution of Agroecosystems in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gaurav

    This dissertation combines remote sensing and applied economics tools to study land use conversions in North Dakota and South Dakota that are tied to this region's overall socio-economic welfare. Specifically, the region's corn and soybeans cultivation expanded significantly over the past decade replacing the region's grasslands and grain crops. In paper I, we estimate the localized impacts of the advent of corn-based ethanol plants on the Dakotas' corn acreage. We implement a Difference-in-Difference framework through more flexible assumptions as the Parallel Paths assumption of the standard model fails to hold. We find strong trends in the Dakotas' corn acreage over the past decade, but surprisingly some ethanol plants were found to have a negative impact on local corn acreage. In paper II, we evaluate crop competitiveness due to heterogeneous weather impacts on crop yields, and then test whether annual weather fluctuations explain land allocations among the Dakotas' major land uses. Our integrated framework suggests that annual weather variability is an important determinant of regional land use decisions. Under the A1B emissions scenario of climate change, we find that the yields of all of the Dakotas' major crops will decline by 2031-2060 relative to 1981-2010, leading to lower (higher) spring wheat (alfalfa) acres in Eastern (Western) Dakotas. In paper III, we develop and implement a satellite image-processing algorithm to estimate historical land use acres using raw Landsat sensor data, thereby extending the existing Cropland Data Layers back to 1984 in eastern Dakotas. We demonstrate that the availability of a longer time-series is useful as the rate of land use change may differ among different time-spans. In paper IV, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of grassland conservation easements when spatial spillovers are present among private landowners. We first develop a conceptual model to incorporate social spillovers in evaluating the role of easements in

  20. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  1. Chemical and morphological comparison of erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Adams, David T.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Nutt, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite, occurs in pediment gravel deposits near Killdeer Mountain, North Dakota. Material from these pediment deposits has been excavated for use as roadbed throughout Dunn County, North Dakota. Erionite also occurs in the Cappadocian region of Turkey, where a link between malignant mesothelioma and inhalation of this mineral has been established. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compare the chemistry and morphology of erionite collected from the Killdeer Mountains to those collected from villages in Turkey and from Rome, Oregon, which has also been linked to disease in animal studies.

  2. Does age matter? The influence of age on response rates in a mixed-mode survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Dietsch, Alia

    2014-01-01

    The appeal of cost savings and faster results has fish and wildlife management agencies considering the use of Internet surveys instead of traditional mail surveys to collect information from their constituents. Internet surveys, however, may suffer from differential age-related response rates, potentially producing biased results if certain age groups respond to Internet surveys differently than they do to mail surveys. We examined this concern using data from a mixed-mode angler survey conducted in South Dakota following the 2011 fishing season. Results indicated that young anglers (16–18) had the lowest return rates and senior anglers (65+) had the highest, regardless of survey mode. Despite this consistency in response rates, we note two concerns: (a) lower Internet response rates and (b) different age groups represented by the Internet and mail survey samples differed dramatically. Findings indicate that constituent groups may be represented differently with the use of various survey modes.

  3. The digital divide in rural South Asia: Survey evidence from Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines bridging the digital divide through organisational innovations that provide low cost Internet access in developing countries, within the existing conditions of income levels. We use survey data from three South Asian countries, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka, to examine factors influencing patterns of computer and Internet use. We find that education plays a key role, in terms of its acquisition as a reason for computer and Internet use, and as an enabling variable (especially in the case of English language knowledge.

  4. Fourth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2007: logistics for regional growth and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ittmann1_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 110551 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ittmann1_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 2007 Logistics for regional... freight, based on the average carrying capacities of counted truck types. A synoptic overview of logistics practices and the health and maturity of the South African industry and supply chains: Integration of existing surveys from a supply chain...

  5. Virtual Vents: A Microbathymetrical Survey of the Niua South Hydrothermal Field, NE Lau Basin, Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Köser, K.; Duda, A.; Jamieson, J. W.; Boschen, R.; Gartman, A.; Hannington, M. D.; Funganitao, C.

    2016-12-01

    At a diameter of 200 m, the 1100 m deep Niua South hydrothermal field (NE Lau Basin) was studied in an interdisciplinary approach during the SOI funded Virtual Vents cruise in March of 2016. On the grounds of a previously generated 50 cm resolution AUV multi beam map, the projects backbone is formed by a fully color textured, 5 cm resolution photogrammetrical 3D model. Several hundred smaller and about 15 chimneys larger than 3 m were surveyed including their basal mounds and surrounding environment interconnecting to each other. This model was populated through exhaustive geological, biological and fluid sampling as well as continuous Eh measurements, forming the basis for highly detailed geological structural and biological studies resulting in 3D maps of the entire field. At a reasonable effort, such surveys form the basis for repetitive time series analysis and have the potential of a new standard in seafloor monitoring.

  6. Integration of Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on integrating Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench. The NEAMS Workbench, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new software framework that provides a graphical user interface, input file creation, parsing, validation, job execution, workflow management, and output processing for a variety of nuclear codes. Dakota is a tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories that provides a suite of uncertainty quantification and optimization algorithms. Providing Dakota within the NEAMS Workbench allows users of nuclear simulation codes to perform uncertainty and optimization studies on their nuclear codes from within a common, integrated environment. Details of the integration and parsing are provided, along with an example of Dakota running a sampling study on the fuels performance code, BISON, from within the NEAMS Workbench.

  7. Libraries in North Dakota: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northdakota.html Libraries in North Dakota To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Fargo SANFORD HEALTH SANFORD VIRTUAL LIBRARY 530 6th Ave N FARGO, ND 58102 701- ...

  8. South African National Survey of Arachnida: A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae of the Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Foord

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA is to document the Arachnida fauna of South Africa. One of the focus areas of SANSA is to survey protected areas to obtain species-specific information, and species distribution patterns for Red Data assessments. Here, we provide the first checklist of the spider species of Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve (LNR in the Limpopo province of South Africa collected during five surveys between 2009 and 2016 using methods targeting both the ground and field layers. Forty-five families, represented by 168 genera and 268 species, have been collected so far. The most species-rich families were the Salticidae (41 spp. and Araneidae (38 spp., followed by the Thomisidae (33 spp., while 11 families were represented by one species. Information on spider guilds, endemicity value and conservation status are provided. The LNR protects approximately 12.2% of the total South African spider fauna. Two species, Hasarinella distincta Haddad & Wesołowska, 2013 (Salticidae and Ballomma legala Jocqué & Henrard, 2015 (Zodariidae, are presently known to be endemic to the reserve.Conservation implications: The LNR falls within the Savanna Biome in the Limpopo province. Only five spider species were previously known from the reserve and 263 spp. are reported from the reserve for the first time. Thirteen species are possibly new to science and 2 species represent new distribution records for South Africa.

  9. TB/HIV risk factors identified from a General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appunni, Sathiya Susuman; Blignaut, Renette; Lougue, Siaka

    2014-01-01

    The level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) as well as the co-infection TB/HIV in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is curable while HIV is not, yet the combination of both is a growing feature in the world. This study examined TB and HIV affecting people living in South Africa. Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006. The study focused on respondents aged 15-49 years, corresponding to a total of 55,384 people composed of 25,859 males and 29,525 females. Among this population, 5935 people suffered from illness/injury, including 2469 (41.6%) males and 3466 (58.4%) females. Weighted multivariate logistic regression is performed on TB and/or HIV in association with the province, background characteristics of the target population, and selected socioeconomic and demographic variables included in the survey. In this study we focus on variables of health status and whether subjects suffered from TB and/or HIV. Findings of this investigation show that TB is the second most common cause of illness in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal (KN) (9.1%), North West (5.4%) and Limpopo (4.2%). People who are married have a 50% lower risk compared to those currently not married to suffer from TB and/or HIV. Those with living spouses have a 5% lower risk to suffer from TB and/or HIV than those whose partners are not alive. This study concluded that rapid action is needed to curb the spread of TB and/or HIV to produce a healthy population. Therefore, follow-up care and special preventative measures are urgently needed in provinces with higher reported rates of TB and/or HIV such as KN.

  10. A survey on the status of hepatitis e virus infection among slaughterhouse workers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Lee, Kwan; Min, Young-Sun; Yoon, Young-Sil; Jeong, Hye-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among high-risk groups overseas is high, but studies in these groups are rare in South Korea. We conducted the present study from April to November 2012 to obtain data on the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for HEV among slaughterhouse workers in South Korea. Slaughterhouse workers from 80 workplaces nationwide were surveyed in South Korea in 2012. The subjects comprised 1848 cases: 1434 slaughter workers and 414 residual products handlers. By visiting 80 slaughterhouses, which were mixed with 75 of which also performed residual products handling, we conducted a questionnaire survey for risk factors and obtained blood samples in order to determine the seropositivity and seroprevalence of HEV. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM were measured using HEV IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunospecific assay kits and HEV antigen was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was 33.5% (slaughter workers 32.8% and residual products handlers 36.2%), and among the seropositive individuals the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgM was 0.5% (slaughter workers 0.5%, residual products handlers 0.7%). The response rate of HEV-antigen as measured by RT-PCR was 0.2%. Risk factors significantly related to anti-HEV IgG seropositivity were age, sex , and working duration (slaughter workers only). There were significant risk factors (sex, age, and working duration) for HEV identified in our study. All three positive cases for HEV-antigen by RT-PCR were related to pig slaughter but without statistical significance. To prevent HEV, an educational program and working guidelines may be needed for high risk groups.

  11. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  12. Cottonwood management at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Griffin, Eleanor R.

    2017-01-01

    This data release consists of the following components:Sex ratio data from cottonwood trees at random points on the floodplain in the North and South units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND. These data were used to investigate the effects of age, height above, and distance from the channel on mortality of male and female trees of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) as described in the Friedman and Griffin (2017) report.Tree core and tree ring data from the North and South Units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota. South Unit data was collected in April 2012, North Unit data was collected in the summer and fall of 2010. The trees are located on the floodplain of the Little Missouri River in Theodore Roosevelt National Park. These data were used to reconstruct flow and climate as described in the Friedman and Griffin (2017) report and in other documents cited by that report. The tree ring data is presented in Standard Tucson format.Floodplain and riparian cottonwood forest areas in the South Unit were digitized as separate shapefiles using 2010 NAIP imagery. They were mapped to assist management of cottonwood forests by increasing understanding of the relation between geomorphic setting, flow, precipitation, temperature, and other factors.Edges of water, channel centerline, valley bottom centerline, extent of valley bottom, and estimated bankfull channel data for the Little Missouri River in the North and South Units were mapped as separate shapefiles from 2010 NAIP imagery as well.

  13. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2009-10 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Wheat Commission a...

  14. Generational differences in fast food intake among South-Asian Americans: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E

    2014-12-04

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States.

  15. Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer in northwest Iowa consists of sandstones in the Dakota Formation. Sandstone beds are from less than 10 to more than 150 feet thick and cumulatively total more than 200 feet throughout much of the area. The aquifer is confined by shale, carbonate rocks, till and loess. Water flows from the north-central part of the area to the south and southwest. Recharge is through leakage from above. Discharge is to underlying aquifers and alluvium along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers. An average hydraulic conductivity of 300 gallons per day per foot squared was used to estimate potential yield to wells. Yields of more than 350 gallons per minute can be commonly expected and more than 1000 gallons per minute can be produced in some areas. The quality of water from the Dakota is a calcium-magnesium-sulfate type which is generally suitable for irrigation. Water quality may be locally altered by leakage from the underlying Paleozoic aquifers if withdrawals reverse the natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic. Such a reversal may exist around the City of LeMars. The presence of radionuclides exceeds recommended limits at several sites. (USGS)

  16. Restaurant industry preparedness against intentional food contamination: results of a South Carolina survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Smith, Lillian U; Li, Yi-Jhen; Sros, Lekhena; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Food safety and food defense are both responsibilities of public health agencies. Food safety practices within restaurants are regulated by state and local public health laws based on the US Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code. However, little is known about preemptive practices against intentional food-borne outbreaks within restaurants. The researchers administered a survey to a 50 percent random sample of South Carolina's restaurants, a state that relies heavily on tourism and the restaurant industry for its economic well-being. The survey received a response rate of 15 percent. The food defense practice items fall under three functional categories: employee management and training practices; vendor and delivery-related practices; and physical facilities and operational security practices. This study presents the results, classified by geographic region. Findings indicate some key areas of vulnerability that need attention to protect the public from mass food outbreaks due to intentional contamination. Of concern, there is much variation in practices by geographic region. On the basis of the survey, recommendations are made to improve restaurant preparedness against food-borne outbreaks from terrorism and malevolent contamination.

  17. Grab Sample Locations & Surficial Sediment Texture collected by the U.S. Geological Survey 1999-2003 offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina region (GRABS, Point shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  18. School Emergency Preparedness in North Dakota Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiontek, Steven Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The basis for this study was to determine: (1) If school districts in North Dakota have an emergency response plan; (2) How comprehensive their emergency response plan is; (3) How well prepared school districts in North Dakota are for any type of disaster; and (4) The extent to which North Dakota LEAD Center school emergency response training and…

  19. DS-777 Thickness-Weighted Average of Hydraulic Conductivity and Specific Yield for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project and the U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report: Geodatabase...

  20. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.

  1. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Camila; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse Ferreira; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity. PMID:21731467

  2. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônia Maria Batista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity.

  3. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  4. Usage patterns and adverse experiences in traditional Korean medicine: results of a survey in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Huang, Dae Sun; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2013-12-01

    Although traditional medicine (TM) in South Korea is included in the national health care system, it is considered complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and not mainstream medicine. Therefore, the lack of statistical data regarding the usage and adverse experiences of traditional Korean medicine (TKM) makes difficult to understand the current status of TM. In this study, we aimed to report usage patterns and adverse experiences on TKM targeting consumers in South Korea. A total of 2000 consumers participated in the survey on usage and adverse experiences in 2008. Among the 2,000 participants, 915 (45.8%) had taken herbal medicine or received traditional medicinal therapies; these individuals were further surveyed on the internet or in an interview. The usage rate was higher among women and among patients in their 30s. Of the total TKM usage, acupuncture accounted for 36.7%, and herbal medicine accounted for 13.4%. Regarding the frequency of use of TKM, 73.8% of patients reported using TM less than 5 times in 1 year. Of the 915 respondents, 8.2% of individuals had some type of adverse experience resulting from TKM. Adverse experiences were primarily caused by acupuncture and herbal medicines, and they primarily involved diseases of the digestive system and skin. The incidence of adverse experiences was less than 3.7% for acupuncture and 3.8% for herbal medicine. Overall, the incidence rate of adverse experiences for TKM for the entire population was 0.04 per 10,000 individuals. The medical usage and occurrence of adverse events on TKM should be surveyed periodically, and the statistical trends should be analysed. The disparity between the survey results for traditional herbal medicines and medical practices, and those for the national pharmacovigilance system or academic reports of adverse experiences should be examined. The national pharmacovigilance system must be improved to compensate for the disparities. Policies and regulations are required to enhance

  5. A survey of consumer attitude towards nutrition and health statements on food labels in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: For many decades, Australia has required a Nutrient Information Panel to be included on food packaging, usually on the back of products. Recently, two regulated, voluntary systems were introduced for use on food packaging in Australia: the Health Star Rating system and nutrient content and health claims. Nonetheless, the scope and potential for these new initiatives to achieve their purpose is partly depdendant on their perception by consumers. This report describes the results of a population based survey of South Australian adults about how various elements of food labels are used to inform their purchase decisions. Methods: A survey was conducted using a random stratified sampling technique in people aged 15 years and older in the Australian state of South Australia. All surveys were administered face-to-face to 3005 people between September 2015 and December 2015. Data was weighted by the inverse of the individual’s probability of selection, as well as the response rate in metropolitan and country regions and then reweighted to benchmarks from the June 2014 Estimated Resident Population calculated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Results: The response rate for the survey was 57.3%. Most respondents to the survey rated their own dietary intake as ‘healthy’ (61.5% or ‘extremely healthy’ (9.1%. Aside from price, country of origin was nominated as the most important information on the food label of a food bought for the first time (by 35.0%, followed by the ingredient list (21.6% and claims about nutrition (20.9%. The response to this question was markedly different by age group, with almost half (48.3% of those aged 55 years or over considering that country of origin was the most important information to look for. For the youngest age group (15-34 yrs, 28.4% considered the ingredient list was the most important information, 26.5% considered claims about nutrition to be most important, and 22.2% considered country of

  6. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  7. Sexual attitudes and behaviour of university students at a rural South African University: Results of a Pilot Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, G. Anita; Jemmott, John B.; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional qualitative and quantitative pilot survey, using self administered questionnaire and focus group discussions, was conducted to assess the need for, and feasibility of, a health promotion programme for university students at a South African University. We examined the gender and cultural effects on sexual attitudes and behaviour, as well as condom use.

  8. Analysis of the Herschel/Hexos Spectral Survey Toward Orion South: A Massive Protostellar Envelope with Strong External Irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Tolls, V.; Phillips, T. G.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Johnstone, D.; Lis, D. C.; Pagani, L.; Menten, K. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Pearson, J. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral

  9. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Kim, Kyeong Han; Sun, Seung-Ho; Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was "TKM hospital or clinic" (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for "health improvement" (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was "medication not necessary" (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.

  10. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Kwon, Hyo Jin; An, Seong Soo A; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Pie, Jae-Eun; Yoon, Myoung; Kim, Ja Hei; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to understand consumers' risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20-50 years) were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved with nanomaterials to address consumer expectations and concerns. Further, a safety evaluation system must be set up, the results of which should be processed by a reliable expert group so they can be disseminated to the public.

  11. Trends in the diagnosis and management of hypertension: repeated primary care survey in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejzner, Natasha; Clark, Christopher E; Smith, Lindsay Fp; Campbell, John L

    2017-05-01

    Previous surveys identified a shift to nurse-led care in hypertension in 2010. In 2011 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended ambulatory (ABPM) or home (HBPM) blood pressure (BP) monitoring for diagnosis of hypertension. To survey the organisation of hypertension care in 2016 to identify changes, and to assess uptake of NICE diagnostic guidelines. Questionnaires were distributed to all 305 general practices in South West England. Responses were compared with previous rounds (2007 and 2010). Data from the 2015 Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) were used to compare responders with non-responders, and to explore associations of care organisation with QOF achievement. One-hundred-and-seventeen practices (38%) responded. Responders had larger list sizes and greater achievement of the QOF target BP ≤150/90 mmHg. Healthcare assistants (HCAs) now monitor BP in 70% of practices, compared with 37% in 2010 and 19% in 2007 ( P primary care BP monitoring has devolved from GPs and nurses to HCAs. One in 10 practices are not implementing NICE guidelines on ABPM and HBPM for diagnosis of hypertension. Most practices express confidence interpreting HBPM results but less so with ABPM. The need for education and quality assurance for allied health professionals is highlighted, and for training in ABPM interpretation for GPs. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  12. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Kwon, Hyo Jin; An, Seong Soo A; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Pie, Jae-Eun; Yoon, Myoung; Kim, Ja Hei; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to understand consumers’ risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. Methods One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20–50 years) were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Results Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. Conclusion A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved with nanomaterials to address consumer expectations and concerns. Further, a safety evaluation system must be set up, the results of which should be processed by a reliable expert group so they can be disseminated to the public. PMID:25565822

  13. Educational health inequalities in former Yugoslavia: evidence from the South-East European Social Survey Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Huisman, Martijn; Perlman, Francesca; Ringdal, Kristen

    2010-12-01

    An important gap in our knowledge of social inequalities in health is the former Yugoslavia, a region of culturally and historically diverse countries, with recent conflict. The aim of the present paper is to investigate relative and absolute inequalities in self-assessed health in former Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia and Serbia) by sex and education. The data source is the South-East European Social Survey Project fielded in December 2003 to Winter 2004, covering the former Yugoslavia with a total sample of 18 481 respondents. Data from Slovenia were obtained from the 2004-wave of the European Social Survey. The health outcome variables were self-reported general health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI). Both absolute and relative educational health inequalities were present throughout the former Yugoslavia to a larger or lesser extent, although odds ratios (ORs) for LLI and SRH were not significant for Montenegrin women [LLI OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.37; SRH OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.96-1.40] and with respect to the reporting of LLI among Slovenian men (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.96-1.44). Overall, Montenegro held the best position. The prevalence of poor health and the degree of relative inequality in self-assessed health in the former Yugoslavian countries were similar in order to one another, and to other East European countries during the same period. Influences on subjective health require further elucidation. Further research should study a wider range of health outcomes using larger survey samples and a wider range of cultural and other predictor variables.

  14. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  15. Survey of parent and carer experiences and expectations of paediatric rheumatology care in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Andrea; Jones, Julie; Grech, Debra; Grewal, Davinder Singh

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present survey of parent and carers was to document the level of care and services currently provided to children diagnosed with rheumatic diseases (RD) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods The survey included parents and carers of children presenting to paediatric rheumatology (PR) services in NSW. Subjects attending PR clinics in both public and private settings were invited to participate in an online or paper survey. Results Overall, 148 surveys were completed. The process of obtaining the diagnosis of RD was described as being 'difficult' or 'very difficult' by 56.1% (n=83) of the surveyed cohort, and 41.2% (n=61) saw four or more different clinicians before diagnosis. Between symptom onset and final diagnosis, 42.6% (n=63) of participants reported a delay of 5 months or more, and 16.9% (n=25) waited longer than 12 months. Eventually, 91% (n=134) were referred to a paediatric rheumatologist and 63.5% (n=94) were seen within 4 weeks from initial referral. More than half the respondents felt that general practitioners (GPs) and general paediatricians were not aware of RD. Overall, respondents felt that improved knowledge of PR diseases among GPs, improved access to PR clinics, improved educational materials for patients and families, access to speciality rheumatology nurses and coordinated rheumatology teams would have significantly improved the experience of their child's disease. Conclusions Children with RD in NSW still experience significant delays from symptom onset to final diagnosis through consultations with multiple healthcare professionals. Multidisciplinary team care was not the norm for this patient group, despite established national and international management standards. What is known about the topic? Early diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team is the gold standard in PR management. Delays in diagnosis may significantly impair the outcomes of children diagnosed with RD, with reduced quality of life

  16. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine Land...

  17. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  18. DS-777 Annual Model-Backcasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 1949 to 2008 for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of land use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster land-use data represent yearly...

  19. DS-777 Spatial Location of the Active and Inactive areas of the Model Boundary for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set defines the boundary of the northern High Plains aquifer. It is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project...

  20. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Inyan Kara Group that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Inyan Kara Group.

  1. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Madison Limestone that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Madison Limestone,...

  2. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnekahta Limestone that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnekahta...

  3. DS-777 Spatial Location of Gages with Total Flow and estimated Base Flow, for the Predevelopment Simulation Period for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Baseflow is the portion of streamflow derived from groundwater flow. It is an important component of the groundwater budget, and can be estimated using known total...

  4. Digital map of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, predevelopment (about 1950) to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, predevelopment (about 1950) to 2007. The High...

  5. DS-777 Average Annual Actual Evapotranspiration, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from the Simplified-Surface-Energy-Balance (SSEB) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  6. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnelusa Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnelusa...

  7. DS-777 Average Annual Recharge, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from the Soil Water Balance (SWB) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  8. DS-777 Average Annual Precipitation Data, 1940 to 1949, in inches estimated from an Inverse-Distance-Weighted (IDW) interpolation for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget-components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the,"Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  9. DS-777 Average Annual Irrigation Withdrawals, 2000 to 2009, in inches, estimated from the Soil WATer (SOWAT) Balance Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  10. DS-777 Average Annual Irrigation Withdrawals, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from the Soil Water Balance (SWB) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget-components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  11. DS-777 Average Annual Recharge, 1940 to 1949, in inches estimated from the Soil Water Balance (SWB) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  12. DS-777 Average Annual Actual Evapotranspiration, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from the Soil Water Balance (SWB) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the,"Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  13. DS-777 Average Annual Actual Evapotranspiration, 1940 to 1949, in inches estimated from the Soil Water Balance (SWB) Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  14. DS-777 Average Annual Precipitation Data, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from an Inverse-Distance-Weighted (IDW) interpolation, for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget-components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the,"Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  15. DS-777 Average Annual Recharge, 2000 to 2009, in inches estimated from the SOil WATer (SOWAT) Balance Model for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The water-budget components geodatabase contains selected data from maps in the, "Selected Approaches to Estimate Water-Budget Components of the High Plains, 1940...

  16. Digital data set of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1996. The High Plains aquifer extends...

  17. Habitat classification from multibeam. SEFIS Survey Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a vector shapefile describing the geomorphology of 21 areas along the shelf edge off the South Atlantic Bight where NOAA South East Fisheries...

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  20. Native American Justice Issues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    In order to assess the quality of justice available to Native Americans in Burleigh County, North Dakota, investigations were conducted from June 1976 through April 1978 with an informal fact finding meeting as well as interviews with approximately 85 persons in Burleigh County and throughout the state. The 1970 census lists Native Americans…

  1. Exercise during pregnancy: knowledge and beliefs of medical practitioners in South Africa: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Estelle D; Oddie, Brydie; Constantinou, Demitri

    2015-10-07

    There is compelling evidence for the benefits of regular exercise during pregnancy, and medical practitioners (MPs) can play an important role in changing antenatal health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of South African MPs towards exercise during pregnancy. A convenience sample of ninety-six MPs working in the private health care sector, including General Practitioners (n = 58), Obstetricians/Gynaecologists (n = 33) and other Specialists (n = 5), participated in this cross sectional, descriptive survey study. A 33-item questionnaire was distributed manually at medical practices and via email to an on-line survey tool. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were calculated for all questions. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact statistical tests were used to determine the differences in response by age, speciality and years of practice (p exercise during pregnancy is beneficial, and were knowledgeable on most of the expected benefits. Seventy-eight percent believed that providing exercise advice is an important part of prenatal care, however only 19% provided informational pamphlets and few (24%) referred to exercise specialists. A large majority (83%) were unaware of the recommended exercise guidelines. Although age and years of practice played no role in this awareness, practitioners who focussed on obstetrics and gynaecology were more likely to be aware of the current guidelines, than those in general practice (p exercise during pregnancy, their advice did not always align with the current guidelines. Therefore, better dissemination of available research is warranted, to bridge the gap between clinical knowledge and current recommendations for physical activity promotion.

  2. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South Africa: A national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Chersich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA and identify underserved populations and aspects of programming that require strengthening. Methods. Data from a 2012 SA household survey assessed contraception coverage among 6 296 women aged 15 - 49 years and identified underserved populations. Results. Two-thirds had an unintended pregnancy in the past 5 years, a quarter of which were contraceptive failures. Most knew of injectable (92.0% and oral contraception (89.9%, but fewer of intrauterine devices (56.1% and emergency contraception (47.3%. Contraceptive prevalence was 49.1%, and 41.8% women used modern non-barrier methods. About half had ever used injectable contraception. Contraception was lower in black Africans and younger women, who used a limited range of methods. Conclusion. Contraception coverage is higher than many previous estimates. Rates of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive failure and knowledge gaps, however, demonstrate high levels of unmet need, especially among black Africans and young women.

  3. A survey of the characteristics and maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas of South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Sinclair, M; Leder, K

    2010-01-01

    Households resident in metropolitan Adelaide and surrounding areas in South Australia were recruited into a randomised controlled trial. A total of 630 rainwater tanks with a total tank capacity of 14.5 ML were installed at the 325 households surveyed. The majority of the tanks were plumbed into the kitchen (64.6%), over 10 years in age (45.5%), over 15,000 L in capacity (42.5%) and composed of galvanised steel (36.9%). Over 90% of the households undertook one or more prevention and maintenance strategies for reducing contamination of collected rainwater. The use of first flush diverters was reported by 30.8% households, the presence of leaf control devices on the tank by 57.2%, and the presence of leaf control screens on gutters by 25.5% households. Most households reported that the rainwater tank was cleaned at some time, with 50.4% of these households stating that tank cleaning occurred 1 to 5 years previously, and 31.9% more than 5 years prior to enrolment Rainwater from the main drinking tank was sampled from a subset of households for turbidity and metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb, Zn). This information regarding tank characteristics and degree of adherence to recommended maintenance procedures may assist understanding of variability in rainwater quality data and may help determine whether untreated rainwater can be considered a safe water supply for household purposes including drinking.

  4. Diseases of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa: a 20-year retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, L; Nesbit, J W; Meltzer, D G; Colly, L P; Bolton, L; Kriek, N P

    1999-09-01

    As part of an ongoing study to determine the basis for high prevalences of veno-occlusive disease, glomerulosclerosis, and chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cheetahs, a retrospective pathology survey of captive cheetahs in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) was conducted. The RSA population was selected because its genetic composition and captive management were similar to those of the cheetah population in U.S. zoos, in which these diseases are common. For this study, archived pathology materials at the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Sciences in Onderstepoort and the Faculty of Veterinary Science, MEDUNSA, from 69 cheetahs that died between 1975 and 1995 were reviewed, and prevalences of common lesions were compared with those in the U.S. population. Gastritis associated with Helicobacter-like organisms was the most prevalent disease, accounting for close to 40% of the mortalities, including several cheetahs cheetahs. RSA cheetahs also had adrenal cortical hyperplasia, cardiac fibrosis, lymphocytic depletion of the spleen, systemic amyloidosis, and splenic myelolipomas. The presence in the captive RSA cheetah population of the same unusual diseases that are common in U.S. cheetahs suggests a species predilection to develop these diseases in captivity.

  5. The construct equivalence of the job diagnostic survey for diverse South African cultural groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vorster

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS and the Job Characteristics Model (JCM have been widely used in South African organisations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the JDS is useful if it is applied to a particular population or to groups from highly dissimilar backgrounds. Cultural diversity research has revealed differences between the values, attitudes and leadership styles of people from different cultural groups. In this study, Hackman and Oldham’s JDS was applied to Black and White employees (n=66 to determine construct equivalence for these two cultural groups. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that there were no significant differences between the Black and White groups tested, suggesting that the JDS could be applied to different population groups. Opsomming Die Pos-diagnostiese vraelys (JDS en die Pos-kenmerke Model (JCM word wydverspreid deur Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies gebruik. Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of die JDS van toepassing is op verskillende kultuurgroepe. Navorsing rakende kultuurdiversiteit het aangetoon dat daar verskille bestaan rakende die waardes, houdings en leierskapstyle van verskillende kultuurgroepe. In hierdie studie is die (JDS van Hackman en Oldham toegepas op Swart- en Blanke werknemers (n=677 ten einde die konstruk-ekwivalensie daarvan bepaal. ’n Bevestigende faktorontleding het aangetoon dat daar geen betekenisvolle verskille bestaan tussen die Swart- en Blankegroepe wat getoets is nie. Die aanname word dus gemaak dat die JDS toegepas kan word op verskillende populasiegroepe.

  6. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  7. Magnetic, Electromagnetic, and Bathymetric Survey of the Lake of the Arbuckles, South-Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Smith, D. V.; Coffee, R.; Cason, J.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, we conducted a week-long geophysical and sonar survey of the Lake of the Arbuckles, within Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma. In this region, Pennsylvanian-aged orogenic deformation and sedimentation created the conditions that now govern the groundwater recharge, storage, and flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, one of the most important bedrock aquifers in Oklahoma. The Lake of the Arbuckles reservoir, filled about 40 years ago, occupies an area where two major faults disrupt the geologic units that constitute the aquifer. The Reagan fault and the Mill Creek fault are hypothesized to intersect beneath the lake, based on available geologic exposures and inferences from gravity, magnetic, and helicopter electromagnetic (EM) observations in areas surrounding the lake. To understand the obscured geometry of these faults, we developed a pontoon-raft to carry a broad-band (15 kHz - 135 kHz) EM bird and a cesium-vapor magnetic sensor across the lake. We towed the raft 15 m behind a small boat to minimize EM and magnetic interference from the vessel, and we collected data on 200-m-spaced transects across much of the lake. The Reagan fault has a large electrical conductivity contrast and magnetic signature due to its juxtaposition at shallow depth of magnetic Proterozoic basement rocks with Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. Initial results will show how the lake survey magnetic transects help to define the location of this fault beneath the lake. In addition, we collected dual-frequency sonar data to map the present-day bathymetry of the lake, and we collected vertical, water-column profiles of sound velocity, conductivity, temperature, pH, redox potential, and dissolved oxygen. The water-column profiles allow correction of the sonar travel-times to depth and estimation of the EM response of the lake water, which will be essential in later inversion modeling of the EM data. In addition, comparisons of the present

  8. A MEASUREMENT OF THE CORRELATION OF GALAXY SURVEYS WITH CMB LENSING CONVERGENCE MAPS FROM THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Van Engelen, A.; Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Biesiadzinski, T. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Busha, M. T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Dore, O. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, 1216 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, WISE, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 deg{sup 2} of sky, we detect a correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4{sigma}, with zero correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.

  9. A Python Interface for the Dakota Iterative Systems Analysis Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, M.; Hutton, E.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty quantification is required to improve the accuracy, reliability, and accountability of Earth science models. Dakota is a software toolkit, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, that provides an interface between models and a library of analysis methods, including support for sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, optimization, and calibration techniques. Dakota is a powerful tool, but its learning curve is steep: the user not only must understand the structure and syntax of the Dakota input file, but also must develop intermediate code, called an analysis driver, that allows Dakota to run a model. The CSDMS Dakota interface (CDI) is a Python package that wraps and extends Dakota's user interface. It simplifies the process of configuring and running a Dakota experiment. A user can program to the CDI, allowing a Dakota experiment to be scripted. The CDI creates Dakota input files and provides a generic analysis driver. Any model written in Python that exposes a Basic Model Interface (BMI), as well as any model componentized in the CSDMS modeling framework, automatically works with the CDI. The CDI has a plugin architecture, so models written in other languages, or those that don't expose a BMI, can be accessed by the CDI by programmatically extending a template; an example is provided in the CDI distribution. Currently, six Dakota analysis methods have been implemented for examples from the much larger Dakota library. To demonstrate the CDI, we performed an uncertainty quantification experiment with the HydroTrend hydrological water balance and transport model. In the experiment, we evaluated the response of long-term suspended sediment load at the river mouth (Qs) to uncertainty in two input parameters, annual mean temperature (T) and precipitation (P), over a series of 100-year runs, using the polynomial chaos method. Through Dakota, we calculated moments, local and global (Sobol') sensitivity indices, and probability density and

  10. General practitioners' use and experiences of palliative care services: a survey in south east England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginson Irene J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the General Practitioner (GP is central to community palliative care. Good liaison between the different professionals involved in a patient's care is extremely important in palliative care patients. In cases where GPs have previously been dissatisfied with palliative services, this may be seen as a barrier to referral when caring for other patients. The aim of this survey is to investigate the use and previous experiences of GPs of two palliative care services, with particular emphasis on barriers to referral and to explore issues surrounding the GP's role in caring for palliative patients. Methods Design: Descriptive postal survey of use and experience of palliative care services with particular emphasis on barriers to referral. Setting: One Primary Care Trust (PCT, south London, England, population 298,500. Subjects: 180 GPs in the PCT, which is served by two hospice services (A&B. Results An overall questionnaire response rate of 77% (138 was obtained, with 69% (124 used in analysis. Over 90% of GPs were satisfied with the palliative care services over the preceding two years. Two areas of possible improvement emerged; communication and prescribing practices. GPs identified some patients that they had not referred, most commonly when patients or carers were reluctant to accept help, or when other support was deemed sufficient. Over half of the GPs felt there were areas where improvement could be made; with clarification of the rules and responsibilities of the multi disciplinary team being the most common. The majority of GPs were working, and want to work with, the specialist services as part of an extended team. However, a greater number of GPs want to hand over care to the specialist services than are currently doing so. Conclusion A large number of GPs were happy with the service provision of the palliative care services in this area. They suggested that 3 out of 4 terminally ill patients needed specialist

  11. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Spectroscopic Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Simpson, J. M.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; de Breuck, C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Edge, A. C.; Gawiser, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Kovacs, A.; Lutz, D.; Menten, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiß, A.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-05-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of {\\text{}}{S}870μ {{m}} ≳ 2 mJy submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), which have been identified from the ALMA follow-up observations of 870 μm detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (the ALMA-LESS survey). We derive spectroscopic redshifts for 52 SMGs, with a median of z = 2.4 ± 0.1. However, the distribution features a high-redshift tail, with ˜23% of the SMGs at z≥slant 3. Spectral diagnostics suggest that the SMGs are young starbursts, and the velocity offsets between the nebular emission and UV ISM absorption lines suggest that many are driving winds, with velocity offsets of up to 2000 km s-1. Using the spectroscopic redshifts and the extensive UV-to-radio photometry in this field, we produce optimized spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Magphys, and use the SEDs to infer a median stellar mass of {M}\\star = (6 ± 1)× 1010 M {}⊙ for our SMGs with spectroscopic redshift. By combining these stellar masses with the star formation rates (measured from the far-infrared SEDs), we show that SMGs (on average) lie a factor of ˜5 above the so-called “main sequence” at z˜ 2. We provide this library of 52 template fits with robust and uniquely well-sampled SEDs as a resource for future studies of SMGs, and also release the spectroscopic catalog of ˜2000 (mostly infrared-selected) galaxies targeted as part of the spectroscopic campaign.

  12. Survey of the rural allied health workforce in New South Wales to inform recruitment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Sheila; Smith, Tony; Lincoln, Michelle; Fisher, Karin

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the demographics, employment, education and factors affecting recruitment and retention of New South Wales (NSW) rural allied health professionals. Descriptive study, cross-sectional survey. Regional, rural and remote areas of NSW, Australia. The sample includes 1879 respondents from more than 21 different allied health occupations. Variables included gender, age, marital status, employment sector, hours worked, community size, highest qualification, rural origin and continuing education, as well as others. Certain variables were compared for profession and gender. Women made up 70% of respondents, with a mean age of 42 years. Men were older, with more experience. Sixty per cent were of rural origin and 74% partnered, most with their partner also working. Eighty-four per cent worked in centres of 10,000 or more people. The public sector accounted for 46% of positions and the private sector 40%. Eleven per cent worked across multiple sectors and 18% were self-employed. Two-thirds worked 35 hours or more per week, although only 49% were employed full-time. Job satisfaction was high but 56% intended leaving within 10 years, 28% to retire. Over 90% of respondents qualified in Australia and more than 80% held a degree or higher qualification. Almost half were dissatisfied with access to continuing education. The NSW rural allied health workforce is strongly feminised, mature and experienced. Recruitment should target rural high school students and promote positive aspects of rural practice, such as diversity and autonomy. Retention strategies should include flexible employment options and career development opportunities. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. An evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase 1, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Kenneth L.; Winczewski, Laramie M.; Umphrey, Howard R.; Anderson, Sidney B.

    1980-04-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. This evaluation is based on an analysis of existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (N.D.G.S.) and other state and federal agencies. The principle source of data used during phase I was the oil and gas well files maintained by the N.D.G.S. These files contain the information necessary to conduct an initial evaluation of the hydro-thermal resources of the state. Stratigraphic data, bottomhole-temperature data, and chemical data are presented in map form to show the geothermal gradient, temperature, and depth of potential hydrothermal aquifers and the chemical characteristics of potential hydrothermal aquifers.

  14. Sidescan-Sonar navigation trackline data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina (SONAR_TRK, Polyline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  15. Boomer Seismic navigation trackline data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina (BOOMER_TRK, Polyline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  16. Chirp Seismic navigation tracklines data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina (CHIRP_TRK, Polyline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  17. Tracklines of swath bathymetry collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina (BATHY_TRK, Polyline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  18. Chirp Seismic Shot points navigation collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina (CHIRP_SHT, Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  19. Boomer Seismic Shot points navigation collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina (BOOMER_SHT, Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  20. Survey of ethical dilemmas facing intensivists in South Africa in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Department of Family Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban,. South Africa. 2 Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Doris Dukes Medical Centre Research Institute and Nelson R Mandela School.

  1. Exploratory survey of informal vendor-sold fast food in rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: South Africa is experiencing a dramatic increase in obesity in both urban and rural areas. It is important to understand access to food better and how this influences food choice in rural environments. This study aimed to explore the nature and availability of fast foods in rural South Africa. Method: Convenience ...

  2. Noble gases, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon as tracers of flow in the Dakota aquifer, Colorado and Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.F.; Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Macfarlane, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A suite of chemical and isotope tracers (dissolved noble gases, stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, and CI) have been analyzed along a flow path in the Dakota aquifer system to determine likely recharge sources, ground water residence times, and the extent of mixing between local and intermediate flow systems, presumably caused by large well screens. Three water types were distinguished with the tracers, each having a very different history. Two of the water types were found in south-eastern Colorado where the Dakota is poorly confined. The tracer data suggest that the first group recharged locally during the last few thousand years and the second group was composed of ground water that recharged earlier during a cooler climate, presumably during the last glacial period (LGP) and mixed aged water. The paleotemperature record archived in this groundwater system indicates that south-eastern Colorado was about 5??C cooler during the LGP than during the late Holocene. Similar temperature changes derived from dissolved noble gases in other aquifer systems have been reported earlier for the south-western United States. The third water type was located down gradient of the first two in the confined Dakota in western and central Kansas. Groundwater residence time of this water mass is on the order of 104-105 yrs and its recharge location is near the Colorado and Kansas border down gradient of the other water types. The study shows the importance of using multiple tracers when investigating ground water systems.A suite of chemical and isotope tracers (dissolved noble gases, stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, and CL) were analyzed along a flow path in the Dakota aquifer system to determine likely recharge sources, ground water residence times, and the extent of mixing between local and intermediate flow systems. Three water types were distinguished with the tracers, each having a very different history. Two of the water types were located in south-eastern Colorado

  3. The extent and determinants of diabetes and cardiovascular disease comorbidity in South Africa – results from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipo Mutyambizi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a major health problem and cause of death worldwide. It is predicted that the prevalence of diabetes will increase from 415 million in 2015 to 642 million in 2040. However, the burden of diabetes in low- and middle-income countries is not clearly understood, particularly its interaction with other chronic illnesses. This study investigates the self-reported prevalence of and factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidity in South Africa. Methods Data used in this study are from the 2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey (N = 25,532. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease comorbidity was defined as the coexistence of diabetes plus one or more cardiovascular diseases reported at the time of the survey. This study makes use of multinomial logistic regression models to analyse the relationship between diabetes - cardiovascular disease comorbidity and several predictors including race, income, socio-economic status and obesity. Results According to the survey data we analysed, 5% of South Africans aged 15 and above had self-reported diabetes in 2011–2012. Among those with self-reported diabetes, 73% had at least one additional cardiovascular chronic illness. Diabetes and its cardiovascular disease comorbidity was more prevalent in Africans (66%, females (66%, those who lived in urban areas (75%, had secondary education (44% and were unemployed (62%. Factors strongly associated with diabetes - cardiovascular disease comorbidity were older age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.06–1.12, high household income (0.27; 0.10–0.76 versus low income, moderate (0.33; 0.11–0.96 and good self-rated health (0.24; 0.08–0.68 versus bad self-rated health, occasional (0.29; 0.10–0.88 and regular smokers (0.25; 0.12–0.53 versus non-smokers and physical activity (0.15; 0.03–0.68 versus no physical

  4. Validating survey measurement scales for AIDS-related knowledge and stigma among construction workers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter

    2016-01-23

    Construction workers in South Africa are regarded as a high-risk group in the context of HIV/AIDS. HIV testing is pivotal to controlling HIV transmission and providing palliative care and AIDS-related knowledge and stigma are key issues in addressing the likelihood of testing behaviour. In exploring these issues, various studies have employed an 11-item AIDS-related knowledge scale (Kalichman and Simbayi, AIDS Care 16:572-580, 2004) and a 9-item stigma scale (Kalichman et al., AIDS Behav 9:135-143, 2005), but little evidence exists confirming the psychometric properties of these scales. Using survey data from 512 construction workers in the Western Cape, South Africa, this research examines the validity and reliability of the two scales through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency tests. From confirmatory factor analysis, a revised 10-item knowledge scale was developed (χ2 /df ratio = 1.675, CFI = 0.982, RMSEA = 0.038, and Hoelter (95 %) = 393). A revised 8-item stigma scale was also developed (χ2 /df ratio = 1.929, CFI = 0.974, RMSEA = 0.045, and Hoelter (95 %) = 380). Both revised scales demonstrated good model fit and all factor loadings were significant (p Limitations of the original survey from which the data was obtained include the failure to properly account for respondent selection of language for completion of the survey, use of ethnicity as a proxy for identifying the native language of participants, the limited geographical area from which the survey data was collected, and the limitations associated with the convenience sample. A limitation of the validation study was the lack of available data for a more robust examination of reliability beyond internal consistency, such as test-retest reliability. The revised knowledge and stigma scales offered here hold considerable promise as measures of AIDS-related knowledge and stigma among South African construction workers.

  5. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  6. Base of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  7. Base control points of the aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  8. Base Control Points enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  9. Base of aquifer contours model enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  10. Elevation Control Points to reinterpret the base of aquifer contours after airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  11. Vocabulary used by ethno-linguistically diverse South African toddlers: a parent report using the language development survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonasillan, A; Bornman, J; Harty, M

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the relevance of the vocabulary of the Language Development Survey (LDS) for typically developing South African toddlers who attend ethno-linguistically diverse early childhood development centres. The need for exploration of the expressive vocabulary of this population stems from the diverse linguistic contexts to which toddlers are exposed on a day-to-day basis in South Africa. Many parents prefer English as the language of learning and teaching for their child. As a result, toddlers interact with ethno-linguistically diverse peers from a young age, usually within their early childhood development centres. An adapted version of the LDS was presented to 40 middle-class parents in Mpumalanga. Vocabulary commonly used by toddlers was determined and a comparison of parent responses made between the present study and the original American-based survey. Results revealed that nouns were used most often by toddlers, in keeping with research on vocabulary acquisition. Significant correlations between the two groups were evident in 12 of the 14 categories. Parents reported that nouns, verbs, adjectives and words from other word classes were used similarly by toddlers, despite differences in their linguistic exposure. These findings suggest that the LDS is a valuable clinical screening tool for speech-language therapists who deliver services to toddlers within the South African context.

  12. Vocabulary used by ethno-linguistically diverse South African toddlers: A parent report using the Language Development Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurellia Shamaleni Gonasillan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the relevance of the vocabulary of the Language Development Survey (LDS for typically developing South African toddlers who attend ethno-linguistically diverse early childhood development centres.Rationale: The need for exploration of the expressive vocabulary of this population stems from the diverse linguistic contexts to which toddlers are exposed on a day-to-day basis in South Africa. Many parents prefer English as the language of learning and teaching for their child. As a result, toddlers interact with ethno-linguistically diverse peers from a young age, usually within their early childhood development centres.Method: An adapted version of the LDS was presented to 40 middle-class parents in Mpumalanga. Vocabulary commonly used by toddlers was determined and a comparison of parent responses made between the present study and the original American-based survey.Results: Results revealed that nouns were used most often by toddlers, in keeping with research on vocabulary acquisition. Significant correlations between the two groups were evident in 12 of the 14 categories. Parents reported that nouns, verbs, adjectives and words from other word classes were used similarly by toddlers, despite differences in their linguistic exposure.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the LDS is a valuable clinical screening tool for speech-language therapists who deliver services to toddlers within the South African context.

  13. CLarifying vaginal atrophy's impact On SEx and Relationships (CLOSER) survey in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidozzi, F; Thomas, C; Smith, T; Nappi, R E

    2017-02-01

    With a paucity of information from sub-Saharan Africa, the impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy on women and male partners in South Africa was investigated. Four hundred individuals in South Africa (200 postmenopausal women who had experienced symptoms of vaginal atrophy, and 200 male partners) completed a structured questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of women had avoided intimacy because of vaginal discomfort; 62% of men described observing this behavior in their partners. Consequently, 52% of women and 51% of men reported decreased sexual activity - 20% of women and 18% of men believed vaginal discomfort had 'caused a big problem'. Significantly higher proportions of women than men (p South Africa.

  14. Assessing urban forest effects and values of the Great Plains: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...

  15. Final Oahe Dam/Lake Oahe Master Plan Missouri River, South Dakota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    water intake structures and cause ecological and economic damage in upper Midwest. Asian clam ( Corbicula fluminea ) Class 1 Corbicula are...freshwater natives of southern and eastern Asia. The sources and pathway of initial introductions are not well documented. Corbicula will cause the same

  16. Nontarget Bird Exposure to DRC-1339 During Fall in North Dakota and Spring in South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339...

  17. Gender-based survey of learning styles of South African employees in ICT careers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is one of a series that attempt to unveil the various reasons why the numbers of women participating in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) education and careers in South Africa is significantly low compared...

  18. Exercise during pregnancy: knowledge and beliefs of medical practitioners in South Africa: a survey study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Estelle D; Oddie, Brydie; Constantinou, Demitri

    2015-01-01

    ...) can play an important role in changing antenatal health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of South African MPs towards exercise during pregnancy...

  19. Alternative utilization of wheat starch, Grafton, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In 1978, North Dakota State University (NDSU), in cooperation with the Economic Development Administration, completed a study of the feasibility of a vital wheat gluten starch processing plant in North Dakota. The overall objective of this study is to determine the most feasible alternatives for utilizing the by-product starch slurry from a vital wheat gluten processing plant.

  20. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck...

  1. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND 58502...

  2. The use of 'racial' categories in contemporary South African health research. A survey of articles published in the South African Medical Journal between 1992 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, G T; de Wet, T

    1997-12-01

    In the light of growing concern about the clinical, social and political impact of 'racial' categorisation in health research, this survey aimed to re-evaluate the current use of 'racial' categories in articles published by the South African Medical Journal. SURVEY DESIGN: Any categories that might have been used or interpreted as measures of genetically determined 'racial' differences (including 'racial', ethnic and sociopolitical 'population group' categories) were included in this survey of 668 articles describing South African health research published during the past 5 years. By classifying the research contained in each of these articles it was possible to assess the importance of 'racial' categorisation in study design. The explanations given for any 'racial' differences in health were then used to evaluate the impact of 'racial' categorisation on the perception that innate characteristics were responsible. Three hundred and seventeen (47.5%) articles mentioned one or more 'racial' categories, 292 (43.7%) of which used 'racial' categories to describe the subjects they studied. The commonest generic labels used for these categories were "race" and "population group", while the commonest descriptive labels referred to traditional 'racial' characteristics such as phenotype, nationality and geographical origin. Only 15 (5.1%) articles fully defined the categories and labels they used, and many more used different generic and descriptive labels interchangeably. The use of 'racial' categories was highest among genetic (73.9%), descriptive (55.3%) and quasi-experimental studies (38.2%), although most used these categories simply to describe the subjects they examined. Of those 162 (24.3%) articles that discussed 'racial' differences in health, only 120 (18.0%) contained an explanation, and 60 of these suggested that inherent genetic or behavioural factors were responsible. Nine articles contained derogatory statements that could be interpreted as prejudiced or

  3. Notes on a remotely operated vehicle survey to describe reef ichthyofauna and habitats – Agulhas Bank, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapula S. Makwela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite their ecological and economic importance, reef habitats on the central Agulhas Bank, off the southern tip of Africa, remain poorly studied. The ichthyofauna of these habitats cannot be surveyed using trawl gear.Objective: Preliminary assessment of the use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV to investigate the ichthyofauna associated with deep reef habitats on the central Agulhas Bank.Method: Underwater visual surveys were carried out during ROV dives (maximum duration 60 minutes; area covered approximately 800 m2; maximum dive depth 100 m.Results & discussion: The number of detected fish species (36 compares well with that reported from fishing surveys and commercial fisher data. Most (68% fishes appeared to be undisturbed by the ROV. Species saturation was reached after a maximum of 135 minutes survey time, but species numbers increased and saturation times shortened (34 minutes minimum with the introduction of bait.Conclusion:  ROV surveys may represent a non-extractive alternative to assess demersal ichthyofaunal diversity in relation to habitat structure and benthic cover on temperate reefs around South Africa.

  4. A Survey of Star Clusters in the M31 South-West Field. UBVRI Photometry and Multi-Band Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Narbutis, D.; Vansevicius, V.; Kodaira, K.; Bridzius, A.; Stonkute, R.

    2008-01-01

    A new survey of star clusters in the South-West field of the M31 disk based on the high resolution Subaru Suprime-Cam observations is presented. The UBVRI aperture CCD photometry catalog of 285 objects (V < 20.5; 169 of them identified for the first time) is provided. Each object is supplemented with multi-band color maps presented in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement. Seventy seven star cluster candidates from the catalog are located in the Hubble Space Telescope...

  5. Lignite geology of southeast Williams County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The area of this study in southeastern Williams County, North Dakota, between the city of Williston and the Mountrail County line, is bounded on the south by Lake Sakakawea and on the west by the Little Muddy River. The Sentinel Butte and Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age form the bedrock and contain numerous lignite beds. The four principal beds discussed herein are, in ascending order, the Pittsley, Avoca, Williston, and Mormon, each of which is at least 5.0 ft thick throughout most or all of the area. Current estimates of lignite resources in this area are 16 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Mining development has been restricted to small operations, either shallow strip pits at the outcrop or underground mines. All underground mining has ceased. The only current surface mining is for leonardite (weathered lignite) in one small mine near Williston. The structure in the eastern half of the area is dominated by the oil-producing Nesson anticline.

  6. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. Scott

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  7. Determinants of Obesity and Associated Population Attributability, South Africa: Empirical Evidence from a National Panel Survey, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Veerman, Lennert J; Manyema, Mercy; Chola, Lumbwe; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for emerging non-communicable diseases (NCDS) in middle income countries including South Africa (SA). Understanding the multiple and complex determinants of obesity and their true population attributable impact is critical for informing and developing effective prevention efforts using scientific based evidence. This study identified contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity in South Africa. Analysis of three national cross sectional (repeated panel) surveys, using a multilevel logistic regression and population attributable fraction estimation allowed for identification of contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) among adults (15 years+). Obesity prevalence increased significantly from 23.5% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2012, with a significantly (p-valueSouth Africa is significant and over the past 5 years the rising prevalence of Type-2 diabetes has mirrored this pattern, especially among females. Targeting young adolescent girls should be a priority. Addressing determinants of obesity will involve a multifaceted strategy and requires at individual and population levels. With rising costs in the private and public sector to combat obesity related NCDS, this analysis can inform culturally sensitive mass communications and wellness campaigns. Knowledge of social determinants is critical to develop "best buys".

  8. Predictors of knowledge about tuberculosis: results from SANHANES I, a national, cross-sectional household survey in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Naidoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries that contribute 80 % of the global tuberculosis cases. Tuberculosis is infectious and due to its rapid and easy transmission route poses a threat to population health. Considering the importance of social and psychological factors in influencing health outcomes, appraising knowledge and awareness of tuberculosis, remain vital for effective tuberculosis control. The main aim of this study was to investigate the factors that predict knowledge about tuberculosis among 18–64 year old adults in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey method was used. Multi-stage disproportionate, stratified cluster sampling was used to select households within enumeration areas stratified by province and locality type. Based on the Human Sciences Research Council 2007 master sample, 500 Enumerator Areas representative of the socio-demographic profile of South Africa were identified and a random sample of 20 households was randomly selected from each Enumerator Area, yielding an overall sample of 10 000 households. The tuberculosis module contained in the South African National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey I was the only module that examined the social determinants of an infectious disease. This module was questionnaire-based with no biomarkers obtained to screen for the presence of tuberculosis disease among the participants. Data was collected by administering a researcher developed individual level questionnaire. Simple and multiple linear regression was used to determine the independent variables associated with tuberculosis knowledge. Results Half the sample (52.6 % was female and the majority of the respondents were black African (76.5 %. More than two thirds (68.0 % resided in urban areas, 56.9 % did not complete high school and half were not in formal employment. Significant predictors of tuberculosis knowledge were race, sex, completion of high school

  9. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serena Coetzee

    spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). ... Figure 1 shows that gender and population group transformation are well underway but do not. (yet) correlate with the demographics of South Africa's population ...

  10. A Survey of Rural Population Density and Forest Fire Occurrence in the South, 1956-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.T. Altobellis

    1983-01-01

    Rural residents comprise a high risk potential population regarding person-caused wildfire incidence in the South. However, rural population density (RPD=numker of people per square mile) was found to be indeterminately associated with fire occurrence rate (FOR=number of fires per million acres protected) in protected lands in 13 Southern states. Thus, changes in...

  11. A benthic survey of the rocky reefs off Pondoland, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30m) in the proclaimed Pondoland Marine Protected Area between Port Edward and Port St Johns, South Africa. A total of 26 benthic reef transects was undertaken involving the capture and processing of 1 042 photographic images of the reef ...

  12. A 3-year cytogenetic survey of 9661 patients in South Africa | Retief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the period 1 January 1977 - 31 December 1979,. 9 661 patients underwent cytogenetic investigation at seven participating laboratories in South Africa. The chromosome data were coded using a standard protocol and the results tabulated, being listed according to the clinical signs which led to referral for ...

  13. A National Benchmarking Survey of Student Counselling Centres/Units in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, C. D.; Pretorius, K.; van der Westhuizen, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    Students experience various challenges during their studies, such as personal problems, academic difficulties and mental health problems. Therefore, student counselling centres/units play a valuable role in providing support systems for students in need. The most frequent problems South African students experience are relationship problems and…

  14. Survey on Non-Timber Forest Products in Bauchi South Senatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that NTFPs in Bauchi South Senatorial Districts of Bauchi State has varying use categories such as Medicine (33.0%), Food/fruits (16.0%), Oil & Spice/condiments (8.0%), Carving, crafting & implement (12.8%), Environmental protection/amelioration(10.8), Proteins/bush meats (7.6%) while Other ...

  15. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product. Retail outlets sell local as well as imported bottled water to consumers. The microbiological quality of 10 different (8 local and 2 imported) bottled water products ...

  16. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillay Rubin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.

  17. Coyote foods in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk

    1984-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are one of the most widely studied animals in North America. The primary reason that much effort has been directed toward understanding the coyote is its feeding patterns. Coyotes prey upon domestic animals (Murie 1951, Gipson 1974, MacCracken 1982) and game animals (Fichter et al. 1955, Beasom 1974, Salwasser 1974, MacCracken...

  18. Bladesmithing at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Jack; Willman, Michael; Pulscher, Isaac; Rowe, Devin

    2016-12-01

    A Damascus-style layered blade was made by incorporating bloomery iron and crucible steel. A bloomery furnace was constructed and charged with Black Hills, SD bog iron ore, alloys, and hardwood charcoal. At sufficient temperature, the furnace was bottom-tapped to produce a low carbon iron bloom. A high-carbon crucible steel was made in a natural gas-fired furnace using commercial hematite pellets and coke. The steel was cast into sand molds. The two types of iron/steel were forged together using traditional blacksmithing techniques in a coke-fired forge. The forging process continued until the metal could be evenly worked, signifying the homogenization of the two metals. Once homogenized, the metal was shaped into a blade and subsequently ground into near-final shape, heat-treated, and finish-machined. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the blade were characterized using optical microscopy, hardness and tensile testing. The grain structure of the material varied widely and was not entirely homogenous at the welded layers, but the layers themselves were well-homogenized. The finished blade was compared to a common steel (1095) used for bladesmithing and was found to have similar hardness but significantly lower tensile strength.

  19. Duck production studies on the Prairie Potholes of South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1950 a project was initiated by the Office of River Basin Studies to "determine the extent, distribution, and numbers of small water areas formerly and now...

  20. 78 FR 9891 - South Dakota Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... sedimentation, and protect Indian and non-Indian historical and cultural sites along the Missouri River from... the Army ways to implement critical restoration projects meeting the goals of the plan, and determine if these projects primarily benefit the Federal Government. Written requests may be sent to Gwyn M...

  1. 78 FR 48764 - South Dakota Disaster # SD-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ] Non-Profit Organizations without Credit Available Elsewhere 2.875 For Economic Injury: Non-Profit... Deadline Date: 10/01/2013. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 05/02/2014. ADDRESSES... major disaster declaration on 08/02/2013, private non- profit organizations that provide essential...

  2. Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J.

    1982-01-01

    Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

  3. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: South Dakota Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Macrhybopsis gelida ST Topeka shiner Notropis topeka LE Reptiles and amphibians: Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platirhinos ST False map turtle...Graptemys pseudogeographica ST Lined snake Tropidoclonion lineatum SE Birds: American dipper Cinclus mexicanus ST Bald eagle...container. (NOTE: If the container held crop oil, a nutritional spray, an adjuvant or surfactant, or a Bacillus thuringensis product as the sole active

  4. A Cultural Resources Inventory of Eastern Portions of Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota (Mercer and McLean Counties).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-15

    River region to live near the Hidatsa at the mouth of the Knife River around 1780. According to Meyer (1977) the British trader, Mackintosh , visited...eventually was managed by Fred Kludt and Thomas Figenskau Jacob Bacal ran the town store. Like the other river towns, Ree was aban- doned after the...cultural resources surveys performed for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Riverdale. Ms. *244 State Historical Society of North Dakota. Schneider, Fred

  5. Baseline Survey for an Impact Evaluation of the Greenbelt Transformation Initiative in South Sudan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set is derived from a 2013 household baseline survey in the country's Greenbelt region as part of an impact evaluation of the Food, Agribusiness, and Rural...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at South Bank, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  7. Statewide Scent Station Survey for South Carolina Furbearers Annual Report 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1984, a statewide scent station survey was initiated in SC to provide an index to the relative abundance of terrestrial furbearing animals. This report is from...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at South Bank, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. Second annual state of logistics survey for South Africa: Defining research priorities for developmental logistics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available of the complexities of health-care service provision, and an overview of innovations in government delivery of health care. The South African chemical industry developed primarily around the gasification of coal to produce petrochemicals. Apart from producing..., acids) Intermediate chemicals (waxes, solvents, plastics) Chemical end-products (paints, explosives, fertilisers) Speciality end-products (pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals). - the lack of integrated planning between industry players through sharing...

  10. Knowledge about dementia in South Korean nursing students: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jung Ha; Seo, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Kye Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon; Lee, Youngjin

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of individuals with dementia is increasing substantially due to South Korea?s rapidly aging society. Undergraduate nursing students need to have adequate knowledge about dementia to deliver appropriate nursing services. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge about dementia among undergraduate nursing students. Methods A total of 148 students ranging from freshmen to seniors at a nursing university participated in this study. Data were collected through sel...

  11. Performance of Clinical Laboratories in South African Parasitology Proficiency Testing Surveys between 2004 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary. PMID:22814470

  12. A survey of acute poisonings in South Africa based on Tygerberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a national service, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, afford this perspective on a national scale and serve ... the only PIC offering a consultant-based service, 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, to all South Africans. .... as a tick, cattle, cow, sheep or dog dip or 'unknown pesticide') was identified by the TPIC in 89.1% (41 of ...

  13. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  14. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Steyn, Nelia P.; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-01-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  15. Women's experience of domiciliary postnatal care in Victoria and South Australia: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; Yelland, Jane S; Sutherland, Georgina A; Brown, Stephanie J

    2012-11-01

    Despite the expansion of postnatal domiciliary services, we know little about the women receiving visits and how they regard their care. The aim of this study is to examine the provision of postnatal domiciliary care from a consumer perspective. All women who gave birth in September-October 2007 in South Australia and Victoria were mailed questionnaires 6 months after the birth. Women were asked if they had received a midwifery home visit, and to rate the care they received. More women in South Australia reported receiving a domiciliary visit than in Victoria (88.0% v. 76.0%) and they were more likely to rate their care as 'very good' (69.1% v. 63.4%). Younger women, women on a lower income, who were holding a healthcare concession card or who had not completed secondary education were less likely to receive a visit. Although the majority of women in public maternity care in Victoria and South Australia receive domiciliary care and rate it positively, there are significant state-based differences. Those more likely to benefit from domiciliary care are less likely to receive a visit. There is a need to further explore the purpose, aims and content of domiciliary care at individual and state-wide levels.

  16. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  17. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansy Edwards

    Full Text Available Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions.The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6-72.3. After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9-72.1. The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4-17.0 and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0-15.1 before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting.Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions.

  18. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus among people of South Asian origin in Glasgow - results from a community based survey and laboratory surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Maureen C; Sarwar, Mohammed; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Weir, Amanda; Schofield, Joe; McLeod, Allan; Cameron, Sheila; McTaggart, Christine; Banday, Shabir; Foster, Graham R; Ahmed, Syed; Fox, Ray; Mills, Peter R; Goldberg, David J; Anderson, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    South Asians often present late with HCV or HBV related liver disease which could have been avoided with early diagnosis and subsequent treatment; however the prevalence of HCV/HBV among South Asians in Glasgow is not known. Accordingly, to inform the need for case finding among this group we aimed to examine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among South Asians living in Glasgow. A community-based survey recruited individuals at six mosques and four community centres serving the South Asian community during 2009-2010; participants had predominantly never been HCV tested. Laboratory surveillance data involving all individuals tested for HCV during 1993-2009 were examined and South Asians were identified using Nam Pehchan software. In the community-based survey, 2.6% of 1288 participants tested HCV-antibody positive; the prevalence ranged from 0.6% among those born in the UK to 3.1% among those born in Pakistan. The odds of testing HCV-antibody positive were significantly raised among those who had surgery in South Asia (aOR: 5.0, 95% CI: 2.0-12.3) and had either medical/dental treatment or an injection in South Asia (aOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-5.0). Of 6404 South Asians identified from laboratory surveillance data, 9.3% tested HCV positive. An estimated 38% (330/870) of HCV-infected South Asians living in Glasgow remain undiagnosed. South Asians living in Glasgow, particularly those born outside the UK are at greater risk of HCV infection than the general population. Efforts to increase awareness and testing in this population are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL OF COST AND ENERGY - A SURVEY AT PLAYFORD BUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ramli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes a study on energy consumption of a building, and offers recommendations to reduce the cost of energy usage. Playford building, of the University of South Australia, has been chosen as the study example for completing this survey. The study uses three phases of workflow: an audit of historical energy consumption data, a screening survey, and a detailed investigation and analysis of the building itself. One year of past data have been retrieved and analyzed. Causes of energy wastage and areas with potential for energy savings have been identified by walk-through survey across two levels of the building, chosen to represent the entire building. Possible ways of reducing energy consumption have been recommended. An estimation of the energy savings, following implementation of the recommendations, has been calculated including costs that would be incurred. It was found that for six recommendations, an estimated 20.4% of energy could be saved relative to present consumption. An amount of $AUD 11264.5 per annum could be saved by the university on utility bills for electrical appliances based on an average price of electricity of 0.114592 c/kWh.

  20. Behavioral and musical characteristics of the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty in South Korea: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Kim, Kwanghyuk

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted on primary school aged children (N=302) between seven to twelve years of age, who attend the local Community Child Centers (CCC) in the economically deprived areas of Jeollabukdo in South Korea for the purpose of identifying the children who have been exposed to on-going child maltreatment and poverty, and their needs. Both standardized and non-standardized self-report types of surveys were carried out and completed by both the children and the teachers of the CCC. As would be expected, emotional and behavioral problems are more pronounced by the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty compared to the children who were not exposed to these adversities, or who were not poor. The more severely abused children in terms of frequency and co-occurrence of different abuses appear to display more behavioral problems than less severely abused children. Teachers reported that the children who were able to play a musical instrument and had arts therapy experiences appear to have less behavioral problems, particularly delinquent and aggressive behavior in comparison to the children who did not have such ability and experiences. Through the survey, it was possible to identify the children in need of therapeutic intervention and discover clinically relevant information. Clinical implications will be discussed further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social participation among older adults (55+): Results of a survey in the region of South Limburg in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvers, Nicole; Pavlova, Milena; Hajema, KlaasJan; Groot, Wim; Angeli, Federica

    2018-01-01

    Social participation may improve the health and well-being of older adults, and may increase the social and human capacity of their communities. This study investigates the level and forms of social participation among older adults (aged 55 years or older) in the region of South Limburg, the Netherlands, and their association with socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. The study provides evidence that can be used by policy makers to enhance social participation in the region. We use cross-sectional data collected in a survey in 2012 among a sample of older adults (aged 55 years or older) representative for the region of South Limburg. The results indicate that 56% (N = 16,291/weighted sample N = 213,332) of the older adults in the region participate in social activities. Specifically, 25.5% perform paid labour, 20% give informal care and 25% participate in volunteer work. Older adults with a higher education (OR = 2.49 for the highest education group) or higher income (OR = 1.70 for the highest income group) are significantly more likely to participate in social activities compared with the respective reference categories. Increased age (OR = 0.23 for the oldest age group), female gender (OR = 0.83), loneliness (OR = 0.75 for severe loneliness) and restrictions (OR = 0.78 for restrictions on the OECD scale, OR = 0.68 for restrictions on the HDL scale, OR = 0.52 for transportation restrictions) significantly hinder social participation. The lower social participation rate among older adults that we observe compared with the national statistics can be explained by the relatively higher proportion of people with low or average socioeconomic status in South Limburg. And as South Limburg is the unhealthiest region of the Netherlands, this also contributes to the low social participation. Prevention of poor physical and mental health, and provision of care services are important to encourage social participation among the older adults

  2. Installation Restoration Program. South Dakota Air National Guard, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Remedial Investigation. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Limits Analyses Analyses SW Method 3550/8270 ExtractabLe Organics Azobenzene -dlO 0 - 2-Bromophenol 58 47-80 - - 2-FLuorobiphenyL 58 60-92 30-115 58...No.Accept No.Unaccept Parameter (Units) AnaLyses Ranges Limits Analyses Analyses SW Method 3550/8270 ExtractabLe Organics Azobenzene - dlO 23 61-86 49...located in an agricultural drain near Salinas, California. PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATION I American Chemical Society i EMPLYMENT HISTORY Science

  3. North Dakota Wildlife Management Area [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at North Dakota Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  4. North Dakota wheat transportation knowledge for market enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    North Dakota wheat producers are located long distances from major consumer and export markets. Understanding the competitive position of their products is important to focusing efforts for market development and transportation investments. Research ...

  5. Sampling Lake Alice NWR Fish Populations - 2014, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS and North Dakota Game and Fish Department sampled Northern pike, walleye, yellow perch and white bass within the boundary of Lake Alice NWR in North...

  6. The ESO-Max Planck photometric and spectroscopic survey in the south: EMPhaSSiS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibata R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available EMPhaSSiS is a photometric and spectroscopic survey of the disk of the Milky Way. The survey covers 33 fields in the 3rd quadrant of the Milky Way and probes every ten degrees in Galactic Longitude between l = 180∘ - 280∘ and at Galactic Latitudes of b = −20∘, − 30∘ and − 40∘. Each field is observed in four filters, U, B, V and R, reaching depths of 21.5, 24.0, 23.5 and 23.5 respectively. Spectroscopic observations have been carried out in 11 of these fields and in so doing, main sequence turn-off stars are being traced into the outer disk. This survey will provide metallicities and distances to the stellar populations that reside in the very outer disk of the Milky Way and help trace its evolution with increasing Galactic radius.

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Socioeconomic surveys of human use, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions in South Florida from 2014-01-20 to 2014-07-03 (NCEI Accession 0161541)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this file comes from a survey of adult residents in South Florida. The survey results were obtained from a random stratified sample of households in...

  8. Surface geochemical survey for geothermal exploration in the south-east zone of Tenerife Island, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Requejo, M.; Marrero, R.; Padron, E.; Melian, G.; Guerrero, V.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Hidalgo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Water and gas sampling of natural discharges are the most common type of geochemical surveys for geothermal exploration. However, these natural discharges are generally scarces at geothermal exploration areas where the extent of the field is not known. Therefore, soil-volatile (Hg, As, Sb, NH3 and B) and soil-gas surveys (222Rn, CO2, He, H2, CH4, O2, Ar) are becoming a useful geochemical tool to identify permeable areas and potential upflow or boiling zones. These surveys can also help to delineate the margins of a geothermal system, and therefore often complement geophysical surveys particularly where the interpretation of geophysical data shows some difficulties. During July and August, 2008, a surface geochemical survey was undertaken in a ~120 km2 area at the south-east slope of Tenerife Island, Spain. In order to obtain a representative distribution of the whole study area, during the field work a total of 577 sampling points were performed. In-situ measurement of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities together with Hg0 and H2S gas concentration and CO2 and H2S soil effluxes were performed at each sampling point. At the same time, gas samples were taken from the soil atmosphere at 40 cm depth for subsequent chemical analysis by means of micro-gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry (He, H2, Ne, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and CO2). At least two geochemical anomalous zones have been identified in the present work: (A) one close to Siete Fuentes-Fasnia historical vents (1704-1705 AD) and (B) located on the southwestern limit of the study area. Relatively high concentrations of H2 and ΔHe as well as high H2/Ar and He/CO2 ratios were observed at both zones, indicating a clear evidence of the existence of an upflow zone with an important contribution of endogenous gases. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system coupled with a vertical permeability structures in both zones could explain these geochemical anomalies observed in the surface environment

  9. Determinants of Obesity and Associated Population Attributability, South Africa: Empirical Evidence from a National Panel Survey, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Veerman, Lennert J.; Manyema, Mercy; Chola, Lumbwe; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for emerging non-communicable diseases (NCDS) in middle income countries including South Africa (SA). Understanding the multiple and complex determinants of obesity and their true population attributable impact is critical for informing and developing effective prevention efforts using scientific based evidence. This study identified contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity in South Africa. Methods Analysis of three national cross sectional (repeated panel) surveys, using a multilevel logistic regression and population attributable fraction estimation allowed for identification of contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) among adults (15years+). Results Obesity prevalence increased significantly from 23.5% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2012, with a significantly (p-valueobesity. Females living in formal or informal urban areas, higher crime areas, African/White ethnicity, married, not exercising, in a higher socio-economic category and/or living in households with proportionate higher spending on food (and unhealthy food options) were significantly more likely to be obese. The identified determinants appeared to account for 75% and 43% of male and female obesity respectively. White males had the highest relative gain in obesity from 2008 to 2012. Conclusions The rising prevalence of obesity in South Africa is significant and over the past 5 years the rising prevalence of Type-2 diabetes has mirrored this pattern, especially among females. Targeting young adolescent girls should be a priority. Addressing determinants of obesity will involve a multifaceted strategy and requires at individual and population levels. With rising costs in the private and public sector to combat obesity related NCDS, this analysis can inform culturally sensitive mass communications and wellness campaigns. Knowledge of social determinants is critical to develop “best buys”. PMID:26061419

  10. Socioeconomic Inequality in mortality using 12-year follow-up data from nationally representative surveys in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun

    2016-03-22

    Investigations into socioeconomic inequalities in mortality have rarely used long-term mortality follow-up data from nationally representative samples in Asian countries. A limited subset of indicators for socioeconomic position was employed in prior studies on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in mortality using follow-up 12-year mortality data from nationally representative samples of South Koreans. A total of 10,137 individuals who took part in the 1998 and 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were linked to mortality data from Statistics Korea. Of those individuals, 1,219 (12.1 %) had died as of December 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relative risks of mortality according to a wide range of socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators after taking into account primary sampling units, stratification, and sample weights. Our analysis showed strong evidence that individuals with disadvantaged SEP indicators had greater all-cause mortality risks than their counterparts. The magnitude of the association varied according to gender, age group, and specific SEP indicators. Cause-specific analyses using equivalized income quintiles showed that the magnitude of mortality inequalities tended to be greater for cardiovascular disease and external causes than for cancer. Inequalities in mortality exist in every aspect of SEP indicators, both genders, and age groups, and four broad causes of deaths. The South Korean economic development, previously described as effective in both economic growth and relatively equitable income distribution, should be scrutinized regarding its impact on socioeconomic mortality inequalities. Policy measures to reduce inequalities in mortality should be implemented in South Korea.

  11. Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. Methods 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. Univariate and bivariate analyses described condom use patterns and explanatory variables, and multinomial regression modeling assessed the factors associated with inconsistent versus consistent and non-condom use. Results 47.7% of men never used condoms, when 36.9% were inconsistent and 15.4% were consistent with any partner in the past year. Condom use patterns differed in association with gender relations attitudes: never users were significantly more conservative than inconsistent or consistent users. Three gender positions emerged indicating that inconsistent users were most physically/sexually violent and sexually risky; never users had more conservative gender attitudes but were less violent and sexually risky; and consistent users were less conservative, less violent and sexually risky with notably fewer sexual partners than inconsistent users. Conclusions The confluence of conservative gender attitudes, perpetration of violence against women and sexual risk taking distinguished inconsistent condom users as the most risky compared to never condom users, and rendered inconsistent use one of the basic negative attributes of dominant masculinities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This finding is important for the design of HIV prevention and gender equity interventions and emphasizes the need for a wider roll-out of interventions that promote progressive and healthy masculine practices in the country.

  12. WASP-120 b, WASP-122 b, AND WASP-123 b: Three Newly Discovered Planets from the WASP-South Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ≈ 11). WASP-120 b is a massive (4.85 M Jup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be eccentric (e={0.059}-0.018+0.025) around an F5 star. WASP-122 b is a hot Jupiter (1.28 M Jup, 1.74 R Jup) in a 1.7-day orbit about a G4 star. Our predicted transit depth variation caused by the atmosphere of WASP-122 b suggests it is well suited to characterization. WASP-123 b is a hot Jupiter (0.90 M Jup, 1.32 R Jup) in a 3.0-day orbit around an old (˜7 Gyr) G5 star.

  13. Arsenic accumulation and phosphorus status in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars surveyed from fields in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Ying [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Dong, Fei [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Chen Huojun [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Raab, Andrea [School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A., E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.u [School of Biological Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The consumption of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major inorganic arsenic exposure pathway in S.E. Asia. A multi-location survey was undertaken in Guangdong Province, South China to assess arsenic accumulation and speciation in 2 rice cultivars, one an Indica and the other a hybrid Indica. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain < husk < straw < root. Rice grain arsenic content of 2 rice cultivars was significant different and correlated with phosphorus concentration and molar ratio of P/As in shoot, being higher for the Indica cultivar than for the hybrid Indica, which suggests altering shoot phosphorus status as a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic. Speciation of grain arsenic, performed using HPLC-ICP-MS, identified inorganic arsenic as the dominant arsenic species present in the rice grain. - Altering rice shoot phosphorus status is a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic.

  14. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  15. Predictors of job satisfaction among individuals with disabilities: An analysis of South Korea's National Survey of employment for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujeong; Seo, Dong Gi; Park, Jaekook; Bettini, Elizabeth; Smith, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influences of personal, vocational, and job environment related factors that are associated with job satisfaction of individuals with disabilities in South Korea. Data for wage-based working employees from a nationwide survey were obtained, which resulted in a total number of 417 participants. The six hypotheses and mediation effects of personal and work related environmental factors were tested using the structural equation modeling drawn from existing research evidence. Results revealed that (a) life satisfaction and job related environments directly influenced job satisfaction; (b) the relationship between personal experience and job satisfaction was mediated by life satisfaction for both mild/moderate and severe/profound disabilities group; and (c) the mediating role of job environment between vocational preparedness and job satisfaction was only observed for individuals with mild/moderate disabilities. Summary of findings and implications for future research and practices are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A Survey among Master of Business Administration Students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a preventable public health problem. The two new human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are available but not accessible to everyone in South Africa, as they are very expensive. This study aimed to investigate educated peoples acceptability regarding HPV vaccination. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among 146 master of business administration students by self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. The majority (74% of the participants ever heard of cervical cancer, but only 26.2% heard about HPV. After reading the fact information regarding cervical cancer and HPV, the intention to vaccinate their daughters increased from 88% to 97.2% (P=0.003. The majority (75.4% indicated that HPV vaccination should be given before their daughters are mature enough to understand about sex, and 80.3% reported that they will discuss matters related to sex with their daughters if their daughters want to know about the vaccine. Those who did not want to vaccinate their daughters highlighted that they want more information regarding safety of the vaccine which might change their decision towards HPV vaccination. A health education information method can increase the vaccination acceptance rate in South Africa.

  17. Vocabulary used by ethno-linguistically diverse South African toddlers: A parent report using the Language Development Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurellia Shamaleni Gonasillan

    2013-11-01

    Rationale: The need for exploration of the expressive vocabulary of this population stems from the diverse linguistic contexts to which toddlers are exposed on a day-to-day basis in South Africa. Many parents prefer English as the language of learning and teaching for their child. As a result, toddlers interact with ethno-linguistically diverse peers from a young age, usually within their early childhood development centres. Method: An adapted version of the LDS was presented to 40 middle-class parents in Mpumalanga. Vocabulary commonly used by toddlers was determined and a comparison of parent responses made between the present study and the original American-based survey. Results: Results revealed that nouns were used most often by toddlers, in keeping with research on vocabulary acquisition. Significant correlations between the two groups were evident in 12 of the 14 categories. Parents reported that nouns, verbs, adjectives and words from other word classes were used similarly by toddlers, despite differences in their linguistic exposure. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the LDS is a valuable clinical screening tool for speech-language therapists who deliver services to toddlers within the South African context.

  18. A survey of dental and oral trauma in south-east Queensland during 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E B; Freer, T J

    2002-06-01

    This project investigated the aetiology of dental and oral trauma in a population in south-east Queensland. The literature shows there is a lack of dental trauma studies which are representative of the general Australian population. Twelve suburbs in the south-east district of Queensland were randomly selected according to population density in these suburbs for each 25th percentile. All dental clinics in these suburbs were eligible to participate. Patients presenting with dental and oral trauma were eligible to participate. A total of 197 patients presented with dental/oral trauma over a 12 month period. The age of patients ranged from 1-64 years whilst the most frequently presenting age group was 6-10 years. There was a total of 363 injured teeth with an average of 1.8 injured teeth per patient. Males significantly outnumbered females in the incidence of trauma. The highest frequency of trauma occurred in the 6-10 year age group. Most injuries in this group occurred while playing or riding bicycles. In the next most prevalent trauma group, 16-20 years, trauma occurred as a result of fighting and playing sport. Overall, males significantly outnumbered females by approximately 1.8:1.0. The majority of injuries in the deciduous dentition were to periodontal tissues. In the secondary dentition most injuries were to hard dental tissue and pulp.

  19. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  20. Survey of local forestry-related ordinances and regulations in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan J. Spink; Karry L. Haney; John L. Greene

    2000-01-01

    A survey of the 13 southern states was conducted in 1999-2000 to obtain a comprehensive list of forestry-related ordinances enacted by various local governments. Each ordinance was examined to determine the date of adoption, regulatory objective, and its regu1atory provisions. Based on the regulatory objective, the ordinances were categorized into five general types:...

  1. Alcohol Use and Transactional Sex among Women in South Africa: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Magni

    Full Text Available Transactional sex is a risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol use may increase the risk of transactional sex. No nationally-representative studies have examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of alcohol use and transactional sex in women in South Africa. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between alcohol dependence, binge drinking and frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex in adult women in South Africa.A cross-sectional study using multi-stage, cluster sampling collected data from a nationally representative sample of 5,969 women aged 16-55 years in 2012. The analysis conducted for this paper was restricted to women reporting sexual activity in the past 12 months (n = 3,594. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sex partner in the past year. Alcohol use measures included: alcohol dependence (≥2 positive responses to the CAGE questionnaire; binge drinking (≥4 drinks for women on one occasion; and drinking frequency in the previous month. Logistic regression models were built to test the hypotheses that each dimension of alcohol use was associated with transactional sex.About 6.3% (n = 225 of sexually active women reported transactional sex. Almost a third (30.6% of sexually active women had ever drunk alcohol, and 19.2% were current (past month drinkers. Among lifetime drinkers, 28.0% were alcohol dependent and 56.6% were binge drinkers. Alcohol dependent women were twice as likely to report transactional sex (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-4.3, p<0.05 than those not alcohol dependent. Binge drinkers were 3.1 times more likely to have had transactional sex (95% CI 1.5-6.6, p<0.01 than non-binge drinkers. There was no significant relationship between frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex.Alcohol dependency and binge drinking are significantly associated with transactional sex in South African women. HIV prevention programmes

  2. 2015 South Carolina PV soft cost and workforce development Part I. Initial survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, Thomas B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The South Carolina solar industry has surged over the past two years, largely due to the implementation of Act 236, and continues to grow at a rapid pace. At the beginning of 2014, there was little more than 3MW total spread across the state, but by the end of 2021, that state solar industry will have grown to over 300MW across all sectors. Prior to this study, there has been little publically available information on the solar industry in SC and throughout the Southeastern US. This makes SC a key case study of an emerging market, enabling the development of regional best practices in order to decrease associated costs and increase deployment.

  3. Annual tax compliance costs for small businesses: a survey of tax practitioners in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Smulders

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a baseline measurement for annual tax compliance costs for small businesses. An empirical study performed amongst tax practitioners to identify and measure the annual tax compliance costs for small businesses throughout South Africa revealed that R7 030 per annum is the average fee that tax practitioners charge their small business clients to ensure that their tax returns (for four key taxes – income tax, provisional tax, value added tax and employees’ tax are prepared, completed and submitted as SARS requires. From the perspective of time and cost, preparing, completing and submitting VAT returns takes the longest and costs the most. It is evident that, overall, the compliance costs are regressive: the smaller the business, the heavier the burden.

  4. Graduate survey of the South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium family practice residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carek, P J; Abercrombie, S; Baughman, O; Buehler, J; Goforth, G; Hester, W; Lammie, J; Snape, P

    2001-06-01

    The results of this study demonstrate several interesting characteristics of the graduates of the SC AHEC associated family medicine residency programs: 45 percent practice in South Carolina, 63 percent live further than 120 miles from their residency program, 96 percent are satisfied with their specialty choice, and 56 percent are involved in teaching medical students and residents. Furthermore, these graduates have the following tendencies: to practice in the traditional solo or group practice; to practice in a suburban community, town or rural community and a setting size less than a population of 100,000 persons; to care for the aging adult and geriatric population; to provide nursing home care; and to utilize house calls to provide patient care). As the current health care system continues to be redesigned, this information will be essential for assessment and planning purposes.

  5. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in South Korea: a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51). There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social situations in South Korea.

  6. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in South Korea: a nationally representative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. RESULTS: For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29, 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55, 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14, and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51. CONCLUSION: There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight

  7. Local content requirements and the impact on the South African renewable energy sector: A survey-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ettmayr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Economies aim to grow over time, which usually implies the need for increased energy availability. Governments can use their procurement of energy to increase benefits in their economies via certain policy tools. One such tool is local content requirements (LCRs, where the purchase of goods prescribes that a certain value has to be sourced locally. The argument for this tool is that spending is localised and manufacturing, as well as job creation, can be stimulated because industry will need to establish in the host economy. However, this practice is distortionary in effect and does not create a fair playing ground for global trade. Furthermore, if the local content definition is weak, or open to manipulation, the goals of such a policy may not be achieved at all. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine how LCRs would ultimately impact on the overall procurement programme. Setting: This study took place as South Africa commenced with large scale development of the renewable energy sector. This was largely achieved via the State run Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP. Method: This study utilised opinion-based surveys to look into the LCRs of South Africa’s REIPPPP and measure the impact of this policy on the renewable energy sector in general. The mixed method approach was utilised to analyse qualitative and quantitative data and this was then triangulated with an international peer group to arrive at certain conclusions. The Delphi Technique was then employed to achieve population consensus on the findings. Results and conclusion: It was found that, in order to implement a policy such as local content without any negative welfare effects, the host economy had to show certain pre-existing conditions. Because South Africa does not hold all supportive pre-conditions, the impact and effect of LCRs have not been optimal, and it has not been found to be a sustainable mechanism to

  8. Tectonic Setting and Characteristics of Natural Fractures in MesaVerde and Dakota Reservoirs of the San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.; COOPER,SCOTT P.

    2000-12-20

    The Cretaceous strata that fill the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado were shortened in a generally N-S to NN13-SSW direction during the Laramide orogeny. This shortening was the result of compression of the strata between southward indentation of the San Juan Uplift at the north edge of the basin and northward to northeastward indentation of the Zuni Uplift from the south. Right-lateral strike-slip motion was concentrated at the eastern and western basin margins of the basin to form the Hogback Monocline and the Nacimiento Uplift at the same time, and small amounts of shear may have been pervasive within the basin as well. Vertical extension fractures, striking N-S to NNE-SSW with local variations (parallel to the Laramide maximum horizontal compressive stress), formed in both Mesaverde and Dakota sandstones under this system, and are found in outcrops and in the subsurface of the San Juan Basin. The immature Mesaverde sandstones typically contain relatively long, irregular, vertical extension fractures, whereas the quartzitic Dakota sandstones contain more numerous, shorter, sub-parallel, closely spaced, extension fractures. Conjugate shear planes in several orientations are also present locally in the Dakota strata.

  9. Fifth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa: logistics value and cost drivers from a macro and micro-economic perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme for 2007’s survey was logistics for regional growth and development and the leading role South Africa plays in the southern African region in terms of economic and logistics development. 2008’s theme is somewhat more inward...

  10. Assessment of epidemic projections using recent HIV survey data in South Africa: a validation analysis of ten mathematical models of HIV epidemiology in the antiretroviral therapy era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, J.W.; Bacaer, N.; Bershteyn, A.; Cambiano, V.; Cori, A.; Dorrington, R.E.; Fraser, C.; Gopalappa, C.; Hontelez, J.A.; Johnson, L.F.; Klein, D.J.; Phillips, A.N.; Pretorius, C.; Stover, J.; Rehle, T.M.; Hallett, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mathematical models are widely used to simulate the effects of interventions to control HIV and to project future epidemiological trends and resource needs. We aimed to validate past model projections against data from a large household survey done in South Africa in 2012. METHODS: We

  11. [Serological survey for arbovirus antibodies in the human and simian populations of the South-East of Gabon (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluzzo, J F; Ivanoff, B; Languillat, G; Georges, A J

    1982-01-01

    A serological survey for arbovirus antibodies was carried out in human and simian populations of the South-East of Gabon. 197 human sera (adults), 34 simian sera (collected in the monkey colony of the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville) and 28 paired sera of mothers and their new-borns (samples collected from the umbilical cord) were tested using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) for all sera and complement fixation test (CF) for some of them. In the human population, 88% showed antibodies against yellow-fever virus as a consequence of vaccination, 20% against Chikungunya virus and 58% against Orungo virus. The high antibody titers for Chikungunya virus detected by HI test with CF antibodies proved a recent activity of this virus. The serological survey of simian population confirms the activity of Chikungunya virus in this area and demonstrates the circulation of one or more Flaviviruses, especially Zika virus. Transmission of maternal antibodies was established for the following arboviruses: Chikungunya, yellow-fever, Uganda S., Zika and Orungo.

  12. A survey of next of kin needs of trauma patients admitted to Intensive Care Units in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysiewicz, Petra; Chipps, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    To conduct a cross-sectional survey of next of kin needs of critically injured trauma patients admitted to Intensive Care Units in South Africa. The needs of next of kin of trauma patients (in public and private hospitals) who were critically injured and required admission to Intensive Care Units were surveyed at two points: on admission within first 24hours and on Day 3/day of transfer if earlier. A total of 162 next of kin participated (114 from state and 48 from private) and Critical Care Family Needs Inventory subscale scores obtained at admission and at Day 3/day of transfer if earlier indicated a trend toward reporting increased needs. In all the needs ratings, the top domains were those of Assurance and Information. The next of kin have a great number of needs that are currently not being met (both in the state and the private hospital and these needs actually increase over time. This study can help nurses understand the needs of next of kin in the Intensive Care Unit and that these needs change over the hospitalization period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual attitudes and behaviour of university students at a rural South African University: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, G Anita; Jemmott, John B; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional qualitative and quantitative pilot survey, using self administered questionnaire and focus group discussions, was conducted to assess the need for, and feasibility of, a health promotion programme for university students at a South African University. We examined the gender and cultural effects on sexual attitudes and behaviour, as well as condom use. A total of 73 students, age's between 18 and 30 years, participated in the pilot survey. The results suggest that females compared to the males are more likely to abstain until they find a partner with whom they intend to settle. There was a strong belief that unprotected sex can lead to pregnancy and STIs. Overall participants were not sure if condom use had any negative effects, although female respondents felt that condoms affect the pleasure of sexual intercourse. The results suggest that there is a clear need for health promotion programmes aimed at young adults, who attend university. The programme would need to aim at improving general health knowledge, targeting health promotion and sexual risk behaviour among university students. Such a programme would have to consider gender, socio-economic circumstances as well as national and cultural background of the target population.

  14. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  15. Development and psychometric validation of a novel patient survey to assess perceived quality of substance abuse treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Govender, Rajen; Koch, J Randy; Manderscheid, Ron; Johnson, Kim; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-11-06

    A hybrid performance measurement system that combines patient-reported outcome data with administrative data has been developed for South African substance abuse treatment services. This paper describes the development and psychometric validation of one component of this system, the South African Addiction Treatment Services Assessment (SAATSA). First, a national steering committee identified five domains and corresponding indicators on which treatment quality should be assessed. A decision was made to develop a patient survey to assess several of these indicators. A stakeholder work group sourced survey items and generated additional items where appropriate. The feasibility and face validity of these items were examined during cognitive response testing with 16 patients. This led to the elimination of several items. Next, we conducted an initial psychometric validation of the SAATSA with 364 patients from residential and outpatient services. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to assess the latent structure of the SAATSA. Findings highlighted areas where the SAATSA required revision. Following revision, we conducted another psychometric validation with an additional sample of 285 patients. We used EFA and CFA to assess construct validity and we assessed reliability using Cronbach's measure of internal consistency. The final version of the SAATSA comprised 31 items (rated on a four-point response scale) that correspond to six scales. Four of these scales are patient-reported outcome measures (substance use, quality of life, social connectedness and HIV risk outcomes) that together assess the perceived effectiveness of treatment. The remaining two scales assess patients' perceptions of access to and quality of care. The models for the final revised scales had good fit and the internal reliability of these scales was good to excellent, with Cronbach's α ranging from 0.72 to 0.89. A lack of adequate measurement tools hampers

  16. Qualitative Interpretation Of Aerogravity And Aeromagnetic Survey Data Over The South Western Part Of The Volta River Basin Of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study area South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana covering an area of 8570 km2 which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures hence the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically it study area is located at the south western part of the Voltaian basin at latitudes 07o 00 N and 08o 00 N and longitudes 02o 00 W and 01o 00 W respectively. Airborne gravity and magnetic survey methods were employed in the data collection. The field data correction and error reduction were applied to the two raw data on the field after which Geosoft Oasis Montaj 7.01 Encom Profile Analysis P.A 11 and 13 Model Vision 12 and ArcGIS 10.0 were used to process enhance e.g. reduce to pole at low latitude first vertical derivative etc. model the reduced and corrected airborne magnetic data and also to produce maps from them data. Low-to-moderate-to-high gravity and magnetic anomalies were obtained in the complete Bouguer anomaly CBA and total magnetic intensity TMI reduced to pole at low latitude with many of these anomalies trending NE-SW by which the Birimian Metasediments and Metavolcanics can be said to be part of the causative structures of these anomalies with cross-cut NW-SE faults. From the quantitative point of view the intrusive granitic bodies of the study area have a mean depth location of 1.7 km while the isolated anomaly is located at a depth of 1.4 km computed from Euler deconvolution. The NE-SW trending anomalies show the trend direction of their causative structures which are the basement rocks and the basinal intrusive bodies.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  18. Contaminant Pathway Assessment for Piping Plovers on National Wildlife Refuge Lands in North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — North Dakota is one of the last strongholds for the Federally threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Protecting and enhancing plover habitat in North Dakota...

  19. Projections of Future Participation and Needs in Outdoor Recreation for North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Randall S.; Leitch, Jay A.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents projected participation levels in selected outdoor recreation activities for North Dakota residents. It is the fifth study to collect data on recreation participation rates for North Dakota's State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan.

  20. Elevation - LiDAR Survey - Sheyenne River, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Airborne laser terrain mapping utilizing dual-frequency airborne GPS control and conventional control is conducted along the Sheyenne River, from the area where the...