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Sample records for surveys soil mercury

  1. Mercury soil surveys: a good reconnaissance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    Three examples of mercury soil surveys are discussed, along with the gravity data. An excellent correlation was found in southern Arizona between buried structures revealed by gravity and mercury soil surveys. The advantages of the latter over the former as a reconnaissance tool are listed. (MHR)

  2. Research and application of soil-mercury-surveys method for locating uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yunfei; Lu Shili; Jiao Zongrun

    1995-06-01

    Soil-Hg-Surveys method for locating uranium ore was presented. Soil-sampler of drilling bottom, the ability of surveying the deep uranium orebodies was raised by using this method. Application of minicomputer technology to pyrolytic-Hg-analysis raises the degree of automation and precision of the analysis. Application condition of optimum is Hg content of orebodies >1 x 10 -6 . Locating deep is about 100 m. The forecast of uranium orebodies achieved success in two unknown section that are 534 and 510 mining area, therefore two little size deposits expanded into middle size deposits. This method is as well applicable to locating gold, silver, copper, lead zinc and oil-gas natural resource and so on. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  3. Action of mercury as a soil fungicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1951-01-01

    Metallic mercury and mercury compounds in the soil retard the growth of plants. The development of mosses and lichens is inhibited, and experimental evidence shows that the growth of toadstools on turf and the activity of ascomycetes is retarded by mercury. In vitro, mercury has no fungicidal action but the rate of growth of hyphae is reduced by mercury vapour. The lack of fungicial properties of mercury and its good performance in controlling certain soil-borne diseases are reconciled by assuming that a differential retardation disturbs the relationships necessary for infection. This assumption is supported by diagrams which treat the rates of growth of the parasite and the host as population characteristics normally distributed. 21 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Mercury species in formerly contaminated soils and released soil gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Drtinová, B.; Červenka, R.; Zvěřina, O.; Komárek, J.; Kameník, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 584, APR (2017), s. 1032-1039 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : mercury contaminated soils * total mercury * elemental mercury * methylmercury * phynelmercury * gaseous elemental mercury Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  5. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1944-01-01

    The uses of inorganic compounds of mercury for the control of plant pests is reviewed, and a summary of the relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds concerned is given. On chemical evidence a working hypothesis is propounded showing that all compounds may be expected to decompose into metallic mercury. A pot technique is described by means of which a correlation can be obtained between the effective mercury content of a given soil sample and the rate of growth of wheat seedlings. The mathematical treatment of the results is described, and the validity of the pot technique is verified by statistical analysis of results. Using the pot technqiue it is shown that volatilization losses are insignificant but that mercury is slowly rendered ineffective by the formation of mercuric sulphide. The effect of sulphur-reducing bacteria is considered and the influence of Vibrio desulphuricans on mercury is studied in detail. Experimental evidence obtained by the pot technique is produced to show that mercurous chloride slowly decomposes in the soil giving mercury and mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride rapidly decomposes into mercury and mercurous chloride, and other inorganic compounds decompose directly into mercury. The working hypothesis is substantiated in all major aspects. The uses and properties of the organo-mercury compounds are then discussed. Type compounds selected are ethyl mercury phosphate, phenyl mercury acetate and methoxyethyl mercury acetate. Using the pot technique it is shown that the formation of organo-mercury clays takes place and that these clays decompose giving metallic mercury. A mechanism is suggested.

  6. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tack, Filip M.G.; Vanhaesebroeck, Thomas; Verloo, Marc G.; Van Rompaey, Kurt; Ranst, Eric van

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  7. Biosensors for detection of mercury in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontidean, Ibolya; Mortari, Alessia; Leth, Suzanne; Brown, Nigel L.; Karlson, Ulrich; Larsen, Martin M.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Corbisier, Philippe; Csoeregi, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Biosensors based on whole bacterial cells and on bacterial heavy metal binding protein were used to determine the mercury concentration in soil. The soil samples were collected in a vegetable garden accidentally contaminated with elemental mercury 25 years earlier. Bioavailable mercury was measured using different sensors: a protein-based biosensor, a whole bacterial cell based biosensor, and a plant sensor, i.e. morphological and biochemical responses in primary leaves and roots of bean seedlings grown in the mercury-contaminated soil. For comparison the total mercury concentration of the soil samples was determined by AAS. Whole bacterial cell and protein-based biosensors gave accurate responses proportional to the total amount of mercury in the soil samples. On the contrary, plant sensors were found to be less useful indicators of soil mercury contamination, as determined by plant biomass, mercury content of primary leaves and enzyme activities

  8. Bioavailability and stability of mercury sulfide in Armuchee (USA) soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Su, Yi; Monts, David L.; Waggoner, Charles A.; Matta, Frank B.

    2007-01-01

    Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate mercury-contaminated DOE sites. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the ecosystem. We have conducted pilot scale experiments to study the bioavailability of mercury sulfide in an Armuchee (eastern US ) soil. The effects of plants and incubation time on chemical stability and bioavailability of HgS under simulated conditions of the ecosystem have been examined, as has the dynamics of the dissolution of mercury sulfide by various extractants. The results show that mercury sulfide in contaminated Armuchee soil was still to some extent bioavailable to plants. After planting, soil mercury sulfide is more easily dissolved by both 4 M and 12 M nitric acid than pure mercury sulfide reagent. Dissolution kinetics of soil mercury sulfide and pure chemical reagent by nitric acid are different. Mercury release by EDTA from HgS-contaminated soil increased with time of reaction and soil mercury level. Chelating chemicals increase the solubility and bioavailability of mercury in HgS-contaminated soil. (authors)

  9. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  10. Mercury in mercury(II)-spiked soils is highly susceptible to plant bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodák, Michal; Urík, Martin; Matúš, Peter; Kořenková, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal phytotoxicity assessments usually use soluble metal compounds in spiked soils to evaluate metal bioaccumulation, growth inhibition and adverse effects on physiological parameters. However, exampling mercury phytotoxicity for barley (Hordeum vulgare) this paper highlights unsuitability of this experimental approach. Mercury(II) in spiked soils is extremely bioavailable, and there experimentally determined bioaccumulation is significantly higher compared to reported mercury bioaccumulation efficiency from soils collected from mercury-polluted areas. Our results indicate this is not affected by soil sorption capacity, thus soil ageing and formation of more stable mercuric complexes with soil fractions is necessary for reasonable metal phytotoxicity assessments.

  11. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl 2 , and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 , were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots ( 2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl 2 , or Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . We have found that up to hundreds

  12. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  13. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  14. A survey of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, B P; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D

    2017-08-01

    Even at low concentrations, the presence of arsenic and mercury in soils can lead to ecological and health impacts. The recent European-wide LUCAS Topsoil Survey found that the arsenic concentration of a large proportion of French soils exceeded a threshold which indicated that further investigation was required. A much smaller proportion of soils exceeded the corresponding threshold for mercury but the impacts of mining and industrial activities on mercury concentrations are not well understood. We use samples from the French national soil monitoring network (RMQS: Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols) to explore the variation of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across mainland France at a finer spatial resolution than was reported by LUCAS Topsoil. We use geostatistical methods to map the expected concentrations of these elements in the topsoil and the probabilities that the legislative thresholds are exceeded. We find that, with the exception of some areas where the geogenic concentrations and soil adsorption capacities are very low, arsenic concentrations are generally larger than the threshold which indicates that further assessment of the area is required. The lower of two other guideline values indicating risks to ecology or health is exceeded in fewer than 5% of RMQS samples. These exceedances occur in localised hot-spots primarily associated with mining and mineralization. The probabilities of mercury concentrations exceeding the further assessment threshold value are everywhere less than 0.01 and none of the RMQS samples exceed either of the ecological and health risk thresholds. However, there are some regions with elevated concentrations which can be related to volcanic material, natural mineralizations and industrial contamination. These regions are more diffuse than the hot-spots of arsenic reflecting the greater volatility of mercury and therefore the greater ease with which it can be transported and redeposited. The maps provide a

  15. Mercury speciation during in situ thermal desorption in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Min, E-mail: cmpark80@gmail.com; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Impact of soil conditions on distribution and phase transitions of Hg was identified. • Metallic Hg was slowly transformed to Hg{sup 0} gas until the temperature reached 358.15 K. • Phase change of HgCl{sub 2(s)} completely occurred without decomposition at 335.15 K. • HgS remained solid in dry soil sharply decreased in the narrow temperature range. • Hg gas can be easily captured with higher vapor pressures of soil compositions. - Abstract: Metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and its compounds are highly mobile and toxic environmental pollutants at trace level. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) is one of the soil remediation processes applying heat and vacuum simultaneously. Knowledge of thermodynamic mercury speciation is imperative to understand the fate and transport of mercury during thermal remediation and operate the treatment processes in a cost-effective manner. Hence, speciation model for inorganic mercury was developed over a range of environmental conditions to identify distribution of dissolved mercury species and potential transformations of mercury at near source environment. Simulation of phase transitions for metallic mercury, mercury(II) chloride and mercury sulfide with temperature increase showed that complete vaporization of metallic mercury and mercury(II) chloride were achieved below the boiling point of water. The effect of soil compositions on mercury removal was also evaluated to better understand thermal remediation process. Higher vapor pressures expected both from soil pore water and inorganic carbonate minerals in soil as well as creation of permeability were significant for complete vaporization and removal of mercury.

  16. Mercury speciation during in situ thermal desorption in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of soil conditions on distribution and phase transitions of Hg was identified. • Metallic Hg was slowly transformed to Hg"0 gas until the temperature reached 358.15 K. • Phase change of HgCl_2_(_s_) completely occurred without decomposition at 335.15 K. • HgS remained solid in dry soil sharply decreased in the narrow temperature range. • Hg gas can be easily captured with higher vapor pressures of soil compositions. - Abstract: Metallic mercury (Hg"0) and its compounds are highly mobile and toxic environmental pollutants at trace level. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) is one of the soil remediation processes applying heat and vacuum simultaneously. Knowledge of thermodynamic mercury speciation is imperative to understand the fate and transport of mercury during thermal remediation and operate the treatment processes in a cost-effective manner. Hence, speciation model for inorganic mercury was developed over a range of environmental conditions to identify distribution of dissolved mercury species and potential transformations of mercury at near source environment. Simulation of phase transitions for metallic mercury, mercury(II) chloride and mercury sulfide with temperature increase showed that complete vaporization of metallic mercury and mercury(II) chloride were achieved below the boiling point of water. The effect of soil compositions on mercury removal was also evaluated to better understand thermal remediation process. Higher vapor pressures expected both from soil pore water and inorganic carbonate minerals in soil as well as creation of permeability were significant for complete vaporization and removal of mercury.

  17. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na 2 CO 3 and 16 weight percent CaCO 3 . Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na 2 S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na 2 S, where it would be converted to Hg 2 S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na 2 S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury

  18. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  19. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk Anna; Wilińska Magdalena; Chyc Marek; Bojko Monika; Latowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding ...

  20. MERCURY IN SOIL AND ATMOSPHERE AS A PATHFINDER ELEMENT FOR ISTRIAN BAUXITE DEPOSITS — A TENTATIVE EXPLORATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available ID order to find out a secondary dispersion halo of mercury and some other trace elements around the bauxite ore bodies, the authors sampled terra rossa along traverses over them. At the same time, mercury in air is measured and expressed by relative values (mA using Zeeman mercury vapor analyser. Mercury in soil was determined by flameless atomic absorption method and Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co and Mn by standard AA techniques. The results are equivocal since the natural vertical soil profiles are severely disturbed on traverses due to different land use, what should be taken into consideration during continuation of the survey.

  1. Atmospheric mercury monitoring survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shili; Nadim, Farhad; Perkins, Chris; Carley, Robert J; Hoag, George E; Lin, Yuhan; Chen, Letian

    2002-07-01

    With the aid of one industrial, two urban, two suburban, and two rural sampling locations, diurnal patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were monitored in January, February and September of 1998 in Beijing, China. Monitoring was conducted in six (two urban, two suburban, one rural and the industrial sites) of the seven sampling sites during January and February (winter) and in four (two urban, one rural, and the industrial sites) of the sampling locations during September (summer) of 1998. In the three suburban sampling stations, mean TGM concentrations during the winter sampling period were 8.6, 10.7, and 6.2 ng/m3, respectively. In the two urban sampling locations mean TGM concentrations during winter and summer sampling periods were 24.7, 8.3, 10, and 12.7 ng/m3, respectively. In the suburban-industrial and the two rural sampling locations, mean mercury concentrations ranged from 3.1-5.3 ng/m3 in winter to 4.1-7.7 ng/m3 in summer sampling periods. In the Tiananmen Square (urban), and Shijingshan (suburban) sampling locations the mean TGM concentrations during the summer sampling period were higher than winter concentrations, which may have been caused by evaporation of soil-bound mercury in warm periods. Continuous meteorological data were available at one of the suburban sites, which allowed the observation of mercury concentration variations associated with some weather parameters. It was found that there was a moderate negative correlation between the wind speed and the TGM concentration at this suburban sampling location. It was also found that during the sampling period at the same site, the quantity of TGM transported to or from the sampling site was mainly influenced by the duration and frequency of wind occurrence from certain directions.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  3. OCCURRENCE OF MERCURY-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  4. Mercury content in wetland rice soil and water of two different seasons at small-scale gold mine processing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sugianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify the impact of small-scale gold processing activities on mercury content in wetland rice soil and water during the rainy and first dry seasons in Central Lombok and West Lombok Districts. The method used for this study was survey method. Measurement of mercury levels in water samples was conducted at Agro Bogor Centre using SNI 6989.77: 2011 methods. The data was collected and processed in a simple statistic presented descriptively, in order to obtain information. Results of the study showed that mercury content soils in the rainy season exceeded the threshold of 0.005 ppm, while in the first dry season the mercury content in soil decreased, but it was still above the threshold value permitted. The contents of mercury in water samples in the rainy season and the first dry season were still at a safe point that was less than 0.05 ppm. The wetland rice soil and water had been polluted with mercury, although the mercury content in the water was still below the threshold, but the accumulation of mercury that could have been absorbed by the plants are of particular concerns. The decrease of mercury content in soil in dry season was due to lack of gold processing activities.

  5. Remediation of mercury-polluted soils using artificial wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mercadoa, Héctor Daniel; Fernándezb, Georgina; Garzón-Zúñigac, Marco Antonio; Durán-Domínguez-de-Bazúaa, María Del Carmen

    2017-01-02

    Mexico's mercury mining industry is important for economic development, but has unfortunately contaminated soils due to open-air disposal. This case was seen at two sites in the municipality of Pinal de Amoles, State of Queretaro, Mexico. This paper presents an evaluation of mercury dynamics and biogeochemistry in two soils (mining waste soil) using ex-situ wetlands over 36 weeks. In soils sampled in two former mines of Pinal de Amoles, initial mercury concentrations were 424 ± 29 and 433 ± 12 mg kg -1 in La Lorena and San Jose, former mines, respectively. Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis were used and 20 reactors were constructed (with and without plants). The reactors were weekly amended with a nutrient solution (NPK), for each plant, at a pH of 5.0. For remediation using soils from San Jose 70-78% of mercury was removed in T. latifolia reactors and 76-82% in P. australis reactors, and for remediation of soils from La Lorena, mercury content was reduced by 55-71% using T. latifolia and 58-66% in P. australis reactors. Mercury emissions into the atmosphere were estimated to be 2-4 mg m -2 h -1 for both soils.

  6. Leaching of mercury from seal carcasses into Antarctic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvěřina, O.; Coufalík, Pavel; Brat, K.; Červenka, R.; Kuta, J.; Mikeš, O.; Komárek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 1424-1431 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : mercury * soil * Antarctica Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016

  7. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M.; Davidson, R.; Daigle, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide

  8. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to

  9. Geo-Spatial Characterization of Soil Mercury and Arsenic at a High-Altitude Bolivian Gold Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glen D; Pavilonis, Brian; Caravanos, Jack; Grassman, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Soil mercury concentrations at a typical small-scale mine site in the Bolivian Andes were elevated (28-737 mg/kg or ppm) in localized areas where mercury amalgams were either formed or vaporized to release gold, but was not detectable beyond approximately 10 m from its sources. Arsenic was measurable, exceeding known background levels throughout the mine site (77-137,022 ppm), and was also measurable through the local village of Ingenio (36-1803 ppm). Although arsenic levels were high at all surveyed locations, its spatial pattern followed mercury, being highest where mercury was high.

  10. Sustainable remediation of mercury contaminated soils by thermal desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, María J; Millán, Rocio; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; Cañadas, Inmaculada

    2016-03-01

    Mercury soil contamination is an important environmental problem that needs the development of sustainable and efficient decontamination strategies. This work is focused on the application of a remediation technique that maintains soil ecological and environmental services to the extent possible as well as search for alternative sustainable land uses. Controlled thermal desorption using a solar furnace at pilot scale was applied to different types of soils, stablishing the temperature necessary to assure the functionality of these soils and avoid the Hg exchange to the other environmental compartments. Soil mercury content evolution (total, soluble, and exchangeable) as temperature increases and induced changes in selected soil quality indicators are studied and assessed. On total Hg, the temperature at which it is reduced until acceptable levels depends on the intended soil use and on how restrictive are the regulations. For commercial, residential, or industrial uses, soil samples should be heated to temperatures higher than 280 °C, at which more than 80 % of the total Hg is released, reaching the established legal total Hg level and avoiding eventual risks derived from high available Hg concentrations. For agricultural use or soil natural preservation, conversely, maintenance of acceptable levels of soil quality limit heating temperatures, and additional treatments must be considered to reduce available Hg. Besides total Hg concentration in soils, available Hg should be considered to make final decisions on remediation treatments and potential future uses. Graphical Abstract Solar energy use for remediation of soils affected by mercury.

  11. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and carbon in fresh and burned plants and soil in Northwestern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailman, M.; Bodaly, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and soil contain substantial amounts of organic carbon (C) and mercury. Flooding terrestrial areas stimulates microbial methyl mercury (MeHg) production and fish obtain elevated MeHg concentrations. Our purpose was to determine the loss of C, total mercury (THg), and MeHg from boreal plants and soil after burning to assess the potential of burning before flooding to lower MeHg. Fresh plants contained 4 to 52 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) of THg and 0.1 to 1.3 ng g -1 dw of MeHg. Upland soils contained 162±132 ng g -1 dw of THg and 0.6±0.6 ng g -1 dw of MeHg. Complete burning caused plants to lose 96, 98, 97, and 94% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Upland soil lost 27, 95, 79, and 82% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Our results demonstrated that a substantial loss of C, THg, and MeHg was caused by burning. - Burning terrestrial vegetation and soil causes substantial losses of organic carbon, total mercury, and methyl mercury

  12. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and carbon in fresh and burned plants and soil in Northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailman, M. [Department of Zoology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N2 (Canada); Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N6 (Canada)]. E-mail: mailmanma@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Bodaly, R.A. [Department of Zoology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N2 (Canada); Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2N6 (Canada)

    2005-11-15

    Terrestrial plants and soil contain substantial amounts of organic carbon (C) and mercury. Flooding terrestrial areas stimulates microbial methyl mercury (MeHg) production and fish obtain elevated MeHg concentrations. Our purpose was to determine the loss of C, total mercury (THg), and MeHg from boreal plants and soil after burning to assess the potential of burning before flooding to lower MeHg. Fresh plants contained 4 to 52 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) of THg and 0.1 to 1.3 ng g{sup -1} dw of MeHg. Upland soils contained 162{+-}132 ng g{sup -1} dw of THg and 0.6{+-}0.6 ng g{sup -1} dw of MeHg. Complete burning caused plants to lose 96, 98, 97, and 94% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Upland soil lost 27, 95, 79, and 82% of the mass, C, THg, and MeHg, respectively. Our results demonstrated that a substantial loss of C, THg, and MeHg was caused by burning. - Burning terrestrial vegetation and soil causes substantial losses of organic carbon, total mercury, and methyl mercury.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  14. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, Ernie F.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  15. Binding, distribution, and plant uptake of mercury in a soil from Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengxiang X; Su, Yi; Monts, David L; Waggoner, Charles A; Plodinec, M John

    2006-09-15

    A large amount of mercury has been discharged on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Site (Tennessee) as a part of the U.S. nuclear weapon program during the 1950s through the early 1960s. Increases in mercury concentration in fish and in lower East Fork Poplar Creek of Oak Ridge have been recently reported. This is an experimental study mimicking the initial stage of transformation and redistribution of mercury in soils, which are comparable to those of the Oak Ridge site. The objectives of this study were to investigate potential transformation, distribution, and plant uptake of mercury compounds in soils. Results show that the H(2)O(2)-oxidizable mercury fraction (organically bound mercury) was the major solid-phase fraction in soils freshly contaminated with soluble mercury compounds, while cinnabar fraction was the major solid phase fraction in soils contaminated with HgS. Langmuir relationships were found between mercury concentrations in plant shoots and in soil solid-phase components. Mercury in HgS-contaminated soils was to some extent phytoavailable to plants. Mercury transformation occurred from more labile fractions into more stable fractions, resulting in strong binding of mercury and decreasing its phytoavailability in soils. In addition, high mercury losses from soils contaminated with soluble mercury compounds were observed during a growing season through volatilization, accounting for 20-62% of the total initial mercury in soils.

  16. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  17. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  18. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding sequenc es as Pseudomonas syringae. The analysis of Hg concentration in liquid medium as effect of microbial metabolism demonstrated that P. syringae is able to remove almost entire metal from medium after 120 hours of incubation. Obtained results revealed new ability of the isolated strain P. syringae. Analyzed properties of this soil bacteria species able to reduce concentration of Hg ors immobi lize this metal are promising for industrial wastewater treatment and bioremediation of the soils polluted especially by mercury lamps scrapping, measuring instruments, dry batteries, detonators or burning fuels made from crude oil, which may also contain mercury. Selected bacteria strains provide efficient and relatively low-cost bioremediation of the areas and waters contaminated with Hg.

  19. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

    1995-05-01

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child's digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative

  20. Mercury contamination of soils in vicinity of historical mining area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hojdová, Maria; Navrátil, Tomáš; Rohovec, Jan; Penížek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 4/6 (2008), s. 1340257-1340257 ISSN 0161-6951. [International Geological Congress /33./. 06.08.2008-14.08.2008, Oslo ] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300130615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mercury * speciation * thermo-desorption analysis * mining * soils Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  1. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R.; Ilyin, I.

    2011-01-01

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural soils, 19 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg 0 per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. - Highlights: → Spatial data for mercury in UK soils can be related to past atmospheric deposition. → The residence time of Hg (c. 400 years) depends on gaseous evasion and leaching. → UK soils currently contribute more Hg 0 to the atmosphere than human activities. → Sorption of Hg by deeper soil is a strong control on surface water concentrations. - Atmospherically-deposited anthropogenic mercury, mostly of local origin, has accumulated in UK soils, and is now a significant source of Hg 0 to the global circulation.

  2. Analysis of Soil Parameters in Almadenejos. Behavior of Mercury in Soil-Plant System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Sierra, M. J.; Villadoniga, M.; Millan, R.

    2010-01-01

    This scientific-technical report is the result of the stay of Rocio Fernandez Flores practices in the Research Unit soil degradation of the Department of Environment CIEMAT. The aim of this study is to determine the behaviour of mercury in soil of Almadenejos (Almaden, Ciudad Real, Espana) by using a six-step sequential extraction procedure and evaluate the transfer of this pollutant to Marrubium vulgare L., predominant in the area and studied for years due to its ability to accumulate large amounts of mercury without visual symptoms of toxicity. Furthermore, the results will be useful in order to determine if this plant specie could be used as phyto extractor in the recovery mercury contaminated soils. The results show that total mercury concentrations in soil ranged from 709 mg kg-1 to 22,616 mg kg-1. Regarding mercury distribution among different soil fractions, this heavy metal is mainly found in the fraction assigned in the fi nal insoluble residues, the oxidizable fraction and in the crystalline Fe-Mn oxydroxides, on the other hand, barely 1% or lower is readily available to plants However, Marrubium vulgare is able to accumulate high amount of mercury (3.5 - 373.5 mg kg-1). Regarding the mercury distribution inside the plant, mercury concentration in the root was higher than in the aerial part. Within the aerial part the maximum mercury concentration was generally found in leaves. According to the obtained results, Marrubium vulgare L. could be considered as a (hyper)accumulator plant. (Author) 57 refs.

  3. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  4. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  5. Amounts of mercury in soil of some golf course sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, A J; Stone, B; Cordukes, W E

    1973-01-01

    Mercurial compounds are widely used for controlling diseases of turfgrass of golf courses, but the fungicides are usually confined to the greens. Composite soil samples were obtained from three golf courses in the Ottawa and Ontario region of Canada. Samples from the turf and surface layer of soil were analyzed and high amounts of mercury were found. The soil of No.I course was a sand; No.II was a sandy loam in the surface and a loam below; and No. III was a loam in the surface layer and a clay loam below. The pH of the surface layer was 6.4 in No. I, 7.5 in No. II, and 6.0 in No. III. The amounts of Hg in the turf were high near the green but they decreased with distance. Fairway III contained the highest amounts of Hg and there was evidence of it leaching to a depth of 90 cm at the edge of the green. The particularly high amounts of Hg in no III were in accord with the liberal use of mercurial fungicides on this course in the period 1912-64. The leaching of Hg depends on amounts of organic matter and the clay in the soil.

  6. Isolation of Mercury-Resistant Fungi from Mercury-Contaminated Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Illegal gold mining and the resulting gold mine tailing ponds on Buru Island in Maluku, Indonesia have increased Mercury (Hg levels in agricultural soil and caused massive environmental damage. High levels of Hg in soil lowers plant productivity and threatens the equilibrium of the food web. One possible method of handling Hg-contaminated soils is through bioremediation, which could eliminate Hg from the rhizosphere (root zone. In this study, indigenous fungi isolated from Hg-contaminated soil exhibited Hg-resistance in vitro. Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants which grew naturally in areas contaminated with gold mine tailing. The fungi’s capacity for Hg-resistance was confirmed by their better growth in chloramphenicol-boosted potato dextrose agar media which contained various HgCl2 concentrations. Four isolates exhibited resistance of up to 25 mg kg−1 of Hg, and in an experiment with young Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. test plants, two fungi species (including Aspergillus were demonstrated to increase the soil’s availability of Hg. The results suggest that Hg-resistant indigenous fungi can mobilize mercury in the soil and serve as potential bioremediation agents for contaminated agricultural land.

  7. Mercury distribution and speciation in soils affected by historic mercury mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hojdová, Maria; Navrátil, Tomáš; Rohovec, Jan; Penížek, V.; Grygar, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 200, 1/4 (2009), s. 89-99 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300130615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : mercury speciation * thermo-desorption analysis * forest soil * contamination * mining * contamination (Czech Republic ) Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009

  8. Mercury in the Soil of the Tunka Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapina, E. E.; Cherkashina, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The work evaluates the general distribution of mercury in the soil cover of the Tunkinskaya depression (the Republic of Buryatia, the national park "Tunkinsky"). For this purpose, its gross contents in natural and agrogenically transformed soils were studied: plow lands, fallow lands, hayfields and pastures. The physico-technical characteristics of soils, the content of organic carbon, group composition of humus are determined. The method of processing the results included the calculation of the ecological and geochemical parameters: the concentration coefficient relative to the background, MAC, Clark concentration relative to the Earth’s crust, the Earth’s soils, the identification of the relationship with the physical and technical characteristics of the soil, and the content of C02, CO2 carbonates, fulvic and humic acids.

  9. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E., E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Wadsworth, R.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ilyin, I. [Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - East, Krasina pereulok, 16/1, 123056 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 {mu}g Hg m{sup -2} a{sup -1} to rural soils, 19 {mu}g Hg m{sup -2} a{sup -1} to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg{sup 0} per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. - Highlights: > Spatial data for mercury in UK soils can be related to past atmospheric deposition. > The residence time of Hg (c. 400 years) depends on gaseous evasion and leaching. > UK soils currently contribute more Hg{sup 0} to the atmosphere than human activities. > Sorption of Hg by deeper soil is a strong control on surface water concentrations. - Atmospherically-deposited anthropogenic mercury, mostly of local origin, has accumulated in UK soils, and is now a significant source of Hg{sup 0} to the global circulation.

  10. Characterization of mercury forms in contaminated floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.; Henson, T.J.; Harris, L.A.; Melton, R.E.; Stevenson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical form or speciation of Hg in the floodplain soils of the East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge TN, a site contaminated from past industrial activity, was investigated. Hg speciation in the soils is an important factor in controlling the fate and effect of mercury at the site and in assessing human health and ecological risk. Application of 3 different sequential extraction speciation schemes indicated the Hg at the site was predominantly relatively insoluble mercuric sulfide or metallic Hg, though the relative proportions of each did not agree well between procedures. Application of x-ray and electron beam studies to site soils confirmed the presence of metacinnabar, a form of mercuric sulfide, the first known evidence of authigenic mercuric sulfide formation in soils

  11. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  12. Mercury dispersion in soils of an abandoned lead-zinc-silver mine, San Quintín (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José Maria; Martín-Crespo, T.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Monescillo, C. I.; Lorenzo, S.; Higueras, P.

    2010-05-01

    The mine considered on this work, namely San Quintín, is a filonian field with hydrothermal ores exploited during almost fifty years (1887-1934), producing 550.000Tm of galena, 550Tm of silver and 5.000 of sphalerite. Some rewashing works of tailings muds was achieved in recent times (1973-1985), including flotation tests of cinnabar ore from Almadén mines. The main problems remaining on the site are an active acid mine drainage (with pH ~ 2) and heavy metal dispersion on soils including gaseous mercury emissions. We present here results of a survey including soils sampling with mercury analysis and other pedological parameters, as well as determinations of mercury inmission in the atmosphere, using a common sampling grid. Analysis of soils samples has been carried out using an atomic absorption spectrometer AMA254, while air determinations were made by the same technique, using a Lumex RA-915+. The maps have been obtained by means of SURFER 8 software, as well as by ArcGIS software, and puts forward dispersion of mercury from cinnabar ore dump (108 ?g×g-1) to nearby soils (0.3 ?g×g-1 at 700 m of distance). The dispersion of mercury vapor exceed WHO level for chronic exposure (200 ng×m-3) in a small area (250 meters from cinnabar dump).

  13. Remediation aspect of microbial changes of plant rhizosphere in mercury contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Nowosielska, Aleksandra; Galimska-Stypa, Regina; Kucharski, Rafał; Zielonka, Urszula; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Gray, Laymon

    2008-02-01

    Phytoremediation, an approach that uses plants to remediate contaminated soil through degradation, stabilization or accumulation, may provide an efficient solution to some mercury contamination problems. This paper presents growth chamber experiments that tested the ability of plant species to stabilize mercury in soil. Several indigenous herbaceous species and Salix viminalis were grown in soil collected from a mercury-contaminated site in southern Poland. The uptake and distribution of mercury by these plants were investigated, and the growth and vitality of the plants through a part of one vegetative cycle were assessed. The highest concentrations of mercury were found at the roots, but translocation to the aerial part also occurred. Most of the plant species tested displayed good growth on mercury contaminated soil and sustained a rich microbial population in the rhizosphere. The microbial populations of root-free soil and rhizosphere soil from all species were also examined. An inverse correlation between the number of sulfur amino acid decomposing bacteria and root mercury content was observed. These results indicate the potential for using some species of plants to treat mercury contaminated soil through stabilization rather than extraction. The present investigation proposes a practical cost-effective temporary solution for phytostabilization of soil with moderate mercury contamination as well as the basis for plant selection.

  14. Ultrasound assisted mercury extraction from soil and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collasiol, Andre; Pozebon, Dirce; Maia, Sandra M.

    2004-01-01

    A method for mercury (Hg) determination in soil, river sediment and marine sediment without sample digestion is investigated. Mercury determination is performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) using a flow injection system. Mercury quantitatively leaches out from the investigated marine sediment into 30% (v/v) HNO 3 assisted by ultrasonic irradiation (during 90-120 s) when sample particles size are ≤120 μm. Similar conditions can be applied for Hg determination in river sediment and soil, excepting the time of sonication which needs to be increased to 180 s and KCl is also added to the extraction medium. The presence of 0.15% (m/v) KCl in addition to 30% (v/v) HNO 3 is seen to be effective for quantitative Hg leaching. The certified samples PACS-2 and MESS-3 (both marine sediment from NRCC), Buffalo River (NIST 8704), Montana Soil (NIST 2710) and the non-certified river sediment sample RS-3 were analysed. The attained results were well within the 95% confidence level of the certificate or close to information value. Samples were analysed using aqueous standard calibration. A characteristic mass of 25 pg, a LOD (3s) of 0.2 μg Hg l -1 and a LOQ (10s) of 0.012 μg Hg g -1 are typically attained. These are based on 800 μl of sample solution and 1.000 g of sample mass in 20 ml. The RSD of 10 consecutive runs of the sample is <5%. The proposed method was finally applied for the determination of Hg in real samples of soil, river sediment and marine sediment. The same samples were also analysed using a digestion method giving similar results

  15. Quantification of Labile Soil Mercury by Stable Isotope Dilution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaya, Waleed; Huang, Jen-How; Osterwalder, Stefan; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can cause severe health problems to humans. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be transported over long distances before it is deposited to aquatic and terrestrial environments. Aside from accumulation in soil solid phases, Hg deposited in soils may migrate to surface- and ground-water or enter the food chain, depending on its lability. There are many operationally-defined extraction methods proposed to quantify soil labile metals. However, these methods are by definition prone to inaccuracies such as non-selectivity, underestimation or overestimation of the labile metal pool. The isotopic dilution technique (ID) is currently the most promising method for discrimination between labile and non-labile metal fractions in soil with a minimum disturbance to soil-solid phases. ID assesses the reactive metal pool in soil by defining the fraction of metal both in solid and solution phases that is isotopically-exchangeable known as the 'E-value'. The 'E-value' represents the metal fraction in a dynamic equilibrium with the solution phase and is potentially accessible to plants. This is carried out by addition of an enriched metal isotope to soil suspensions and quantifying the fraction of metal that is able to freely exchange with the added isotope by measuring the equilibrium isotopic ratio by ICP-MS. E-value (mg kg-1) is then calculated as follows: E-Value = (Msoil/ W) (CspikeVspike/ Mspike) (Iso1IAspike -Iso2IAspikeRss / Iso2IAsoil Rss - Iso1IAsoil) where M is the average atomic mass of the metal in the soil or the spike, W is the mass of soil (kg), Cspike is the concentration of the metal in the spike (mg L-1), Vspike is the volume of spike (L), IA is isotopic abundance, and Rss is the equilibrium ratio of isotopic abundances (Iso1:Iso2). Isotopic dilution has been successfully applied to determine E-values for several elements. However, to our knowledge, this method has not yet

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Screening of chelating ligands to enhance mercury accumulation from historically mercury-contaminated soils for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxu; Xia, Jicheng; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-15

    Screening of optimal chelating ligands which not only have high capacities to enhance plant uptake of mercury (Hg) from soil but also can decrease bioavailable Hg concentration in soil is necessary to establish a viable chemically-assisted phytoextraction. Therefore, Brassica juncea was exposed to historically Hg-contaminated soil (total Hg, 90 mg kg -1 ) to investigate the efficiency of seven chelating agents [ammonium thiosulphate, sodium thiosulphate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite] at enhancing Hg phytoextraction; the leaching of bioavailable Hg caused by these chelating agents was also investigated. The Hg concentration in control (treated with double-distilled water) plant tissues was below 1 mg kg -1 . The remarkably higher Hg concentration was found in plants receiving ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments. The bioaccumulation factors and translocation factors of ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The more efficient uptake of Hg by plants upon treatment with ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite compared to the other treatments might be explained by the formation of special Hg-thiosulphate complexes that could be preferentially taken up by the roots and transported in plant tissues. The application of sulfite significantly increased bioavailable Hg concentration in soil compared with that in initial soil and control soil, whereas ammonium thiosulphate significantly decreased bioavailable Hg concentration. The apparent decrease of bioavailable Hg in ammonium thiosulphate-treated soil compared with that in sodium sulfite-treated soil might be attributable to the unstable Hg-thiosulphate complexes formed between thiosulphate and Hg; they could react to produce less bioavailable Hg in the soil. The results of this study indicate that ammonium thiosulphate may be an optimal chelating

  18. Source identification of soil mercury in the Spanish islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Carbonell, Gregoria; Nanos, Nikos; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    This study spatially analysed the relation between mercury (Hg) content in soil and Hg in rock fragment for the purpose of assessing natural soil Hg contribution compared with Hg from human inputs. We present the Hg content of 318 soil and rock fragment samples from 11 islands distributed into two Spanish archipelagos (the volcanic Canary Islands [Canaries] and the Mediterranean Balearic [Balearic] islands). Assumedly both are located far enough away from continental Hg sources to be able to minimise the effects of diffuse pollution. Physical and chemical soil properties were also specified for the samples. Hg contents were significantly greater in the Balearic limestone soils (61 μg kg(-1)) than in the volcanic soils of the Canaries (33 μg kg(-1)). Hg levels were also greater in topsoil than in rocky fragments, especially on the Balearics. The soil-to-rock ratios varied between 1 and 30. Interestingly, the highest topsoil-to-rock Hg ratio (>16 ×) was found in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Majorca, whereas no similar areas in the Canary archipelago were identified.

  19. Application of a mer-lux biosensor for estimating bioavailable mercury in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Sørensen, S. J.; Turner, R. R.

    2000-01-01

    A previously described bioassay using a mer-lux gene fusion for detection of bioavailable mercury was applied for the estimation of the bioavailable fraction of mercury in soil. The bioavailable fraction is defined here as being part of the water leachable fraction. Due to masking of light emission...... responses. The utility of the mer-lux biosensor assay was tested by relating measurements of bioavailable and total mercury to the response of the soil microbial community to mercury exposure. Two different soil types (an agricultural and a beech forest soil) were spiked with 2.5 µg Hg(II) g-1 in microcosms...... in resistance or diversity. This study showed that the bioassay using the mer-lux biosensor is a useful and sensitive tool for estimation of bioavailable mercury in soil....

  20. Quantifying the effects of soil temperature, moisture and sterilization on elemental mercury formation in boreal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Ravinder; Siciliano, Steven D; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2014-10-01

    Soils are a source of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to the atmosphere, however the effects of soil temperature and moisture on Hg(0) formation is not well defined. This research quantifies the effect of varying soil temperature (278-303 K), moisture (15-80% water filled pore space (WFPS)) and sterilization on the kinetics of Hg(0) formation in forested soils of Nova Scotia, Canada. Both, the logarithm of cumulative mass of Hg(0) formed in soils and the reduction rate constants (k values) increased with temperature and moisture respectively. Sterilizing soils significantly (p soils and our results highlight two key processes: (i) a fast abiotic process that peaks at 45% WFPS and depletes a small pool of Hg(0) and; (ii) a slower, rate limiting biotic process that generates a large pool of reducible Hg(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evaluation and source analysis of the mercury pollution in soils and vegetables around a large-scale zinc smelting plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Wu, Qing-Ru; Lin, Hai

    2013-02-01

    The farming soil and vegetable samples around a large-scale zinc smelter were collected for mercury content analyses, and the single pollution index method with relevant regulations was used to evaluate the pollution status of sampled soils and vegetables. The results indicated that the surface soil and vegetables were polluted with mercury to different extent. Of the soil samples, 78% exceeded the national standard. The mercury concentration in the most severely contaminated area was 29 times higher than the background concentration, reaching the severe pollution degree. The mercury concentration in all vegetable samples exceeded the standard of non-pollution vegetables. Mercury concentration, in the most severely polluted vegetables were 64.5 times of the standard, and averagely the mercury concentration in the vegetable samples was 25.4 times of the standard. For 85% of the vegetable samples, the mercury concentration, of leaves were significantly higher than that of roots, which implies that the mercury in leaves mainly came from the atmosphere. The mercury concentrations in vegetable roots were significantly correlated with that in soils, indicating the mercury in roots was mainly from soil. The mercury emissions from the zinc smelter have obvious impacts on the surrounding soils and vegetables. Key words:zinc smelting; mercury pollution; soil; vegetable; mercury content

  2. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  3. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fujun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Changsheng [The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Hou, Deyi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gu, Qingbao, E-mail: guqb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  4. Endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis are influenced by soil mercury contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro-Souza, William; Mello, Ivani Souza; Vendruscullo, Suzana Junges; Silva, Gilvan Ferreira da; Cunha, Cátia Nunes da; White, James Francis; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury. The frequency of colonization, structure and community function, as well as the abundant distribution of taxa of endophytic fungi were influenced by mercury contamination, with higher endophytic fungi in hosts in soil with mercury. The presence or absence of mercury in the soil changes the profile of the functional characteristics of the endophytic fungal community. On the other hand, tolerance of lineages to multiple metals is not associated with contamination. A. fluminensis depends on its endophytic fungi, since plants free of endophytic fungi grew less than expected due to mercury toxicity. In contrast plants containing certain endophytic fungi showed good growth in soil containing mercury, even exceeding growth of plants cultivated in soil without mercury. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis that soil contamination by mercury alters community structure of root endophytic fungi in terms of composition, abundance and species richness. The inoculation of A. fluminensis with certain strains of stress tolerant endophytic fungi contribute to colonization and establishment of the host and may be used in processes that aim to improve phytoremediation of soils with toxic concentrations of mercury.

  5. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  6. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J. [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden); Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Skyllberg, U. [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden); Tu, Q.; Frech, W. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Bleam, W.F. [Dept. of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO{sub 4} and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g{sup -1}, calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times

  7. Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Yin, Run-sheng; Feng, Xin-bin; Sommar, Jonas; Anderson, Christopher W N; Sapkota, Atindra; Fu, Xue-wu; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-11-25

    The influence of topography on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) has received relatively little attention. Here, we report the measurement of Hg species and their corresponding isotope composition in soil sampled along an elevational gradient transect on Mt. Leigong in subtropical southwestern China. The data are used to explain orography-related effects on the fate and behaviour of Hg species in montane environments. The total- and methyl-Hg concentrations in topsoil samples show a positive correlation with elevation. However, a negative elevation dependence was observed in the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures of Hg isotopes. Both a MIF (Δ(199)Hg) binary mixing approach and the traditional inert element method indicate that the content of Hg derived from the atmosphere distinctly increases with altitude.

  8. Speciation of mercury in soil and sediment by selective solvent and acid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Y. [Metara Inc., 1225 East Arques Ave, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Kingston, H.M.; Boylan, H.M.; Rahman, G.M.M.; Shah, S.; Richter, R.C.; Link, D.D.; Bhandari, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    In order to characterize the mercury hazard in soil, a sequential extraction scheme has been developed to classify mercury species based on their environmental mobility and/or toxicity for either routine lab analysis or on-site screening purposes. The alkyl mercury species and soluble inorganic species that contribute to the major portion of potential mercury toxicity in the soil are extracted by an acidic ethanol solution (2% HCl+10% ethanol solution) from soil matrices as ''mobile and toxic'' species. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection has been developed to further resolve the species information into soluble inorganic species (Hg{sup 2+}), methylmercury(II) (MeHg{sup +}) and ethylmercury(II) (EtHg{sup +}) species. Alternatively, these species can be separated into ''soluble inorganic mercury'' and ''alkyl mercury'' sub-categories by Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE). A custom Sulfydryl Cotton Fiber (SCF) material is used as the solid phase medium. Optimization of the SCF SPE technique is discussed. Combined with a direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80), the SCF SPE technique is a promising candidate for on-site screening purposes. Following the ethanol extraction, the inorganic mercury species remaining in soil are further divided into ''semi-mobile'' and ''non-mobile'' sub-categories by sequential acid extractions. The ''semi-mobile'' mercury species include mainly elemental mercury (Hg) and mercury-metal amalgams. The non-mobile mercury species mainly include mercuric sulfide (HgS) and mercurous chloride (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). (orig.)

  9. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN MARGIN SOIL OF THE MADEIRA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Pereira Linhares

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of gold in the Amazon, since 1970, has grown fast from a politic that was resulted in the creation of gold extraction reserves in this region. In the Madeira River the gold exploration is noticeable because of the deposition of mercury in the environment. This metal is toxic and it resists to degradation process, transforming itself chemically, till it gets to its organic form, known as very toxic. Its extensive usage in the gold recover has caused impacts to the environment and consequently to the population, according to studies already done. This study has as its goal to value the pollution by Hg in soils and the variation according to soil fractions. The soils were collected by profiles in 10 areas in the Madeira River. The determination of organic matter was done, according (BRASIL, 1999.To Hg determination it was selected the fraction <200 mesh (<74ım, analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled vapor cold generation (Bastos et. al, 1998. Soils of the kind Latosols and hydromorphic were identified. The Latosols presented from 288 to 641g.Kg-1 of clay and from 266 to 111 g.Kg-1 of thin send, from the horizon A1 (superficial to B2 (sub-superficial. The increase of values of clay makes the function of organic matter in the superficial horizon better (from 20,2 to 19.0 %. The Hg concentration in these horizons varies from 25,5 to 641,4 ıg.Kg-1in the superficial horizon. The hydromorphic, especially, the Fluvic Neosols, present thin area, 396 to 57 g.Kg-1 and clay from 254 to 654 g.Kg-1 from A1 to A2. The horizon A2 presents 467 g.Kg-1 of silt, 13,6 % of OM and 147,31 ıgHg.Kg-1.Among the soils groups of the studied area, it is noticed more Hg concentration with the increase of values of silt and clay, that consequently presents more tenor of OM, and that subsidizes the organic mercury forming.

  11. VT Data - NRCS Soil Survey Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil...

  12. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  13. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  14. Influence of soil mercury concentration and fraction on bioaccumulation process of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Liu, Hongyan; Du, Buyun; Shang, Lihai; Yang, Junbo; Wang, Yusheng

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies showed that rice is the major pathway for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure to inhabitants in mercury (Hg) mining areas in China. There is, therefore, a concern regarding accumulation of Hg in rice grown in soils with high Hg concentrations. A soil pot experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of Hg-contaminated soil on the growth of rice and uptake and speciation of Hg in the rice. Our results imply that the growth of rice promotes residual fraction of Hg transforming to organic-bound fraction in soil and increased the potential risks of MeHg production. Bioaccumulation factors deceased for IHg but relatively stabilized for MeHg with soil total mercury (THg) increasing. IHg in soil was the major source of Hg in the root and stalk, but leaf was contributed by Hg from both atmosphere and soil. Soluble and exchangeable Hg fraction can predict the bioavailability of IHg and MeHg in soils, and that can provide quantitative description of the rate of uptake of the bioavailable Hg. Soluble and exchangeable Hg fraction in paddy soil exceeding 0.0087 mg kg(-1) may cause THg concentration in rice grain above the permissible limit standard, and MeHg concentration in paddy soil more than 0.0091 mg kg(-1) may have the health risks to humans.

  15. Mercury in plants and soils of the French-speaking part of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinche, J P; Dvorak, V

    1975-01-01

    Samples of plants and soils from an agricultural (Changins/Nyon), industrial (Monthey) and urban (Le Vallon/Lausanne) area as well as samples from regions remote from the sources of atmospheric pollution have been analyzed for mercury. A contamination by the mercury of samples from the Monthey area could be ascertained. However, the average mercury content of 37 samples of leaves of trees and shrubs collected during fall 1974 in the Monthey area was lower by 53.2% as compared to the average value obtained in 1973;, this fact can be explained by the improved anti-pollution action taken by the chemical industry. No methyl mercury was found in the few samples from Monthey area analyzed for methyl mercury (4 samples of vegetables and one sample of tobacco leaves). On the other hand, all mushrooms, were they gathered in an area close or remote from the sources of mercury pollution, contained traces of methyl mercury (ranging between 1.9 and 28% of the total mercury content). Likewise, 4 samples of lichens gathered in Arolla (Valais) and La Fretaz/Bullet (Jura vaudois), both being remote mountain regions, did contain traces of methyl mercury (between 4.8 and 6.5% of total mercury content). Soils from Changins into which every other year, since 11 years, wheat treated with organomercury fungicides was sown, did not contain more mercury than soil from forests or mountain meadows. Samples of foliage of trees and shrubs from the vicinity of the municipal garbage combustion plant at Vallon (Lausanne) were clearly polluted by mercury. 18 references, 9 tables.

  16. Influence of the addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment on mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, S.; Millan, R.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mercury mobilization in a soil where fertilizers and organic matter were added. The study was carried out using a soil from the mercury mining district of Almaden (Spain). This area constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the World. The soil has been classified as an Alfisol Xeralf Haploxeral (USDA taxonomy), and the total mercury content is 14,16 0,65 mg kg-1in average. The experimental work was performed in 1 L glass columns filled with 500 g of soil. It was carried out 3 different treatments. The fi rst one, a NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) that was applied at three different doses (recommended dose -by farmers, half recommended dose and double recommended dose). The second one, a peat (Sphagnum) with a ph between 5,5-7, and the third one, a liquid organic amendment (Molex). The experimental work was carried out using 21 columns in total, where 3 of them were used as a control (C). During ten consecutive weeks, the columns were irrigated with distilled water (150 ml) once a week. The contact time was two days; after that, the leachates were collected and filtered. Finally, the soil contained in glass columns at soil fi eld capacity was centrifuged to get the wilting point. Mercury was determined using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (AMA-254). Results show that mercury content in all samples was under detection limit (0,5 μg L-1). It is according to the fact that mercury is mainly in a cinnabar form, which had a very low solubility. The addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment do not increase the mercury content in the leachates either in the soil solution. (Author) 102 refs

  17. Assessment and Comparison of Electrokinetic and Electrokinetic-bioremediation Techniques for Mercury Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Farhana, S. M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are major sources of contamination due to the presence of harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Electrokinetic-Bioremediation (Ek-Bio) is one of the techniques that can be conducted to remediate contaminated soil. Therefore, the most prominent bacteria from landfill soil will be isolated to determine their optimal conditions for culture and growth. The degradation rate and the effectiveness of selected local bacteria were used to reduce soil contamination. Hence, this enhances microbiological activities to degrade contaminants in soil and reduce the content of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of isolated bacteria (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) to remove mercury in landfill soil. 5 kg of landfill soil was mixed with deionized water to make it into slurry condition for the purpose of electrokinetic and bioremediation. This remediation technique was conducted for 7 days by using 50 V/m of electrical gradient and Lysinibacillus fusiformis bacteria was applied at the anode reservoir. The slurry landfill soil was located at the middle of the reservoir while distilled water was placed at the cathode of reservoir. After undergoing treatment for 7 days, the mercury analyzer showed that there was a significant reduction of approximately up to 78 % of mercury concentration for the landfill soil. From the results, it is proven that electrokinetic bioremediation technique is able to remove mercury within in a short period of time. Thus, a combination of Lysinibacillus fusiformis and electrokinetic technique has the potential to remove mercury from contaminated soil in Malaysia.

  18. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Mazur; C.P.J. Mitchell; C.S. Eckley; S.L. Eggert; R.K. Kolka; S.D. Sebestyen; E.B. Swain

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil-air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown.We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg...

  19. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  20. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  1. The partitioning of mercury in the solids components of forest soils and flooded forest soils in a hydroelectric reservoir, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmytriw, R.P.

    1993-11-01

    Upon inundation, the soils in a hydroelection reservoir are subjected to several years of physical, biological and chemical changes as the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic ecosystem is achieved. Changes in Eh, pH and microbial activity are believed to alter the metal binding capacity of solid substrates (organic matter, reactive Fe and Mn oxides, and clay minerals) within the soil profile, leading to remobilization of mercury associated with these phases. Four cores were collected along a transect from an unflooded forest soil to a pre-impoundment lake bottom sediment in the La-Grande-2 reservoir and watershed. The samples were sequentially extracted to determine the distribution of mercury between three operationally defined solid compartments: organic carbon, reactive Fe and Mn oxides/hydroxides, and the solid clay residue. Results indicate that up to 80% of the mercury in the O-horizon in forest soils and flooded forest soils, and up to 85% of the mercury in the lake sediments is bound to NaOH extractable organic carbon fractions. In the B-horizon podzol where organic content is low, 40-60% of the total mercury was found to be associated with reactive Fe minerals. In contrast, the flooded soil contains very little reactive Fe at any depth and the associated mercury concentrations are low. It is proposed that, upon inundation, oxide minerals are reduced and Hg released to the pore waters where it is immediately bound to an available substrate. Analyses of the residues suggests that there is an enrichment of mercury in the residual fraction immediately above the B-horizon of a flooded soil while the sulfide mineralization appears to play a role in sequestering mercury in lake sediments. 14 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Distribution and elevated soil pools of mercury in an acidic subtropical forest of southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tieshanping catchment in southwest China was supposed to a large pool of atmospheric mercury. This work was aimed to examine THg (total mercury) concentrations, pools and influence factors in the acidic forest. THg concentrations were highly elevated in the study area, which was significantly depended on TOM (total organic matter) concentrations and altitudinal elevation, whereas negatively correlated with soil pH. The pools of mercury accumulated in soils were correlated strongly with the stocks of TOM and altitude, ranged from 5.9 to 32 mg m −2 and averaged 14.5 mg m −2 , indicating that the acidic forest was a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China. THg concentrations in stream waters decreased with altitude increasing and regression analyses showed that soil/air exchange flux would be increased with the decrease of altitude. Present results suggest that elevation increasing decreases THg losses as low THg concentrations in runoffs and volatilization from soils. - Highlights: • Soil THg pools and influence factors were studied at an acidic catchment in southwestern China. • THg concentrations was increased significantly with TOM concentrations and altitude increasing, decreased with pH. • THg pools in soils were highly elevated and deepened on TOM pools and altitude. • Difference in THg output by volatilization and runoff was a major reason for THg distribution at different altitudes. - Mercury pools increased with altitude increasing as mercury lost more at low elevation area in acidic subtropical forest

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  4. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  5. Phytoremediation of mercury in pristine and crude oil contaminated soils: Contributions of rhizobacteria and their host plants to mercury removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhoh, N A; Ali, N; Al-Awadhi, H; Dashti, N; Al-Mailem, D M; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

    2010-11-01

    The rhizospheric soils of three tested legume crops: broad beans (Vicia faba), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum), and two nonlegume crops: cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum) contained considerable numbers (the magnitude of 10(5)g(-1) soil) of bacteria with the combined potential for hydrocarbon-utilization and mercury-resistance. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding genes of rhizobacteria associated with broad beans revealed that they were affiliated to Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Exiquobacterium aurantiacum, Pseudomonas veronii, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacillus brevis, Arthrobacter sp. and Flavobacterium psychrophilum. These rhizobacteria were also diazotrophic, i.e. capable of N(2) fixation, which makes them self-sufficient regarding their nitrogen nutrition and thus suitable remediation agents in nitrogen-poor soils, such as the oily desert soil. The crude oil attenuation potential of the individual rhizobacteria was inhibited by HgCl(2), but about 50% or more of this potential was still maintained in the presence of up to 40 mgl(-1) HgCl(2). Rhizobacteria-free plants removed amounts of mercury from the surrounding media almost equivalent to those removed by the rhizospheric bacterial consortia in the absence of the plants. It was concluded that both the collector plants and their rhizospheric bacterial consortia contributed equivalently to mercury removal from soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methyl Mercury Production In Tropical Hydromorphic Soils: Impact Of Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedron, S.; Charlet, L.; Harris, J.; Grimaldi, M.; Cossa, D.

    2007-12-01

    Artisanal alluvial gold mining is important in many tropical developing countries and several million people are involved worldwide. The dominant use of mercury for gold amalgamation in this activity leads to mercury accumulation in soils, to sediment contamination and to methyl mercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation along the food chain. In this presentation we will present recent data on methyl mercury production in hydromorphic soils and tailing ponds from a former gold mining area located in French Guiana (South America). Comparison of specific fluxes between a pristine sub watershed and the contaminated watershed shows that former mining activities lead to a large enhancement of dissolved and particulate MMHg emissions at least by a factor of 4 and 6, respectively. MMHg production was identified in sediments from tailing ponds and in surrounding hydromorphic soils. Moreover, interstitial soil water and tailing pond water profiles sampled in an experimental tailing pond demonstrate the presence of a large MMHg production in the suboxic areas. Both tailing ponds and hydromorphic soils present geochemical conditions that are favorable to bacterial mercury methylation (high soil Hg content, high aqueous ferric iron and dissolved organic carbon concentrations). Although sulfate-reducing bacteria have been described as being the principal mercury methylating bacteria, the positive correlation between dissolved MMHg and ferrous iron concentrations argue for a significant role of iron-reducing bacteria. Identifications by sequencing fragments of 16S rRNA from total soil DNA support these interpretations. This study demonstrates that current and past artisanal gold mining in the tropics lead to methyl mercury production in contaminated areas. As artisanal activities are increasing with increasing gold prices, the bio- magnification of methyl mercury in fish presents an increasing threat to local populations whose diet relies on fish consumption.

  7. Human and ecological remediation goals for soil mercury at East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafran, F.A.; Cornaby, B.W.; Hadden, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury, used in the past production of enriched lithium by the Department of Energy, is the principal chemical of concern in the 14-mile floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). SAIC has developed risk-based remediation goal options (RGOS) for mercury in EFPC soils to protect the most sensitive human receptors. The existing chronic oral RfD for mercury is based on exposure of laboratory species to mercuric chloride. However, speciation and leaching/availability studies (conducted by EPA EMSL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) indicated less soluble and less toxic mercury species, principally mercuric sulfide, with measurable quantities of metallic mercury also present, predominate in EFPC floodplain soils. SAIC derived human health RGOs using deterministic and probabilistic methods and incorporated the probability density function for bioavailability of mercury species from leaching/availability data generated by ORNL. Monte Carlo simulation was used in uncertainty analysis and supported the derivation of a protective, but realistic risk-based remediation goal of 400 mg mercury/kg soil. For ecological risk assessment, RGOs were based on risks through food chains from contaminants in soil. The authors describe a terrestrial food-chain model of contaminant transfer to primary producers, first-order consumers, mid-level predators, and top-level predators. The model uses published toxicity data, site-specific contaminant concentrations, and bioaccumulation factors calculated from measured body burdens of floodplain organisms to compute RGOs for various combinations of exposure parameters. Model calculations show that under reasonably conservative conditions, mid-level predators have the highest exposures relative to dietary limits and, therefore, require the lowest soil-mercury RGOs. Mercury concentrations of ∼500 mg/kg are protective of the receptor populations exposed through food chains at this site

  8. Assessment of repeated harvests on mercury and arsenic phytoextraction in a multi-contaminated industrial soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grifoni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is widely distributed throughout the environment. In many contaminated soils other contaminants are present along with mercury; of these, arsenic is one of the most frequently found metals. In the presence of mixed contamination of this kind, remediation technologies must overcome many difficulties due to the different chemical characteristics of the various contaminants. In this study, repeated assisted phytoextraction cycles with Brassica juncea, were conducted on a laboratory scale to evaluate the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from a multi-contaminated industrial soil. The possibility of using only one additive, ammonium thiosulphate, to remove mercury and arsenic from co-contaminated soil simultaneously was also investigated. The thiosulfate addition greatly promoted the plant uptake of both contaminants, with an efficiency comparable to that of phosphate specifically used to mobilize specifically arsenic. Repeated additions of mobilizing agents increased metal availability in soil, promoted plant uptake and consequently increased the removal of contaminants in the studied soil. Repeated treatments with thiosulfate increased the concentration of mercury and arsenic in the Brassica juncea aerial part, but due to toxic effects of mercury that reduce biomass production, the total accumulation of both metals in plants tended to decrease at each subsequent re-growth.The use of a single additive to remove both contaminants simultaneously offers several new advantages to phytoextraction technology in terms of reducing cost and time.

  9. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  10. Mercury content in volcanic soils across Europe and its relationship with soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Rodriguez, Susana; Fernandez-Calvino, David; Arias-Estevez, Manuel; Novoa-Munoz, Juan Carlos [Vigo Univ., Ourense (Spain). Area de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Taboada, Teresa; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Garcia-Rodeja, Eduardo [Universidad de Santiago, Coruna (Spain). Dept. Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola

    2012-04-15

    with total C and cation exchange capacity, indicating an origin predominantly from atmospheric deposition. The total Hg content of soils from volcanic areas demonstrated the role of volcanism as a source of this metal. The degree of evolution of the volcanic soils and their typical compounds (metal-humus complexes, organic matter and inorganic non-crystalline Al and Fe compounds) are involved in Hg accumulation. The mercury accumulated in the analysed soils is a mixture of the Hg that is present in volcanic soil parent material and the Hg that is deposited from the atmospheric pool, which combines natural and anthropogenic sources. (orig.)

  11. Mercury and trace element fractionation in Almaden soils by application of different sequential extraction procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, D.M.; Quejido, A.J.; Fernandez, M.; Hernandez, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Aldea, M.; Martin, R.; Morante, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    A comparative evaluation of the mercury distribution in a soil sample from Almaden (Spain) has been performed by applying three different sequential extraction procedures, namely, modified BCR (three steps in sequence), Di Giulio-Ryan (four steps in sequence), and a specific SEP developed at CIEMAT (six steps in sequence). There were important differences in the mercury extraction results obtained by the three procedures according to the reagents applied and the sequence of their application. These findings highlight the difficulty of setting a universal SEP to obtain information on metal fractions of different mobility for any soil sample, as well as the requirement for knowledge about the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the samples. The specific six-step CIEMAT sequential extraction procedure was applied to a soil profile (Ap, Ah, Bt1, and Bt2 horizons). The distribution of mercury and major, minor, and trace elements in the different fractions were determined. The results indicate that mercury is mainly released with 6 M HCl. The strong association of mercury with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides, present in all the horizons of the profile, and/or the solubility of some mercury compounds in such acid can explain this fact. Minor mercury is found in the fraction assigned to oxidizable matter and in the final insoluble residue (cinnabar). (orig.)

  12. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  13. The dynamics of mercury near Idrija mercury mine, Slovenia: Horizontal and vertical distributions of total, methyl, and ethyl mercury concentrations in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Imura, Ryusuke; Matsuyama, Akito; Miyamoto, Junko; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Kocman, David; Kotnik, Jože; Fajon, Vesna; Horvat, Milena

    2017-10-01

    The distributions of the total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), and ethylmercury (EtHg) concentrations in soil and their relationship to chemical composition of the soil and total organic carbon content (TOC, %) were investigated. Core samples were collected from hill slope on the right and left riverbanks of the Idrija River. Former smelting plant is located on the right bank. The T-Hg average in each of the core samples ranged from 0.25 to 1650 mg kg -1 . The vertical T-Hg variations in the samples from the left bank showed no significant change with depth. Conversely, the T-Hg varied with depth, with the surface, or layers several centimeters from the surface, tending to show the highest values in the samples from the right bank. Since the right and left bank soils have different chemical compositions, different pathways of mercury delivery into soils were suggested. The MeHg and EtHg concentrations ranged from n.d. (not detected) to 444 μg kg -1 and n.d. to 17.4 μg kg -1 , respectively. The vertical variations of MeHg and EtHg were similar to those of TOC, except for the near-surface layers containing TOC greater than 20%. These results suggest that the decomposition of organic matter is closely related to organic mercury formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Speciation of mercury in soils and sediments by thermal evaporation and cold vapor atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombach, G.; Bombach, K.; Klemm, W.

    1994-01-01

    Evaporation studies of mercury in several chemical compounds, soils, and sediments with a high content of organic matter indicate that a quantitative release is possible at temperatures as low as 400 C. The desorption behaviour from a gold column is not influenced. Only from samples with a thermal prehistory, such as brown coal ash, did mercury evaporate at higher temperatures. Qualitative conclusions can be derived about the content of metallic mercury as well as mercury associated with organic matter or sulfide. A comparison of the analytical results obtained by using the evaporation technique or by dissolving using a mixture of conc. HCl and HNO 3 shows good agreement; the advantages of the evaporation technique are obvious at very low mercury concentrations. (orig.)

  15. Mercury decreases culturability of Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JAJ 28 in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kaare; Ekelund, Flemming; Binnerup, Svend J.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury is a biologically potent heavy metal, which has been found to change the diversity of culturable bacteria. Therefore, we investigated whether Hg kills bacteria in soil or reduces culturability. Soil microcosms were inoculated with Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis JAJ 28 and were sampled...... into account when studying the effects of heavy metals on bacterial diversity....

  16. Distribution of Mercury Concentrations in Tree Rings and Surface Soils Adjacent to a Phosphate Fertilizer Plant in Southern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Raae; Ahn, Young Sang

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine mercury concentrations in tree rings and surface soils at distances of 4, 26 and 40 km from a fertilizer plant located in Yeosu City, Korea. Mercury concentrations in all tree rings were low prior to the establishment of the plant in 1977 and became elevated thereafter. The highest average mercury concentration in the tree rings was 11.96 ng g -1 at the Yeosu site located nearest to the plant, with the lowest average mercury concentration of 4.45 ng g -1 at the Suncheon site furthest away from the plant. In addition, the highest mercury content in the surface soil was 108.51 ng cm -3 at the Yeosu site, whereas the lowest mercury content in the surface soil was 31.47 ng cm -3 at the Suncheon site. The mercury levels decreased gradually with increasing distance from the plant.

  17. Absorption of Mercury from Polluted Soil by Rice Plant(Case Study: Farms of Amol Industrial Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has recognized as one of the most toxic heavy metals, which many industries generate and dispose to the environment. Few studies are done about mercury accumulation in soil and bioconcentration and transfer factor of mercury in rice plant cultivated in industrial areas. In this study samples were taken randomly from 10 farms in vicinity of Amol industrial suburban area with three replications. Samples were measured by the LECO AMA 254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM D-6733method. Also the parameters related to the quality of the soil were measured. The mean of mercury concentration in soil, root, stem and grain were found 0.031 ±0.012 mg/kg, 0.074 ±0.0163 mg/kg, 0.058 ±0.008 mg/kg and 0.051 ±0.0083 mg/kg respectively. The calculated transfer factor of mercury to various organs and bioconcentration factor were < 1 and 2.46 respectively. Pearson correlation test showed a positive correlation between mercury concentration in soil with mercury concentration in grain and also a negative correlation between pH with mercury concentration in root and soil. It is concluded that rice plant have high potential for phytoremediation of mercury from soil.

  18. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  19. Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg(-1)), sediment (430 μg kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 μg kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

  20. The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Jiřina

    2014-05-01

    The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange

  1. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  2. Mercury transformation and release differs with depth and time in a contaminated riparian soil during simulated flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Brett; Aiken, George R.; Nagy, Kathryn L.; Manceau, Alain; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Riparian soils are an important environment in the transport of mercury in rivers and wetlands, but the biogeochemical factors controlling mercury dynamics under transient redox conditions in these soils are not well understood. Mercury release and transformations in the Oa and underlying A horizons of a contaminated riparian soil were characterized in microcosms and an intact soil core under saturation conditions. Pore water dynamics of total mercury (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (Hg0(aq)) along with selected anions, major elements, and trace metals were characterized across redox transitions during 36 d of flooding in microcosms. Next, HgT dynamics were characterized over successive flooding (17 d), drying (28 d), and flooding (36 d) periods in the intact core. The observed mercury dynamics exhibit depth and temporal variability. At the onset of flooding in microcosms (1–3 d), mercury in the Oa horizon soil, present as a combination of ionic mercury (Hg(II)) bound to thiol groups in the soil organic matter (SOM) and nanoparticulate metacinnabar (b-HgS), was mobilized with organic matter of high molecular weight. Subsequently, under anoxic conditions, pore water HgT declined coincident with sulfate (3–11 d) and the proportion of nanoparticulate b-HgS in the Oa horizon soil increased slightly. Redox oscillations in the intact Oa horizon soil exhausted the mobile mercury pool associated with organic matter. In contrast, mercury in the A horizon soil, present predominantly as nanoparticulate b-HgS, was mobilized primarily as Hg0(aq) under strongly reducing conditions (5–18 d). The concentration of Hg0(aq) under dark reducing conditions correlated positively with byproducts of dissimilatory metal reduction (P(Fe,Mn)). Mercury dynamics in intact A horizon soil were consistent over two periods of flooding, indicating that nanoparticulate b-HgS was an accessible pool of mobile mercury over recurrent reducing conditions. The

  3. The Effect of Long Term Mercury Pollution on the Soil Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, A.K.; Westergaard, K.; Christensen, Søren

    2001-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure to mercury on the soil microbial community was investigated in soil from three different sites along a pollution gradient. The amount of total and bioavailable mercury was negatively correlated to the distance from the center of contamination. The size...... of the bacterial and protozoan populations was reduced in the most contaminated soil, whereas there was no significant difference in fungal biomass measured as chitinase activity. Based on the number of colony morphotypes, moreover, the culturable bacterial population was structurally less diverse and contained...... of the number and abundance of bands. The functional potential of the microbial population measured as sole carbon source utilization by Ecoplates® differed between the soils, but there was no change in the number of substrates utilized. The observed changes in the different soil microbial populations...

  4. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23

  5. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

    2012-09-01

    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features

  6. Influence of sulfur on the accumulation of mercury in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) growing in mercury contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Zhao, Jiating; Guo, Jingxia; Liu, Mengjiao; Xu, Qinlei; Li, Hong; Li, Yu-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element for plant growth and its biogeochemical cycling is strongly linked to the species of heavy metals in soil. In this work, the effects of S (sulfate and elemental sulfur) treatment on the accumulation, distribution and chemical forms of Hg in rice growing in Hg contaminated soil were investigated. It was found that S could promote the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and decrease total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains, straw, and roots. Hg in the root was dominated in the form of RS-Hg-SR. Sulfate treatment increased the percentage of RS-Hg-SR to T-Hg in the rice root and changed the Hg species in soil. The dominant Hg species (70%) in soil was organic substance bound fractions. Sulfur treatment decreased Hg motility in the rhizosphere soils by promoting the conversion of RS-Hg-SR to HgS. This study is significant since it suggests that low dose sulfur treatment in Hg-containing water irrigated soil can decrease both T-Hg and MeHg accumulation in rice via inactivating Hg in the soil and promoting the formation of iron plaque in rice root, which may reduce health risk for people consuming those crops. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will

  8. Mercury pollution surveys in Riga by Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavare, Z.; Bogans, E.; Svagere, A.

    2008-01-01

    Practical sessions of mercury pollution measurements in Riga (Latvia) have been performed in several districts using an RA-915+ Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer coupled with a global positioning system (GPS). The measurements were taken from a driving car and in different days at one particular location (the Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy) for monitoring the changes in atmospheric mercury concentration. GPS was used to relate the measurement results to particular places, which made it possible to create a digitalized database of pollution for different geographic coordinates in different time spans. The measurements have shown that the background level of mercury concentration in Riga does not exceed 5 ng/m 3 , although there are several areas of elevated mercury pollution that need particular attention. (Authors)

  9. Stability of mercury concentration measurements in archived soil and peat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Burns, Douglas; Nováková, Tereza; Kaňa, Jiří; Rohovec, Jan; Roll, Michal; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2018-01-01

    Archived soil samples can provide important information on the history of environmental contamination and by comparison with recently collected samples, temporal trends can be inferred. Little previous work has addressed whether mercury (Hg) concentrations in soil samples are stable with long-term storage under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we have re-analyzed using cold vapor atomic adsorption spectroscopy a set of archived soil samples that ranged from relatively pristine mountainous sites to a polluted site near a non-ferrous metal smelter with a wide range of Hg concentrations (6 - 6485 µg kg-1). Samples included organic and mineral soils and peats with a carbon content that ranged from 0.2 to 47.7%. Soil samples were stored in polyethylene bags or bottles and held in laboratory rooms where temperature was not kept to a constant value. Mercury concentrations in four subsets of samples were originally measured in 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007, and re-analyzed in 2017, i.e. after 17, 12, 11 and 10 years of storage. Statistical analyses of either separated or lumped data yielded no significant differences between the original and current Hg concentrations. Based on these analyses, we show that archived soil and peat samples can be used to evaluate historical soil mercury contamination.

  10. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  11. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  12. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  13. Combination of pseudomonas putida and EK method to reduce the amount of mercury on landfill soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabila, A. T. A.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Azim, M. A. M.; Amirah, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    Landfills usually lack of environment measures especially on soil. There are no guarantee that the landfill soil is free from being contaminated. It may cause harm for humans, animals and plants at surrounding area. In order to solve this problem, advance remediation technique is essential such as the electrokinetic combined with microorganisms known as electrokinetic bioremediation technique. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of P.putida with 15 volt electric current supply (Ek-bio) and without electric current (Bio) in removal of mercury in landfill soil. Both treatments were running throughout 14 days. The P.putida was placed at anode compartment meanwhile sterile distilled water poured at cathode compartment. According to the both results, Ek-bio was removed mercury up to 48 % but by using standard bioremediation treatment, the removal only 32 %. Besides that, the migration of P.putida react more aggressively during the present of electric current compared with bioremediation. As the results, it was proven that by using Ek-bio technique can increase the activity of bacteria beside and the removal of mercury. Therefore, Ek-bio method can be commercialized to the parties concerned to solve the contaminated soil by mercury.

  14. Latent effect of soil organic matter oxidation on mercury cycling within a southern boreal ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Gabriel; Randy Kolka; Trent Wickman; Laurel Woodruff; Ed. Nater

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is to investigate processes causing the observed spatial variation of total mercury (THg) in the soil O horizon of watersheds within the Superior National Forest (Minnesota) and to determine if results have implications toward understanding long-term changes in THg concentrations for resident fish. Principal component analysis was used to...

  15. SEVERAL MECHANISMS OF MERCURY RESISTANCE FOUND IN SOIL ISOLATES FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrashitova, Svetlava A., M.A. Ilyushchenko, A. Yu Kalmykv, S.A. Aitkeldieva, Wendy J. Davis-Hoover and Richard Devereux. In press. Several Mechanisms of Mercury Resistance Found in Soil Isolates from Pavlodar, Kazakhstan (Abstract). To be presented at the Battelle Conference on...

  16. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Zhenchuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Xiaoshan, E-mail: zhangxsh@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zhangwei, E-mail: wangzhw@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ci Zhijia [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: > Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. > Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. > Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. > Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  17. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Zhenchuan; Zhang Xiaoshan; Wang Zhangwei; Ci Zhijia

    2011-01-01

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. - Highlights: → Hg accumulation in crop organs was studied by OTCs and soil Hg enriched experiments. → Hg accumulation in foliages and roots was mainly from air and soil, respectively. → Air Hg had stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation. → Foliar Hg concentrations showed the trend of increase over growth stages. - Capsule Mercury accumulated in the aboveground organs of crop was mainly from the air.

  18. Mercury affects the distribution of culturable species of Pseudomonas in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, Maria Sommer; Nielsen, Preben; Ekelund, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria isolated during 52 days on Gould's S1 agar from soil spiked with 0, 3.5 and 15 mg Hg(II) kg soil(-1) were characterised to reveal whether mercury affected them differently. Isolates from the treatments with 0 and 15 mg Hg kg(-1) were characterised using FT-IR characterisation...... was almost exclusively restricted to P. frederiksbergensis and P. migulae groups. We conclude that Hg caused a shift in the dominating species of culturable Pseudomonas....

  19. Organic and inorganic amendment application on mercury-polluted soils: effects on soil chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Klouza, Martin; Holečková, Zlata; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of a previous study performed in our laboratory, the use of organic and inorganic amendments can significantly modify the Hg mobility in soil. We have compared the effectiveness of organic and inorganic amendments such as digestate and fly ash, respectively, reducing the Hg mobility in Chernozem and Luvisol soils differing in their physicochemical properties. Hence, the aim of this work was to compare the impact of digestate and fly ash application on the chemical and biochemical parameters in these two mercury-contaminated soils in a model batch experiment. Chernozem and Luvisol soils were artificially contaminated with Hg and then incubated under controlled conditions for 21 days. Digestate and fly ash were applied to both soils in a dose of 10 and 1.5 %, respectively, and soil samples were collected after 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. The presence of Hg in both soils negatively affected to processes such as nitrification, provoked a decline in the soil microbial biomass C (soil microbial biomass C (MBC)), and the microbial activities (arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) in both soils. Meanwhile, the digestate addition to Chernozem and Luvisol soils contaminated with Hg improved the soil chemical properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N (Ntot), inorganic-N forms (N-NH4 (+) and N-NO3 (-))), as consequence of high content in C and N contained in digestate. Likewise, the soil MBC and soil microbial activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) were greatly enhanced by the digestate application in both soils. In contrast, fly ash application did not have a remarkable positive effect when compared to digestate in Chernozem and Luvisol soil contaminated with mercury. These results may indicate that the use of organic amendments such as digestate considerably improved the soil health in Chernozem and Luvisol compared with fly ash, alleviating the detrimental impact of Hg. Probably, the chemical properties present in

  20. Study of the Behavior and Distribution of Mercury in Soil Samples Collected on the Banks of the Valdeazogues River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominchar, M. A.; Sierra, M. J.; Rodiriguez, J.; Millam, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the behavior of mercury in the soil of the Valdeazogues river (Almaden, Ciudad Real, Spain) by using a six-step sequential extraction procedure (CIEMAT) and checking the relationship between the percentage of organic matter in soil and the percentage of mercury associated with the exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. The results show that total mercury concentrations in soil range from 116.7 ±24.3 to 245.5 ±59.6 mg kg - 1 of Hg even to concentrations of 350.9 ±68.6 mg kg -1 . However, the available mercury concentration is a smaller percentage of 0.15% of total mercury measured in the samples. Also, the soluble mercury is less than 0,037 mg kg - 1, so that, the leaching process and transport of mercury to surface water and groundwater are very slow. With regard to the distribution of mercury between the different fractions of soil, the metal is associated with more resistant soil fractions, these are: crystalline Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides, organic matter absorbed and the fi nal residue. (Author9) 50 refs.

  1. A Simple Survey Concerning the Approach of the Cleaning Companies to Mercury Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Camur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge of the cleaning companies in case of mercury spills at home. METHOD: Thirty-two cleaning companies were interviewed by a telephone survey. Two standard questions were asked to an authorized people of the company. “A manometer is broken on the carpet. The mercury in the manometer is all spilled on the wall to wall carpet in the living room. We want our carpet to be cleaned. Could you do it? How can be the carpet cleaned? Have you ever cleaned a carpet on which mercury was spilled?” It is stated that mercury spillage has happened just a very short time ago and nothing have been done after that. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the 32 companies work in Istanbul, 37.5% in Ankara and 22.5% in Izmir. Three companies from Ankara, five from Istanbul, one from Izmir stated that they have encountered with mercury spillage before. Three of the companies who have stated that the have not encountered with mercury spillage before, asked “What is mercury?” and one of them asked whether “Mercury is a communicable disease, isn’t it?”. Twenty-two of the interviewed cleaning companies stated that they could clean the carpet with stain remover and three of them offered vacuuming, one washing the carpet with carpet shampoo, one person cleaning the stain by wiping with alcohol/ethyl alcohol. Five of the companies stated that they could not clean the stain and one of them he has advised throwing the carpet away. CONCLUSION: In many developing countries there is no responsible association or institution for mercury spills. Such simple surveys may be very important in determining training and gaps concerning public health problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 557-562

  2. Sorption of inorganic mercury on soils from Ankobra basin...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dmosman.admin

    cury emitted from artisanal gold mining activities within the Ankobra basin. Total mercury ... in the south-western part of Ghana by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. THg content of the .... was determined using hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder ...... vian iron – humus podzol – validation and long – term ...

  3. Distribution and Pools of Mercury in Czech Forest Soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, J.; Rohovec, Jan; Hojdová, Maria; Penížek, V.; Buchtová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 3 (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 0049-6979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/1369 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : mercury * carbon * sulfur * oxalate-extractable Al * Oxalate-extractable Fe * Hg/C ratio * Central Europe * Black Triangle Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.554, year: 2014

  4. Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Justin B.; Friedland, Andrew J.; Engerbretson, Teresa R.; Kaste, James M.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing current Hg pools in forest soils of the northeastern U.S. is important for monitoring changes in Hg cycling. The forest floor, upper and lower mineral horizons were sampled at 17 long-term upland forest sites across the northeastern U.S. in 2011. Forest floor Hg concentration was similar across the study region (274 ± 13 μg kg −1 ) while Hg amount at northern sites (39 ± 6 g ha −1 ) was significantly greater than at western sites (11 ± 4 g ha −1 ). Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, soil pH, latitude and mean annual precipitation and these variables explained approximately 70% of the variability when multiple regressed. Mercury concentration and amount in the lower mineral soil was correlated with Fe, soil organic matter and latitude, corresponding with Bs horizons of Spodosols (Podzols). Our analysis shows the importance of regional and soil properties on Hg accumulation in forest soils. -- Highlights: •Mercury in the forest floor and mineral soil was quantified at 17 sites. •Concentrations and amounts were regressed with regional factors and soil properties. •Forest floor Hg was most explained by soil organic matter, pH, and precipitation. •Mineral soil Hg was explained by latitude, Fe concentration, and soil organic matter. •Mineral soil Hg was greatest in Bs horizons of Spodosols due to podzolization. -- Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, pH, latitude, and mean annual precipitation. Mineral soil Hg was greatest in Bs horizons of Spodosols

  5. Does water-level fluctuation affect mercury methylation in wetland soils?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branfireun, B.A.; Mitchell, C.P.J.; Iraci, J.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, Middleton, WI (United States); Fowle, D.A. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Neudahl, L. [Minnesota Power, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish vary considerably in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. However, the variations are not generally consistent with physical factors such as basin characteristics, wetland cover or lake chemistry. Pronounced differences in Hg concentrations in fish have been noted in the reservoirs of the St. Louis River system near Duluth Minnesota. The differences were observed between headwater reservoir systems with seasonal flooding and drawdown, and a peaking reservoir with approximately daily water level fluctuations during seasonal lower flow periods. It was suggested that these differences could be attributed to water level fluctuations in the reservoir which influenced the actual production of methylmercury (MeHg) in the surrounding wetland soils. In response to this hypothesis, the authors investigated the role of water level fluctuation in the production and mobilization of MeHg in sediments from wetlands that lie adjacent to a headwater reservoir, a peaking reservoir, and a nearby natural flowage lake used as a control. Preliminary field surveys of the wetland soils revealed that although the average MeHg concentrations in the headwater and peaking reservoir wetlands were not considerably different, both were much higher than the natural lake. Each site demonstrated high variability, but maximum MeHg concentrations ranged from 29.2 ng/g for the peaking reservoir to 4.44 ng/g at the natural lake. A laboratory experiment was therefore performed in which sediments from each wetland were subjected to different water level regimes. The purpose was to assess Hg methylation potential. Stable Hg isotopes were used at the beginning and end of the experiment. In order to determine if water level fluctuation can significantly change the methylation potential of wetland soils on its own, the microbial consortia will also be assessed during the laboratory experiment.

  6. Mercury in urban soils: A comparison of local spatial variability in six European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.; Davidson, C.M.; Grcman, H.; Hossack, I.; Hursthouse, A.S.; Ljung, K.; Martini, C.; Otabbong, E.; Reinoso, R.; Ruiz-Cortes, E.; Urquhart, G.J.; Vrscaj, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify and assess for the first time the variability of total mercury in urban soils at a European level, using a systematic sampling strategy and a common methodology. We report results from a comparison between soil samples from Aveiro (Portugal), Glasgow (Scotland), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Sevilla (Spain), Torino (Italy) and Uppsala (Sweden). At least 25 sampling points (in about 4-5 ha) from a park in each city were sampled at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm). Total mercury was determined by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The quality of results was monitored using certified reference materials (BCR 142R and BCR 141R). Measured total mercury contents varied from 0.015 to 6.3 mg kg -1 . The lowest median values were found in Aveiro, for both surface (0-10 cm) and sub-surface (10-20 cm) samples (0.055 and 0.054 mg kg -1 , respectively). The highest median mercury contents in soil samples were found in samples from Glasgow (1.2 and 1.3 mg kg -1 , for surface and sub-surface samples, respectively). High variability of mercury concentrations was observed, both within each park and between cities. This variability reflecting contributions from natural background, previous anthropogenic activities and differences in the ages of cities and land use, local environmental conditions as well as the influence of their location within the urban area. Short-range variability of mercury concentrations was found to be up to an order of magnitude over the distance of only a few 10 m

  7. Comparison of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of mercury in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srungaram, Pavan K.; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K.; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Singh, Jagdish P., E-mail: singh@icet.msstate.edu

    2013-09-01

    Mercury is a toxic element found throughout the environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury in soils are quite hazardous to plants growing in these soils and also the runoff of soils to nearby water bodies contaminates the water, endangering the flora and fauna of that region. This makes continuous monitoring of mercury very essential. This work compares two potential spectroscopic methods (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS)) at their optimum experimental conditions for mercury monitoring. For LIBS, pellets were prepared from soil samples of known concentration for generating a calibration curve while for SIBS, soil samples of known concentration were used in the powder form. The limits of detection (LODs) of Hg in soil were calculated from the Hg calibration curves. The LOD for mercury in soil calculated using LIBS and SIBS is 483 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. The detection range for LIBS and SIBS is discussed. - Highlights: • We compared SIBS and LIBS for mercury (Hg) measurements in soil. • Hg 546.07 nm line was selected for both LIBS and SIBS measurements. • Limit of detection for Hg was found to be 20 ppm with SIBS and 483 ppm with LIBS.

  8. Comparison of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of mercury in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srungaram, Pavan K.; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K.; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic element found throughout the environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury in soils are quite hazardous to plants growing in these soils and also the runoff of soils to nearby water bodies contaminates the water, endangering the flora and fauna of that region. This makes continuous monitoring of mercury very essential. This work compares two potential spectroscopic methods (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS)) at their optimum experimental conditions for mercury monitoring. For LIBS, pellets were prepared from soil samples of known concentration for generating a calibration curve while for SIBS, soil samples of known concentration were used in the powder form. The limits of detection (LODs) of Hg in soil were calculated from the Hg calibration curves. The LOD for mercury in soil calculated using LIBS and SIBS is 483 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. The detection range for LIBS and SIBS is discussed. - Highlights: • We compared SIBS and LIBS for mercury (Hg) measurements in soil. • Hg 546.07 nm line was selected for both LIBS and SIBS measurements. • Limit of detection for Hg was found to be 20 ppm with SIBS and 483 ppm with LIBS

  9. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Selection of mercury accumulator plants for gold mine tailing contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muddarisna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that were selected for this study were planted in the planting media consisting of soil (70% and tailings (30% for 9 weeks. The results showed that after 9 weeks of planting, Paspalum conjugatum had growth rate, biomass production, Hg accumulation, and ratio of shoot Hg : root Hg higher than those of other plant species tested, both in the media consisted of amalgamation and cyanidation tailings. It can thus be concluded that Paspalum conjugatum is potential plant species for remediating mercury-contaminated soil.

  11. Study on Hyperspectral Characteristics and Estimation Model of Soil Mercury Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Dong, Zhenyu; Sun, Zenghui; Ma, Hongchao; Shi, Lei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the mercury content of 44 soil samples in Guan Zhong area of Shaanxi Province was used as the data source, and the reflectance spectrum of soil was obtained by ASD Field Spec HR (350-2500 nm) Comparing the reflection characteristics of different contents and the effect of different pre-treatment methods on the establishment of soil heavy metal spectral inversion model. The first order differential, second order differential and reflectance logarithmic transformations were carried out after the pre-treatment of NOR, MSC and SNV, and the sensitive bands of reflectance and mercury content in different mathematical transformations were selected. A hyperspectral estimation model is established by regression method. The results of chemical analysis show that there is a serious Hg pollution in the study area. The results show that: (1) the reflectivity decreases with the increase of mercury content, and the sensitive regions of mercury are located at 392 ~ 455nm, 923nm ~ 1040nm and 1806nm ~ 1969nm. (2) The combination of NOR, MSC and SNV transformations combined with differential transformations can improve the information of heavy metal elements in the soil, and the combination of high correlation band can improve the stability and prediction ability of the model. (3) The partial least squares regression model based on the logarithm of the original reflectance is better and the precision is higher, Rc2 = 0.9912, RMSEC = 0.665; Rv2 = 0.9506, RMSEP = 1.93, which can achieve the mercury content in this region Quick forecast.

  12. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4–417 μg g−1 and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m−2 h−1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  13. Effects of liming and ash recycling on the outflow of mercury from forest soils - a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Arne; Nilsson, Ingvar

    1994-01-01

    In this report, a theoretical review is made of the probable effects that spreading of lime and woodash in forests will have on the turnover of mercury in soil and on the outflow of mercury into water systems. As a result of historic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, a large proportion of Swedish forest land has significantly increased concentrations of mercury, which is gradually leaching into lakes and watercourses. If an increased application of lime or woodash to forest soils were to result in a major change in the outflow of mercury, it could in time have a considerable effect on the mercury concentrations in lake fish. The fish in a large number of lakes in the southern part of Sweden already have mercury concentrations which are so high as to make them unsuitable for use as food. In conclusion, the theoretical assessment indicates in general that any effects on the mercury situation in lakes as a result of liming or woodash treatment of forest land are marginal or towards the positive side. It is not likely that these treatments increases the outflow of organic matter from soil. Any worsening of the mercury situation in lakes and watercourses will therefore hardly be the result of soil changes, but rather of processes in lakes and streams. Most of the evidence, however suggests that liming/ash treatment has predominantly positive effects with regard to the lake processes that control mercury levels in fish. At this juncture, available experience indicates that the mercury situation in the environment is in no way a decisive factor in determining where and how lime or ash should be applied to forest land. 64 refs, 2 figs

  14. Mercury contamination in soil, tailing and plants on agricultural fields near closed gold mine in Buru Island, Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity in Buru Island, Maluku is threatened by tailings which are generated from formerly gold mine in Botak Mountain in Wamsait Village. Gold that extracted by using mercury was carried out in mining area as well agricultural field.  High content of mercury in tailings and agricultural field pose a serious problem of food production and quality; and further endangers human health. The purpose of this research was to determine the contaminant level of mercury in tailing, soil and its accumulation in edible part of some food crops. Soil, tailing and plant samples for Hg testing were taken by purposive method based on mining activities in Waelata, Waeapo and Namlea sub district. Six soil samples had been analyzed for their chemical properties. Total mercury levels in tailings and plants were measured by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. This study showed that agricultural field where tailings were deposited contained Hg above the threshold but agricultural area which is far from hot spot did not. Most edible parts of food crops accumulated mercury more than Indonesian threshold for mercury content in food. This evidence explained that tailings deposited on the surface of agricultural field had an impact on soil quality and crop quality. Tailing accumulated on soil will decreased soil quality since naturally soil fertility in agricultural field in Buru is low.

  15. 7 CFR 611.11 - Soil survey information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soil survey information. 611.11 Section 611.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Soil Survey Operations § 611.11 Soil survey information. (a) Availability. NRCS...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Union County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Roosevelt County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Luna County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Colfax County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Guadalupe County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lea County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Harding County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Current mercury distribution and bioavailability in floodplain soils of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Su, Yi; Monts, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the current status of mercury distribution, speciation and bioavailability in the floodplain soils of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) after decades of US Department of Energy's remediation. Historically as part of its national security mission, the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Facility in Oak Ridge, TN, USA acquired a significant fraction of the world's supply of elemental mercury. During the 1950s and 1960s, a large amount of elemental mercury escaped confinement and is still present in the watershed surrounding the Y-12 facility. A series of remediation efforts have been deployed in the watersheds around the Oak Ridge site during the following years. The sampling fields were located in a floodplain of LEFPC of Oak Ridge, TN, USA. A series of surface soils (10-20 cm) were sampled from both wooded areas and wetland/grass land. Two 8x8 m fields were selected in the woodland. Five profiles each consisting of three layers were randomly taken from each field. The three layers were the surface layer at 0-10cm, subsurface layer at 50-60 cm, and bottom layer at 100-110 cm. Soil in both wood and wetland areas was well developed with a clear B horizon. The present study clearly shows that the total mercury in floodplain soils of LEFPC significantly decreased after the series of remediation. This study confirmed the long-term effectiveness of these remediation actions, especially after excavation of highly contaminated floodplain soils. However, the average total mercury level of all soil samples collected are in the range of 50-80 mg/kg, still significantly above toxic level (> 5mg/kg). Furthermore, contrary to conventional believing, the major mercury form in current soils of this particular area of floodplain of LEFPC is mainly in non-cinnabar mercury bound in clay minerals (after decades of remediation). The floodplains can act both as a medium-term sink and as long-term sources. Native North

  8. Transport mechanisms of soil-bound mercury in the erosion process during rainfall-runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Han, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination by mercury (Hg) is a global environmental issue. In watersheds with a significant soil Hg storage, soil erosion during rainfall-runoff events can result in nonpoint source (NPS) Hg pollution and therefore, can extend its environmental risk from soils to aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, transport mechanisms of soil-bound Hg in the erosion process have not been explored directly, and how different fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) impact transport is not fully understood. This study investigated transport mechanisms based on rainfall-runoff simulation experiments. The experiments simulated high-intensity and long-duration rainfall conditions, which can produce significant soil erosion and NPS pollution. The enrichment ratio (ER) of total mercury (THg) was the key variable in exploring the mechanisms. The main study findings include the following: First, the ER-sediment flux relationship for Hg depends on soil composition, and no uniform ER-sediment flux function exists for different soils. Second, depending on soil composition, significantly more Hg could be released from a less polluted soil in the early stage of large rainfall events. Third, the heavy fraction of SOM (i.e., the remnant organic matter coating on mineral particles) has a dominant influence on the enrichment behavior and transport mechanisms of Hg, while clay mineral content exhibits a significant, but indirect, influence. The study results imply that it is critical to quantify the SOM composition in addition to total organic carbon (TOC) for different soils in the watershed to adequately model the NPS pollution of Hg and spatially prioritize management actions in a heterogeneous watershed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Capability of selected crop plants for shoot mercury accumulation from polluted soils: phytoremediation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis; Rincón, Jesusa; Asencio, Isaac; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2007-01-01

    High-biomass crops can be considered as an alternative to hyperaccumulator plants to phytoremediate soils contaminated by heavy metals. In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Hg in shoots, barley, white lupine, lentil, and chickpea were tested in pot experiments using several growth substrates. In the first experimental series, plants were grown in a mixture of vermiculite and perlite spiked with 8.35 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg. The mercury concentration of the plants' aerial tissues ranged from 1.51 to 5.13 microg g(-1) d.w. with lentil and lupine showing the highest values. In a second experiment carried out using a Hg-polluted soil (32.16 microg g(-1) d.w.) collected from a historical mining area (Almadén, Spain), the crop plants tested only reached shoot Hg concentration up to 1.13 microg g(-1) d.w. In the third experimental series, the Almadén soil was spiked with 1 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg; as a result, mercury concentrations in the plant shoots increased approximately 6 times for lupine, 5 times for chickpea, and 3.5 times for barley and lentil, with respect to those obtained with the original soil without Hg added. This marked difference was attributed to the low availability of Hg in the original Almadin soil and its subsequent increase in the Hg-spiked soil. The low mercury accumulation yields obtained for all plants do not make a successful decontamination of the Almadén soils possible byphytoremediation using crop plants. However, since the crops tested can effectively decrease the plant-available Hg level in this soil, their use could, to some extent, reduce the environmental risk of Hg pollution in the area.

  10. Determination of total mercury in aluminium industrial zones and soil contaminated with red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Zacharová, Andrea; Schwarz, Marián

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated total mercury contents in areas impacted by aluminium plants in Tajikistan and Slovakia and in one area flooded with red mud in Hungary. We present the first determination of total mercury contents in the near-top soil (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in Tajikistan and the first comparative investigation of Tajikistan-Slovakia-Hungary. The Tajik Aluminium Company (TALCO) is one of the leading producers of primary aluminium in Central Asia. In the past 30 years, the plant has been producing large volumes of industrial waste, resulting in negative impacts on soil, groundwater and air quality of the surrounding region. Mercury concentrations were significant in Slovakia and Hungary, 6 years after the flooding. In studied areas in Slovakia and Hungary, concentrations of total mercury exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV = 0.5 mg Hg kg -1 ). However, in Tajikistan, values were below the TLV (0.006-0.074 mg kg -1 ) and did not significantly vary between depths. Total Hg in Slovakia ranged from 0.057 to 0.668 mg kg -1 and in Hungary from 0.029 to 1.275 mg kg -1 . However, in the plots near to the red mud reservoir and the flooded area, Hg concentrations were higher in the upper layers than in the lower ones.

  11. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wörlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Roßlau (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  12. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels

  13. A chromosomally based luminescent bioassay for mercury detection in red soil of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, He [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanking (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanking (China). College of Life Science; Cheng, Han; Ting, Mao; Zhong, Wen-Hui [Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanking (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Science; Lin, Xian-Gui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanking (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture

    2010-07-15

    A luminescent reporter gene system was constructed by fusing the mercury-inducible promoter, P{sub merT}, and its regulatory gene, merR, with a promoterless reporter gene EGFP. A stable and nonantibiotic whole-cell reporter (BMB-ME) was created by introducing the system cassette into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida strain and then applied it for mercury detection in the red soil of China. Spiked with 10 and 100 {mu}g g{sup -1} Hg{sup 2+} and after 15 and 30 days incubation, soil samples were extracted and evaluated water soluble, bioavailable, organic matter bound, and residual fractions of mercury by both BMB-ME and chemical way. The expression of EGFP was confirmed in soil extraction, and fluorescence intensity was quantified by luminescence spectrometer. The sensor strain BMB-ME appeared to have a detection range similar to that of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. The optimal temperature for EGFP expression was 35 C and the lowest detectable concentration of Hg{sup 2+} 200 nM. Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ag{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} ions at nanomolar level did not interfere with the measurement. These results showed that the BMB-ME constitute an adaptable system for easy sensing of small amounts of mercury in the red soil of China. (orig.)

  14. Selection of Mercury Accumulator Plants for Gold Mine Tailing Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Muddarisna, N; Krisnayanti, B D

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation, which is more efficient with less side effects than conventional physical and chemical methods, is increasing in popularity as a remediation system. This paper provides a brief overview of developments in research and application of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailings containing mercury. Lindernia crustacea L., Digitaria radicosa Presl. Miq., Zingiber purpurium L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg., Cyperus kyllingia Endl., and Caladium bicolor Vent., that w...

  15. An Exploration of Mercury Soils Treatment Technologies for the Y-12 Plant - 13217

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrapp, John [UCOR, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Julius, Jonathon [DOE Oak Ridge (United States); Browning, Debbie [Strata-G, LLC, 2027 Castaic Lane, Knoxville, TN, 37932 (United States); Kane, Michael [RSI, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Whaley, Katherine [RSI, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Estes, Chuck [EnergySolutions, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Witzeman, John [RSI, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There are a number of areas at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that have been contaminated with mercury due to historical mercury use and storage. Remediation of these areas is expected to generate large volumes of waste that are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristically hazardous. These soils will require treatment to meet RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prior to disposal. URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) performed a feasibility assessment to evaluate on-site and off-site options for the treatment and disposal of mercury-contaminated soil from the Y-12 Site. The focus of the feasibility assessment was on treatment for disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. A two-phase approach was used in the evaluation process of treatment technologies. Phase 1 involved the selection of three vendors to perform treatability studies using their stabilization treatment technology on actual Y-12 soil. Phase II involved a team of waste management specialists performing an in-depth literature review of all available treatment technologies for treating mercury contaminated soil using the following evaluation criteria: effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost. The result of the treatability study and the literature review revealed several viable on-site and off-site treatment options. This paper presents the methodology used by the team in the evaluation of technologies especially as related to EMWMF waste acceptance criteria, the results of the physical treatability studies, and a regulatory analysis for obtaining regulator approval for the treatment/disposal at the EMWMF. (authors)

  16. An Exploration of Mercury Soils Treatment Technologies for the Y-12 Plant - 13217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrapp, John; Julius, Jonathon; Browning, Debbie; Kane, Michael; Whaley, Katherine; Estes, Chuck; Witzeman, John

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of areas at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that have been contaminated with mercury due to historical mercury use and storage. Remediation of these areas is expected to generate large volumes of waste that are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristically hazardous. These soils will require treatment to meet RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prior to disposal. URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) performed a feasibility assessment to evaluate on-site and off-site options for the treatment and disposal of mercury-contaminated soil from the Y-12 Site. The focus of the feasibility assessment was on treatment for disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. A two-phase approach was used in the evaluation process of treatment technologies. Phase 1 involved the selection of three vendors to perform treatability studies using their stabilization treatment technology on actual Y-12 soil. Phase II involved a team of waste management specialists performing an in-depth literature review of all available treatment technologies for treating mercury contaminated soil using the following evaluation criteria: effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost. The result of the treatability study and the literature review revealed several viable on-site and off-site treatment options. This paper presents the methodology used by the team in the evaluation of technologies especially as related to EMWMF waste acceptance criteria, the results of the physical treatability studies, and a regulatory analysis for obtaining regulator approval for the treatment/disposal at the EMWMF. (authors)

  17. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Han, F.X.; Chen, J.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.; Monts, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H 2 O 2 , resulting in lower H 2 O 2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian

  18. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, L., E-mail: l.fantozzi@iia.cnr.it [CNR-Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, c/o: UNICAL-Polifunzionale, 87036 Rende (Italy); Ferrara, R., E-mail: romano.ferrara@pi.ibf.cnr.it [CNR-Institute of Biophysics, San Cataldo Research Area, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dini, F., E-mail: fdiniprotisti@gmail.com [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Via A. Volta 4, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tamburello, L., E-mail: ltamburello@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Via Derna 1, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F. [CNR-Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, c/o: UNICAL-Polifunzionale, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange

  19. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, L.; Ferrara, R.; Dini, F.; Tamburello, L.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m −2 h −1 ) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m −2 h −1 ) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m −2 h −1 , which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange from grass covered soil is

  20. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in soil--application to different anthropogenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Blanc, Philippe; Jacques, Diederik

    2014-11-01

    Soil systems are a common receptor of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) contamination. Soils play an important role in the containment or dispersion of pollution to surface water, groundwater or the atmosphere. A one-dimensional model for simulating Hg fate and transport for variably saturated and transient flow conditions is presented. The model is developed using the HP1 code, which couples HYDRUS-1D for the water flow and solute transport to PHREEQC for geochemical reactions. The main processes included are Hg aqueous speciation and complexation, sorption to soil organic matter, dissolution of cinnabar and liquid Hg, and Hg reduction and volatilization. Processes such as atmospheric wet and dry deposition, vegetation litter fall and uptake are neglected because they are less relevant in the case of high Hg concentrations resulting from anthropogenic activities. A test case is presented, assuming a hypothetical sandy soil profile and a simulation time frame of 50 years of daily atmospheric inputs. Mercury fate and transport are simulated for three different sources of Hg (cinnabar, residual liquid mercury or aqueous mercuric chloride), as well as for combinations of these sources. Results are presented and discussed with focus on Hg volatilization to the atmosphere, Hg leaching at the bottom of the soil profile and the remaining Hg in or below the initially contaminated soil layer. In the test case, Hg volatilization was negligible because the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) was inhibited by the low concentration of dissolved Hg. Hg leaching was mainly caused by complexation of Hg(2+) with thiol groups of dissolved organic matter, because in the geochemical model used, this reaction only had a higher equilibrium constant than the sorption reactions. Immobilization of Hg in the initially polluted horizon was enhanced by Hg(2+) sorption onto humic and fulvic acids (which are more abundant than thiols). Potential benefits of the model for risk management and remediation of

  1. Mercury transfer from soil to olive trees. A comparison of three different contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo L; Amorós, José Á; Esbrí, José Maria; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; García-Navarro, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Mercury contents in soil and olive tree leaves have been studied in 69 plots around three different source areas of this element in Spain: Almadén (Ciudad Real), Flix (Tarragona) and Jódar (Jaén). Almadén was the world's largest cinnabar (HgS) mining district and was active until 2003, Flix is the oldest Spanish chlor-alkali plant (CAP) and has been active from 1898 to the present day and Jódar is a decommissioned CAP that was active for 14 years (1977-1991). Total mercury contents have been measured by high-frequency modulation atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman effect (ZAAS-HFM) in the soils and olive tree leaves from the three studied areas. The average soil contents range from 182 μg kg(-1) in Flix to 23,488 μg kg(-1) in Almadén, while the average leaf content ranges from 161 μg kg(-1) in Jódar to 1213 μg kg(-1) in Almadén. Despite the wide range of data, a relationship between soil-leaf contents has been identified: in Almadén and Jódar, multiplicative (bilogarithmic) models show significant correlations (R = 0.769 and R = 0.484, respectively). Significant correlations were not identified between soil and leaf contents in Flix. The continuous activity of the Flix CAP, which remains open today, can explain the different uptake patterns for mercury, which is mainly atmospheric in origin, in comparison to the other two sites, where activity ceased more than 10 years ago and only soil uptake patterns based on the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic model curve are observed.

  2. Mercury in the soil of two contrasting watersheds in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Bradley, Paul M.; Cannon, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Soil represents the largest store of mercury (Hg) in terrestrial ecosystems, and further study of the factors associated with soil Hg storage is needed to address concerns about the magnitude and persistence of global environmental Hg bioaccumulation. To address this need, we compared total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations and stores in the soil of different landscapes in two watersheds in different geographic settings with similar and relatively high methyl Hg concentrations in surface waters and biota, Fishing Brook, Adirondack Mountains, New York, and McTier Creek, Coastal Plain, South Carolina. Median total Hg concentrations and stores in organic and mineral soil samples were three-fold greater at Fishing Brook than at McTier Creek. Similarly, median methyl Hg concentrations were about two-fold greater in Fishing Brook soil than in McTier Creek soil, but this difference was significant only for mineral soil samples, and methyl Hg stores were not significantly different among these watersheds. In contrast, the methyl Hg/total Hg ratio was significantly greater at McTier Creek suggesting greater climate-driven methylation efficiency in the Coastal Plain soil than that of the Adirondack Mountains. The Adirondack soil had eight-fold greater soil organic matter than that of the Coastal Plain, consistent with greater total Hg stores in the northern soil, but soil organic matter – total Hg relations differed among the sites. A strong linear relation was evident at McTier Creek (r2 = 0.68; p2 = 0.13; phighly variable across the soil organic matter content range, suggesting excess Hg binding capacity in the Adirondack soil. These results suggest greater total Hg turnover time in Adirondack soil than that of the Coastal Plain, and that future declines in stream water Hg concentrations driven by declines in atmospheric Hg deposition will be more gradual and prolonged in the Adirondacks.

  3. [Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi

    2013-02-01

    Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange

  4. Influence of rice straw amendment on mercury methylation and nitrification in paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Dong, Ji-Xin; Han, Li-Li; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Currently, rice straw return in place of burning is becoming more intensive in China than observed previously. However, little is known on the effect of returned rice straw on mercury (Hg) methylation and microbial activity in contaminated paddy fields. Here, we conduct a microcosm experiment to evaluate the effect of rice straw amendment on the Hg methylation and potential nitrification in two paddy soils with distinct Hg levels. Our results show that amended rice straw enhanced Hg methylation for relatively high Hg content soil, but not for low Hg soil, spiking the same additional fresh Hg. methylmercury (MeHg) concentration was significantly correlated to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and relative abundance of dominant microbes associated with Hg methylation. Similarly, amended rice straw was found to only enhance the potential nitrification rate in soil with relatively high Hg content. These findings provide evidence that amended rice straw differentially modulates Hg methylation and nitrification in Hg contaminated soils possibly resulting from different characteristics in the soil microbial community. This highlights that caution should be taken when returning rice straw to contaminated paddy fields, as this practice may increase the risk of more MeHg production. Main finding: Rice straw amendment enhanced both Hg methylation and nitrification potential in the relatively high, but not low, Hg soil. - Highlights: • Rice straw enhanced Hg methylation in relatively high Hg content paddy soils. • Microbial community directly correlated to the Hg methylation. • Mercury methylation in soils depend on Hg bioavailability and microbial activities. • Hg input affects microbial community associated with decomposition of rice straw.

  5. [Geochemical characteristics of radon and mercury in soil gas in Lhasa, Tibet, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Cheng; Du, Jian-Guo; Wang, Chuan-Yuan; Cao, Zhong-Quan; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei

    2007-03-01

    The geochemical characteristics of radon and mercury in soil gas in Lhasa and vicinity are investigated based on the measurements of Rn and Hg concentrations, and environmental quality for Rn and Hg in soil gas was evaluated by means of the index of geoaccumulation. The data of Rn and Hg of 1 579 sampling site indicate that the values of environmental-geochemical background of Rn and Hg are 7 634.9 Bq/m3, 41.5 ng/m3 with standard deviations of 2.7 Bq/m3, 2.2 ng/m3, respectively. The environmental quality for Rn in soil gas is better in the west and east parts of studied area, but becomes moderate pollution (level III) in the north part of the central area. Rn is derived from radioactive elements in granitic sediments in the intermountain basin and granite base, which are the major sources of pollution. The environmental quality for Hg in soil gas becomes gradually polluted from the suburban to the center of urban, and the highest pollution reaches level IV. The background of Hg in soil gas is mainly controlled by compositions of sediments, but the Hg pollution caused by human waste and religionary use of mercury.

  6. Distribution and fractionation of mercury in the soils of a unique tropical agricultural wetland ecosystem, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, C; Gopikrishna, V G; Arunbabu, V; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    Mercury biogeochemistry is highly complex in the aquatic ecosystems and it is very difficult to predict. The speciation of mercury is the primary factor controlling its behavior, movement, and fate in these systems. The fluctuating water levels in wetlands could play a major role in the mercury transformations and transport. Hence, the agricultural wetlands may have a significant influence on the global mercury cycling. Kuttanad agricultural wetland ecosystem is a unique one as it is lying below the sea level and most of the time it is inundated with water. To understand the mobility and bioavailability of Hg in the soils of this agricultural wetland ecosystem, the present study analyzed the total mercury content as well as the different fractions of mercury. Mercury was detected using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. The total mercury content varied from 0.002 to 0.683 mg/kg, and most of the samples are having concentrations below the background value. The percentage of mercury found in the initial three fractions F1, F2, and F3 are more available and it may enhance the methylation potential of the Kuttanad agroecosystem.

  7. Evaluation and development of soil values for the pathway 'soil to plant'. Significance of mercury evaporation for the burden of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeth, S.; Schlueter, K.

    1998-05-01

    In cooperation with the Ad-hoc working group 'Transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant' of the Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) the significance of mercury evaporation for the deduction of threshold values in respect of the impact via the pathway soil to plant was investigated. Mercury contamination of food- and feeding stuff plants was examined with special emphasis. For these purposes a lab experiment including three different soils with varying initial mercury load (background level, geogenic and anthropogenic contamination) and two different plant species (parsely and spinach) was carried out under defined conditions in closed lysimeters. Mercury uptake via the roots was minimised since the plants grew in isolated customary substrate which showed a low concentration of mercury. Thus, only the surrounding soil evaporated mercury. The concentrations of mercury in the plants in the background level treatment (0.1 mg Hg/kg dry soil) were 0.15 mg/kg dry matter (spinach) and 0.44 mg/kg dry matter (parsely). The treatment with anthropogenic contaminated soil (111 mg Hg/kg dry soil) resulted in concentrations in the two plants of 2.0 and 2.6 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. A comparable order of magnitude was achieved in the geogenic contaminated treatment (34 mg Hg/kg dry soil) with 2.1 mg/kg dry matter. Experiments conducted with radioactive 203 Hg showed in each case recoveries of 20 to 34% in the leaves regarding the evaporated Hg-tracer. Also in the stem and in the roots Hg-tracer could be detected, indicating a translocation within the plant from leaf to root. By means of a comprehensive literature study the state of the art for Hg-evaporation and Hg-uptake of plants was compiled. Comparing the experimental results with data derived from literature, the Hg-concentrations found are confirmed by results of other authors. (orig.) [de

  8. Using USDA's National Cooperative Soil Survey Soil Characterization Data to detect soil change: A cautionary tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the USDA-NRCS National Cooperative Soil Survey Soil Characterization Database (NSCD) was reported to provide evidence that total nitrogen (TN) stocks of agricultural soils have increased across the Mississippi basin since 1985. Unfortunately, due to omission of metadata from the NSCD, hist...

  9. Evaluation of mercury levels in sediment and soil samples from Vila Nova river basin, in Amapa State, Brazil, using radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, C.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Guimaraes, J.R.D.; Forti, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Results from a survey on mercury concentration in sediments and soils from a gold mining area along the Vila Nova river, in Amapa State, Brazil, are presented. These values were compared with those from the Igarape Pedra Preta basin, an area unaffected by mining activities. Total mercury contents were determined in the muddy (silt+clay) fraction of the sediments and in the -1 for soils and 14 μg x kg -1 for sediments when 200 mg of sample were analysed. The Hg results obtained from a comparison between our current method (RNAA) and CV AAS are also presented. Mercury levels showed to be very high in the soils and sediments collected in the Vila Nova river (up to 2 mg x kg -1 ) when compared to background values (0.3 mg x kg -1 ) for this region. An enrichment factor was calculated, using Al as a normalizing factor. It showed values up to 8 in sediments of the Vila Nova river basin, indicating a relatively high degree of pollution as compared to the values of about 1 for the samples of the Igarape Pedra Preta basin. (author)

  10. Effects of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Sørensen, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil. The changes in diversity were monitored in soil microcosms, enriched with 25 mug Hg(II) g(-1) soil, over a period of 3 months...... by purification of total soil DNA and amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction. Concentrations of bioavailable and total mercury were measured throughout the experiment. The effect on the culturable heterotrophic and genetic diversity was very similar, showing an immediate...... decrease after mercury addition but then slowly increasing throughout the entire experimental period. Pre-exposure levels were not reached within the time span of this investigation. The DGGE band pattern indicated that a shift in the community structure was responsible for recovered diversity. When...

  11. Feasibility study of the use of different extractant agents in the remediation of a mercury contaminated soil from Almaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subirés-Muñoz, J.D.; García-Rubio, A.; Vereda-Alonso, C.

    2011-01-01

    The soil of Almaden mining district in Spain has a high concentration of mercury (1000mgkg−1), therefore decontamination activities are necessary. This paper studies the effectiveness of some chelant agents (thiosulfate, EDTA, iodide and HNO3) for the remediation of this soil which has been...

  12. Singular and combined effects of blowdown, salvage logging, and wildfire on forest floor and soil mercury pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl P.J. Mitchell; Randall K. Kolka; Shawn. Fraver

    2012-01-01

    A number of factors influence the amount of mercury (Hg) in forest floors and soils, including deposition, volatile emission, leaching, and disturbances such as fire. Currently the impact on soil Hg pools from other widespread forest disturbances such as blowdown and management practices like salvage logging are unknown. Moreover, ecological and biogeochemical...

  13. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere.

  14. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke)

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqi Lv; Bin Yang; Yixuan Kou; Jun Zeng; Ruixiong Wang; Yumeng Xiao; Fencan Li; Ying Lu; Yuwen Mu; Changming Zhao

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress t...

  15. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Goettlicher, Joerg; Denecke, Melissa A.; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-01-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg -1 . Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as μ-XRF, μ-XRD and μ-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions 3 S 2 Cl 2 ), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction <2 μm. No interaction among Hg-species and soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. - Direct mercury (Hg) speciation in chlor-alkali plant contaminated soils enabled the identification of potentially dangerous Hg-S/Cl amorphous species.

  16. Water and soil biotic relations in Mercury distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.; Puerner, N.; Speitel, T.; Thorarinsson, F.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of Hg is considered both in terms of its availability in soil fractions and the relationship between Hg in plant samples and Hg in ambient soils or other supportive media. The plants were grouped by habitat into epipedic-epiphytic (mosses, lichens) and endopedic-aquatic-marine (Basidiomycetes and algae) samples; nonvascular and vascular forms were also distinguished. Sources included Alaska, Hawaii, New England and Iceland. Brief consideration was also given to Hg distribution in a plant-animal-soil community. Data were expressed in terms of plant Hg content and plant substratum concentration ratio. Average Hg contents and concentration ratios, and modal ranges for the ratios were determined. The results showed similar average Hg contents in all groups (126 to 199 ppb) but a low value (84 ppb) in the lichens; terrestrial forms had ratios of 3.5 to 7.6 whereas the marine algae yielded a figure of 78.7. A secondary mode in the range 0 to 0.1 appeared only in the Alaska-New England Group, over 500 km distant from active thermal sites. Evidence for both exclusion and concentration behavior was obtained.

  17. Impact of mercury mine and smelter St. Ana – Podljubelj on spatial distribution of chemical elements in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research project was to establish the extension of Hg pollution as a consequence of mining and smelting activities in a narrow Alpine valley. The St. Ana mine was first exploited as early as in 1557 and was finally abandoned in 1902. The entire operating period yielded about 110.000 tons of ore, from which 360 tons of Hg was produced. By soil sampling it was established that on about 9 ha the Hg contents in soil exceed the Slovenian critical values for soil (10 mg/kg. The estimated mercury mean for the studied area is 1.3 mg/kg (0.17 – 718 mg/kg. The highest contents of mercury in soilswere found in the area of the mercury smelter.That is a consequence of former atmospheric emissions and technological losses. High values of Hg were found also in soil on the mine and smelter waste dump. The highest determined contents of Hg (108 mg/kg in this area are almost 7-times lower than thecontents of Hg in the area of the smelter. Mercury in soils generally decrease with depth and distance from the mine and smelter. Apart from the area around the former mine and smelter, mercury appear in higher concentrations also along the road that runs along thevalley, which is due to the use of Hg bearing mine tailings in road construction.

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  20. Mercury Exchange at the Air-Water-Soil Interface: An Overview of Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengman Fang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to assess the present knowledge about the methods of determining mercury (Hg exchange at the air-water-soil interface during the past 20 years. Methods determining processes of wet and dry removal/deposition of atmospheric Hg to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as methods determining Hg emission fluxes to the atmosphere from natural surfaces (soil and water are discussed. On the basis of the impressive advances that have been made in the areas relating to Hg exchange among air-soil-water interfaces, we analyzed existing problems and shortcomings in our current knowledge. In addition, some important fields worth further research are discussed and proposed.

  1. Distribution and mobility of mercury in soils of a gold mining region, Cuyuni river basin, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Francés, F; García-Sánchez, A; Alonso-Rojo, P; Contreras, F; Adams, M

    2011-04-01

    An extensive and remote gold mining region located in the East of Venezuela has been studied with the aim of assessing the distribution and mobility of mercury in soil and the level of Hg pollution at artisanal gold mining sites. To do so, soils and pond sediments were sampled at sites not subject to anthropological influence, as well as in areas affected by gold mining activities. Total Hg in regionally distributed soils ranged between 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.40 mg kg(-1), with a median value of 0.11 mg kg(-1), which is slightly higher than soil Hg worldwide, possibly indicating long-term atmospheric input or more recent local atmospheric input, in addition to minor lithogenic sources. A reference Hg concentration of 0.33 mg kg(-1) is proposed for the detection of mining affected soils in this region. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the surrounding soils of pollutant sources, such as milling-amalgamation sites, where soil Hg contents ranged from 0.16 mg kg(-1) to 542 mg kg(-1) with an average of 26.89 mg kg(-1), which also showed high levels of elemental Hg, but quite low soluble+exchangeable Hg fraction (0.02-4.90 mg kg(-1)), suggesting low Hg soil mobility and bioavailability, as confirmed by soil column leaching tests. The vertical distribution of Hg through the soil profiles, as well as variations in soil Hg contents with distance from the pollution source, and Hg in pond mining sediments were also analysed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Forest Structure Affects Soil Mercury Losses in the Presence and Absence of Wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Peter S; Darbyshire, Robyn L; Bormann, Bernard T; Morrissette, Brett A

    2015-11-03

    Soil is an important, dynamic component of regional and global mercury (Hg) cycles. This study evaluated how changes in forest soil Hg masses caused by atmospheric deposition and wildfire are affected by forest structure. Pre and postfire soil Hg measurements were made over two decades on replicate experimental units of three prefire forest structures (mature unthinned, mature thinned, clear-cut) in Douglas-fir dominated forest of southwestern Oregon. In the absence of wildfire, O-horizon Hg decreased by 60% during the 14 years after clearcutting, possibly the result of decreased atmospheric deposition due to the smaller-stature vegetative canopy; in contrast, no change was observed in mature unthinned and thinned forest. Wildfire decreased O-horizon Hg by >88% across all forest structures and decreased mineral-soil (0 to 66 mm depth) Hg by 50% in thinned forest and clear-cut. The wildfire-associated soil Hg loss was positively related to the amount of surface fine wood that burned during the fire, the proportion of area that burned at >700 °C, fire severity as indicated by tree mortality, and soil C loss. Loss of soil Hg due to the 200,000 ha wildfire was more than four times the annual atmospheric Hg emissions from human activities in Oregon.

  3. Soil as an archive of coal-fired power plant mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos

    2016-05-05

    Mercury pollution is a global environmental problem that has serious implications for human health. One of the most important sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions are coal-burning power plants. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with their atmospheric deposition. Our study provides the first assessment of soil Hg on the entire Spanish surface obtained from one sampling protocol. Hg spatial distribution was analysed with topsoil samples taken from 4000 locations in a regular sampling grid. The other aim was to use geostatistical techniques to verify the extent of soil contamination by Hg and to evaluate presumed Hg enrichment near the seven Spanish power plants with installed capacity above 1000 MW. The Hg concentration in Spanish soil fell within the range of 1-7564 μg kg(-1) (mean 67.2) and 50% of the samples had a concentration below 37 μg kg(-1). Evidence for human activity was found near all the coal-fired power plants, which reflects that metals have accumulated in the basin over many years. Values over 1000 μg kg(-1) have been found in soils in the vicinity of the Aboño, Soto de Ribera and Castellon power plants. However, soil Hg enrichment was detectable only close to the emission source, within an approximate range of only 15 km from the power plants. We associated this effect with airborne emissions and subsequent depositions as the potential distance through fly ash deposition. Hg associated with particles of ash tends to be deposited near coal combustion sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size

  5. Distribution of Total and Organic Mercury in Superficial Soils in the Upper Manzanares River Watershed, Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahsé Rojas Challa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Total and organic mercury contents were determined from samples of surface soils (0-5 cm, sieved at ≤ 63µm, collected from 10 different locations in the upper Manzanares River watershed, using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Methylmercury was determined using a HPLC-UV detector. The mean total mercury concentration was 1.3 μg.g-1, a value permitted by the Canadian environment quality guidelines for farming soils, but high for European standards. Using certified reference materials, we verified that a modification of the method described by Qian et al. (2000 was effective for organic mercury extraction, with a recovery of 92.17% for DORM-2 and 92.11% for TORT-2. This modified method was applied to soil samples, obtaining concentrations of 0.5-1.0 μg.g-1 of organic mercury. The parameters for determining methylmercury using HPLC-UV were optimized; the best results were obtained with a 4.6 mm x 25 cm Zorbax CN column, with a mobile phase of 70/30 V/V of methanol: ammonium acetate 0.05 mol.l-1, with a flow rate of 0.5 ml.min-1; the methylmercury was detected at 4.99 min retention time. Methylmercury was not found in the soil samples. Using the certified reference material we proved that the method used produced reliable results. The analysis confirmed the existence of mercury in this farming area.

  6. Mercury in mushrooms and soil from the Wieluńska Upland in south-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Bielawski, Leszek; Kawano, Masabide; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Chudzyński, Krzysztof

    2002-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies of 15 species of higher mushrooms and underlying soil substrate collected from Wieluńska Upland in northern part of Sandomierska Valley in south-central Poland in 1995. A total of 197 samples of caps, 197 stalks, 30 whole fruiting bodies and 227 soil (0-10 cm layer) were analyzed. Mean mercury concentrations in soil substrate corresponding to 15 mushroom species were between 28 +/- 17 and 85 +/- 62 ng/g dry matter (total range between 3.0-190 ng/g). The average cap to stalk concentration quotients of Hg were around 2 (range between 1.1 +/- 1.1 and 2.8 +/- 1.4). However, this quotient in Larch bolete (Suillus grevillei) was 4.4 +/- 6.3. Concentrations of Hg varied depending on the mushroom species. Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) and Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis) contained the greatest mean mercury concentrations both in caps (between 4500 +/- 1700 and 4400 +/- 2400 ng/g dry matter) and stalks (between 2800 +/- 1300 and 3000 +/- 2000 ng/g dry matter). Both the Parasol Mushroom and Horse mushroom were characterised also by a greater potential to bioconcentrate mercury from soils as evidenced by great bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which were between 170 +/- 160 and 130 +/- 120 for caps, and 110 +/- 97 and 89 +/- 92 for stalks. Mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of False death cap (Amanita citrina) increased (p Suillus luteus).

  7. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0) l ) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0) l in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0) g headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0) l in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0) l was distributed throughout the 3.2 m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12 m away, contained Hg(0) l in a 0.3 m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0) l is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical and continued reworking of the

  8. [Spatial distribution and ecological significance of heavy metals in soils from Chatian mercury mining deposit, western Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Yong-Hu; Ji, Yan-Fang; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2009-04-15

    Ores, waste tailings and slag, together with three typical soil profiles (natural soil profiles far from mine entrance and near mine entrance, soil profile under slag) in Chatian mercury mining deposit (CMD), western Hunan province were sampled and their concentrations of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) were determined by HG-ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment factor and correlation analysis were taken to investigate the origins, distribution and migration of Hg, as well as other heavy metals in the CMD. The results show that Hg is enriched in the bottom of the soil profile far from mine entrance but accumulated in the surface of soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag. The soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag are both contaminated by Hg, while the latter is contaminated more heavily. In the soil profile under slag, Hg concentration in the surface soil, Hg average concentration in the total profile, and the leaching depth of soil Hg are 640 microg x g(-1), (76.74 +/- 171.71) microg x g(-1), and more than 100 cm, respectively; while 6.5 microg x g(-1), (2.74 +/- 1.90) microg x g(-1), and 40 cm, respectively, are found in the soil profile near mine entrance. Soil in the mercury mine area is also polluted by Cd, As, Pb, Zn besides metallogenic element Hg, among which Cd pollution is relatively heavier than others. The mobility of the studied heavy metals in soil follows the order as Hg > Cd > As > Zn approximately equal to Pb. The leaching depth of the heavy metals is influenced by total concentration in the surface soil and soil physico-chemical parameters. The origins, distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profile in the mining area are related to primary geological environment, and strongly influenced by human mining activities.

  9. Experiment Study on Determination of Surface Area of Finegrained Soils by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. Q.; Zhou, C. Y.; Fang, Y. G.; Lin, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) has a great influence on the physical and chemical properties of fine-grained soils. Determination of specific surface area is an important content for fine-grained soils micro-meso analysis and characteristic research. In this paper, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was adopted to determine the SSA of fine-grained soils including quartz, kaolinite, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay. The test results show that the average values of SSA obtained by MIP are 0.78m2/g, 11.31m2/g, 57.28m2/g and 27.15m2/g respectively for very fine-grained quartz, kaolin, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay, and that it is feasible to apply MIP to obtain the SSA of fine-grained soils through statistical analysis of 97 samples. Through discussion, it is necessary to consider the state of fine-grained soils such as pore ratio when the SSA of fine-grained soils is determined by MIP.

  10. Assessment of Mercury in Soils, Crops, Earthworms, and Water when Soil is Treated with Gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from fossil fuel combustion has many potential uses in agriculture, but there is concern about the potential environmental effects of its elevated mercury (Hg) concentration. The wet limestone scrubbing process that removes sulfur from flue gas (and produces gyp...

  11. Rising Mercury, Rising Hostility: How Heat Affects Survey Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander H.; Krueger, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent social scientific research has examined connections between public opinion and weather conditions. This article contributes to this literature by analyzing the relationship between high temperature and survey response. Because hot temperatures are associated with aggression, irritation, and negativity, such conditions should lead to the…

  12. Mercury in U.S. coal—Priorities for new U.S. Geological Survey studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan

    2016-05-09

    In 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced emissions standards, known as Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), for a range of toxic constituents from coal-fired utility power stations and other combustion sources. This report presents the findings of an expert panel convened in September 2014 to assess the role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in new coal investigations that would be useful to stakeholders under MATS. Panel input is provided as summaries of responses to a questionnaire distributed to participants. The panel suggests that the USGS continue its work on trace elements in coal and include more information about delivered coals and boiler feed coals, in comparison to previous USGS compilations that emphasized sampling representative of coals in the ground. To be useful under multipollutant regulatory standards, investigation of a range of constituents in addition to mercury would be necessary. These include other toxic metals proposed for regulation, such as arsenic, nickel, cadmium, and chromium, as well as the halogens chlorine and fluorine, which upon emission form harmful acid gases. Halogen determinations are also important because they influence mercury speciation in flue gas, which allows the effectiveness of mercury controls to be assessed and predicted. The panel suggests that the Illinois Basin and the Powder River Basin should have the highest priority for new coal quality investigations in the near term by the USGS, on the basis of current economic conditions and overall economic importance, respectively. As a starting point for new investigations, brief summaries of the distribution of mercury in each coal basin, and their potential for further investigation, are presented.

  13. Simultaneous determination of mercury and organic carbon in sediment and soils using a direct mercury analyzer based on thermal decomposition–atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingjing [College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, No. 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Chakravarty, Pragya [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Davidson, Gregg R. [Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Wren, Daniel G.; Locke, Martin A. [National Sedimentation Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States); Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yingzhou@zjut.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, No. 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Brown, Garry [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Cizdziel, James V., E-mail: cizdziel@olemiss.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Graphical abstract: Comparison of LOI data obtained by a conventional method and by the DMA. The dark line represents a 1:1 ratio. - Highlights: • A direct mercury analyzer was used to estimate total organic carbon. • Mercury and organic carbon were measured in oxbow lake sediment cores. • Temporal and spatial deposition of Hg in the Mississippi Delta were evaluated. - Abstract: The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of using a direct mercury analyzer (DMA) to simultaneously determine mercury (Hg) and organic matter content in sediment and soils. Organic carbon was estimated by re-weighing the sample boats post analysis to obtain loss-on-ignition (LOI) data. The DMA-LOI results were statistically similar (p < 0.05) to the conventional muffle furnace approach. A regression equation was developed to convert DMA-LOI data to total organic carbon (TOC), which varied between 0.2% and 13.0%. Thus, mercury analyzers based on combustion can provide accurate estimates of organic carbon content in non-calcareous sediment and soils; however, weight gain from moisture (post-analysis), measurement uncertainty, and sample representativeness should all be taken into account. Sediment cores from seasonal wetland and open water areas from six oxbow lakes in the Mississippi River alluvial flood plain were analyzed. Wetland sediments generally had higher levels of Hg than open water areas owing to a greater fraction of fine particles and higher levels of organic matter. Annual loading of Hg in open water areas was estimated at 4.3, 13.4, 19.2, 20.7, 129, and 135 ng cm{sup −2} yr{sup −1} for Beasley, Roundaway, Hampton, Washington, Wolf and Sky Lakes, respectively. Generally, the interval with the highest Hg flux was dated to the 1960s and 1970s.

  14. Mercury pollution in the lake sediments and catchment soils of anthropogenically-disturbed sites across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Rose, Neil L

    2016-12-01

    Sediment cores and soil samples were taken from nine lakes and their catchments across England with varying degrees of direct human disturbance. Mercury (Hg) analysis demonstrated a range of impacts, many from local sources, resulting from differing historical and contemporary site usage and management. Lakes located in industrially important areas showed clear evidence for early Hg pollution with concentrations in sediments reaching 400-1600 ng g -1 prior to the mid-19th century. Control of inputs resulting from local management practices and a greater than 90% reduction in UK Hg emissions since 1970 were reflected by reduced Hg pollution in some lakes. However, having been a sink for Hg deposition for centuries, polluted catchment soils are now the major Hg source for most lakes and consequently recovery from reduced Hg deposition is being delayed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An innovative approach to bioremediation of mercury contaminated soils from industrial mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Damien; Edwards, Grant C; Gustin, Mae S; Care, Andrew; Miller, Matthieu B; Sunna, Anwar

    2017-10-01

    Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation. The P. veronii-biopolymer mix was then coated onto natural zeolite granules. Zeolite immobilised cells remained viable for at least 16 weeks stored under ambient room temperature. Furthermore, the immobilised cells were shown to retain both viability and Hg volatilisation functionality after transportation from Australia to the USA, where they were applied to Hg contaminated soil. Maximum flux rates exceeded 10 μg Hg m 2  h -1 from mine tailings (≈7 mg kg -1  Hg with 50% v/v water). This was 4 orders of magnitude above background flux levels. It is envisioned that emitted gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can be readily captured, and transformed back into metallic Hg, which can then be stored appropriately or recycled. This breaks the Hg cycle, as GEM is no longer translocated back to the atmospheric compartment. The immobilising excipients used in this research overcome many logistical issues with delivery of suitable microbial loads to locations of mercury contamination and presents a facile and inexpensive method of augmenting contaminated sites with selected microbial consortia for bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of land use change on mercury distribution in soils of Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Luiz D.; Souza, Margareth de; Ribeiro, Mario G.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the spatial distribution, degree of contamination and storage capacity of Hg in surface forest and pasture soils from Alta Floresta, Southern Amazon, a significant gold mining site from 1980 to 1996. During that period, average annual gold production was about 6.5 tons, with an estimated Hg annual emission to the environment of about 8.8 tons, 60-80% of it being emitted to the atmosphere. Mercury sources to the region are mining sites and gold-dealer shops at the city of Alta Floresta, where gold is smelted and commercialized. Mercury concentrations in forest soils (15-248 ng g -1 , average=61.9 ng g -1 ) were 1.5-3.0 times higher than in pasture soils (10-74 ng g -1 , average=33.8 ng g -1 ), suggesting strong re-mobilization after deforestation. Highest Hg concentrations were found within a distance of 20-30 km from mining sites in both soil types. The influence of the refining operations within the city of Alta Floresta, however, was less clear. Somewhat higher concentrations were observed only within a 5 km radius from the city center where gold-dealer shops are located. Wind direction controls the spatial distribution of Hg. Background concentrations (15-50 ng g -1 ) were generally found at the outer perimeter of the sampling grid, about 40 km from sources. This suggests that Hg released from mining and refining activities undergoes rapid deposition. Estimated cumulative Hg burdens for the first 10 cm of soil averaged 8.3 mg m -2 and 4.9 mg m -2 , for forest and pasture soils respectively and compare well with ultisols and hydromorphic oxisols, but were lower than those found in yellow-red and yellow latosols and podsols from other Amazonian areas. Our results show that changing land use in the Amazon is a strong re-mobilizing agent of Hg deposited on soils from the atmosphere. - Land use change is a strong re-mobilizing agent of Hg distribution in Amazon soils

  17. LANDSAT-1 data, its use in a soil survey program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, F. C.; Frazee, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The following applications of LANDSAT imagery were investigated: assistance in recognizing soil survey boundaries, low intensity soil surveys, and preparation of a base map for publishing thematic soils maps. The following characteristics of LANDSAT imagery were tested as they apply to the recognition of soil boundaries in South Dakota and western Minnesota: synoptic views due to the large areas covered, near-orthography and lack of distortion, flexibility of selecting the proper season, data recording in four parts of the spectrum, and the use of computer compatible tapes. A low intensity soil survey of Pennington County, South Dakota was completed in 1974. Low intensity inexpensive soil surveys can provide the data needed to evaluate agricultural land for the remaining counties until detailed soil surveys are completed. In using LANDSAT imagery as a base map for publishing thematic soil maps, the first step was to prepare a mosaic with 20 LANDSAT scenes from several late spring passes in 1973.

  18. Invasive and exotic earthworms: an unaccounted change to mercury cycling in northeastern US forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. B.; Friedland, A. J.; Görres, J. H.; Renock, D. J.; Jackson, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive and exotic earthworms are now present in many forested areas of the northeastern US with currently unquantified consequences to abiotic and biotic Hg cycling. To quantify these effects, we measured Hg concentrations (mg kg-1) and amounts (μg m-2) in earthworms and soil horizons at 45 soil pits from 9 sites in northern New England. Seven earthworm species were observed in varying assemblages. Most earthworm species attained concentrations of Hg potentially hazardous to wildlife that may ingest them, with highest concentrations found in shallow-burrowing, litter-feeders. Specifically, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis had the greatest Hg concentrations (0.9 ± 0.1) and Hg amounts (8 ± 2) μg m-2. Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis were found to inhabit the forest floor and the top 5 cm of the mineral horizons in high abundance, potentially making it a readily accessible prey species. Bioaccumulation of Hg by invasive and exotic earthworms may be an important mechanism that transfers Hg to ground foraging predators, such as thrushes, red-backed salamanders and foxes, which is generally unaccounted for in terrestrial food chains. Earthworm Hg concentrations were poorly correlated with their respective soil Hg concentrations, suggesting a species dependence for Hg bioaccumulation rather than site effects. We observed that forest floor Hg concentrations and amounts were 23% and 57% lower, respectively, at soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. Moreover, Hg amounts in forest floor-feeding earthworms exceeded the remaining forest floor Hg pools. Mercury concentrations and pools in the mineral soil were 21% and 33% lower, respectively, for soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. We hypothesize that enhanced decomposition, horizon disturbance and bioaccumulation by earthworms has decreased Hg amounts in the forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that earthworms are decreasing Hg storage in forest soils with

  19. Characterization of soil fauna under the influence of mercury atmospheric deposition in Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Teixeira, Daniel Cabral; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2015-06-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere arising from anthropogenic sources, have been the object of great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of strong importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transference to the soil through litter, playing an important role as sink of this element. Soil microarthropods are keys to understanding the soil ecosystem, and for such purpose were characterized by the soil fauna of two Units of Forest Conservation of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, inwhich one of the areas suffer quite interference from petrochemicals and industrial anthropogenic activities and other area almost exempts of these perturbations. The results showed that soil and litter of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil tend to stock high mercury concentrations, which could affect the abundance and richness of soil fauna, endangering its biodiversity and thereby the functioning of ecosystems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Lv

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+ contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content. The lines LZJ119 and LZJ047 showed delays in emergence time of about four weeks, and LZJ047 exhibited the highest mortality rate, 85.19%, under treatment with 10 mg kg-1 mercury. The MDA (malondialdehyde content increased whereas and the Pn (net photosynthetic rate, Fv∕Fm (the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and chlorophyll content decreased in response to mercury stress. The stem diameter, stem biomass and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke showed some modest increases in response to mercury stress and exhibited hormesis at least 1 mg kg-1 mercury treatment. Overall, LZJ119 produced more biomass under mercury stress, whereas LZJ033 exhibited a greater capacity for mercury bioaccumulation. Accordingly, LZJ119 may be a good candidate cultivar for use in cases of moderate—low mercury contamination, whereas LZJ033 may be a better candidate under conditions of high mercury contamination. When Jerusalem artichoke was cultivated in mercury contaminated soil, it not only removed the mercury from soil but also produced large amounts of tubers and shoots which could be used as feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  1. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shiqi; Yang, Bin; Kou, Yixuan; Zeng, Jun; Wang, Ruixiong; Xiao, Yumeng; Li, Fencan; Lu, Ying; Mu, Yuwen; Zhao, Changming

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg 2+ ) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content). The lines LZJ119 and LZJ047 showed delays in emergence time of about four weeks, and LZJ047 exhibited the highest mortality rate, 85.19%, under treatment with 10 mg kg -1 mercury. The MDA (malondialdehyde) content increased whereas and the P n (net photosynthetic rate), F v ∕ F m (the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry) and chlorophyll content decreased in response to mercury stress. The stem diameter, stem biomass and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke showed some modest increases in response to mercury stress and exhibited hormesis at least 1 mg kg -1 mercury treatment. Overall, LZJ119 produced more biomass under mercury stress, whereas LZJ033 exhibited a greater capacity for mercury bioaccumulation. Accordingly, LZJ119 may be a good candidate cultivar for use in cases of moderate-low mercury contamination, whereas LZJ033 may be a better candidate under conditions of high mercury contamination. When Jerusalem artichoke was cultivated in mercury contaminated soil, it not only removed the mercury from soil but also produced large amounts of tubers and shoots which could be used as feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  2. Non-isothermal kinetics of the thermal desorption of mercury from a contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Félix A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain was the largest cinnabar (mercury sulphide mine in the world. Its soils have high levels of mercury a consequence of its natural lithology, but often made much worse by its mining history. The present work examines the thermal desorption of two contaminated soils from the Almadén area under non-isothermal conditions in a N2 atmosphere, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. DSC was performed at different heating rates between room temperature and 600 °C. Desorption temperatures for different mercury species were determined. The Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Coasts–Redfern methods were employed to determine the reaction kinetics from the DSC data. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for mercury desorption were calculated.El distrito minero de Almadén (Ciudad Real, España tiene la mayor mina de cinabrio (sulfuro de mercurio del mundo. Sus suelos tienen altos niveles de mercurio como consecuencia de su litología natural, pero a menudo su contenido en mercurio es mucho más alto debido a la historia minera de la zona. Este trabajo examina la desorción térmica de dos suelos contaminados procedentes de Almadén bajo condiciones isotérmicas en atmósfera de N2, empleando calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. La calorimetría se llevó a cabo a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento desde temperatura ambiente hasta 600 °C. Se determinaron las diferentes temperaturas de desorción de las especies de mercurio presentes en los suelos. Para determinar la cinética de reacción a partir de los datos de DSC se utilizaron los métodos de Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa y Coasts–Redfern. Además se calcularon las energías de activación y los factores pre-exponenciales para la desorción del mercurio.

  3. SEM/EDS analysis of soil and roasting vessels fragments from ancient mercury ore roasting sites at Idrija area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Teršič

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous roasting vessels fragments can be found at ancient roasting site areas in the surroundings of Idrija town, which were used for ore roasting in the first 150 years of Hg production in Idrija. The earthen vessels fragments lay just below the surface humus layer and in some parts they stretch more than 1 meter deep; they arecovered with red (cinnabar or black (metacinnabar coatings.SEM/EDS analysis of roasting vessels fragments and soil samples from roasting site areas P{enk and Frbejžene trate was performed in order to characterize the solid forms of Hg in applied sampling material. Mercuric sulphide HgS was found to be the main mercury compound present in the samples. Analysis of earthen vessels fragmentsshowed abundant HgS coatings on the surface of ceramics, forming either crust-like aggregates on matrix or isolated grains. Some well-shaped grains with indicated structure and the size of up to 200 μm could also be observed. In soil HgS was present as powder-like concentrations scattered in soil samples, frequently coating silicate and quartz crystals and clay-minerals. Polycristalline, mercury- and sulphur- rich particles comprising silica, clay mineralsand Al-, Fe- and Mg-oxides that were also observed in the samples were interpreted as soil aggregates infiltrated by mercuric and sulphur vapours and by liquid mercury spilled during roasting. These particles suggest a possible presence of mercury-sulphur associations other than HgS.

  4. Research on recovery of the soil pollution by mercury in gold mining by Sweet Sorghum in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHI, Sachiko; PRIJAMBADA, Irfan Dwidya; UTAMI, Desi

    2013-01-01

    Small scale gold mining provides an important source of income for miners in rural communities where economic alternatives are extremely limited. However, it releases mercury which damages the environment and poses risks to those in the nearby community. Phytoremediation is considered as a simple and cost-effective method for the cleanup of heavy metal from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to degrade, extract, contain or immobilize contaminants from soil an...

  5. Immobilization of mercury in field soil and sediment using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Zhong; Kaback, Dawn; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most pervasive and bio-accumulative metals in the environment. Yet, effective in situ remediation technologies have been lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of a class of soil-deliverable FeS nanoparticles for in situ immobilization of Hg in two field-contaminated soils from a New Jersey site and one sediment from an Alabama site. The nanoparticles were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a particle size of 34.3 ± 8.3 nm (standard deviation), whereas dynamic light scattering gave a hydrodynamic diameter of 222.5 ± 3.2 nm. Batch tests showed that at an FeS-to-Hg molar ratio of 28:1-118:1, the nanoparticles reduced water-leachable Hg by 79%-96% and the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) based leachability by 26%-96%. Column breakthrough tests indicated that the nanoparticles were deliverable in the sediment/soil columns under moderate injection pressure. However, once the external pressure was removed, the delivered nanoparticles remained virtually mobile under typical groundwater flow conditions. When the Hg-contaminated soil and sediment were treated with 52-95 pore volumes of a 500 mg l-1 FeS nanoparticle suspension, water-leachable Hg was reduced by 90%-93% and TCLP-leachable Hg was reduced by 65%-91%. The results warrant further field demonstration of this promising in situ remediation technology.

  6. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in contaminated soil--sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik

    2015-11-01

    We present a sensitivity analysis of a reactive transport model of mercury (Hg) fate in contaminated soil systems. The one-dimensional model, presented in Leterme et al. (2014), couples water flow in variably saturated conditions with Hg physico-chemical reactions. The sensitivity of Hg leaching and volatilisation to parameter uncertainty is examined using the elementary effect method. A test case is built using a hypothetical 1-m depth sandy soil and a 50-year time series of daily precipitation and evapotranspiration. Hg anthropogenic contamination is simulated in the topsoil by separately considering three different sources: cinnabar, non-aqueous phase liquid and aqueous mercuric chloride. The model sensitivity to a set of 13 input parameters is assessed, using three different model outputs (volatilized Hg, leached Hg, Hg still present in the contaminated soil horizon). Results show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration in soil solution and the binding constant to DOM thiol groups are critical parameters, as well as parameters related to Hg sorption to humic and fulvic acids in solid organic matter. Initial Hg concentration is also identified as a sensitive parameter. The sensitivity analysis also brings out non-monotonic model behaviour for certain parameters.

  7. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Göttlicher, Jörg; Denecke, Melissa A; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-08-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg(-1). Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as mu-XRF, mu-XRD and mu-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions soil samples were metacinnabar (beta-HgS), cinnabar (alpha-HgS), corderoite (Hg(3)S(2)Cl(2)), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential application of a semi-quantitative method for mercury determination in soils, sediments and gold mining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yallouz, A.V.; Cesar, R.G.; Egler, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative, low cost method for analyzing mercury in soil, sediment and gold mining residues was developed, optimized and applied to 30 real samples. It is semiquantitative, performed using an acid extraction pretreatment step, followed by mercury reduction and collection in a detecting paper containing cuprous iodide. A complex is formed with characteristic color whose intensity is proportional to mercury concentration in the original sample. The results are reported as range of concentration and the minimum detectable is 100 ng/g. Method quality assurance was performed by comparing results obtained using the alternative method and the Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry techniques. The average results from duplicate analysis by CVAAS were 100% coincident with alternative method results. The method is applicable for screening tests and can be used in regions where a preliminary diagnosis is necessary, at programs of environmental surveillance or by scientists interested in investigating mercury geochemistry. - Semi-quantitative low-cost method for mercury determination in soil, sediments and mining residues

  9. Determination of mercury in microwave-digested soil by laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry with electrothermal atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, S T; Smith, B W; Winefordner, J D

    1994-12-01

    A sample digestion procedure was developed which employs microwave heating of soil and sediment in concentrated nitric acid in a high-pressure closed vessel. Complete dissolution of mercury into the sample solution occurs within 5 min at 59 W/vessel without loss of analyte through overpressurization. Laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (LEAFS-ETA) was used as the detection method. The scheme uses a two-step excitation, with lambda(1) = 253.7 nm and lambda(2) = 435.8 nm. Direct line fluorescence was measured at 546.2 nm. The absolute instrumental limit of detection was 14 fg; 1.4 pg/ml with a 10 mul sample injection. The recoveries of mercury in two spiked samples were 94 and 98%. The SRM 8406 (Mercury in River Sediment) was digested and analyzed for mercury, and the results (58.4 +/- 1.8 ng/g) agreed well with the reference value of 60 ng/g. The results obtained by LEAFS-ETA with microwave sample digestion are in good agreement with those found by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry with EPA Series Method 245.5 sample digestion, which is one of the most commonly used methods for the determination of mercury in soil.

  10. Soil-Web: An online soil survey for California, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudette, D. E.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2009-10-01

    Digital soil survey products represent one of the largest and most comprehensive inventories of soils information currently available. The complex structure of these databases, intensive use of codes and scientific jargon make it difficult for non-specialists to utilize digital soil survey resources. A project was initiated to construct a web-based interface to digital soil survey products (STATSGO and SSURGO) for California, Arizona, and Nevada that would be accessible to the general public. A collection of mature, open source applications (including Mapserver, PostGIS and Apache Web Server) were used as a framework to support data storage, querying, map composition, data presentation, and contextual links to related materials. Application logic was written in the PHP language to "glue" together the many components of an online soil survey. A comprehensive website ( http://casoilresource.lawr.ucdavis.edu/map) was created to facilitate access to digital soil survey databases through several interfaces including: interactive map, Google Earth and HTTP-based application programming interface (API). Each soil polygon is linked to a map unit summary page, which includes links to soil component summary pages. The most commonly used soil properties, land interpretations and ratings are presented. Graphical and tabular summaries of soil profile information are dynamically created, and aid with rapid assessment of key soil properties. Quick links to official series descriptions (OSD) and other such information are presented. All terminology is linked back to the USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Handbook which contains extended definitions. The Google Earth interface to Soil-Web can be used to explore soils information in three dimensions. A flexible web API was implemented to allow advanced users of soils information to access our website via simple web page requests. Soil-Web has been successfully used in soil science curriculum, outreach activities, and current research projects

  11. Vertical profile measurements of soil air suggest immobilization of gaseous elemental mercury in mineral soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Pokharel, Ashok K; Moore, Christopher

    2014-02-18

    Evasion of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)g) from soil surfaces is an important source of atmospheric Hg, but the volatility and solid-gas phase partitioning of Hg(0) within soils is poorly understood. We developed a novel system to continuously measure Hg(0)g concentrations in soil pores at multiple depths and locations, and present a total of 297 days of measurements spanning 14 months in two forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains, California, U.S. Temporal patterns showed consistent pore Hg(0)g concentrations below levels measured in the atmosphere (termed Hg(0)g immobilization), ranging from 66 to 94% below atmospheric concentrations throughout multiple seasons. The lowest pore Hg(0)g concentrations were observed in the deepest soil layers (40 cm), but significant immobilization was already present in the top 7 cm. In the absence of sinks or sources, pore Hg(0)g levels would be in equilibrium with atmospheric concentrations due to the porous nature of the soil matrix and gas diffusion. Therefore, we explain decreases in pore Hg(0)g in mineral soils below atmospheric concentrations--or below levels found in upper soils as observed in previous studies--with the presence of an Hg(0)g sink in mineral soils possibly related to Hg(0)g oxidation or other processes such as sorption or dissolution in soil water. Surface chamber measurements showing daytime Hg(0)g emissions and nighttime Hg(0)g deposition indicate that near-surface layers likely dominate net atmospheric Hg(0)g exchange resulting in typical diurnal cycles due to photochemcial reduction at the surface and possibly Hg(0)g evasion from litter layers. In contrast, mineral soils seem to be decoupled from this surface exchange, showing consistent Hg(0)g uptake and downward redistribution--although our calculations indicate these fluxes to be minor compared to other mass fluxes. A major implication is that once Hg is incorporated into mineral soils, it may be unlikely subjected to renewed Hg(0)g re-emission from

  12. Aerobic and anaerobic biosynthesis of nano-selenium for remediation of mercury contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2017-03-01

    Selenium (Se) nanoparticles are often synthesized by anaerobes. However, anaerobic bacteria cannot be directly applied for bioremediation of contaminated top soil which is generally aerobic. In this study, a selenite-reducing bacterium, Citrobacter freundii Y9, demonstrated high selenite reducing power and produced elemental nano-selenium nanoparticles (nano-Se 0 ) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The biogenic nano-Se 0 converted 45.8-57.1% and 39.1-48.6% of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in the contaminated soil to insoluble mercuric selenide (HgSe) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfonate enhanced Hg 0 remediation, probably owing to the release of intracellular nano-Se 0 from the bacterial cells for Hg fixation. The reaction product after remediation was identified as non-reactive HgSe that was formed by amalgamation of nano-Se 0 and Hg 0 . Biosynthesis of nano-Se 0 both aerobically and anaerobically therefore provides a versatile and cost-effective remediation approach for Hg 0 -contaminated surface and subsurface soils, where the redox potential often changes dramatically. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Influence of the addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment on mercury contaminated soil; Influencia de la adicion de fertilizantes y enmendantes organicos en suelos contaminados de mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, S; Millan, R

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mercury mobilization in a soil where fertilizers and organic matter were added. The study was carried out using a soil from the mercury mining district of Almaden (Spain). This area constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the World. The soil has been classified as an Alfisol Xeralf Haploxeral (USDA taxonomy), and the total mercury content is 14,16 0,65 mg kg-1in average. The experimental work was performed in 1 L glass columns filled with 500 g of soil. It was carried out 3 different treatments. The fi rst one, a NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) that was applied at three different doses (recommended dose -by farmers, half recommended dose and double recommended dose). The second one, a peat (Sphagnum) with a ph between 5,5-7, and the third one, a liquid organic amendment (Molex). The experimental work was carried out using 21 columns in total, where 3 of them were used as a control (C). During ten consecutive weeks, the columns were irrigated with distilled water (150 ml) once a week. The contact time was two days; after that, the leachates were collected and filtered. Finally, the soil contained in glass columns at soil fi eld capacity was centrifuged to get the wilting point. Mercury was determined using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (AMA-254). Results show that mercury content in all samples was under detection limit (0,5 {mu}g L-1). It is according to the fact that mercury is mainly in a cinnabar form, which had a very low solubility. The addition of fertilizers and organic matter amendment do not increase the mercury content in the leachates either in the soil solution. (Author) 102 refs.

  14. The History of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales.

  15. Mercury alters the bacterial community structure and diversity in soil even at concentrations lower than the guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils-neutral, alkaline and acidic-were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg -1 and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils. Among the bacterial groups, Actinobacteria (22.65%) were the most abundant phyla in all samples followed by Proteobacteria (21.95%), Bacteroidetes (4.15%), Firmicutes (2.9%) and Acidobacteria (2.04%). However, the largest group showing increased abundance with higher Hg doses was the unclassified group (45.86%), followed by Proteobacteria. Mercury had a considerable negative impact on key soil functional bacteria such as ammonium oxidizers and nitrifiers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that among the measured soil properties, Hg had a major influence on bacterial community structure. Furthermore, nonlinear regression analysis confirmed that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial alpha diversity in lower organic carbon containing neutral and alkaline soils, whereas in acidic soil with higher organic carbon there was no significant correlation. EC 20 values obtained by a nonlinear regression analysis indicated that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial diversity in concentrations lower than several guideline values.

  16. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  17. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: Implications for population health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, D.M.; Litt, J.S.; Unis, D.; Alfonso, N.; Martinez, L.A.; Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Carsella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. Adsorption of mercury compounds by tropical soils. I. Adsorption in soil profiles in relation to their physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semu, E.; Singh, B.R.; Selmer-Olsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Mercury adsorption of HgCl/sub 2/ and 2-methoxyethylmercury chloride (Aretan) (100 mg Hg L/sup -1/) was measured for three soil profiles from Morogoro, Arusha, and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. The adsorption was investigated for the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of soils. All soil samples showed greater capacity for adsorption of Aretan than for HgCl/sub 2/. In the Morogoro profile Hg adsorption decreased with depth but in the other two soils, the minimum adsorption occurred in the third horizon and increased both upwards and downwards. In the Morogoro profile, Aretan adsorption correlated well with pH. Adsorption of both Aretan and HgCl/sub 2/ correlated well with the distribution of organic C and with the cation exchange capacity of the soils. In the Arusha and Dar es Salaam profiles Hg adsorption was not significantly correlated with any of the soil properties tested.

  19. Accumulation, transfer, and environmental risk of soil mercury in a rapidly industrializing region of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Biao; Yan, Lianxiang; Sun, Weixia; Zhao, Yongcun; Shi, Xuezheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate Univ. of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Weindorf, David C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). AgCenter

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Mercury (Hg) accumulation and transfer in soil ecosystems has been altered on local, regional, and even global scales, and their environmental risk has increasingly been a concern to the public and the scientific community. Materials and methods: A county level region in Zhangjiagang County, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China and a factory with Hg-contaminated wastewater discharging within the region were selected to study the accumulation, bioavailability, and transfer of Hg from different sources in soils and crops under rapid industrialization, urbanization, and intensive agricultural activities. Regional soil samples close to and away from factories and local soil and crop samples around a typical factory were collected in the YRD region of China. Soil and crop Hg and basic soil properties were examined. Results and discussion: Significant soil Hg accumulation was found in soils away from factories regardless of Cambosols (Entisols) and Anthrosols (Inceptisols), while the mobile HCl-extractable Hg (HCl-Hg) were greater in soils closer to factories due to a decrease and increase in soil pH and organic matter. A high level of soil total Hg (T-Hg) was found around the factory, and soil and crop Hg accumulation in the vicinity of the factory was localized with an exponential decrease as distance away from the wastewater discharge outlet increased. Although Hg accumulated in these soils, the T-Hg levels at only a few sampling sites in acidic Anthrosols area were found to exceed the second most stringent critical value of Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Soils. Conclusions: Considering the cessation of Hg-containing agrochemicals and limitation of effects of industrial activities on Hg accumulation, more attention should be paid to the changes in soil properties and crop rotations than controlling the pathways of Hg entering soils because the current environmental risk is mobilization of accumulated soil Hg. (orig.)

  20. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO2 respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrist, Daniel; Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.49) between Hg and CO 2 emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO 2 respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N 2 /O 2 (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N 2 . Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O 2 deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO 2 emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg 2+ by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg 2+ reduction, is related to O 2 availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O 2 levels and possibly low soil redox potentials lead to increased Hg volatilization from soils.

  1. Soil mercury distribution in adjacent coniferous and deciduous stands highly impacted by acid rain in the Ore Mountains, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, J. B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, F.; Šimeček, Martin; Houška, J.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, December (2016), s. 63-75 ISSN 0883-2927 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14762S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/1369 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : mercury * carbon * sulfur * nitrogen * soil pools * oxalate extractable Al and Fe * Hg/C ratio * C/S ratio * Black triangle Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  2. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  3. Huerta del Rey: Edafic Characterization of a Historic Area of the Mercury Mining and Study of the Transfer of Mercury from the Soil to Plantago Major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Manero, L.; Sierra, M. J.; Rodriguez-Alonso, M.; Millan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this scientific-technical report is to carry out a characterization of study plot called Huerta del Rey in the mercury (Hg) mining district of Almaden. For this goal, an edaphic characterization has been performed and the Hg behavior in the soil study has been evaluated. Then, total Hg concentration and easily available Hg for plants have been determined and the absorption and distribution of Hg in Plantago major L (typical specie from the study area) have been studied. The results showed that the total Hg concentrations in the soil ranged from 530 ± 32 mg kg - 1 to 4300 ± 339 mg kg - 1 even to 12378 ± 1051mg kg - 1. It is in accordance with the normal values measured in a Hg mining area. Otherwise, the percentage of soluble Hg in soil with respect to the total Hg concentration is low ( - 1 that could mean a potential risk of pollution of groundwater by leaching process. Finally a brief description about different technologies for decreasing Hg concentration in the study soil, including phytoremediation, has been performed. (Author) 96 refs.

  4. Applications of organic and inorganic amendments induce changes in the mobility of mercury and macro- and micronutrients of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Sípková, Adéla; Száková, Jiřina; Kaplan, Lukáš; Ochecová, Pavla; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg · kg(-1) Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils.

  5. MERCURY QUANTIFICATION IN SOILS USING THERMAL DESORPTION AND ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY: PROPOSAL FOR AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Catone Soares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable environmental importance of mercury (Hg, given its high toxicity and ability to contaminate large areas via atmospheric deposition, little is known about its activity in soils, especially tropical soils, in comparison with other heavy metals. This lack of information about Hg arises because analytical methods for determination of Hg are more laborious and expensive compared to methods for other heavy metals. The situation is even more precarious regarding speciation of Hg in soils since sequential extraction methods are also inefficient for this metal. The aim of this paper is to present a technique of thermal desorption associated with atomic absorption spectrometry, TDAAS, as an efficient tool for quantitative determination of Hg in soils. The method consists of the release of Hg by heating, followed by its quantification by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was developed by constructing calibration curves in different soil samples based on increasing volumes of standard Hg2+ solutions. Performance, accuracy, precision, and quantification and detection limit parameters were evaluated. No matrix interference was detected. Certified reference samples and comparison with a Direct Mercury Analyzer, DMA (another highly recognized technique, were used in validation of the method, which proved to be accurate and precise.

  6. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Cao, Axiang; Feng, Xinbin; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Meng, Bo; Quan, Rui-Chang; Sun, Jing; Qiu, Guangle

    2017-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1202-1210. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Identification of Potential Sources of Mercury (Hg) in Farmland Soil Using a Decision Tree Method in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Taiyang; Chen, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiuying

    2016-11-09

    Identification of the sources of soil mercury (Hg) on the provincial scale is helpful for enacting effective policies to prevent further contamination and take reclamation measurements. The natural and anthropogenic sources and their contributions of Hg in Chinese farmland soil were identified based on a decision tree method. The results showed that the concentrations of Hg in parent materials were most strongly associated with the general spatial distribution pattern of Hg concentration on a provincial scale. The decision tree analysis gained an 89.70% total accuracy in simulating the influence of human activities on the additions of Hg in farmland soil. Human activities-for example, the production of coke, application of fertilizers, discharge of wastewater, discharge of solid waste, and the production of non-ferrous metals-were the main external sources of a large amount of Hg in the farmland soil.

  8. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E; Theodorakos, Peter M; Fey, David L; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2015-02-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8-11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03-0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9-14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05-3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1-9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63-9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690-82,000 ng/m(3)) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2-77 ng/m(3)). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9-64 ng/m(3)) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the

  9. Gaseous mercury fluxes from forest soils in response to forest harvesting intensity: A field manipulation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, M.; Mitchell, C.P.J.; Eckley, C.S.; Eggert, S.L.; Kolka, R.K.; Sebestyen, S.D.; Swain, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest harvesting leads to changes in soil moisture, temperature and incident solar radiation, all strong environmental drivers of soil–air mercury (Hg) fluxes. Whether different forest harvesting practices significantly alter Hg fluxes from forest soils is unknown. We conducted a field-scale experiment in a northern Minnesota deciduous forest wherein gaseous Hg emissions from the forest floor were monitored after two forest harvesting prescriptions, a traditional clear-cut and a clearcut followed by biomass harvest, and compared to an un-harvested reference plot. Gaseous Hg emissions were measured in quadruplicate at four different times between March and November 2012 using Teflon dynamic flux chambers. We also applied enriched Hg isotope tracers and separately monitored their emission in triplicate at the same times as ambient measurements. Clearcut followed by biomass harvesting increased ambient Hg emissions the most. While significant intra-site spatial variability was observed, Hg emissions from the biomass harvested plot (180 ± 170 ng m −2 d −1 ) were significantly greater than both the traditional clearcut plot (− 40 ± 60 ng m −2 d −1 ) and the un-harvested reference plot (− 180 ± 115 ng m −2 d −1 ) during July. This difference was likely a result of enhanced Hg 2+ photoreduction due to canopy removal and less shading from downed woody debris in the biomass harvested plot. Gaseous Hg emissions from more recently deposited Hg, as presumably representative of isotope tracer measurements, were not significantly influenced by harvesting. Most of the Hg tracer applied to the forest floor became sequestered within the ground vegetation and debris, leaf litter, and soil. We observed a dramatic lessening of tracer Hg emissions to near detection levels within 6 months. As post-clearcutting residues are increasingly used as a fuel or fiber resource, our observations suggest that gaseous Hg emissions from forest soils will increase, although it

  10. Aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) as sorbent for mercury: Implications for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, Anna; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2009-05-15

    The potential of readily available and non-hazardous waste material, aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs), to efficiently sorb and immobilize mercury (Hg) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Al-WTR samples with average specific surface area of 48m(2)/g and internal micropore surface area of 120m(2)/g were used in a series of batch sorption experiments. Obtained sorption isotherms indicated a strong affinity of Hg for Al-WTRs. Using the Langmuir adsorption model, a relatively high maximum sorption capacity of 79mg Hg/g Al-WTRs was determined. Sorption kinetic data was best fit to a pseudo-first-order model, while the use of the Weber-Morris and Bangham models suggested that the intraparticle diffusion could be the rate-limiting step. Also, Al-WTRs effectively immoblized Hg in the pH range of 3-8. The results from these short-term experiments demonstrate that Al-WTRs can be effectively used to remove Hg from aqueous solutions. This ability points to the potential of Al-WTRs as a sorbent in soil remediation techniques based on Hg-immobilization.

  11. Soil survey - a basis for european soil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The information available on soils varies greatly from country to country. In view of the fact that, together with water, soils represent the most important natural resource in the EC, it is recommended that steps should be taken to ensure a reasonable level of information for all countries and that emphasis be placed on assembling an adequate database. Such information is fundamental to future land use and environmental protection

  12. Senegalese artisanal gold mining leads to elevated total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in soils, sediments, and rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R. Gerson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest source of global mercury (Hg anthropogenic inputs to the environment is derived from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM activities in developing countries. While our understanding of global Hg emissions from ASGM is growing, there is limited empirical documentation about the levels of total mercury (THg and methylmercury (MeHg contamination near ASGM sites. We measured THg and MeHg concentrations in soil (n = 119, sediment (n = 22, and water (n = 25 from four active ASGM villages and one non-ASGM reference village in Senegal, West Africa. Nearly all samples had THg and MeHg concentrations that exceeded the reference village concentrations and USEPA regulatory standards. The highest median THg concentrations were found in huts where mercury-gold amalgams were burned (7.5 μg/g, while the highest median MeHg concentrations and percent Hg as MeHg were found in river sediments (4.2 ng/g, 0.41%. Median river water concentrations of THg and MeHg were also elevated compared to values at the reference site (22 ng THg/L, 0.037 ng MeHg/L in ASGM sites. This study provides direct evidence that Hg from ASGM is entering both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems where it is converted in soils, sediment, and water to the neurotoxic and bioavailable form of MeHg.

  13. Impacts of invasive earthworms on soil mercury cycling: Two mass balance approaches to an earthworm invasion in a northern Minnesota forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sona Psarska; Edward A. Nater; Randy Kolka

    2016-01-01

    Invasive earthworms perturb natural forest ecosystems that initially developed without them, mainly by consuming the forest floor (an organic rich surficial soil horizon) and by mixing the upper parts of the soil. The fate of mercury (Hg) formerly contained in the forest floor is largely unknown. We used two mass balance approaches (simple mass balance and geochemical...

  14. Analysis of Soil Parameters in Almadenejos. Behavior of Mercury in Soil-Plant System; Analisis de Parametros Edaficos en Almadenejos. Comportamiento del Mercurio en el Sistema Suelo-Planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R; Sierra, M J; Villadoniga, M; Millan, R

    2010-03-03

    This scientific-technical report is the result of the stay of Rocio Fernandez Flores practices in the Research Unit soil degradation of the Department of Environment CIEMAT. The aim of this study is to determine the behaviour of mercury in soil of Almadenejos (Almaden, Ciudad Real, Espana) by using a six-step sequential extraction procedure and evaluate the transfer of this pollutant to Marrubium vulgare L., predominant in the area and studied for years due to its ability to accumulate large amounts of mercury without visual symptoms of toxicity. Furthermore, the results will be useful in order to determine if this plant specie could be used as phyto extractor in the recovery mercury contaminated soils. The results show that total mercury concentrations in soil ranged from 709 mg kg-1 to 22,616 mg kg-1. Regarding mercury distribution among different soil fractions, this heavy metal is mainly found in the fraction assigned in the fi nal insoluble residues, the oxidizable fraction and in the crystalline Fe-Mn oxydroxides, on the other hand, barely 1% or lower is readily available to plants However, Marrubium vulgare is able to accumulate high amount of mercury (3.5 - 373.5 mg kg-1). Regarding the mercury distribution inside the plant, mercury concentration in the root was higher than in the aerial part. Within the aerial part the maximum mercury concentration was generally found in leaves. According to the obtained results, Marrubium vulgare L. could be considered as a (hyper)accumulator plant. (Author) 57 refs.

  15. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Fey, David L.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8–11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03–0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9–14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05–3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1–9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63–9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the ground surface.

  16. Mercury in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rice-paddy soils under long-term fertilizer and organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenya; Fan, Fangling; Wang, Xinyue; Shi, Xiaojun; Deng, Shiping; Wang, Dingyong

    2018-04-15

    High levels of mercury (Hg), especially methylmercury (MeHg), in rice is of concern due to its potential of entering food chain and the high toxicity to human. The level and form of Hg in rice could be influenced by fertilizers and other soil amendments. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of 24 years application of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments on total Hg (THg) and MeHg and their translocation in soil, plants, and rice grain. All treatments led to significantly higher concentrations of MeHg in grain than those from the untreated control. Of nine treatments tested, chemical fertilizers combining with returning rice straw (NPK1+S) led to highest MeHg concentration in grain and soil; while the nitrogen and potassium (NK) treatment led to significantly higher THg in grain. Concentrations of soil MeHg were significantly correlated with THg in soil (r = 0.59 *** ) and MeHg in grain (r = 0.48 *** ). Calcium superphosphate negatively affected plant bioavailability of soil Hg. MeHg concentration in rice was heavily influenced by soil Hg levels. Phosphorus fertilizer was a main source contributing to soil THg, while returning rice straw to the field contributed significantly to MeHg in soil and rice grain. As a result, caution should be exercised in soil treatment or when utilizing Hg-contaminated soils to produce rice for human consumption. Strategic management of rice straw and phosphorus fertilizer could be effective strategies of lowering soil Hg, which would ultimately lower MeHg in rice and the risk of Hg entering food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effects of Citric Acid on Activation and Methylation of Mercury in the Soils of Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of the Three Gorges.Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cai-qing; Liang, Li; You, Rui; Deng, Han; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-12-01

    To investigate effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-citric acid on activation and methylation of mercury in the soil of water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, simulation experiments were conducted by extracting and cultivating soil with different concentrations of citric acid. The results showed that after adding citric acid, the total mercury content in leaching solution before reaching peak were higher than that of the control, and increased with the increase of citric acid concentrations. The maximum amount of mercury complexes increased initially and then reached plateaus with the percentage against the total mercury in soil of 1.03%, 1.67%, 1.99%, 2.47%, 2.68%, 2.73% and 2.73% for different citric acid concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 mmol · L⁻¹). In addition, concentrations of methylmercury ( MeHg) in soil remained stable in the first 3 hours, and then increased accompanying with the increasing rate rising with the concentration of citric acid ( besides the control group) . This result indicated that citric acid probably could promote the transformation process from inorganic mercury to MeHg in soil. which increased with the concentration of citric acid.

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mora County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chaves County, New Mexico, Northern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mescalero-Apache Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cabezon Area, New Mexico (Sandoval County, New Mexico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Catron County, New Mexico, Northern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chaves County, New Mexico, Southern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for San Miguel County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Grant County, Central and Southern Parts, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sierra County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe County, Area New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Fort Bliss Military Reservation, New Mexico and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Socorro County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Tucumcari Area, Northern Quay County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Carson National Forest, New Mexico, Part of Rio Arriba County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for McKinley County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Dona Ana County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for De Baca County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for San Juan County, New Mexico, Eastern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Ute Mountain Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Valencia County, New Mexico, Eastern Part

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels resembling those of local forest environments, thus contributing to the maintenance of soil integrity and to the reduction of Hg and nutrient mobility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High altitude artisanal small-scale gold mines are hot spots for Mercury in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terán-Mita, Tania A.; Faz, Angel; Salvador, Flor; Arocena, Joselito M.; Acosta, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury releases from artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) condense and settle on plants, soils and water bodies. We collected soil and plant samples to add knowledge to the likely transfer of Hg from soils into plants and eventually predict Hg accumulation in livestock around ASGM in Bolivia. Mean contents of Hg in soils range from 0.5 to 48.6 mg Hg kg −1 soil (5× to 60× more compared to control sites) and exceeded the soil Hg threshold levels in some European countries. The Hg contents ranged from 0.6 to 18 and 0.2 to 28.3 mg Hg kg −1 leaf and root, respectively. The high Hg in Poaceae and Rosaceae may elevate Hg accumulation into the food chain because llama and alpaca solely thrive on these plants for food. Erosion of soils around ASGM in Bolivia contributes to the Hg contamination in lower reaches of the Amazon basin. - Highlights: ► Hg in soils ranged from 0.5 to 48.6 mg Hg kg −1 soil, and at least 5× to 60× more than control sites. ► Plants near gold mines exceed the 0.1 mg Hg kg −1 plant material European limit for feed quality. ► Camelids feeding on plants with high Hg may elevate Hg levels in foods (meats) for the miners. ► Soils with high Hg can be significant Hg sources to the contamination of the Amazon basin. - Mean contents of Hg in soils were at least 5× to 60× more compared to Hg in control sites, and the high Hg in Poaceae and Rosaceae may elevate Hg into the food chain.

  2. Fate and transport of mercury in soil systems : a numerical model in HP1 and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik

    2013-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) poses threats for human health and the environment, notably due to its persistence and its ability to bioaccumulate in ecosystems. Anthropogenic activities are major contributors of mercury release to soils. Main sources of contamination include manufacturing (chlor-alkali plants, manometer spill), mine tailings from mercury, gold and silver mining industries, wood preservation. The objective of this study was to develop a reactive transport model for simulating mercury fate and transport in the unsaturated zone, and to gain insight in the fate and transport of Hg following anthropogenic soil contamination. The present work is done in the framework of the IMaHg project, which aims at providing recommendations to improve management of sites contaminated by mercury within the SNOWMAN funding framework. A model of mercury fate and transport in soil systems was developed using the reactive transport code HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2010). The geochemical database THERMODDEM (Blanc et al., 2012) is used, augmented with some speciation data from (Skyllberg, 2012). The main processes accounted for in the model are : Hg aqueous speciation (including complexation with dissolved organic matter (DOM) - humic and fulvic acids, and thiol groups), Hg sorption to solid organic matter (SOM), dissolution of solid phase Hg (e.g. cinnabar HgS(s)), dissolution of Hg non-aqueous liquid phase (NAPL), sunlight-driven Hg(II) reduction to Hg(0), Hg(0) diffusion in the gas phase and volatilization, DOM sorption to soil minerals. Colloid facilitated transport is implicitly accounted for by solute transport of Hg-DOM complexes. Because we focused on soil systems having a high Hg contamination, some processes showing relatively smaller Hg fluxes could be neglected such as vegetation uptake and atmospheric wet and dry deposition. NAPL migration and entrapment is not modelled, as pollution is assumed to be historical and only residual NAPL to be present. Mercury methylation and

  3. Successful Characterization and Remedial Contour of Highly Contaminated Mercury Soil at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 13593

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Aaron; Rigas, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Birchfield, Joseph W. III [1528 Paxton Drive Knoxville, TN 37918 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An area known as the 81-10 pad within the footprint of the Y-12 National Security Complex, suspected to be heavily contaminated with mercury, was slated for characterization in support of a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) milestone to be accomplished by September 30, 2012. A full remedial design report (RDR) required the soil in Exposure Unit -9 (EU-9) to be fully characterized for a number of contaminates of concern including mercury. The goal of this characterization effort was to determine what soil, if any, would need to be removed for the protection of industrial workers and impacts to the surface and ground water. Funding for this project was made available using buy-back scope under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The EU-9 soil unit involved 3 different classifications which were determined as follows: Class 1: Known to have been impacted, contamination is likely; Class 2: Suspected to have been impacted, contamination is unknown; Class 3: Area not known to have been impacted, contamination unlikely. Due to various sampling and analysis events since the 1980's, significant mercury contamination was expected under the concrete pad of an area known as 81-10. Mercury contamination outside of the boundary of this pad within the EU-9 footprint was not known and therefore an original planned estimate of 1,461 cubic meters of material were expected to be heavily contaminated with mercury requiring removal, treatment and disposal. Through the use of a highly effective nature and extent sampling and analysis design that involved a hybrid of statistically-based and judgmental sampling, the actual remedial contour requiring removal was approximately 717 cubic meters, roughly 12% of the original estimate. This characterization approach was executed in full compliance with the Record of Decision (ROD) [1] documents that were agreed upon by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency and Tennessee Department of Environment and

  4. Survey Method for Radiological Surveys of 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Soils and Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    This technical basis is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by radiological control technician (RCTs) to guide the excavation effort in accordance with the 300-FF-1 waste site Record of Decision (ROD). The ROD for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit requires selective excavation, removal, and disposal of contaminated soil above 350 pCi/g total uranium activity. Soil above this level will be disposed of as radioactive waste. The remaining soil will remain onsite

  5. Awareness assessment of harmful effects of mercury in a health care set-up in India: A survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Nabanita; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Mercury, one of the most toxic heavy metals, is ubiquitous in environment. The adverse health impact of mercury on living organisms is well known. The health care facilities are one of the important sources of mercury release into the atmosphere as mercury items are extensively used in hospitals. To assess the awareness about mercury toxicity and the knowledge of proper handling and disposal of mercury-containing items in health care set-up, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out amongst doctors (n = 835), nurses (n = 610) and technicians (n = 393) in government hospitals, corporate hospitals and primary health care centres in the Indian states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. The study was conducted using a tool-containing pretested structured multiple-choice questionnaire. Analysis of the results using STATA 11.1 software highlighted that overall awareness was more in corporate sector. However, percentage range of knowledge of respondents irrespective of health care sector was only between 20 and 40%. Despite the commitment of various hospitals to be mercury free, mercury containing-thermometer/sphygmomanometer are still preferred by health professionals. The likely reasons are availability, affordability, accuracy and convenience in use. There is an urgent need for source reduction, recycling and waste minimization. Emphasis must be laid on mercury alternative products, education and training of health personnel and public at large, about correct handling and proper clean up of spills. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Mercury accumulation in soils and plants in the Almadén mining district, Spain: one of the most contaminated sites on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, José Antonio; Oyarzun, Roberto; Esbrí, José María; Higueras, Pablo

    2006-10-01

    Although mercury (Hg) mining in the Almadén district ceased in May 2002, the consequences of 2000 years of mining in the district has resulted in the dissemination of Hg into the surrounding environment where it poses an evident risk to biota and human health. This risk needs to be properly evaluated. The uptake of Hg has been found to be plant-specific. To establish the different manners in which plants absorb Hg, we carried out a survey of Hg levels in the soils and plants in the most representative habitats of this Mediterranean area and found that the Hg concentrations varied greatly and were dependent on the sample being tested (0.13-2,695 microg g(-1) Hg). For example, the root samples had concentrations ranging from 0.06 (Oenanthe crocata, Rumex induratus) to 1095 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg, while in the leaf samples, the range was from 0.16 (Cyperus longus) to 1278 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg. There are four well-differentiated patterns of Hg uptake: (1) the rate of uptake is constant, independent of Hg concentration in the soil (e.g., Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus rotundifolia); (2) after an initial linear relationship between uptake and soil concentration, no further increase in Hg(plant) is observed (e.g., Asparagus acutifolius, Cistus ladanifer); (3) no increase in uptake is recorded until a threshold is surpassed, and thereafter a linear relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil) is established (e.g., Rumex bucephalophorus, Cistus crispus); (4) there is no relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil )(e.g., Oenanthe crocata and Cistus monspeliensis). Overall, the Hg concentrations found in plants from the Almadén district clearly reflect the importance of contamination processes throughout the study region.

  7. Livermore Big Trees Park Soil Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConachie, W.A.; Failor, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will sample and analyze soil in the Big Trees Park area in Livermore, California, to determine if the initial level of plutonium (Pu) in a soil sample taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in September 1993 can be confirmed. Nineteen samples will be collected and analyzed: 4 in the area where the initial EPA sample was taken, 2 in the nearby Arroyo Seco, 12 in scattered uncovered soil areas in the park and nearby school, and 1 from the sandbox of a nearby apartment complex. Two quality control (QC) samples (field duplicates of the preceding samples) win also be collected and analyzed. This document briefly describes the purpose behind the sampling, the sampling rationale, and the methodology

  8. Soil survey of Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.

    1986-06-01

    An intensive soil survey was made of Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) at a scale of 1:1200. The amount of chemical weathering, the thickness of upland soils, and the depth to unoxidized rock are dependent on slope gradient, water-flow pathways, degree of rock fracturing, and the extent of soil and rock erosion by late Pleistocene and Holocene geomorphic processes. Foot-slope landforms have generally concave slope shapes where sediment accumulates. Colluvium stratigraphy exhibits at least one lithologic discontinuity, but there may be two discontinuities preserved in some thicker colluvia. One or more paleosols, either complete or partially truncated, are preserved in these concave landforms. Alluvial soils were not examined in detail but were separated from colluvial soils because of their wetness. A small area of ancient alluvium was located on a stable upland summit that formed the highest elevation in SWSA-6. On the nearly level summit, a thin loess cap was preserved on the older alluvial soil. Upland and colluvial soils are all highly leached and strongly acid even though they are formed from a calcareous parent rock. The highly fractured rock, being relatively permeable, has been leached free of carbonates in the upper levels so that there is a wide pH gradient from the surface downward. Most of the soils were classified as Ultisols, with minimal areas of Alfisols, Inceptisols, and Entisols. Based on the soil survey, representative landforms and soils will be selected to study physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the soil and weathered rock. Those properties will be used to predict both the amount and duration of leachate filtration and purification in downward migration to the water table or lateral migration through colluvial and alluvial soils to ground-water seeps

  9. Alternate data sources for soil surveys on rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Emil H.; Klingebiel, A.A.; Moore, D.G.; Fosnight, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Soil information is an essential theme in a digital information base for land management and resource monitoring, but public land management agencies seldom have detailed soil maps available for all of the area under their administration. Most of these agencies conduct soil surveys on a scheduled basis, but escalating costs and declining budgets are reducing the number of surveys that can be scheduled. Digital elevation and satellite spectral data are available or are obtainable for all areas in the continental United States and may be used as an aid to produce soils data. A study was conducted in the Grass Creek Resource Area in north-central Wyoming to assess the utility of incorporating digital elevation and Landsat data into an information base for soil survey and to evaluate the usefulness of these data as an input to an order-three soil survey. Slope-interval maps were produced from digital elevation data and topographic maps of three 7.5-minute quadrangle areas. These slope-interval maps were then overlaid on orthophotoquadrangles and used to produce photo-interpreted physiographic maps. These physiographic maps were digitized into a data base and used with Landsat multispectral scanner data to produce tabular summaries that describe each map polygon in terms of physiographic unit, slope, aspect, elevation, area, and spectral values. A good

  10. Use of LANDSAT imagery for soil survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, M. V.; Higa, N. T.; Celsodecarvalho, V.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The MSS channels 6 and 7 were considered the best to study the relative tonality of different spectral responses of soils, while channels 5 and 7 were best for natural vegetation, drainage patterns, and land use. Frequency ratio was the recommended index for use when analyzing a drainage pattern quantitatively.

  11. Organic horizon and mineral soil mercury along three clear-cut forest chronosequences across the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Justin B; Petrenko, Chelsea L; Friedland, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed pollutant trace metal that has been increasing in terrestrial environments due to rising anthropogenic emissions. Vegetation plays an important role in Hg sequestration in forested environments, but increasing tree removal for biofuels and wood products may affect this process. The long-term effect of clear-cutting on forest soil Hg remains uncertain, since most studies are limited to measuring changes for event. The chronosequence approach, which substitutes space for time using forest stands of different ages since clear-cutting, allows for investigation of processes occurring over decades to centuries. Here, we utilized three clear-cut forest soil chronosequences across the northeastern USA to understand Hg accumulation and retention over several decades. Total Hg concentrations and pools were quantified for five soil depth increments along three chronosequences. Our results showed Hg concentrations and pools decreased in the initial 20 years following clear-cutting. Mineral soil Hg pools decreased 21-53% (7-14 mg m -2 ) between 1-5-year-old stands and 15-25-year-old stands but mineral soil Hg pools recovered in 55-140-year-old stands to similar values as measured in 1-5-year-old stands. Our study is one of the first to demonstrate a decrease and recovery in Hg pool size. These changes in Hg did not correspond with changes in bulk density, soil C, or pH. We utilized a simple two-box model to determine how different Hg fluxes affected organic and mineral soil horizon Hg pools. Our simple model suggests that changes in litterfall and volatilization rates could have caused the observed changes in organic horizon Hg pools. However, only increases in leaching could reproduce observed decreases to mineral soil Hg pools. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of Hg loss from forest soils following clear-cutting.

  12. Mobility and contamination assessment of mercury in coal fly ash, atmospheric deposition, and soil collected from Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Wu, Guanghong; Su, Ruixian; Li, Congwei; Liang, Peiyu

    2011-09-01

    Samples of class F coal fly ash (levels I, II, and III), slag, coal, atmospheric deposition, and soils collected from Tianjin, China, were analyzed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 3052 and a sequential extraction procedure, to investigate the pollution status and mobility of Hg. The results showed that total mercury (HgT) concentrations were higher in level I fly ash (0.304 µg/g) than in level II and level III fly ash and slag (0.142, 0.147, and 0.052 µg/g, respectively). Total Hg in the atmospheric deposition was higher during the heating season (0.264 µg/g) than the nonheating season (0.135 µg/g). Total Hg contents were higher in suburban area soils than in rural and agricultural areas. High HgT concentrations in suburban area soils may be a result of the deposition of Hg associated with particles emitted from coal-fired power plants. Mercury in fly ash primarily existed as elemental Hg, which accounted for 90.1, 85.3, and 90.6% of HgT in levels I, II, and III fly ash, respectively. Mercury in the deposition existed primarily as sulfide Hg, which accounted for 73.8% (heating season) and 74.1% (nonheating season) of HgT. However, Hg in soils existed primarily as sulfide Hg, organo-chelated Hg and elemental Hg, which accounted for 37.8 to 50.0%, 31.7 to 41.8%, and 13.0 to 23.9% of HgT, respectively. The percentage of elemental Hg in HgT occurred in the order fly ash > atmospheric deposition > soils, whereas organo-chelated Hg and sulfide Hg occurred in the opposite order. The present approach can provide a window for understanding and tracing the source of Hg in the environment in Tianjin and the risk associated with Hg bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  13. THE POTENTIAL OF γ-RAY SPECTROSCOPY FOR SOIL PROXIMAL SURVEY IN CLAYEY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray spectroscopy surveys the intensity and distribution of γ-rays emitted from radionuclides of soils and bedrocks. The most important radionuclides of soils and rocks are: 40K, 232Th, 238U and 137Cs, the latter due to Chernobyl burst or radioactive pollution. Distribution and quantity of these radionuclides into the soil is strictly linked to parent material mineralogy and soil cation exchange capacity. The aim of this work is to show the makings of γ-ray spectroscopy proximal survey within experimental fields with clayey soils in western Sicily.The γ-ray spectrometer used for the fieldwork was “The Mole”, made by “The Soil Company”, “Medusa system” and the University of Groningen, from The Netherlands. During the survey of eight experimental fields, 55 soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis of particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The results of the work showed the statistical correlations between soil features and γ-ray data. 

  14. Influence of EDTA on the electrochemical removal of mercury (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, I.; Serrano, T.; Perez, J. J.; Bustos, E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Hernandez, G.; Solis, S. [UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, Centro de Geociencias, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Garcia, R. [UNAM, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Pi, T., E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Geologia, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The removal of mercury from soil and Ca-bentonite was performed using electrochemical treatment adding ethylendiamine-tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent to improve the electrochemical removal of Hg (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico. During the electrokinetic treatment in the presence of 0.1 M EDTA, most of Hg (II) migrates toward the anode obtaining the highest removal efficiencies close to 70% in bentonite after 9 h. Using 0.1 M HCl only 65% efficiency was attained after 13 h in the cathodic side. EDTA formed a negatively charged stable complex that migrates to the cathode by the application of the electrokinetic treatment across Hg - EDTA synthesized complex. Finally, the predominant crystallographic structures of the samples were examined using X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  15. Influence of EDTA on the electrochemical removal of mercury (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, I.; Serrano, T.; Perez, J. J.; Bustos, E.; Hernandez, G.; Solis, S.; Garcia, R.; Pi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of mercury from soil and Ca-bentonite was performed using electrochemical treatment adding ethylendiamine-tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent to improve the electrochemical removal of Hg (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico. During the electrokinetic treatment in the presence of 0.1 M EDTA, most of Hg (II) migrates toward the anode obtaining the highest removal efficiencies close to 70% in bentonite after 9 h. Using 0.1 M HCl only 65% efficiency was attained after 13 h in the cathodic side. EDTA formed a negatively charged stable complex that migrates to the cathode by the application of the electrokinetic treatment across Hg - EDTA synthesized complex. Finally, the predominant crystallographic structures of the samples were examined using X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  16. Blood mercury can be a factor of elevated serum ferritin: analysis of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Choi, Young-Hwa; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Serum ferritin as well as blood mercury are reported to be associated with chronic inflammation. However, the relation between serum ferritin and blood mercury has not yet been established. We utilized the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012) 10,977 subjects (5433 males and 5544 females). To evaluate the association of serum ferritin and blood mercury cross-sectionally, complex sample analysis was conducted after adjustment for the relevant variables. Serum concentrations of ferritin and blood mercury were higher in males than in females (115.7 ± 1.7 vs. 40.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL and 5.0 ± 0.1 vs. 3.6 ± 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Serum ferritin and blood mercury concentrations had significant correlations in both genders after adjustment (r = 0.062, P mercury (P = 0.007) in males. The adjusted odds ratio of having the highest tertile of serum ferritin in the top tertile of blood mercury in males was 1.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.21). Thus, the current study indicates that blood mercury concentration can be a factor for the elevated serum ferritin concentration.

  17. Mercury distribution in the foliage and soil profiles of the Tibetan forest: Processes and implications for regional cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Xue, Yong-gang; Xu, Bai-qing; Yao, Tan-dong

    2014-01-01

    Remote forests are considered a pool of Mercury (Hg) in the global Hg cycle. However, notably few studies have investigated the fate of Hg in the Tibetan forest. In this study, fifty-two foliage samples and seven litter/soil profiles were collected throughout the Tibetan forest. The concentrations of total Hg (THg) in foliage were positively correlated with longitude and negatively correlated with altitude, indicating that the emission of Hg is expected to decrease with increasing distance from emission sources to the Tibetan forest. The deposition flux of THg in the Tibetan forest (with an air-to-forest ground flux of 9.2 μg/m 2 /year) is ∼2 times the flux in clearings, which is suggestive of enhanced Hg deposition by the forest. The depositional Hg is eventually stored in the forest soil, and the soil acts as a net ‘sink’ for Hg. - Highlights: • Foliage can be used as bio-indicator for monitoring the spatial Hg distribution. • The Tibetan forest can enhance the atmospheric Hg deposition to the ground. • The Tibetan forest soil is a pool of Hg that acts to delay the regional cycling of Hg. - The Tibetan forest can accumulate atmospheric Hg, which undergoes long-range transport, and the soil of Tibetan forest acts as the final Hg ‘sink’

  18. Determination of mercury in ash and soil samples by oxygen flask combustion method-Cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Wenhua; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the determination of mercury (Hg) in coal fly ash (CFA), waste incineration ash (WIA), and soil by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A KMnO 4 solution was used as an absorbent in the OFC method, and the sample containing a combustion agent and an ash or soil sample was combusted by the OFC method. By use of Hg-free graphite as the combustion agent, the determination of Hg in ash and soil was successfully carried out; the Hg-free graphite was prepared by use of a mild pyrolysis procedure at 500 deg. C. For six certified reference materials (three CFA samples and three soil samples), the values of Hg obtained by this method were in good agreement with the certified or reference values. In addition, real samples including nine CFAs collected from some coal-fired power plants, five WIAs collected from waste incineration plants, and two soils were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method

  19. Soil mercury distribution in adjacent coniferous and deciduous stands highly impacted by acid rain in the Ore Mountains, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Šimeček, Martin; Houška, Jakub; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Forests play a primary role in the cycling and storage of mercury (Hg) in terrestrial ecosystems. This study aimed to assess differences in Hg cycling and storage resulting from different vegetation at two adjacent forest stands - beech and spruce. The study site Načetín in the Czech Republic's Black Triangle received high atmospheric loadings of Hg from coal combustion in the second half of the 20th century as documented by peat accumulation rates reaching 100 μg m−2 y−1. In 2004, the annual litterfall Hg flux was 22.5 μg m−2 y−1 in the beech stand and 14.5 μg m−2 y−1 in the spruce stand. Soil concentrations and pools of Hg had a strong positive relation to soil organic matter and concentrations of soil sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N). O-horizon Hg concentrations ranged from 245 to 495 μg kg−1 and were greater in the spruce stand soil, probably as a result of greater dry Hg deposition. Mineral soil Hg concentrations ranged from 51 to 163 μg kg−1 and were greater in the beech stand soil due to its greater capacity to store organic carbon (C). The Hg/C ratio increased with depth from 0.3 in the O-horizon to 3.8 μg g−1 in the C horizon of spruce soil and from 0.7 to 2.7 μg g−1 in beech soil. The Hg/C ratio was greater at all mineral soil depths in the spruce stand. The organic soil Hg pools in beech and spruce stands (6.4 and 5.7 mg m−2, respectively) were considerably lower than corresponding mineral soil Hg pools (39.1 and 25.8 mg m−2). Despite the important role of S in Hg cycling, differences in soil Hg distribution at both stands could not be attributed to differences in soil sulfur speciation.

  20. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  1. Survey method for radiological surveys of 300 FF-1 Operable Unit soil and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, A.A.

    1997-06-01

    This technical basis document is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by the Radiological Control Technician to determine if excavated areas require continued remediation in accordance with the Record of Decision for the operable unit

  2. Effects of the soil microbial community on mobile proportions and speciation of mercury (Hg) in contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Havlíčková, J.; Šípková, A.; Gabriel, Jiří; Švec, Karel; Baldrian, Petr; Sysalová, J.; Coufalík, Pavel; Červenka, R.; Zvěřina, O.; Komárek, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2016), s. 364-370 ISSN 1093-4529 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/0682 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : mercury * speciation * microbial community Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2016

  3. Geotechnical Survey, Dredgeability Of Soil Sediments And Siltation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geotechnical Survey, Dredgeability Of Soil Sediments And Siltation Volume Of Brimsu Water Reservoir. ... of the sediments was characterized by geo-technical descriptor terms, indicating that the sediments could be dredged using cutter-type dredger for excava-tion, and transported by hydraulic pipelines to disposal sites.

  4. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  5. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl 2 ) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg -1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

  7. Spatial Distribution of Mercury (Hg Concentration in Agricultural Soil and Its Risk Assessment on Food Safety in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqian Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil mercury (Hg pollution in some areas of China is a serious problem and has aroused a lot of attention on a local scale. However, there are few studies on Hg pollution on a national scale. This study collected 444 published papers during 2005–2015 on Hg concentrations in agricultural soil throughout China, under seven land uses, namely: dry land, paddy field, vegetable field, tea garden, orchard, traditional Chinese medicine field and tobacco field, to assess the spatial distribution of Hg concentration and evaluate its influence on food safety. The averaged Hg concentration (0.108 mg/kg was higher than its background (0.065 mg/kg, but much lower than the guidelines (GB15618-1995 II for crop production. The spatial distribution of Hg throughout China showed great variability, with some hotspots due to Hg related mining and smelting activities. According to the Environment Quality Standard for soil in China (GB15618-1995 II, 4.2% of agricultural soil should be abandoned due to Hg pollution, and 2.0% faced a high risk of Hg pollution.

  8. Study of the Behavior and Distribution of Mercury in Soil Samples Collected on the Banks of the Valdeazogues River; Estudio del Comportamiento y Distribucion del Mercurio Presente en Muestras de Suelo Recogidas en la Ribera del Rio Valdeazogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lominchar, M A; Sierra, M J; Rodiriguez, J; Millam, R

    2010-12-22

    The main objective of this study is to determine the behavior of mercury in the soil of the Valdeazogues river (Almaden, Ciudad Real, Spain) by using a six-step sequential extraction procedure (CIEMAT) and checking the relationship between the percentage of organic matter in soil and the percentage of mercury associated with the exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. The results show that total mercury concentrations in soil range from 116.7 {+-}24.3 to 245.5 {+-}59.6 mg kg{sup -}1 of Hg even to concentrations of 350.9 {+-}68.6 mg kg{sup -}1. However, the available mercury concentration is a smaller percentage of 0.15% of total mercury measured in the samples. Also, the soluble mercury is less than 0,037 mg kg{sup -}1, so that, the leaching process and transport of mercury to surface water and groundwater are very slow. With regard to the distribution of mercury between the different fractions of soil, the metal is associated with more resistant soil fractions, these are: crystalline Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides, organic matter absorbed and the fi nal residue. (Author9) 50 refs.

  9. Mercury in soil, vegetable and human hair in a typical mining area in China: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qin; Zhu, Xuemei; Hao, Yaqiong; Yang, Ziliang; Wang, Qi; Fu, Haihui; Yu, Hongjin

    2018-06-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, vegetables, and human hair were measured in a mercury mining area in central China. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in soil ranged from 1.53 to 1054.97mg/kg and 0.88 to 46.52μg/kg, respectively. T-Hg concentrations was correlated with total organic carbon (TOC) content (R 2 =0.50, p<0.01) and pH values (R 2 =0.21, p<0.05). A significant linear relationship was observed between MeHg concentrations and the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05) in soil. Soil incubation experiments amended with specific microbial stimulants and inhibitors showed that Hg methylation was derived from SRB activity. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in vegetables were 24.79-781.02μg/kg and 0.01-0.18μg/kg, respectively; levels in the edible parts were significantly higher than in the roots (T-Hg: p<0.05; MeHg: p<0.01). Hg species concentrations in rhizosphere soil were positively correlated to those in vegetables (p<0.01), indicating that soil was an important source of Hg in vegetables. Risk assessment indicated that the consumption of vegetables could result in higher probable daily intake (PDI) of T-Hg than the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for both adults and children. In contrast, the PDI of MeHg was lower than the reference dose. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 1.57 to 12.61mg/kg and 0.04 to 0.94mg/kg, respectively, and MeHg concentration in hair positively related to PDI of MeHg via vegetable consumption (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05), suggesting that vegetable may pose health risk to local residents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Mercury Concentrations in Plant Tissues as Affected by FGDG Application to Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced by reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from themo-electric coal-fired power plants. The most common practice of FGDG production may trap some of the Mercury (Hg) present in the coal that normally would escape as vapor in the stack gases. Concern for t...

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Cristina

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC) 3 ) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing 197 Hg and 203 Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of 75 Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of 203 Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury levels obtained in this

  12. Mercury in the nation's streams - Levels, trends, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the late 1990s, while also drawing on scientific literature and datasets from other sources. Previous national mercury assessments by other agencies have focused largely on lakes. Although numerous studies of mercury in streams have been conducted at local and regional scales, recent USGS studies provide the most comprehensive, multimedia assessment of streams across the United States, and yield insights about the importance of watershed characteristics relative to mercury inputs. Information from other environments (lakes, wetlands, soil, atmosphere, glacial ice) also is summarized to help understand how mercury varies in space and time.

  13. National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) Laboratory Data, NCSS Lab Data Mart Point Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — This layer represents the National Cooperative Soil Survey laboratory data of soil properties for soil samples taken at sites or points on the Earth’s globe – mainly...

  14. Mercury in Orange Birch Bolete Leccinum versipelle and soil substratum: bioconcentration by mushroom and probable dietary intake by consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination, accumulation, and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by Leccinum versipelle fungus collected from distant sites across Poland. Mercury was determined using validated method by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy after direct sample matrix combustion. A large set of data gained using 371 fruiting bodies and 204 soil samples revealed the susceptibility of L. versipelle to Hg contamination and permitted the estimation of probable intake of Hg contaminant by consumers foraging for this species. The range of median values of Hg determined in caps of L. versipelle was from 0.20 to 2.0 mg kg(-1) dry biomass, and the median for 19 localities was 0.65 mg kg(-1) dry biomass. The values of the Hg bioconcentration factor (BCF) determined for L. versipelle correlated negatively with Hg contents. Mercury in topsoil beneath L. versipelle ranged from 0.019 to 0.041 mg kg(-1) dry matter for less-contaminated locations (BCF of 17 to 65 for caps) and from 0.076 to 0.39 mg kg(-1) dry matter for more contaminated locations (BCF of 1.9 to 22). Fruiting bodies of L. versipelle collected in some regions of Poland if consumed in amount of 300 g in one meal in a week could provide Hg doses above the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) value of 0.004 mg Hg kg(-1) body mass, while regular consumptions for most of the locations were below the limit even with more frequent consumption. Also summarized are available data on Hg for three species of fungi of genus Leccinum foraged in Europe.

  15. Using species-specific enriched stable isotopes to study the effect of fresh mercury inputs in soil-earthworm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C Rodríguez; Jiménez-Moreno, M; Bernardo, F J Guzmán; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez; Nevado, J J Berzas

    2018-01-01

    The fate of mercury (Hg) in the soil-earthworm system is still far from being fully understood, especially regarding recurrent and challenging questions about the importance of the reactivity of exogenous Hg species. Thus, to predict the potential effect of Hg inputs in terrestrial ecosystems, it is necessary to evaluate separately the reactivity of the endogenous and exogenous Hg species and, for this purpose, the use of enriched stable isotope tracers is a promising tool. In the present work, earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were exposed to historically Hg contaminated soils from the Almadén mining district, Spain. The soils were either non-spiked, which contain only endogenous or native Hg naturally occurring in the soil, or spiked with isotopically enriched inorganic Hg ( 199 IHg), representing exogenous or spiked Hg apart from the native one. The differential reactivity of endogenous and exogenous Hg in the soil conditioned the processes of methylation, mobilization, and assimilation of inorganic Hg by earthworms. Both endogenous and exogenous Hg species also behave distinctly regarding their bioaccumulation in earthworms, as suggested by the bioaccumulation factors, being the endogenous methylmercury (MeHg) the species more readily bioaccumulated by earthworms and in a higher extent. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time the potential of enriched stable isotopes to study the effects of fresh Hg inputs in soil-earthworm systems. The findings of this work can be taken as a case study on the dynamics of Hg species in complex terrestrial systems and open a new door for future experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A strategy for the survey of urban garden soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.; Chenot, E. D.; Cortet, J.; Douay, F.; Dumat, C.; Pernin, C.; Pourrut, B.

    2012-04-01

    In France and all over the world, there is no systematic data available on the quality (fertility and contamination) of garden soils. Nevertheless, there is a growing need for a typology and for a method dedicated to national and international garden soil survey. This inventory is much needed in the context of environmental risk assessment, to predict the potential impact on human health of the direct contact with garden soils and of the consumption of vegetables from gardens. The state of the art on the international knowledge on garden soils, gardening practices and food production, shows that gardens remain poorly known and very complex ecological, economical and social systems. Their global quality is the result of a wide number of factors including environment, history, specific characteristics of the gardens, gardeners and their practices, plant and/or animal productions and socio-economic context. The aim is then to better know the determinism of the agronomic, environmental and sanitary properties of gardens as a function of gardening practices and their impact on the quality of soils and plants. We propose a definition of "garden" and more generally of all the field "garden". The system "garden" is represented by attributes (soil and plant characteristics) and factors with various impacts (e.g. environment > soil parent material > former land uses > age and sex of gardener > gardening practices > socio-professional group > type and proportion of productions > climate > age of the garden > size of the garden > education, information > cultural origin > functions of the garden > regulations). A typology of gardens including 7 selected factors and associated categories and a method for describing, sampling and characterizing a population of gardens representative (for a country) are proposed. Based on the statistical analysis on regional databases, we have determined and proposed an optimum size for the collected population of garden soils. The discussion of

  17. Application of organic matter to enhance phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soils using local plant species: a case study on small-scale gold mining locations in Banyuwangi of East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muddarisna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of small-scale gold mine tailing to agricultural lands at Pesanggaran village of Banyuwangi Regency caused soil degradation as indicated by reduced crop production. This soil degradation is mainly due to the toxicity of mercury contained in the tailing. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of three local plant species, i.e. Lindernia crustacea, Digitaria radicosa, and Cyperus kyllingia for phytoremediation of agricultural land contaminated gold mine waste containing mercury, and its influence on the growth of maize. Six treatments (three plant species, and two levels of organic matter application were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Maize was grown on soil after phytoremediation for 8 weeks. The results showed that among the three plant species tested, Cyperus kyllingia was the potential candidate plant species for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailing containing mercury because of its ability to accumulate mercury from 32.06 to 73.90 mg / kg of soil in 60 days. Phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soil using Cyperus kyllingia using increased maize yield by 126% compared to that the biomass yield of maize grown on soil without phytoremediation. Induce phytoremediation needs to be carried out to accelerate the process of remediation of mercury contaminated soils

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Soil Polygons for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — 2013 VERSION 6 Spatial: This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative...

  19. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  20. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil

  1. Geochemical background of zinc, cadmium and mercury in anthropically influenced soils in a semi-arid zone (SE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-04-01

    This work seeks to establish the geochemical background for three potentially toxic trace elements (Zn, Cd and Hg) in a pilot zone included in the DesertNet project in the province of Murcia. The studied area, known as Campo de Cartagena, Murcia (SE Spain) is an area of intensive agriculture and has been much affected over the years by anthropic activity. The zone can be considered an experimental pilot zone for establishing background levels in agricultural soils. Sixty four samples were collected and corresponded to areas subjected to high and similar agricultural activity or soils with natural vegetation, which correspond to abandoned agricultural areas. The Zn content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry and mercury content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Geostatistical analysis consisting of kriging and mapping was performed using the geostatistical analyst extension of ArcGIS 8.3. Zinc values ranged from 10 mg kg-1 to 151 mg kg-1, with an average value of 45 mg kg-1. Cadmium values ranged between 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.9mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.3 mg kg-1 and mercury values ranged from 0.1 mg kg-1 to 2.3 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.5 mg kg-1. At a national level, the Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005 proposes toxicological and statistical approaches to establish background values. According to the statistical approach, background values consist of the median value for the selected element. The background values for Zn, Cd and Hg in the studied area were 40 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.3 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.4 mg kg-1 for Hg.

  2. Method for fixating sludges and soils contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.; Roth, Rachel L.; Carlson, Allan L.

    2005-06-28

    The invention relates to a method, composition and apparatus for stabilizing mercury and other heavy metals present in a particulate material such that the metals will not leach from the particulate material. The method generally involves the application of a metal reagent, a sulfur-containing compound, and the addition of oxygen to the particulate material, either through agitation, sparging or the addition of an oxygen-containing compound.

  3. Effects of liming and ash recycling on the outflow of mercury from forest soils - a theoretical study; Inverkan av kalkning och askaaterfoering paa utfloedet av kvicksilver fraan skogsmark - en teoretisk studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Arne; Nilsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In this report, a theoretical review is made of the probable effects that spreading of lime and woodash in forests will have on the turnover of mercury in soil and on the outflow of mercury into water systems. As a result of historic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, a large proportion of Swedish forest land has significantly increased concentrations of mercury, which is gradually leaching into lakes and watercourses. If an increased application of lime or woodash to forest soils were to result in a major change in the outflow of mercury, it could in time have a considerable effect on the mercury concentrations in lake fish. The fish in a large number of lakes in the southern part of Sweden already have mercury concentrations which are so high as to make them unsuitable for use as food. In conclusion, the theoretical assessment indicates in general that any effects on the mercury situation in lakes as a result of liming or woodash treatment of forest land are marginal or towards the positive side. It is not likely that these treatments increases the outflow of organic matter from soil. Any worsening of the mercury situation in lakes and watercourses will therefore hardly be the result of soil changes, but rather of processes in lakes and streams. Most of the evidence, however suggests that liming/ash treatment has predominantly positive effects with regard to the lake processes that control mercury levels in fish. At this juncture, available experience indicates that the mercury situation in the environment is in no way a decisive factor in determining where and how lime or ash should be applied to forest land. 64 refs, 2 figs

  4. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , UO 2 2+ , and Cs + ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H + and Ca 2+ . Distribution constants, Kd's, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation

  5. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

    2008-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  6. A survey of radioactive caesium in British soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1990-08-01

    The accumulation of radioactive caesium-137 in soils under permanent grassland was measured by Harwell Laboratory in 1977. The objective was to provide at selected locations in Great Britain a reference of background radioactivity in soil resulting from depositions of nuclear weapons fallout over some thirty years. Following the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986, the Department of the Environment requested further measurements at the reference sites in 1987 to record changes and regional differences in the amounts present in soil caused by radioactive fallout. Results from the 1987 survey generally showed the highest accumulations of Cs-137 derived from both nuclear weapons and Chernobyl fallout in western and northern regions of Great Britain, owing to the effectiveness of rainfall on scavenging of radioactivity from the atmosphere. Thus the reference sites in south-west and central Scotland had the maximum accumulation of 26kBq Cs-137/m 2 to 30cm soil depth, at Burrow Head and Rannoch; at these locations the soil concentrations attained 256Bq/kg whereas at all sites in England levels were 2 . To 30cm depth, an average soil concentration in Scotland of ∼ 100Bq/kg was derived, which is 11% of the generalised derived limit (GDL). Comparison of 1987 results with decay-corrected 1977 data showed that nine locations in England receiving negligible Chernobyl fallout had a net loss of Cs-137 by soil erosion and/or leaching over the ten-years interval. At other locations in England a minimum of 6-40% of Cs-137 to 30cm depth was Chernobyl-derived, but this increased to 50-95% in Scotland where substantial accumulations of Cs-134 were also recorded. At the two peat sites in north-east Scotland the accumulated deposition of Cs-137 in 1987 was two and five-fold greater than in 1977. In peatland vegetation the concentrations of Cs-137 followed the order sphagnum mosses > heather > g

  7. Turning soil survey data into digital soil maps in the Energy Region Eger Research Model Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Dobos, Anna; Kürti, Lívia; Takács, Katalin; Laborczi, Annamária

    2015-04-01

    Agria-Innoregion Knowledge Centre of the Eszterházy Károly College has carried out targeted basic researches in the field of renewable energy sources and climate change in the framework of TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV project. The project has covered certain issues, which require the specific knowledge of the soil cover; for example: (i) investigation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of natural and landscape resources; (ii) determination of local amount and characteristics of renewable energy sources; (iii) natural/environmental risk analysis by surveying the risk factors. The Energy Region Eger Research Model Area consists of 23 villages and is located in North-Hungary, at the Western part of Bükkalja. Bükkalja is a pediment surface with erosional valleys and dense river network. The diverse morphology of this area results diversity in soil types and soil properties as well. There was large-scale (1:10,000 and 1:25,000 scale) soil mappings in this area in the 1960's and 1970's which provided soil maps, but with reduced spatial coverage and not with fully functional thematics. To achive the recent tasks (like planning suitable/optimal land-use system, estimating biomass production and development of agricultural and ecomonic systems in terms of sustainable regional development) new survey was planned and carried out by the staff of the College. To map the soils in the study area 10 to 22 soil profiles were uncovered per settlement in 2013 and 2014. Field work was carried out according to the FAO Guidelines for Soil Description and WRB soil classification system was used for naming soils. According to the general goal of soil mapping the survey data had to be spatially extended to regionalize the collected thematic local knowledge related to soil cover. Firstly three thematic maps were compiled by digital soil mapping methods: thickness of topsoil, genetic soil type and rate of surface erosion. High resolution digital elevation model, Earth

  8. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  9. Survey of total mercury and methylmercury levels in edible fish from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R; Storelli, A; D'Addabbo, R; Palermo, C; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2003-12-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of different fish species from the Adriatic Sea to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. Large species-dependent variability was observed. The highest total mercury mean concentrations were in benthic (0.20-0.76 microg g(-1) wet wt) and demersal fish (0.22-0.73 microg g(-1) wet wt), while pelagic species showed the lowest levels (0.09-0.23 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 15% of frost fish, in 42% of skate and in 30% of angler fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt); for the species for which the maximum level was set to 0.5 microg g(-1) wet wt, concentrations exceeding the prescribed legal limit were observed in 6.4% of bokkem, in 6.6% of pandora, in 20% of megrin, in 12.5% of four-spotted megrim, in 16% of striped mullet, in 5.0% of forkbeard and in 5.3% of picarel samples. In all the different species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with mean percentages between 70 and 100%. Weekly intake was estimated and compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A high exposure was associated with the consumption of only skates, frost fish and angler fish, thought the consumption of the other species, such as, megrim, four spotted megrim, red fish striped mullet and forkbeard, resulted in a weekly intake slightly below the established provisional tolerable weekly intake.

  10. The development and testing of technologies for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils, Task 7.52. Topical report, December 1992--December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, D.J.; Fraley, R.H.; Charlton, D.S.

    1994-02-01

    The release of elemental mercury into the environment from manometers that are used in the measurement of natural gas flow through pipelines has created a potentially serious problem for the gas industry. Regulations, particularly the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), have had a major impact on gas companies dealing with mercury-contaminated soils. After the May 8, 1993, LDR deadline extension, gas companies were required to treat mercury-contaminated soils by designated methods to specified levels prior to disposal in landfills. In addition, gas companies must comply with various state regulations that are often more stringent than the LDR. The gas industry is concerned that the LDRs do not allow enough viable options for dealing with their mercury-related problems. The US Environmental Protection Agency has specified the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) as thermal roasting or retorting. However, the Agency recognizes that treatment of certain wastes to the LDR standards may not always be achievable and that the BDAT used to set the standard may be inappropriate. Therefore, a Treatability Variance Process for remedial actions was established (40 Code of Federal Regulations 268.44) for the evaluation of alternative remedial technologies. This report presents evaluations of demonstrations for three different remedial technologies: a pilot-scale portable thermal treatment process, a pilot-scale physical separation process in conjunction with chemical leaching, and a bench-scale chemical leaching process

  11. Mercury Speciation in Contaminated Soils from Old Mining Activities in Mexico Using a Chemical Selective Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gavilán-García, Irma; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Tovar-Gálvez, Luis R.; Gavilán-García, Arturo; Suárez, Sara; Olmos, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Amalgamation was heavily used in mining since 1557 in Spanish Colonies. In Mexico and other parts of Latin-America, this process generated tailings which were left aside in the mine backyards. In the valley of Zacatecas, tailings were carried out of the mines due to the run-off from the mountains and contaminated most of the Zacatecan Valley which most important economic activity is agricultural (crop and livestock raising). The main concern in this area is the high level of total mercury fou...

  12. Innovative approaches for the remediation of arsenic and mercury pollution via soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, C.; Gonzalez-Coto, F.; Villa, R.; Menendez-Aguado, J. M.; Gallego, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Soil washing techniques are ex situ remediation procedures to remove contaminants concentrating them into a minor volume through particle size separation, gravity separation, and attrition scrubbing; with or without the utilization of chemical additives. Systems incorporating these removal techniques offer possibilities for application to soils contaminated with a wide variety of heavy metal, radionuclides, and organic contaminants. (Author)

  13. Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Kučera, Jan; Fikrle, Marek; Drtinová, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, SEP (2013), s. 691-694 ISSN 0026-265X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/0682; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Mercury * contaminated soils * AMA-254 * RNAA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.583, year: 2013

  14. Ingested soil: Bioavailability of sorbed lead, cadmium, cesium, iodine, and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.; Schwartz, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ingestion of soil, inadvertent or otherwise, is an important route of exposure for contaminants that are not geochemically or biologically mobile. There is little known about the bioavailability of these contaminants, especially when the contaminants are sorbed onto native soil particles. We investigated this with in vitro acid-extraction and enzymolysis experiments and with in vivo single and chronic exposure studies with mice (Mus musculus). The only anion studied was 125 I, and soil in the diet had no effect on the carcass 125 I content. The bioavailability of the cations tested decreased in the order of 134 Cs > 203 Hg > 115 Cd = 210 Pb, and the effect of soil in the diet on concentrations in the carcass decreased in the same order. Soil in the diet significantly decreased the bioavailability of 134 Cs, by more than fourfold, whereas the effect on 210 Pb was only ∼ 1.1-fold and was not significant. The results of the in vitro digestions ordered the elements in the same way as observed in the in vivo analyses. These results indicate that for contaminants that are not very mobile and are sorbed onto native soil particles, the presence of soil in the diet does not markedly affect bioavailability in the gut. (author)

  15. Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinklebe J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the action values of the German Soil Conservation Law. This is especially important as Hg polluted areas at the Elbe River achieve several hundred square kilometres. Thus, authorities are coerced by law to conduct an appropriate risk assessment and to implement practical actions to eliminate or reduce environmental problems. A reliable risk assessment particularly with view to organisms (vegetation as green fodder and hay production, grazing and wild animals to avoid the transfer of Hg into the human food chain, requires an authentic determination of Hg fluxes and their dynamics since gaseous emissions from soil to atmosphere are an important pathway of Hg. However, reliable estimates of Hg fluxes from the highly polluted floodplain soils at the Elbe River and its tributaries, and its influencing factors are scarce. For this purpose, we have developed a new method to determine mercury emissions from soils at various sites. Our objectives were i to quantify seasonal variations of total gaseous mercury (TGM fluxes for floodplain soils at the Elbe River, ii to provide insights into physico-chemical processes regulating these TGM fluxes, and iii to quantify the impacts of the controlling factors soil temperature and soil water content on Hg volatilization from a typical contaminated floodplain soil within soil microcosm experiments under various controlled temperature and moisture conditions. Our study provides insight into TGM emissions from highly Hg

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Special Point Features for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Special Line Features for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Shiprock Area, Parts of San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola Area, New Mexico, Parts of Cibola, McKinley, and Valencia Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Rio Arriba Area, New Mexico, Parts of Rio Arriba and Sandoval Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Gila National Forest, New Mexico, Parts of Catron, Grant and Sierra Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Bernalillo County and Parts of Sandoval and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Jicarilla Apache Nation, Parts of Rio Arriba and Sandoval Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Lincoln and Otero Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Taos County and Parts of Rio Arriba and Mora Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sandoval County Area, New Mexico (Parts of Los Alamos, Sandoval and Rio Arriba Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  8. Influences of thermal decontamination on mercury removal, soil properties, and repartitioning of coexisting heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Thermal treatment is a useful tool to remove Hg from contaminated soils. However, thermal treatment may greatly alter the soil properties and cause the coexisting contaminants, especially trace metals, to transform and repartition. The metal repartitioning may increase the difficulty in the subsequent process of a treatment train approach. In this study, three Hg-contaminated soils were thermally treated to evaluate the effects of treating temperature and duration on Hg removal. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to project the suitable heating parameters for subsequent bench-scale fixed-bed operation. Results showed that thermal decontamination at temperature>400°C successfully lowered the Hg content tosoil particle size was less significant, even when the soils were thermally treated to 550°C. Soil clay minerals such as kaolinite were shown to be decomposed. Aggregates were observed on the surface of soil particles after the treatment. The heavy metals tended to transform into acid-extractable, organic-matter bound, and residual forms from the Fe/Mn oxide bound form. These results suggest that thermal treatment may markedly influence the effectiveness of subsequent decontamination methods, such as acid washing or solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  10. Modelling the relationship between soil color and particle size for soil survey in Ferralsol environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kone

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture is an important property for evaluating its inherent fertility especially by using pedo-transfers functions requiring particle size data. However, there is no existing quantitative method for in situ estimation of soil particle size, delaying judgement of soil chemical properties in the field. For this purpose, laboratory particle size analyses of 1028 samples from 281 Ferralsol profiles, located between latitudes 7º N and 10º N in Côte d’Ivoire and their respective colour notation by Munsell chart were used to generate prediction models. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis by Group was processed to identify clay, sand and silt contents in the soil based on color hue (2.5YR, 5YR, 7.5YR, and 10YR and Chroma (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. The evaluation was conducted for each horizon coded as H1 (0-20 cm, H2 (20-60 cm, H3 (60-80 cm and H4 (80-150 cm and used as grouping variables. Highly significant (P< 0.001 models were identified for clay and sand. These models were used to estimate successfully clay and sand contents for other Ferralsol samples by comparing calculated and measured mean using the null hypothesis of difference and Tukey’s tests. They were accurate for at all depths, except 80 - 150 cm, for sand in 10YR soils. The method was deemed appropriate for in situ estimation of soil particle size contents in Ferralsol environment for improving reconnaissance agricultural soil surveys.

  11. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65 and 89.4% (n=143 not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9% than females (n=36, 22.5% with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, px2=22.82, p= Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of knowledge, combined with minimal environmental monitoring and controlled waste management practices, highlights the need for health education, surveillance, and policy

  12. Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Lofts, Steve; Tipping, Ed; Meili, Markus; Groenenberg, Jan E; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment for metals in terrestrial ecosystems, including assessments of critical loads, requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil and soil solution. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies used to derive critical (i) reactive and total metal concentrations in soils and (ii) free metal ion and total metal concentrations in soil solution for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg, taking into account the effect of soil properties related to ecotoxicological effects. Most emphasis is given to the derivation of critical free and total metal concentrations in soil solution, using available NOEC soil data and transfer functions relating solid-phase and dissolved metal concentrations. This approach is based on the assumption that impacts on test organisms (plants, microorganisms, and soil invertebrates) are mainly related to the soil solution concentration (activity) and not to the soil solid-phase content. Critical Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg concentrations in soil solution vary with pH and DOC level. The results obtained are generally comparable to those derived for surface waters based on impacts to aquatic organisms. Critical soil metal concentrations, related to the derived soil solution limits, can be described as a function of pH and organic matter and clay content, and varying about one order of magnitude between different soil types.

  13. Arsenic and mercury in the soils of an industrial city in the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Landa, Edward R.; Kolker, Allan; Kozlov, Kostiantyn; Gibb, Herman J.; Centeno, Jose; Panov, Boris S.; Panov, Yuri B.

    2013-01-01

    Soil and house dust collected in and around Hg mines and a processing facility in Horlivka, a mid-sized city in the Donets Basin of southeastern Ukraine, have elevated As and Hg levels. Surface soils collected at a former Hg-processing facility had up to 1300 mg kg−1 As and 8800 mg kg−1 Hg; 1M HCl extractions showed 74–93% of the total As, and 1–13% of the total Hg to be solubilized, suggesting differential environmental mobility between these elements. In general, lower extractability of As and Hg was seen in soil samples up to 12 km from the Hg-processing facility, and the extractable (1M HCl, synthetic precipitation, deionized water) fractions of As are greater than those for Hg, indicating that Hg is present in a more resistant form than As. The means (standard deviation) of total As and Hg in grab samples collected from playgrounds and public spaces within 12 km of the industrial facility were 64 (±38) mg kg−1 As and 12 (±9.4) mg kg−1 Hg; all concentrations are elevated compared to regional soils. The mean concentrations of As and Hg in dust from homes in Horlivka were 5–15 times higher than dust from homes in a control city. Estimates of possible exposure to As and Hg through inadvertent soil ingestion are provided.

  14. Effect of two fungicides, benlate and phenyl mercury acetate, on a population of cellulolytic fungi in soil and in pure culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.N.; Long, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulolytic fungi were successfully isolated from an arable loam type soil using the polythene rod technique and the screened substrate technique. Phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) applied to the soil at 100 ppm severely reduced the incidence of many cellulolytic fungi normally present, with a concomitant increase in the incidence of Penicillium spp and Trichoderma lignorum. The application of benlate at 100 ppm had little effect other than to increase the incidence of Doratomyces mircosporus, Dreschlera sp. and Papulospora sp. Both benlate and PMA were much more toxic when examined in-vitro in cellulose agar than when added to soil. Nevertheless, the incidence of cellulolytic isolates from soil reflected the relative sensitivity of the isolates to the respective fungicides in-vitro. The activity of benlate in-vitro decreased with an increase in glucose concentration in the media, but the activity of PMA was independent of glucose concentration.

  15. Electroleaching for a decontamination of mercury polluted soils and residues. Development of a hydrometallurgical cyclic process; Elektrolaugung zur Dekontamination quecksilberbelasteter Boeden und Reststoffe. Entwicklung eines hydrometallurgischen Kreislaufprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeming, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of a hydrometallurgical clean-up technique are shown for treating mercury contaminated solids. The principles of the technique were described by models that derived from theoretical considerations. These models were experimentally examined, tested with realcontaminated solids and used to design a new process, the electroleaching. Two variants of this cyclic process were developed. They differ in the combination of a chloridic oxidative leaching step, a cathodic mercury deposition and an anodic leachate regeneration. All steps were analysed thermodynamically and kinetically. Treating highly contaminated soils residual concentrations of mercury below 1 mg kg{sup -1} were achieved. It was also possible to separate simultaneously traces of gold from mercury containing gold mining residues and to lower contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons a well. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit werden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer hydrometallurgischen Reinigungstechnik fuer Feststoffe aufgezeigt, die mit Quecksilber kontaminiert sind. Dazu wurden aus theoretischen Ueberlegungen heraus entwickelte Modellierungen experimentell abgeprueft, verfahrenstechnisch umgesetzt und an realkontaminierten Feststoffen erprobt. So wurde ein neues Kreislaufverfahren entwickelt, die Elektrolaugung. Die zwei vorgestellten Prozessvarianten unterscheiden sich durch die jeweilige Kombination von chloridisch-oxidierender Laugung, kathodischer Quecksilberabscheidung und anodischer Laugungsmittel-Regenerierung. Alle Teilprozesse wurden sowohl thermodynamisch als auch kinetisch analysiert. Bei Behandlung industrieller Altlasten konnten Quecksilber-Restgehalte unter 1 mg kg{sup -1} erreicht werden. Ebenso konnten Goldspuren aus quecksilberhaltigen Abgaengen brasilianischer Goldgewinnung abgetrennt sowie Gehalte an chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen verringert werden. (orig.)

  16. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  17. Elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with hypertension; analysis of the fourth and fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3, 2008-2009 and V-1, 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beomhee; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The impact of simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations on hypertension in the general population is not known. To determine the association of serum ferritin and mercury concentrations with hypertension, 6213 subjects (3060 men and 3153 women) over 20 years of age from 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into tertiles according to serum ferritin and mercury concentrations in each gender. Serum ferritin (258.2 vs. 94.8 pmol/L) and mercury concentrations (28.4 vs. 19.9 nmol/L) were higher in men than in women. Serum ferritin (men; P = 0.029, women; P mercury (men; P mercury concentrations in both men (r = 0.193, P mercury tertiles increased after proper adjustments. Furthermore, significantly higher odds ratios of hypertension were found in the second (OR = 1.86, 95% CI; 1.05-3.30), and third (OR = 1.84, 95% CI; 1.01-3.36) tertiles of serum ferritin with the top tertile of serum mercury in men. The current study indicate that serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are associated with the prevalence of hypertension and that simultaneously elevated serum ferritin and mercury concentrations are related to the risk for hypertension in men. © 2013 The Authors. The Environmental Toxicology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mercury migration into ground water, a literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Carden, J.L.; Kury, R.; Eichholz, G.G.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents a broad review of the technical literature dealing with mercury migration in the soil. The approach followed was to identify relevant articles by searching bibliographic data bases, obtaining the promising articles and searching these articles for any additional relevant citations. Eight catagories were used to organize the literature, with a review and summary of each paper. Catagories used were the following: chemical states of mercury under environmental conditions; diffusion of mercury vapor through soil; solubility and stability of mercury in environmental waters; transport of mercury on colloids; models for mercury migration through the environment; analytical techniques; retention of mercury by soil components; formation of organomecurials.

  19. Mercury accumulation plant Cyrtomium macrophyllum and its potential for phytoremediation of mercury polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Yu; Feng, Liu; Li, Youdan; Dong, Haochen

    2017-12-01

    Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg -1 of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg -1 accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg -1 of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bioconcentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg -1 and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species. Furthermore, the leaf tissue of Cyrtomium macrophyllum showed high resistance to mercury stress because of both the increased superoxide dismutase activity and the accumulation of glutathione and proline induced by mercury stress, which favorited mercury translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, revealing the possible reason for Cyrtomium macrophyllum to tolerate high concentration of soil mercury. In sum, due to its excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities as well as its high resistance to mercury stress, the use of Cyrtomium macrophyllum should be a promising approach to remediating mercury polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, Stephan R.; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg -1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg -1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: → Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. → Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. → MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. → Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  1. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  2. Prey-predator dynamics in communities of culturable soil bacteria and protozoa: differential effects of mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, M. S.; Ekelund, F.; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam

    2003-01-01

    CFUs on the general medium 1/100 tryptic soy agar (TSA) were significantly decreased when the soil had been amended with Hg. In contrast, no effect was seen on the number of CFUs on the Pseudomonas-specific medium Gould's S1 agar. Protozoan numbers estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method...

  3. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of sport-fish consumption advisories in mercury risk communication: a 1998-1999 12-state survey of women age 18-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Smith, A.; Draheim, L.; Kanarek, M.; Olsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In 2002, in the United States, 48 states issued advisories for sport-fish consumers that included 39 chemical contaminants. The most commonly identified chemical was methyl mercury, which is linked to reproductive and developmental effects. Advisories to reduce consumption of contaminated fish have been issued by states since the early 1970s. Advisories are being integrated to include both sport and commercial fish. Methods: As part of a comprehensive risk-communication project, from December 1998 through August 1999 the Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the State of Maine Bureau of Health conducted a 12-state random-digit-dial telephone survey of 3015 women of childbearing age (ages 18-45). The goal was to assess the prevalence of fish consumption, understanding of mercury toxicity, and awareness of state sport-fish consumption advisories for mercury. We gathered information concerning respondents' demographic characteristics, understanding of mercury toxicity, fish consumption during the preceding 12 months, and sport-fish consumption advisory awareness. Results: The overall survey completion rate was 57% with a Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO)-calculated response rate of 50%. Completion rates varied from 37% in New Jersey to 73% in Minnesota. Fish consumption during the previous 12 months was reported by 87% of respondents (range by state of 82-90%). Nearly 10% of women reported consuming two or more fish-meals per week over the prior 12 months. Twenty-nine percent reported sport-fish consumption during the same time period, with a greater state-to-state variability (14-43%). Most women (71%) were aware of mercury's toxicity to a developing child (87% among those aware of an advisory and 67% among those unaware of an advisory). However, awareness of state advisories was only 20%, ranging by state from 8% to 32%. Women who were older, had more than a high school education, and had a household member with a fishing

  5. [Distribution and risk assessment of mercury species in soil of the water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Ding-Yong; Sun, Rong-Guo; Zhang, Jin-Yang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate pollution level and ecological risk of mercury in soils of the water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, 192 surface soil samples from 14 counties (districts) in Chongqing were obtained. Concentrations of THg and Hg species, bioavailable Hg were analyzed and discussed. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index (E(r)) were applied to assess the pollution status and potential ecological risk of THg and Hg species, respectively. The results showed that significant differences in the concentration of THg were found in soils of water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The THg concentration ranged from 22.4 to 393.5 microg x kg(-1), with an average of (84.2 +/- 54.3) microg x kg(-1). 76.6% of the samples' THg content was higher than the soil background value in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The percentage of five mercury species (water-soluble Hg, HCl-soluble Hg, KOH-soluble Hg, H2O2-soluble Hg, residue Hg) in soils were 4.1%, 15.5%, 18.3%, 10.9%, 51.3%, respectively. The average concentrations of bioavailable mercury varied between 19.7-36.6 microg x kg(-1), and the percentage of bioavailable Hg was 22.1%-51.6% of THg. According to the geoaccumulation index, the soils were lightly polluted by Hg. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index evaluation showed that Hg species had a low potential ecological risk, moreover, soils of water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir were at low ecological risk levels as evaluated by bioavailable Hg. While, the assessment results based on THg of soils was much higher than that based on the Hg species. Two methods of evaluation showed that the I(geo) and E(r) values calculated based on the Hg species better reflected the actual pollution levels of soils and its hazard to aquatic organisms.

  6. Moving beyond the udorthent - a proposed protocol for surveying urban soils to service data needs for contemporary urban ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    County-level, Order 2 soil surveys have been used for decades to illustrate the spatial distribution of soils and communicate the utility and limitations of soil series. For the vast majority of these soil surveys, however, there is a distinct lack of resolution of soil series an...

  7. Mercury pollution of effluent, air, and soil near a battery factory in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semu, E.; Singh, B.R.; Selmer-Olsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Effluent, air, and soil samples near a battery factory in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where HgCl/sub 2/ is used to prevent mold growth, were collected to explore the potential for pollution of the environment from industrial discharge of Hg. Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for Hg determinations. The concentration of Hg in the effluent ranged from <0.2 to 5.2 mg L/sup -1/ and the Hg concentration varied greatly within and among sampling days, showing different peaks. Air contained a mean of 4.0 ..mu..g m /sup -3/ with little variation within and between sampling days. Soils near the factory contained high Hg levels, from 6.7 to 472 mg kg/sup -1/ in the immediate vicinity, the highest level being associated with disposal of solid waste (defective batteries). Downwind the concentration of Hg decreased with increasing distance from the factory resulting in a soil concentration of 1.0 mg Hg kg/sup -1/ about 2 km away. Upwind the Hg concentration decreased drastically within a distance of 100 to 200 m.

  8. 4.3 Environmental media: soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    An overview about the Austrian soil condition covering the period 2001-2003 is presented. It provides information on selected inorganic pollutants like copper, chromium, cadmium, cesium, lead, nickel, zinc and mercury as well as organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic halogen compounds (pentachlorophenol, PCB) etc.). First Austria-wide evaluations were derived from the soil information system BORIS, which provides a survey of selected pollutant concentrations in Austrian top soils. This comprehensive data collection includes major soil surveys, such as the data from soil inventories of the Federal Provinces, the Austrian forest soil inventory, the Austria-wide radio-cesium survey, as well as data from more than 30 other local surveys regarding special soil issues and problems (conurbation, industrial sites, etc.). In general the condition of Austrian soils may be considered good, however still, there are some regions with polluted soils, particularly in the Austrian Alps. (nevyjel)

  9. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Elias; Thomas, Deborah S K; Dewey, Deborah; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E; Konje, Eveline

    2013-01-25

    An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65) and 89.4% (n=143) not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9%) than females (n=36, 22.5%) with regard to mercury (x²=3.99, pmining (n=63, 73.2%) were more knowledgeable about the negative health effects of mercury than individuals in other occupations. Of the few individuals (n=17, 10.6%) who knew about arsenic toxicity, the majority (n=10, 58.8%) were miners. The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of

  10. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9 Section 600.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil survey offices. The United States is divide...

  11. A knowledge - based system to assist in the design of soil survey schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domburg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Soil survey information with quantified accuracy is relevant to decisions on land use and environmental problems. To obtain such information statistical strategies should be used for collecting and analysing data. A survey project based on a statistical sampling strategy requires a soil

  12. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Halliday, Ian A.; Howley, Christina; Sinnamon, Vivian; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet–dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 μg L −1 and 0.1 μg g −1 , respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. δ 15 N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. ► Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. ► Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. ► Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  13. Acclimation of subsurface microbial communities to mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lipthay, Julia R; Rasmussen, Lasse D; Øregaard, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    of mercury tolerance and functional versatility of bacterial communities in contaminated soils initially were higher for surface soil, compared with the deeper soils. However, following new mercury exposure, no differences between bacterial communities were observed, which indicates a high adaptive potential......We studied the acclimation to mercury of bacterial communities of different depths from contaminated and noncontaminated floodplain soils. The level of mercury tolerance of the bacterial communities from the contaminated site was higher than those of the reference site. Furthermore, the level...... of the subsurface communities, possibly due to differences in the availability of mercury. IncP-1 trfA genes were detected in extracted community DNA from all soil depths of the contaminated site, and this finding was correlated to the isolation of four different mercury-resistance plasmids, all belonging...

  14. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO{sub 2} respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrist, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.obrist@dri.edu [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada, 89512 (United States); Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen [Desert Research Institute, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada, 89512 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.49) between Hg and CO{sub 2} emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO{sub 2} respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N{sub 2}. Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O{sub 2} deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO{sub 2} emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg{sup 2+} by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg{sup 2+} reduction, is related to O{sub 2} availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O{sub 2} levels and possibly low soil redox

  15. Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Provides a summary of the Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study performed as part of the last Planetary Decadal Survey. The presentation will focus on engineering trades and the challenges of developing a Mercury lander mission.

  16. Determination of Lead(II), Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) in Waste-Water and Soil Extracts on Mercury Film Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fairulnizal Md Noh; Tothill, I.E.

    2011-01-01

    A sensor incorporating a three electrodes configuration have been fabricated using low cost screen-printing technology. These electrodes couples with Square Wave Stripping Voltammetry (SWSV) has provided a convenient screening tool for on-site detection of trace levels of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II). Modification of the graphite carbon surface based on in situ deposition of mercury film has been carried out. By appropriate choice of supporting medium and optimized parameters setting such as amount of mercury used the deposition potential, deposition time, frequency and scan rate, well resolved and reproducible response for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) were obtained. The performance characteristics of the developed mercury film screen printed carbon electrode (MFSPCE) for 120 s deposition time showed that the linear range for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 10 to 200 μg L -1 . The detection limit recorded for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 2, 1 and 5 μg L -1 with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.5 %, 6.9 % and 7.5 %, respectively. Successful applications of the sensing device to waste-water and extracted soil samples were demonstrated. (author)

  17. The Spatial Variability of Soil Dehydrogenase Activity: A Survey in Urban Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Aşkin, Tayfun

    2007-01-01

    Information on soil microorganisms and their activity used to determine microbiological characteristics are very important for soil quality and productivity. Studies of enzyme activities provide information on the biochemical processes occurring in soil. There is growing evidence that soil biological parameters may be potential and sensitive indicators of soil ecological conditions and soil management. Soil microbiological parameters may be evaluated statistically due to application of geosta...

  18. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    pollution effects (i.e. methylmercury in fish). The general pattern of fish contamination follows to some extent a pattern similar to that of current and previous atmospheric pollution. Large areas have fish with mercury concentrations exceeding the health advisory guideline of 0.5 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg (for northern pike) in the EU and of around 0.3 mg/kg in the USA, thus restricting their use for human consumption. A more comprehensive assessment of factors influencing levels of methylmercury in fish has to include a number of other parameters such as catchment characteristics (e.g. relative size, presence of wetlands), contents and fluxes of DOC in soil run-off and surface waters as well as methylation potential within ecosystems

  19. Mercury uptake and distribution in Lavandula stoechas plants grown in soil from Almadén mining district (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M J; Millán, R; Esteban, E

    2009-11-01

    This work studies mercury root uptake by Lavandula stoechas var. Kew Red (lavender) and the distribution of this metal through the plant under greenhouse conditions along three consecutive seasons. Mercury concentration in plant tissues and in the different products obtained from lavender plants (essential oil, toilet water and in lavender tea) was assessed in order to evaluate the possible cultivation of lavender as a profitable alternative land use to mercury mining in the Almadén area once the mine had been closed down. Mercury concentration in useful parts of the plant was low (0.03-0.55 mg kg(-1)). Likewise, the essential oil, toilet water and tea obtained from these plants presented very low mercury levels, below the detection limit of the used equipment (<0.5 microg kg(-1)). In the case of the obtained tea, according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization, the maximum daily intake of it without intoxication risk would be 85.2l. So, although other sources of mercury intake should also be considered in order to elaborate a complete toxicological risk assessment. Lavender data, obtained under this greenhouse working conditions, shows that lavender cultivation could be an alternative crop in the Almadén area.

  20. Refining soil survey information for a Dutch soil series using land use history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Bouma, J.; Veldkamp, A.

    2002-01-01

    Differences in land-use history within soil series, although not influencing soil classification, lead to variability of non-diagnostic soil properties in soil databases. Regional studies that use soil databases are confronted with this considerable variability. This has, for example, been reported

  1. Mercury contamination in the Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    contamination is mainly caused by deforestation upstream. ... The team expected to find that the mercury levels in the water, sediment, and soil decreased as they ... Methylmercury poisoning — known as Minamata Disease after the Japanese ...

  2. Soil arsenic surveys of New Orleans: localized hazards in children's play areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Chris R; Cahn, Elise; Brumfield, Jessica; Powell, Eric T; Mielke, Paul W

    2010-10-01

    Arsenic (As) ranks first on the 2005 and 2007 hazardous substances priority lists compiled for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study describes two New Orleans soil As surveys: (1) a survey of composite soil samples from 286 census tracts and (2) a field survey of soil As at 38 play areas associated with the presence of chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA)-treated wood on residential and public properties. The survey of metropolitan New Orleans soils revealed a median As content of 1.5 mg/kg (range New Orleans probably exists in play areas across the nation. These findings support a precautionary program for testing soils and wood for hazardous substances at all play areas intended for children.

  3. Groundwater Modeling of Mercury Pollution at a Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility in Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severely contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this ch...

  4. [The approach to the regulation of mercury according to the content of its termoforms in soils and bed loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, N A

    also developed ranking scales of the ecological and hygienic condition of the land areas and surface water bodies. As a result, on the base of such approach to the regulation of Hg the information value of assessments of mercury contamination of land significantly increased. At the objects of assessments there were identified following areas: foci of the manifestation of Hg hypolimnetic emanations on the landscape surface - dispersion halos in the areas of the Earth crust fracture (the dome of the Astrakhan gas condensate field); environmentally dangerous (sometimes even at a low total content of Hg) parts of cities, towns, their districts, as well as beds of watercourses and water reservoirs bottom (the Volga river valley and delta, the Lefortovo quarter in Moscow). There was also diagnosed the threshold of the background distribution of gross Hg content detected = 0.2-0.3 mg/kg. Its magnitude is consistent with domestic and abroad safe levels of Hg accumulation in soils = 0.3-0.4 mg/kg. The approach provides the differentiation of the environmental hazard lands. Technology of the approach can be used in the development of normative Document for the diagnosis of environmental and sanitary condition of territories in the system of Classifications of hazard of waste, in decontamination of territories, water areas and land zoning according to the criteria of natural or anthropogenic Hg accumulation.

  5. A Brief History of the use of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, James

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools and increased the amount and types of data that can be gathered with a single pass. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales. The future should witness a greater use of multiple-frequency and multiple-coil EMI sensors and integration with other sensors to assess the spatial variability of soil properties. Data analysis

  6. Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Meili, M.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Schutze, G.

    2007-01-01

    Concern about the input of metals to terrestrial ecosystems is related to (i) the ecotoxicological impact on soil organisms and plants (Bringmark et al. 1998; Palmborg et al. 1998) and also on aquatic organisms resulting from runoff to surface water and (ii) the uptake via food chains into animal

  7. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  8. Digital Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Multitemporal RADARSAT-1 and ASTER Images and Soil Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abou Niang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis classification (DAC and decision tree classifiers (DTC were used for digital mapping of soil drainage in the Bras-d’Henri watershed (QC, Canada using earth observation data (RADARSAT-1 and ASTER and soil survey dataset. Firstly, a forward stepwise selection was applied to each land use type identified by ASTER image in order to derive an optimal subset of soil drainage class predictors. The classification models were then applied to these subsets for each land use and merged to obtain a digital soil drainage map for the whole watershed. The DTC method provided better classification accuracies (29 to 92% than the DAC method (33 to 79% according to the land use type. A similarity measure (S was used to compare the best digital soil drainage map (DTC to the conventional soil drainage map. Medium to high similarities (0.6≤S<0.9 were observed for 83% (187 km2 of the study area while 3% of the study area showed very good agreement (S≥0.9. Few soil polygons showed very weak similarities (S<0.3. This study demonstrates the efficiency of combining radar and optical remote sensing data with a representative soil dataset for producing digital maps of soil drainage.

  9. Accumulation, transfer, and potential sources of mercury in the soil-wheat system under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shengli [Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, Gansu Province, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nan, Zhongren, E-mail: nanzhongren@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, Gansu Province, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Prete, Daniel [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ma, Jianmin; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Qian [Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, Gansu Province, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-10-15

    There is limited information on accumulation, transfer, and source of mercury in wheats under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China. The present study collected 26 pairs of topsoil and whole wheat samples (roots, stems, leaves, shells, and grains) from Dongdagou stream watershed and upper Xidagou stream watershed, Baiyin City, northwest China. Hg concentrations from these samples were used to identify their relationships with soil properties, interactions with other metals, localization of Hg in the different wheat tissues, bio-concentration and transfer of Hg, and major sources of Hg in wheat. Results show that Hg levels in 11 out of 26 sampled soils (42.3% of soil samples) exceeded Hg limit of grade II soil environmental quality standards in China (1.0 mg·kg{sup −} {sup 1}). Likewise, it was also found that Hg in over 50% of wheat grain samples reached or exceeded the maximum permissible food safety levels (0.02 mg·kg{sup −} {sup 1}) according to the General Standard of Contaminants in Food in China (GB 2762-2012). The spatial distribution pattern of Hg in wheats grains was different from that in the sampled soils. Hg concentrations in different wheat tissues were highest in roots, followed by leaves, stalks, shells, and grains, respectively. Bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Hg in almost all grains samples were one or two orders of magnitude lower than that in roots, except for two wheat samples. The translocation factors (TF) of Hg in wheat tissues on average were leaves > stems > shells > grains. The spatial distribution of Hg and its correlation with other heavy metal detected simultaneously in the soil samples suggested that the Hg soil contamination was probably caused by past sewage irrigation practices and atmospheric deposition. Correlation analysis revealed that the principle source of Hg in wheat roots was very likely from Hg contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in wheats and corresponding soils from loess

  10. Accumulation, transfer, and potential sources of mercury in the soil-wheat system under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shengli; Nan, Zhongren; Prete, Daniel; Ma, Jianmin; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on accumulation, transfer, and source of mercury in wheats under field conditions over the Loess Plateau, northwest China. The present study collected 26 pairs of topsoil and whole wheat samples (roots, stems, leaves, shells, and grains) from Dongdagou stream watershed and upper Xidagou stream watershed, Baiyin City, northwest China. Hg concentrations from these samples were used to identify their relationships with soil properties, interactions with other metals, localization of Hg in the different wheat tissues, bio-concentration and transfer of Hg, and major sources of Hg in wheat. Results show that Hg levels in 11 out of 26 sampled soils (42.3% of soil samples) exceeded Hg limit of grade II soil environmental quality standards in China (1.0 mg·kg"− "1). Likewise, it was also found that Hg in over 50% of wheat grain samples reached or exceeded the maximum permissible food safety levels (0.02 mg·kg"− "1) according to the General Standard of Contaminants in Food in China (GB 2762-2012). The spatial distribution pattern of Hg in wheats grains was different from that in the sampled soils. Hg concentrations in different wheat tissues were highest in roots, followed by leaves, stalks, shells, and grains, respectively. Bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Hg in almost all grains samples were one or two orders of magnitude lower than that in roots, except for two wheat samples. The translocation factors (TF) of Hg in wheat tissues on average were leaves > stems > shells > grains. The spatial distribution of Hg and its correlation with other heavy metal detected simultaneously in the soil samples suggested that the Hg soil contamination was probably caused by past sewage irrigation practices and atmospheric deposition. Correlation analysis revealed that the principle source of Hg in wheat roots was very likely from Hg contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in wheats and corresponding soils from loess plateau, northwest

  11. Application of soil radon survey to searching for sandstone-type uranium deposit at western margin of Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Yin Jinshuang; Cui Yonghui

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of condition tests of soil radon survey at certain uranium deposit in Ordos basin, regional soil radon survey was carried but in a study area of western margin of Ordos basin. By processing of soil radon survey data, five anomalous areas with certain metallogenic potential have been delineated. Then, discovered anomalies have been interpreted and evaluated for providing important reference for further drilling work. Research results indicate that by soil radon survey, anomalies may be distinguished in a basin, and soil radon survey could be an important geochemical prospecting method for rapid evaluation of sandstone-type uranium deposit in basin areas. (authors)

  12. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  13. Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Gabriel; Randy Kolka; Trent Wickman; Ed Nater; Laurel. Woodruff

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue...

  14. Application of Organic Matter to Enhance Phytoremediation of Mercury Contaminated Soils Using Local Plant Species: a Case Study on Small-scale Gold Mining Locations in Banyuwangi of East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Muddarisna, N; Siahaan, B C

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of small-scale gold mine tailing to agricultural lands at Pesanggaran village of Banyuwangi Regency caused soil degradation as indicated by reduced crop production. This soil degradation is mainly due to the toxicity of mercury contained in the tailing. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of three local plant species, i.e. Lindernia crustacea, Digitaria radicosa, and Cyperus kyllingia for phytoremediation of agricultural land contaminated gold mine waste conta...

  15. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  16. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  17. The response of mercury (Hg) transformation in soil to sulfur compounds and sulfur-rich biowaste application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Burešová, A.; Praus, L.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Holečková, Z.; Gabriel, Jiří; Sysalová, J.; Červenka, R.; Komárek, J.; Grohová, S.; Tlustoš, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 7 (2016), s. 584 ISSN 1866-6280 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/0682 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mercury * Biowaste * Speciation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2016

  18. Impact of wildfire on levels of mercury in forested watershed systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  19. Study of the environmental cycling of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Frades, J P; Hildebrand, S G; Huckabee, J W; Murias, B; Diaz, F S; Wilson, R H

    1977-01-01

    A study of mercury in the environment is under way near the mercury mine at Almaden, Spain. The main aspects of the project are: ecology; atmospheric monitoring; and human studies. The mercury deposit at Almaden is described. The liquid effluent from the mine and smelter contains high concentrations of mercury that pollute nearby rivers. Sample collection and analytical methods used in the ecological survey are reviewed. Ecological experiments are considered. Air monitoring studies and human studies currently being performed are assessed. (1 map)

  20. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  1. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  2. Survey of radioactivity levels of soil in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Lihua

    1993-01-01

    The gross α and β activities on soil were measured by a mode FJ-2600 air-flow type alpha and beta counter. 204 sampling points including 173 grid points and 31 special points were set in the whole city. The ranges of the gross α and β activities in soil at the grid points are 816.5-2056.1 Bq/kg and 633.2-896.4 Bq/kg respectively. All these values are within the normal range of background activities. Only few special points are beyond the normal range. The results of statistical test indicate that the gross α and β activities show a normal distribution and that the levels of gross activity correlate with the sampling point, soil type and the geomorphology. It seems that the wide range of background values is related to the differences in natural conditions, such as the terrestrial formation, the soil-forming parent materials, etc., and the human activity

  3. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  4. A guide for the use of digital elevation model data for making soil surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, A.A.; Horvath, Emil H.; Reybold, William U.; Moore, D.G.; Fosnight, E.A.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of this publication is twofold: (1) to serve as a user guide for soil scientists and others interested in learning about the value and use of digital elevation model (DEM) data in making soil surveys and (2) to provide documentation of the Soil Landscape Analysis Project (SLAP). This publication provides a step-by-step guide on how digital slope-class maps are adjusted to topographic maps and orthophotoquads to obtain accurate slope-class maps, and how these derivative maps can be used as a base for soil survey premaps. In addition, guidance is given on the use of aspect-class maps and other resource data in making pre-maps. The value and use of tabular summaries are discussed. Examples of the use of DEM products by the authors and by selected field soil scientists are also given. Additional information on SLAP procedures may be obtained from USDA, Soil Conservation Service, Soil Survey Division, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, D.C. 20013, and from references (Horvath and others, 1987; Horvath and others, 1983; Klingebiel and others, 1987; and Young, 1987) listed in this publication. The slope and aspect products and the procedures for using these products have evolved during 5 years of cooperative research with the USDA, Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, and the USDI, Bureau of Land Management.

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Catron, Cibola, McKinley, Sandoval, Sierra and Socorro Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chinle Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona and San Juan County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Fort Defiance Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona, and McKinley and San Juan Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Parts of Dona Ana, Lincoln, Otero, Sierra and Socorro Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Mora, Rio Arriba, Sandoval and San Miguel Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  11. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  12. Spatial distribution correlation of soil-gas radon (222Rn) and mercury with leveling deformation in northern margin fault zone of West Qinling, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhua; Zhang, Hui; Su, Hejun; Zhou, Huiling; Wang, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    This study concerns measurement of 222 Rn and mercury concentrations in soil-gas in the northern margin fault zone of West Qinling, Tibet (China). Based on profiles crossing perpendicularly the different segments of the fault at six different locations, the relations between the gas measurements, fault deformation, and seismic activity in each segment of the studied fault were analyzed, determining seismic risks in the fault zone. Soil-gas data are heterogeneous, but appear relatively organized along the three segments of the fault. The detailed multidisciplinary analysis reveals complex interactions between the structural setting, uprising fluids, leveling and seismic activity in different fault segments. The results for both fault soil gas and deformation indicated relatively stronger fault activity in the Wushan segment in the middle-eastern segment of the northern margin fault zone of West Qinling and lower activity in the Zhangxian segment, whereas the fault in the Tianshui segment was relatively locked. Additionally, in the Wushan strike-slip pull-apart area, the active influence of fluid activities facilitated the occurrence of small to medium-sized seismic events, which prevented the occurrence of larger events; in contrast, in the Tianshui segment, the west Zhangxian segment, the weak fluid activities and the corresponding strain rate will probably lead to strong earthquake buildup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental transformation and distribution of mercury released from gold mining and its implications on human health in Tanzania, studied by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikingura, Justinian R.

    2001-01-01

    The catchment areas of Lake Victoria in Tanzania are impacted by mercury contamination from small-scale gold mining activities. A preliminary survey of the mercury contamination has indicated in some cases mercury concentrations that are higher than background levels in soil and river sediment downstream of the mining areas. Average mercury concentration in contaminated soil is in the order of 3.4 mg/kg whereas in river sediment the concentration is about 4.9 mg/kg. Mercury concentrations in fish from a few areas of the Lake Victoria close to gold mining areas are in the range of 2-20 ppb. These fish mercury concentrations are surprisingly low considering the extent of mercury contamination in the Lake Victoria catchment. The dynamics of mercury cycling and their long-term impact on mercury levels in fish and other aquatic organisms in the Lake Victoria gold fields still need to be clarified. Research activities for the first year (2000) will concentrate on the determination of total mercury distribution patterns among soil, river water, sediment, and biota (fish, and other aquatic biota) in two areas (Mugusu-Nungwe Bay and Imweru-Bukombe Bay) of the Lake Victoria gold fields. The relationships between local tropical soil-sediment- and water-chemistry and the distribution of mercury in the contaminated areas will be investigated. Data from this work will be used in the identification and selection of suitable bio-monitors for mercury contamination and human health risk assessment in the study areas. In the second year, the project will focus mainly on methylmercury production and partition between sediment, water and biota in contaminated local tropical sediments. The main factors influencing the methylation and distribution of mercury species will be evaluated in laboratory experiments and extrapolated to environmental conditions. The results of the project will have important implications in mercury pollution monitoring, mitigation, and health risk assessment not

  14. AAS determination of total mercury content in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalova, M.; Zemberyova, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods for determination of total mercury content in environmental samples soils, and sediments, were compared. Dissolution procedure of soils, sediments, and biological material under elevated pressure followed by determination of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry using a MHS-1 system and direct total mercury determination without any chemical pretreatment from soil samples using a Trace Mercury Analyzer TMA-254 were compared. TMA-254 was also applied for the determination of mercury in various further standard reference materials. Good agreement with certified values of environmental reference materials was obtained. (authors)

  15. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  16. A Metagenomic Survey of Serpentinites and Nearby Soils in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. Y.; Hsu, Y. W.; Chen, Y. W.; Huang, T. Y.; Shih, Y. J.; Chen, J. S.; Hsu, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    The serpentinite of Taiwan is originated from the subduction zone of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Many small bodies of serpentinite are scattered around the lands of the East Rift Valley, which are also one of the major agricultural areas in Taiwan. Since microbial communities play a role both on weathering process and soil recovery, uncovering the microbial compositions in serpentinites and surrounding soils may help people to understand the roles of microorganisms on serpentinites during the nature weathering process. In this study, microorganisms growing on the surface of serpentinites, in the surrounding soil, and agriculture soils that are miles of horizontal distance away from serpentinite were collected. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to examine the metagenomics of uncultured microbial community in these samples. The metagenomics were further clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to analyze relative abundance, heatmap of OTUs, and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). Our data revealed the different types of geographic material had their own distinct structures of microbial community. In serpentinites, the heatmaps based on the phylogenetic pattern showed that the OTUs distributions were similar in phyla of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and WPS-1/WPS-2. On the other hand, the heatmaps of phylogenetic pattern of agriculture soils showed that the OTUs distributions in phyla of Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, WPS-1/WPS-2, and Proteobacteria were similar. In soil nearby the serpentinite, some clusters of OTUs in phyla of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and WPS-1/WPS-2 have disappeared. Our data provided evidence regarding kinetic evolutions of microbial communities in different geographic materials.

  17. A national-scale geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sampling for national-scale soil geochemical and mineralogical survey completed for conterminous USA. → Natural variation for most elements is approximately three orders of magnitude. → Composition of soil parent material is the major controlling factor. → Climate (average annual precipitation) is also an important controlling factor for some elements. → Sample archive (4800 sites) available for future investigations. - Abstract: In 2007, the US Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1600 km 2 , c. 4800 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous USA. The ideal sampling protocol at each site includes a sample from 0-5 cm depth, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a sample from the soil C horizon. The 3 , HClO 4 and HF. Separate methods are used for As, Hg, Se and total C on this same size fraction. The major mineralogical components are determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method. Sampling was completed in 2010 with chemical and mineralogical analysis currently underway. Preliminary results for a swath from the central USA to Florida clearly show the effects of soil parent material and climate on the chemical and mineralogical composition of soils. A sample archive will be established and made available for future investigations.

  18. Electrical Resistivity Survey For Conductive Soils At Gas Turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration were carried out to delineate subsurface conductive soils for the design of earthling grid for electrical materials installation at the Gas Turbine Station, Ajaokuta, SW Nigeria. Interpretation of the resistivity data revealed three major geoelectric ...

  19. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Hydropodelogy From the Pedon to the Landscape: Challenges and Accomplishments in the National Cooperative Soil Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D.; Richardson, J.; Hempel, J.; Market, P.

    2005-12-01

    American pedology has focused on the National Cooperative Soil Survey. Primary responsibility rests with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The primary goals, are legislatively mandated, are to map the country's soils, make interpretations, provide information to clients, maintain and market the soil survey. The first goal is near completion and focus is shifting to the other three. Concomitantly, American pedological science is being impacted by several conditions: technological advances; land use changes at unprecedented scales and magnitudes; a burgeoning population increasingly "separated" from the land; and a major emphasis in universities upon biological ("life") sciences at the DNA scale - as if soil, nutrients and water are not life essentials. Effects of the Flood of 1993 and Hurricane Katrina suggest that humans do not understand earth/climate interactions, particularly climatic extremes. Pedologists know the focus on soil classification and mapping was at the expense of understanding processes. Hydropedology is a holistic approach to understanding soil and geomorphic process in order to predict the impacts of perturbations. Water movement on and in the soil is the primary mechanism of distributing and altering sediments and chemicals (pedogenesis), and depends for its success upon understanding that the soil profile is the record of developmental history at that landscape site. Hydropedologists believe soil scientists can use pedons (point data) from appropriate locations from flownets in complex landscapes to extrapolate processes. This is the "pedotransfer function" concept. Technological advances are coupled with the existing soil survey information to create important soil-landscape interpretations at a variety of scales. Early results have been very successful. Quantification of soil systems can be classified broadly into three categories; hard data, soft data and tacit knowledge. "Hard data" are measured numbers, and include such attributes as p

  1. Radon in soil gas survey in Curitiba (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the radon in soil gas measurements performed during the last two years in cooperation between the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) from the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Following previously concluded measurements of radon concentration in dwellings and the measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores of Curitiba urban area, present step of activities has been dedicated to measurements of radon concentration in soil gas. Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specially developed for such measurements Soil Gas Probe through the air pump and filter system. After the Probe was inserted, the ground has been tamped down around the probe, to prevent air from moving vertically along the outside of the shaft. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.03 L/min and the measurements were performed during 90 min approximately. The 222 Rn concentration levels were detected and analyzed by the computer every 5 minutes using the software DataEXPERT by GENITRON Instruments. Collected average levels of 222 Rn concentration were processed taking into account the internal volume of Soil Probe and connection vessels. Radon sampling was performed at a depth of 50 - 70 cm. Obtained experimental data of radon concentration present rather big variation but correlates perfectly with previously obtained results for 222 Rn activity in drinking water. Further measurements are planned to be performed at other regions of Parana State and will involve the mineral analysis of soil samples. (author)''

  2. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil in micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, V.A.

    1975-11-01

    In 1974 the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology began a program to determine the radionuclides found in foods, plants, animals, and soils of the Central Pacific. As part of this program the present study was undertaken to determine radionuclides found in the common foods and soils in areas of Micronesia other than those areas receiving local fallout from the test sites at Bikini or Enewetak atolls. Areas sampled in 1975 were Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands, Truk and Ponape in the Caroline Islands, Guam in the Marianas Islands, and Koror and Babelthaup in the Palau Islands. All samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides while some were also analyzed for 90 Sr of 239 240 Pu. Results of the analyses indicate that naturally occurring 40 K is the predominant radionuclide in the biological samples. Cesium-137 in amounts less than 1 pCi/g (dry) was the only fallout radionuclide detected in most of the biological samples. Soil samples usually contained 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 U, and 239 Pu, while soil from Truk, Palau, and Ponape also contained isotopes of radium and thorium. Soil from Guam also contained 210 Pb and 235 U in addition to the above radionuclides. Considering only the fallout radionuclides, the values for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239 240 Pu in samples from Guam, Palau, Truk, Ponape, and Majuro are less than the values for these radionuclides in similar samples from atolls such as Utirik, Rongerik, and Ailinginae in the northern Marshall Islands, and are much less than values of these radionuclides in samples from Bikini and Rongelap atolls

  3. Using repeat electrical resistivity surveys to assess heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2018-04-01

    As the relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal, there is a need to understand how spatial patterns in soil moisture influence the distribution of vegetation, and how the structure of vegetation canopies and root networks regulates the partitioning of precipitation. Spatial patterns of soil moisture are often difficult to visualise as usually, soil moisture is measured at point scales, and often difficult to extrapolate. Here, we address the difficulties in collecting large amounts of spatial soil moisture data through a study combining plot- and transect-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys to estimate soil moisture in a 3.2 km2 upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil moisture under Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) and heather moorland shrubs (Calluna vulgaris); the two dominant vegetation types in the Scottish Highlands. The study focussed on one year of fortnightly ERT surveys. The surveyed resistivity data was inverted and Archie's law was used to calculate volumetric soil moisture by estimating parameters and comparing against field measured data. Results showed that spatial soil moisture patterns were more heterogeneous in the forest site, as were patterns of wetting and drying, which can be linked to vegetation distribution and canopy structure. The heather site showed a less heterogeneous response to wetting and drying, reflecting the more uniform vegetation cover of the shrubs. Comparing soil moisture temporal variability during growing and non-growing seasons revealed further contrasts: under the heather there was little change in soil moisture during the growing season. Greatest changes in the forest were in areas where the trees were concentrated reflecting water uptake and canopy partitioning. Such differences have implications for climate and land use changes; increased forest cover can lead to greater spatial variability, greater

  4. Survey of Legionella Species Found in Thai Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Travis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Gram-negative genus Legionella are typically found in freshwater environments, with the exception of L. longbeachae, which is present in composts and potting mixes. When contaminated aerosols are inhaled, legionellosis may result, typically as either the more serious pneumonia Legionnaires’ disease or the less severe flu-like illness Pontiac fever. It is presumed that all species of the genus Legionella are capable of causing disease in humans. As a followup to a prior clinical study of legionellosis in rural Thailand, indigenous soil samples were collected proximal to cases’ homes and workplaces and tested for the presence of legionellae by culture. We obtained 115 isolates from 22/39 soil samples and used sequence-based methods to identify 12 known species of Legionella represented by 87 isolates.

  5. Subsurface Characterization using Geophysical Seismic Refraction Survey for Slope Stabilization Design with Soil Nailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Ng, Soon Min; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    The application of geophysical seismic refraction for slope stabilization design using soil nailing method was demonstrated in this study. The potential weak layer of the study area is first identify prior to determining the appropriate length and location of the soil nail. A total of 7 seismic refraction survey lines were conducted at the study area with standard procedures. The refraction data were then analyzed by using the Pickwin and Plotrefa computer software package to obtain the seismic velocity profiles distribution. These results were correlated with the complementary borehole data to interpret the subsurface profile of the study area. It has been identified that layer 1 to 3 is the potential weak zone susceptible to slope failure. Hence, soil nails should be installed to transfer the tensile load from the less stable layer 3 to the more stable layer 4. The soil-nail interaction will provide a reinforcing action to the soil mass thereby increasing the stability of the slope.

  6. Spatial distribution of mercury and arsenic levels in water, soil and cassava plants in a community with long history of gold mining in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanza, Elias C; Dewey, Deborah; Thomas, Deborah S K; Davey, Mark; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution of total mercury (THg) and total arsenic (TAs) in water, soil and cassava (Manihot esculenta) (leaves and roots) samples taken from areas in Rwamagasa village in northwestern Tanzania where daily living activities occur in close proximity to extensive artisanal and small scale gold mining. Results indicated that 33.3 % of the water sources had THg levels above the WHO guideline of 1.0 µg/L for safe drinking water, and 12.5 % had TAs levels above 10 µg/L. Cassava leaves were found to have higher THg (ranging from 8.3 to 167 µg/kg) and TAs (ranging from 60 to 1,120 µg/kg) levels than cassava roots, which ranged between 1.2-8.3 µg/kg for THg and 25-310 µg/kg for TAs. Concentrations of THg and TAs in soil samples ranged between 5.8-1,759 and 183-20,298 µg/kg, respectively. Both THg and TAs were found to be distributed throughout Rwamagasa village.

  7. Mercury in the environment : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Both geogenic and anthropogenic sources are responsible for the input of mercury into the environment. However, mercury comes mostly from geogenic sources and is found naturally in air, water and soil. Crustal degassing results in emission of mercury into the atmosphere. Mercury in water and soil is due mostly to input from sedimentary rocks. Mercury in lake sediments is related mainly to input by country rock and anthropogenic activities such as agriculture. The mercury content of coal is similar to or less than the amount found in the earths crust. Natural charcoal is also able to capture mercury at low temperature combustion. The amount of mercury emitted from the stack of coal-fired power plants is related to the nature of the milled coal and its mineralogical and elemental content. Mercury emissions originating from the combustion of coal from electric utility power plants are considered to be among the greatest contributors to global mercury air emissions. In order to quantify the impact the electric power industry has on the environment, information regarding mercury concentrations in coal and their speciation is needed. For this reason the author examined the behaviour of mercury in three coal samples ashed at increasing temperatures. Mercury removal from coal-fired power plants ranges from 10 to 50 per cent by fabric filters and 20 to 95 per cent by FGD systems. This data will help in regulating emissions of hazardous air pollutants from electric utility steam generating units and will potentially provide insight into the industry's contribution to the global mercury burden. 50 refs

  8. Integrated criteria document mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  9. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Schutze, G.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The

  10. Mercury Pollution in Soils from the Yacuambi River (Ecuadorian Amazon) as a Result of Gold Placer Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Charo; Collahuazo, Luis; Torres, Sandra; Chinchay, Luis; Ayala, Diana; Benítez, Paulina

    2015-09-01

    Gold mining is known to generate important economic products but also to produce several types of contamination/pollution. We report here the first data about Hg concentrations in the soils of the Yacuambi River in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We analyzed soil samples to assess the extent of contamination caused by gold placer mining in this area. Hg concentrations in soils exceeded the local background concentrations. High concentrations of Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn in some soil samples were probably derived from the geology of the site, which is rich in polysulfides and metamorphic rocks. Placer mining may accelerate the natural release of these elements to the environment by the exposure of the bedrock to the atmosphere. Accumulation of Hg in the river soils may be a potential source of toxicity for aquatic life and a risk to human health in the future.

  11. Understanding the paradox of selenium contamination in mercury mining areas: high soil content and low accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Feng, Xinbin; Jiang, Chengxin; Li, Qiuhua; Liu, Yi; Gu, Chunhao; Shang, Lihai; Li, Ping; Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Rice is an important source of Se for billions of people throughout the world. The Wanshan area can be categorized as a seleniferous region due to its high soil Se content, but the Se content in the rice in Wanshan is much lower than that from typical seleniferous regions with an equivalent soil Se level. To investigate why the Se bioaccumulation in Wanshan is low, we measured the soil Se speciation using a sequential partial dissolution technique. The results demonstrated that the bioavailable species only accounted for a small proportion of the total Se in the soils from Wanshan, a much lower quantity than that found in the seleniferous regions. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the existence of Hg contamination, which is likely related to the formation of an inert Hg-Se insoluble precipitate in soils in Wanshan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping of Rill Erosion of Arable Soils Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtanov, A. N.; Vernyuk, Yu. I.; Savin, I. Yu.; Shchepot'ev, V. V.; Dokukin, P. A.; Sharychev, D. V.; Li, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Possibilities of using data obtained from unmanned aerial vehicles for detection and mapping of rill erosion on arable lands are analyzed. Identification and mapping of rill erosion was performed on a key plot with a predominance of arable gray forest soils (Greyzemic Phaeozems) under winter wheat in Tula oblast. This plot was surveyed from different heights and in different periods to determine the reliability of identification of rill erosion on the basis of automated procedures in a GIS. It was found that, despite changes in the pattern of rills during the warm season, only one survey during this season is sufficient for adequate assessment of the area of eroded soils. According to our data, the most reliable identification of rill erosion is based on the aerial survey from the height of 50 m above the soil surface. When the height of the flight is more than 200 m, erosional rills virtually escape identification. The efficiency of identification depends on the type of crops, their status, and time of the survey. The surveys of bare soil surface in periods with maximum possible interval from the previous rain or snowmelt season are most efficient. The results of our study can be used in the systems of remote sensing monitoring of erosional processes on arable fields. Application of multiand hyperspectral cameras can improve the efficiency of monitoring.

  13. The planet Mercury (1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  14. Post-fire comparisons of forest floor and soil carbon, nitrogen, and mercury pools with fire severity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Kolka; Brian Sturtevant; Philip Townsend; Jessica Miesel; Peter Wolter; Shawn Fraver; Tom DeSutter

    2014-01-01

    Forest fires are important contributors of C, N, and Hg to the atmosphere. In the fall of 2011, a large wildfire occurred in northern Minnesota and we were able to quickly access the area to sample the forest floor and mineral soil for C, N, and Hg pools. When compared with unburned reference soils, the mean loss of C resulting from fire in the forest floor and the...

  15. CASE STUDY. MERCURY POLLUTION NEAR A CHEMICAL PLANT IN NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near Pavlodar City from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water are contaminated with more than a thousand tons of mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the operation of the ...

  16. Mercury Pollution Near A Chlor-Alkali Plant In Northern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near Pavlodar City from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is contaminated with more than a thousand tons of mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the operation of the ...

  17. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds with the areas of 0.2–3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE. Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility factor (K, slope steepness factor (S, and slope length factor (L derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  18. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  19. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Gray, J.E.; Costagliola, P.; Vaselli, O.; Lattanzi, P.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world’s largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that > 90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  20. Extracting Archaeological Feautres from GPR Surveys Conducted with Variable Soil Moisture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, I. M.; Glisic, B.; Gonciar, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a common tool for subsurface archaeological prospection, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a useful method for increasing the efficiency of archaeological excavations. Archaeological sites are often temporally and financially constrained, therefore having limited ability to reschedule surveys compromised by weather. Furthermore, electromagnetic GPR surveys are especially sensitive to variations in water content, soil type, and site-specific interference. In this work, GPR scans of a partially excavated Roman villa consisting of different construction materials and phases (limestone, andesite, brick) in central Romania are compared. Surveys were conducted with a 500 MHz GPR antenna in both dry (pre-rain event) and wet (post-rain event) conditions. Especially in time or depth slices, wet surveys present additional archaeological features that are not present or clear in the standard dry conditions, while simultaneously masking the clutter present in those scans. When dry, the limestone has a similar dielectric constant to the soil and does not provide enough contrast in electromagnetic properties for strong reflections despite the significant difference in their physical properties. Following precipitation, however, the electromagnetic properties of these two materials is dominated by their respective water content and the contrast is enhanced. For this reason, the wet surveys are particularly necessary for revealing reflections from the limestone features often invisible in dry surveys. GPR surveys conducted in variable environmental conditions provide unique archaeological information, with potential near-surface geophysical applications in nondestructive material characterization and identification.

  1. Developing a continuous flow-square wave voltammetry method for determination of atrazine in soil solutions using the hanging mercury drop electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Luciana B. O. dos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a Continuous Flow-Square Wave Voltammetry method for determination of atrazine using the hanging mercury drop electrode. The best signal to noise ratio was obtained at the square wave frequency of 350 Hz and flow rate of 0.47 mL min-1. Under these conditions, the analytical curve obtained in 0.010 mol L-1 CaCl2 soil extracts in presence of 40 mmol L-1 BR buffer and 0.25 mol L-1 NaNO3 was linear for atrazine concentrations between 0.10 and 2.0 µg mL-1, with detection and quantification limits of 0.030 and 0.10 µg mL-1, respectively. The proposed method increased the analytical throughput in comparison with the batch methodology, allowing a sampling frequency of 72 h-1 to be accomplished. Besides, the sample consumption is significantly reduced, and only 341 µL are necessary for each analysis. The results obtained were similar to the ones obtained by HPLC, but the proposed method is faster and does not use organic solvents.

  2. Soil-gas radon/helium surveys in some neotectonic areas of NW Himalayan foothills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed at accessing the relationship between variation in the soil gases radon (222Rn and helium (4He and recently developed fissures and other neotectonic features in Nurpur and Nadha areas of the NW Himalayas, India. Two soil-gas surveys were conducted on/near known faults to reconfirm their position using soil gas technique and to check their present activity. During these surveys, soil-gas samples were collected along traverses crossing the observed structures. The data analysis reveals that the concentrations of radon and helium along the Dehar lineament and the longitudinal profile (Profile D are very high compared to any other thrust/lineament of the Nurpur area. The Nadha area shows high values of radon and helium concentrations along/near the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF as compared to the adjoining areas. This indicates the presence of some buried fault/fault zone running parallel to the HFF, not exposed to the surface and not delineated by satellite data but is geochemically active and might be tectonically active too. Hence, soil helium and radon gas patterns have been combined with morphological and geological observations to supply useful constraints for deformation of tectonic environments.

  3. UAV MULTISPECTRAL SURVEY TO MAP SOIL AND CROP FOR PRECISION FARMING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New sensors mounted on UAV and optimal procedures for survey, data acquisition and analysis are continuously developed and tested for applications in precision farming. Procedures to integrate multispectral aerial data about soil and crop and ground-based proximal geophysical data are a recent research topic aimed to delineate homogeneous zones for the management of agricultural inputs (i.e., water, nutrients. Multispectral and multitemporal orthomosaics were produced over a test field (a 100 m x 200 m plot within a maize field, to map vegetation and soil indices, as well as crop heights, with suitable ground resolution. UAV flights were performed in two moments during the crop season, before sowing on bare soil, and just before flowering when maize was nearly at the maximum height. Two cameras, for color (RGB and false color (NIR-RG images, were used. The images were processed in Agisoft Photoscan to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM of bare soil and crop, and multispectral orthophotos. To overcome some difficulties in the automatic searching of matching points for the block adjustment of the crop image, also the scientific software developed by Politecnico of Milan was used to enhance images orientation. Surveys and image processing are described, as well as results about classification of multispectral-multitemporal orthophotos and soil indices.

  4. Excretion and distribution of mercury in rats, antidotes for mercury and effects of egg production and fertility of hens after mercury administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulfvarson, U

    1973-01-01

    The results of investigations of the distribution and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury compounds in albino rats and white leghorn hens conducted over a period of ten years are surveyed. The storage of mercury in eggs as well as its effects on the egg-lay-frequency and hatchability of the eggs have also been studied. All investigated mercury compounds were labelled with the radioactive mercury isotope /sup 203/Hg and the mercury level was measured with a scintillation technique. Since antidotes used in the treatment of mercury poisoning influence not only the excretion of mercury, but also its distribution in the body, the effects of nine antidotes on the metabolism of different mercury compounds were also investigated. The results of the survey are presented graphically. 6 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  5. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil; Aplicacao do metodo de ativacao neutronica a determinacao do mercurio total e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de solo e sedimento da Serra do Navio e Bacia do Rio Vila Nova, Amapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cristina

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC){sub 3}) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing {sup 197}Hg and {sup 203}Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of {sup 75}Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of {sup 203}Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury

  6. Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects.

  7. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  8. Improving the design of amphibian surveys using soil data: A case study in two wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, K.D.; Beever, E.A.; Gafvert, U.B.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibian populations are known, or thought to be, declining worldwide. Although protected natural areas may act as reservoirs of biological integrity and serve as benchmarks for comparison with unprotected areas, they are not immune from population declines and extinctions and should be monitored. Unfortunately, identifying survey sites and performing long-term fieldwork within such (often remote) areas involves a special set of problems. We used the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database to identify, a priori, potential habitat for aquatic-breeding amphibians on North and South Manitou Islands, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan, and compared the results to those obtained using National Wetland Inventory (NWI) data. The SSURGO approach identified more target sites for surveys than the NWI approach, and it identified more small and ephemeral wetlands. Field surveys used a combination of daytime call surveys, night-time call surveys, and perimeter surveys. We found that sites that would not have been identified with NWI data often contained amphibians and, in one case, contained wetland-breeding species that would not have been found using NWI data. Our technique allows for easy a priori identification of numerous survey sites that might not be identified using other sources of spatial information. We recognize, however, that the most effective site identification and survey techniques will likely use a combination of methods in addition to those described here.

  9. Quantificação de fluxos de mercúrio gasoso na interface solo/atmosfera utilizando câmara de fluxo dinâmica: aplicação na bacia do Rio Negro Quantification of atmosphere - soil mercury fluxes by using a dynamic flux chamber: application at the Negro River basin, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Magarelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury sampling conditions were optimized and a dynamic flux chamber was used to measure the air/surface exchange of mercury in some areas of the Negro river basin with different vegetal coverings. At the two forest sites (flooding and non-flooding, low mercury fluxes were observed: maximum of 3 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and minimum of -1 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. At the deforested site, the mercury fluxes were higher and always positive: maximum of 26 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and 17 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. Our results showed that deforestation could be responsible for significantly increasing soil Hg emissions, mainly because of the high soil temperatures reached at deforested sites.

  10. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure to anthropogenic and geogenic mercury in urban, industrial and mining areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Coelho, C.; Cruz, N.; Monteiro, R.J.R.; Henriques, B.; Duarte, A.C.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Pereira, E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the link between bioaccessibility and fractionation of mercury (Hg) in soils and to provide insight into human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne soil particles and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing soil. Mercury in soils from mining,

  11. Single and Multi-Date Landsat Classifications of Basalt to Support Soil Survey Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Mitchell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Basalt outcrops are significant features in the Western United States and consistently present challenges to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil mapping efforts. Current soil survey methods to estimate basalt outcrops involve field transects and are impractical for mapping regionally extensive areas. The purpose of this research was to investigate remote sensing methods to effectively determine the presence of basalt rock outcrops. Five Landsat 5 TM scenes (path 39, row 29 over the year 2007 growing season were processed and analyzed to detect and quantify basalt outcrops across the Clark Area Soil Survey, ID, USA (4,570 km2. The Robust Classification Method (RCM using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM method and Random Forest (RF classifications was applied to individual scenes and to a multitemporal stack of the five images. The highest performing RCM basalt classification was obtained using the 18 July scene, which yielded an overall accuracy of 60.45%. The RF classifications applied to the same datasets yielded slightly better overall classification rates when using the multitemporal stack (72.35% than when using the 18 July scene (71.13% and the same rate of successfully predicting basalt (61.76% using out-of-bag sampling. For optimal RCM and RF classifications, uncertainty tended to be lowest in irrigated areas; however, the RCM uncertainty map included more extensive areas of low uncertainty that also encompassed forested hillslopes and riparian areas. RCM uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of bright soil reflectance, while RF uncertainty was sensitive to the influence of shadows. Quantification of basalt requires continued investigation to reduce the influence of vegetation, lichen and loess on basalt detection. With further development, remote sensing tools have the potential to support soil survey mapping of lava fields covering expansive areas in the Western United States and other regions of the world with similar

  12. Preliminary results of soil radon gas survey of the Lake Bosomtwi impact crater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preko, S.; Danuor, S.K.; Menyeh, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil radon gas survey was carried out in the Lake Bosomtwi impact crater area on eight profiles, which ran rapidly toward the end of the crater. One thousand soil samples, each weighing about 100g were acquired at a depth of 20 cm and at regular intervals of 10 m. The radon gas decay rate of the soil samples was then determined in the laboratory using the RDA-200 Radon detector and RDU-200 Degassing unit. It was found that generally areas south and east of the crater, which are severally sheared, faulted and fractured recorded high radon gas decay rates of the order of 800 counts/min whilst relatively undisturbed zones west of the crater recorded lower rates of the order of 20 counts/min. the cause of fracturing, shearing and faulting have been attributed to the effect of the meteorite impact in the Bosomtwi area, and therefore the results indicate that the soil radon gas survey could serve as a useful tool in mapping the impact-related structural characteristics of the crater. (author)

  13. Decision Analysis on Survey and SOil Investigation Problem in Power Engineering Consultant

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaman, Amy Maulany; Sunitiyoso, Yos

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to gather and organize information for decision making against the problems arising in Power Engineering Consultant's survey and soil investigation product due to new policy in production cost efficiency that is implemented in 2012. The study conducted using Kepner and Tragoe's analytical process that consisted of four stages analytical process such as situation analysis, problem analysis, decision making analysis and potential problem analysis. As for the decision making analy...

  14. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  15. Adult proxy responses to a survey of children's dermal soil contact activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E Y; Shirai, J H; Garlock, T J; Kissel, J C

    2000-01-01

    Contaminated site cleanup decisions may require estimation of dermal exposures to soil. Telephone surveys represent one means of obtaining relevant activity pattern data. The initial Soil Contact Survey (SCS-I), which primarily gathered information on the activities of adults, was conducted in 1996. Data describing adult behaviors have been previously reported. Results from a second Soil Contact Survey (SCS-II), performed in 1998-1999 and focused on children's activity patterns, are reported here. Telephone surveys were used to query a randomly selected sample of U.S. households. A randomly chosen child, under the age of 18 years, was targeted in each responding household having children. Play activities as well as bathing patterns were investigated to quantify total exposure time, defined as activity time plus delay until washing. Of 680 total survey respondents, 500 (73.5%) reported that their child played outdoors on bare dirt or mixed grass and dirt surfaces. Among these "players," the median reported play frequency was 7 days/week in warm weather and 3 days/week in cold weather. Median play duration was 3 h/day in warm weather and 1 h/day in cold weather. Hand washes were reported to occur a median of 4 times per day in both warm and cold weather months. Bath or shower median frequency was seven times per week in both warm and cold weather. Finally, based on clothing choice data gathered in SCS-I, a median of about 37% of total skin surface is estimated to be exposed during young children's warm weather outdoor play.

  16. Field Measurement of Soil Mercury Emission in a Masson Pine Forest in Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China%重庆铁山坪马尾松林土壤汞排放特征的现场测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宝玉; 王琼; 罗遥; 段雷

    2014-01-01

    To investigate soil mercury emission characteristics in areas with high atmospheric mercury concentration, the soil-air exchanging flux of gaseous elemental mercury ( Hg0 ) was measured for four seasons from September 2012 to July 2013 in a Masson pine forest of Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China using a dynamic flux chamber and a LUMEX RA-915 + mercury analyzer. The effects of ambient air mercury concentration and environmental factors, such as radiation intensity, air temperature, air humidity, soil temperature, and soil water content, on exchanging flux were also studied. Results showed that there was obvious seasonal variation of the Hg0 exchanging flux, with the highest value of 35. 3 ng·( m2·d) -1 in the summer and very low values in other seasons, even negative in spring and winter. In addition to radiation intensity and air/soil temperature, ambient air mercury concentration was an important impacting factor, which was negatively correlated with the Hg0 exchanging flux, with the equilibrium concentration at 5. 61 ng·m-3 . The total soil emission of Hg0 was estimated to be 2. 65 μg·( m2·a) -1 , which was much lower than that in similar forests in cleaner areas. High ambient air Hg0 concentration in Tieshanping was the main reason for the difference.%为了研究大气汞浓度较高地区的森林土壤的汞排放特征,选取重庆铁山坪马尾松林为研究对象,应用动态通量箱与汞分析仪联用的方法,于2012年9月~2013年7月间对土壤-大气汞交换通量进行了4个季度的现场观测,并考察了辐射强度、空气温度、空气湿度、土壤温度和土壤湿度等环境因子与大气汞浓度对汞交换通量的影响.结果表明,土壤-大气汞交换通量存在明显的季节差异,夏季汞排放量为35.3 ng·( m2·d)-1,而其他季节很小,甚至在冬春两季土壤转为大气的汞汇.汞交换通量除了受辐射强度和大气/土壤温度的影响较大之外,还与大气汞浓度呈线性

  17. [Evaluation of the mercury accumulating capacity of pepper (Capsicum annuum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vargas, Híver M; Vidal-Durango, Jhon V; Marrugo-Negrete, José L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the mercury accumulating capacity in contaminated soils from the community of Mina Santa Cruz, in the south of the department of Bolívar, Colombia, of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum), in order to establish the risk to the health of the consuming population. Samples were taken from tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) of pepper plants grown in two soils contaminated with mercury and a control soil during the first five months of growth to determine total mercury through cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total mercury was determined in the samples of pepper plant fruits consumed in Mina Santa Cruz. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the roots were higher than in stems and leaves. Accumulation in tissues was influenced by mercury levels in soil and the growth time of the plants. Mercury concentrations in fruits of pepper plant were lower than tolerable weekly intake provided by WHO. Percent of translocation of mercury to aerial parts of the plant were low in both control and contaminated soils. Despite low levels of mercury in this food, it is necessary to minimize the consumption of food contaminated with this metal.

  18. Large-area Soil Moisture Surveys Using a Cosmic-ray Rover: Approaches and Results from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawdon, A. A.; McJannet, D. L.; Renzullo, L. J.; Baker, B.; Searle, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent improvements in satellite instrumentation has increased the resolution and frequency of soil moisture observations, and this in turn has supported the development of higher resolution land surface process models. Calibration and validation of these products is restricted by the mismatch of scales between remotely sensed and contemporary ground based observations. Although the cosmic ray neutron soil moisture probe can provide estimates soil moisture at a scale useful for the calibration and validation purposes, it is spatially limited to a single, fixed location. This scaling issue has been addressed with the development of mobile soil moisture monitoring systems that utilizes the cosmic ray neutron method, typically referred to as a `rover'. This manuscript describes a project designed to develop approaches for undertaking rover surveys to produce soil moisture estimates at scales comparable to satellite observations and land surface process models. A custom designed, trailer-mounted rover was used to conduct repeat surveys at two scales in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. A broad scale survey was conducted at 36 x 36 km covering an area of a standard SMAP pixel and an intensive scale survey was conducted over a 10 x 10 km portion of the broad scale survey, which is at a scale equivalent to that used for national water balance modelling. We will describe the design of the rover, the methods used for converting neutron counts into soil moisture and discuss factors controlling soil moisture variability. We found that the intensive scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution and the broad scale at 9 km resolution. We conclude that these products are well suited for future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer scale soil moisture models.

  19. Feasibility Study of Soil Quality Survey using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Rice Paddy Fields in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey and monitoring of soil quality are needed to prevent soil degradation and are important for sustainable farming and food production. Conventional soil survey involves intensive soil sampling and laboratory analysis, which are time consuming and expensive. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy of soil has proved to be accurate, cheap and robust and has huge potential for survey of soil quality. To test its potential, 327 soil samples were taken from long-term paddy rice fields in four provinces in south of China and covered a wide range of soil types and texture. The samples were air-dried, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. They were then scanned by an ASD vis–NIR spectrometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. Organic matter (OM, pH, total nitrogen (TN and available nitrogen (N_av were also measured on soil samples to build calibration models and also to validate the models’ accuracy. On the basis of the ratio of prediction deviation (RPD, which is standard deviation (SD of prediction divided by the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, the accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation of soil N_av model was classified very good (RPD=1.96 and soil OM and TN was good (RPD=1.78 and RPD=1.81, respectively. However, the model accuracy of pH was poor due to non-direct soil spectral response for soil pH in vis–NIR spectroscopy. The independent validation results showed excellent accuracy for soil N_av (RPD=3.26, good accuracy for OM and TN (RPD=1.76 and RPD=1.78 and relative poor accuracy for soil pH (RPD=1.27. This feasibility study is encouraging for the application of vis–NIR surveys of soil quality accuracy at regional and national scales; it found good to excellent accuracy for some important soil properties in quality survey.

  20. Movement of mercury-203 in plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.; Butler, G.P.

    1977-10-01

    Seeds of Pisum sativum, varieties Little Marvel and Alaska, were planted in soils contaminated with radioactive ionic mercury, methylmercury or phenylmercury compounds. After saturation, stems, leaves, and pods were harvested and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Utilizing a least squares three-way analysis of covariance coupled with a Studentized Range Test, significant differences were noted among the levels of the three mercury compounds in the plants, between mercury levels in the two pea varieties and among mercury levels in the different pea tissues examined. Phenylmercury levels differed consistently from levels of ionic mercury and methylmercury suggesting a separate pathway for it in peas

  1. Comparison of passive soil vapor survey techniques at a Tijeras Arroyo site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C.S.; Wade, W.M.; Tharp, T.; Brinkman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil vapor surveys were performed to characterize the approximate location of soil contaminants at a hazardous waste site. The samplers were from two separate companies and a comparison was made between the results of the two techniques. These results will be used to design further investigations at the site

  2. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  3. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  4. Evaluating the spatial variation of total mercury in young-of-year yellow perch (Perca flavescens), surface water and upland soil for watershed-lake systems within the southern Boreal Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M.C.; Kolka, R.; Wickman, T.; Nater, E.; Woodruff, Laurel G.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate relationships between mercury in upland soil, lake water and fish tissue and explore the cause for the observed spatial variation of THg in age one yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for ten lakes within the Superior National Forest. Spatial relationships between yellow perch THg tissue concentration and a total of 45 watershed and water chemistry parameters were evaluated for two separate years: 2005 and 2006. Results show agreement with other studies where watershed area, lake water pH, nutrient levels (specifically dissolved NO3−-N) and dissolved iron are important factors controlling and/or predicting fish THg level. Exceeding all was the strong dependence of yellow perch THg level on soil A-horizon THg and, in particular, soil O-horizon THg concentrations (Spearman ρ = 0.81). Soil B-horizon THg concentration was significantly correlated (Pearson r = 0.75) with lake water THg concentration. Lakes surrounded by a greater percentage of shrub wetlands (peatlands) had higher fish tissue THg levels, thus it is highly possible that these wetlands are main locations for mercury methylation. Stepwise regression was used to develop empirical models for the purpose of predicting the spatial variation in yellow perch THg over the studied region. The 2005 regression model demonstrates it is possible to obtain good prediction (up to 60% variance description) of resident yellow perch THg level using upland soil O-horizon THg as the only independent variable. The 2006 model shows even greater prediction (r2 = 0.73, with an overall 10 ng/g [tissue, wet weight] margin of error), using lake water dissolved iron and watershed area as the only model independent variables. The developed regression models in this study can help with interpreting THg concentrations in low trophic level fish species for untested lakes of the greater Superior National Forest and surrounding Boreal ecosystem.

  5. Using a spatial and tabular database to generate statistics from terrain and spectral data for soil surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath , E.A.; Fosnight, E.A.; Klingebiel, A.A.; Moore, D.G.; Stone, J.E.; Reybold, W.U.; Petersen, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology has been developed to create a spatial database by referencing digital elevation, Landsat multispectral scanner data, and digitized soil premap delineations of a number of adjacent 7.5-min quadrangle areas to a 30-m Universal Transverse Mercator projection. Slope and aspect transformations are calculated from elevation data and grouped according to field office specifications. An unsupervised classification is performed on a brightness and greenness transformation of the spectral data. The resulting spectral, slope, and aspect maps of each of the 7.5-min quadrangle areas are then plotted and submitted to the field office to be incorporated into the soil premapping stages of a soil survey. A tabular database is created from spatial data by generating descriptive statistics for each data layer within each soil premap delineation. The tabular data base is then entered into a data base management system to be accessed by the field office personnel during the soil survey and to be used for subsequent resource management decisions.Large amounts of data are collected and archived during resource inventories for public land management. Often these data are stored as stacks of maps or folders in a file system in someone's office, with the maps in a variety of formats, scales, and with various standards of accuracy depending on their purpose. This system of information storage and retrieval is cumbersome at best when several categories of information are needed simultaneously for analysis or as input to resource management models. Computers now provide the resource scientist with the opportunity to design increasingly complex models that require even more categories of resource-related information, thus compounding the problem.Recently there has been much emphasis on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) as an alternative method for map data archives and as a resource management tool. Considerable effort has been devoted to the generation of tabular

  6. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha"−"1 y"−"1. Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g"−"1 was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m"−"2 yr"−"1. This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. - Highlights: • Based on published data we estimated the litterfall in the Amazonian rainforest. • All the published data on Hg concentration in leaves and litter from the region and some unpublished data are presented. • We calculated the litter mercury deposition. • We estimated the contribution of dry, wet and litter Hg deposition in the Amazonian rainforest. • We also discussed the impact of Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle. - The Amazonian rainforest is responsible for removing at least 268 Mg Hg y"−"1, 8% of the total atmospheric mercury deposition to land.

  7. A survey of caesium-137 and plutonium in British soils in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawsw, P.A.; Horrill, A.D.

    1986-02-01

    Measurements have been made of the accumulation to 30 cm depth of Cs-137 and plutonium in soils from permanent grassland and woodland in England, Scotland and Wales, and of the concentrations in grass. In Scotland, peat has also been sampled. The sampling points were carefully selected with due regard to their soil type and future permanence, to establish a network of grassland sites at which radionuclide concentrations may be measured over the long-term. The main objective of the survey is to provide information on the integrated deposition of Cs-137, Pu-239+240 and Pu-238 from the atmosphere to provide a baseline in 1977 with which to assess the significance of radioactive accumulations from the routine operation of nuclear facilities. Further objectives are to study the transfer of radionuclides to vegetation, and to compare the concentrations with generalised derived limits for radiological assessment. (author)

  8. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  9. Evaluation and development of soil values for the pathway 'soil to plant'. Significance of mercury evaporation for the burden of plants; Ueberpruefung und Fortentwicklung der Bodenwerte fuer den Boden-Pflanze-Pfad. Teilbericht 2: Evaporation von Quecksilber aus kontaminierten Boeden und deren Bedeutung fuer die Hg-Aufnahme von Kulturpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, K; Gaeth, S

    2001-10-01

    In cooperation with the Ad-hoc working group 'Transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant' of the Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) the significance of mercury evaporation for the deduction of threshold values in respect of the impact via the pathway soil to plant was investigated. Mercury contamination of food- and feeding stuff plants was examined with special emphasis. For these purposes a lab experiment including three different soils with varying initial mercury load (background level, geogenic and anthropogenic contamination) and two different plant species (parsley and spinach) was carried out under defined conditions in closed lysimeters. Mercury uptake via the roots was minimised since the plants grew in isolated customary substrate which showed a low concentration of mercury. Thus, only the surrounding soil evaporated mercury. The concentrations of mercury in the plants in the background level treatment (0.1 mg Hg/kg dry soil) were 0.15 mg/kg dry matter (spinach). The treatment with anthropogenic contaminated soil (111 mg Hg/kg dry soil) resulted in concentrations in the two plants of 2.0 and 2.6 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. A comparable order of magnitude was achieved in the geogenic contaminated treatment (34 mg Hg/kg dry soil) with 2.1 mg/kg dry matter (spinach) and 0.44 mg/kg dry matter (parsley). Experiments conducted with radioactive {sup 203}Hg showed in each case Hg-tracer in the leaves, in the stem and in the roots, indicating a translocation within the plant from leaf to root. By means of a comprehensive literature study the state of the art for Hg-evaporation and Hg-uptake of plants was compiled. Comparing the experimental results with data derived from literature, the Hg-concentrations found are confirmed by results of other authors. (orig.) [German] In fachlicher Zusammenarbeit mit der Ad-hoc-Arbeitsgruppe 'Schwermetalltransfer Boden/Pflanze' der Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) wurde fuer die Ableitung von Pruef

  10. Evaluation and development of soil values for the pathway 'soil to plant'. Significance of mercury evaporation for the burden of plants; Ueberpruefung und Fortentwicklung der Bodenwerte fuer den Boden-Pflanze-Pfad. Teilbericht 2: Evaporation von Quecksilber aus kontaminierten Boeden und deren Bedeutung fuer die Hg-Aufnahme von Kulturpflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, K.; Gaeth, S.

    2001-10-01

    In cooperation with the Ad-hoc working group 'Transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant' of the Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) the significance of mercury evaporation for the deduction of threshold values in respect of the impact via the pathway soil to plant was investigated. Mercury contamination of food- and feeding stuff plants was examined with special emphasis. For these purposes a lab experiment including three different soils with varying initial mercury load (background level, geogenic and anthropogenic contamination) and two different plant species (parsley and spinach) was carried out under defined conditions in closed lysimeters. Mercury uptake via the roots was minimised since the plants grew in isolated customary substrate which showed a low concentration of mercury. Thus, only the surrounding soil evaporated mercury. The concentrations of mercury in the plants in the background level treatment (0.1 mg Hg/kg dry soil) were 0.15 mg/kg dry matter (spinach). The treatment with anthropogenic contaminated soil (111 mg Hg/kg dry soil) resulted in concentrations in the two plants of 2.0 and 2.6 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. A comparable order of magnitude was achieved in the geogenic contaminated treatment (34 mg Hg/kg dry soil) with 2.1 mg/kg dry matter (spinach) and 0.44 mg/kg dry matter (parsley). Experiments conducted with radioactive {sup 203}Hg showed in each case Hg-tracer in the leaves, in the stem and in the roots, indicating a translocation within the plant from leaf to root. By means of a comprehensive literature study the state of the art for Hg-evaporation and Hg-uptake of plants was compiled. Comparing the experimental results with data derived from literature, the Hg-concentrations found are confirmed by results of other authors. (orig.) [German] In fachlicher Zusammenarbeit mit der Ad-hoc-Arbeitsgruppe 'Schwermetalltransfer Boden/Pflanze' der Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) wurde fuer die

  11. A survey of radioactive caesium in soils of Cumbria and North Lancashire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.; Cawse, P.A.

    1990-09-01

    A network of soil sampling sites covering an area of some 2500km 2 in Cumbria was sampled by Harwell Laboratory in 1978. The spatial distribution of sampling points was based on a grid of 10km side, thus providing 30 sites under permanent grassland. In 1979, the grid was extended northwards to Carlisle and in a southerly direction to Fleetwood, Lancashire, giving a further 24 sites. This provided a reference baseline of background radioactivity, mainly arising from the accumulated atmospheric deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests over some 30 years, and also determined the distribution of emissions from the nuclear establishment at Sellafield that is superimposed upon the natural background of radioactivity in soil. The grid survey has now been repeated in 1988/89 to record increases in radioactive caesium caused by fallout from the accident at Chernobyl, USSR, in April 1986. The accumulated depositions of 137 Cs recorded to 30cm soil depth in 1988/89 were in the range 2.0 (at Bowness on Solway) to 28kBq/m 2 (at Eskmeals). A comparison of results obtained pre-Chernobyl (in 1978) with post-Chernobyl values assessed ten years later shows increases of 137 Cs accumulations at 18 of the surveys sites, 1.5 to 2-fold at 20 sites, 2 to 4 fold at 13 sites and 4 to 7 fold at St Bees, Harrington and Little Annaside (near Bootle, Cumbria). Ratios of Cs-137/Cs-134 at 0-15cm depth of soil were in the range 3.0 - 26.4 in 1988/89, compared with a ratio of ∼ 3.0 in Chernobyl fallout when decay-corrected. Lowest ratios occurred in west Cumbria which showed the highest accumulations of Cs-137 between 290-330km easting and 480-530km northing. The retention of Cs-137 by the top 15cm of soil in 1988/89 relative to the accumulation to 30cm depth averaged 87% compared with 78% in the pre-Chernobyl survey made in 1978/79, and is attributed to surface accumulation of debris from the accident. (author)

  12. Mercury pollution in Wuchuan mercury mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China: the impacts from large scale and artisanal mercury mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Shaofeng

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental impacts from large scale mercury mining (LSMM) and artisanal mercury mining (AMM), total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were determined in mine waste, ambient air, stream water and soil samples collected from Wuchuan mercury (Hg) mining area, Guizhou, Southwestern China. Mine wastes from both LSMM and AMM contained high THg concentrations, which are important Hg contamination sources to the local environment. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air near AMM furnaces were highly elevated, which indicated that AMM retorting is a major source of Hg emission. THg concentrations in the stream water varied from 43 to 2100 ng/L, where the elevated values were mainly found in the vicinity of AMM and mine waste heaps of LSMM. Surface soils were seriously contaminated with Hg, and land using types and organic matter played an important role in accumulation and transportation of Hg in soil. The results indicated heavy Hg contaminations in the study area, which were resulted from both LSMM and AMM. The areas impacted by LSMM were concentrated in the historical mining and smelting facilities, while Hg pollution resulted from AMM can be distributed anywhere in the Hg mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. METAALICUS : mercury experiment to assess atmospheric loading in Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, J.W.M.; Kelly, C.A. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Branfireun, B. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Gilmour, C.; Heyes, A. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harris, R. [Tetra Tech Inc., Pasadena, CA (United States); Hintelmann, H. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Hurley, J.P. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Water Resources Inst.; Krabenhoft, D.P. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States); Lindberg, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); St Louis, V.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Scott, K.J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology

    2000-07-01

    Mercury emitted from coal-fired utilities is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury in the environment. Recently proposed control strategies for these emissions are expected to cost several billion dollars per year for North America alone. The major objective in controlling mercury emissions is to decrease levels of mercury in fish consumed by humans. However, since the actual relationship between atmospheric mercury deposition and fish mercury is still unknown, a unique whole-ecosystem study was conducted to address this issue. During the course of this study at the experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, the load of mercury in a small lake was increased by a factor of four to simulate the atmospheric loadings to lakes in northeastern North America. The mercury was added as three different stable isotopes to determine the most important sources of mercury to fish. The isotopes also made it possible to compare the availability of newly deposited mercury with old mercury stored in lake sediments and soils by analyzing mercury isotope patterns in biota. The response time in a catchment area to an increase in the rate of atmospheric deposition of mercury was calculated to determine if newly deposited mercury behaves in the same way as mercury that has accumulated in upland soils over many years.

  14. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  16. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  17. A national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in Malaŵi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaba Bina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past estimates have put the prevalence of schistosomiasis between 40% and 50% in the Malawi population overall based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. More recent surveys in known high risk areas find similar levels. However control measures, changing ecology and migration may have led to changes in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in different parts of Malawi. A national schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH survey was undertaken to measure the distribution, prevalence and intensity of infection in November 2002. Methods A school was selected randomly from a random sample of 30 Traditional Authorities stratified by six distinct ecological zones, and 1,664 year 3 pupils (9–10 year olds were questioned about recent illnesses and "red urine". Samples of urine and faeces were examined for the presence of eggs using the standard Kato-Katz technique for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal schistosomiasis and urine samples using the filtration technique for Schistosoma haematobium. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is 0.4% (95% CI 0–1.3%, S. haematobium 6.9% (95% CI 1.9 – 11.9%, hookworm 1.3% (95% CI 0.4–2.3%, Ascariasis 0.5% (95% CI 0.1–1.0% and trichuriasis 0% in year 3 pupils (modal age 10 years of age. Intensity of infection is low for all infections except for 2.5% who have high intensity S. haematobium infection. The "red urine" question is 67% sensitive and 80% specific for positive S. haematobium microscopy. Conclusions The reduction in prevalences may be real as a result of recent control measures, or false if historical results were based on surveys of high risk populations. Another explanation is that this survey used an unrepresentative sample of schools. Detailed analysis suggests this is unlikely. Recommendations include the use of a 30% positive threshold for the "red urine" screening question to be used in schoolchildren in high prevalence areas. This survey

  18. Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and the risk of cholesterol profiles: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database. To compare the distribution for each log-transformed indicator, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were carried out, and the groups were classified according to the frequency of fish consumption through linear regression analysis; the association between Hg level and cholesterol profiles in each group was analyzed. The blood Hg levels (arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean for all target participants were 4.59, 3.66, and 3.74 µg/L, respectively. The high cholesterol group, low HDL-C group, and high TG group showed a statistically and significantly higher blood Hg level than the low-risk group. In both sexes, as the frequency of fish consumption increased, blood Hg level also increased, but TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG did not show a similar trend. Increased blood Hg level showed a significant association with increased TC and LDL-C. This statistical significance was maintained in the group with less frequent fish consumption (8 times per month did not show a similar trend. The results of this study suggest that fish consumption increases the level of Hg exposure, and that as the level of Hg exposure increases, the levels of cholesterol profiles increase. However, this study also suggests that the levels of cholesterol profiles in those with frequent fish consumption can be diminished.

  19. Accumulation factors of mercury by King Bolete Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Frankowska, A.

    2003-05-01

    To understand pollution picture with mercury and to examine suitability of King Bolete Boletits edulis Bull.: Fr. as possible bioindicator the total mercurv concentrations were determined both in the fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate collected from various regions of Poland. There were quite large spatial variations of mercury concentration and some seasonal also were noted. Mercury content of the caps exceeded that of stalks (p<0.05), Nvhile Hg BCF values varied between 9 and 40, and 4 and 40, respectively.

  20. Combining 137Cs and topographic surveys for measuring soil erosion/deposition patterns in a rapidly accreting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Narrow, stiff grass hedges are biological barriers designed to slow runoff and capture soils carried in runoff water. This study was designed to measure quantitatively the deposition of soil up slope of a narrow, stiff grass hedge using topographic and 137 Cs surveys. Topographic surveys made in 1991, 1995, and 1998 measured 1 to 2 cm yr -1 of recent sediment deposited up slope of the grass hedge. 137 Cs analyses of soil samples were used to determine the medium-term (45 years) soil redistribution patterns. Erosion rates and patterns determined using 137 Cs measured medium-term erosion near the hedge do not reflect the recent deposition patterns near the grass hedge measured by topographic surveys. Using the combination of topographic and 137 Cs surveys allows a better understanding of the role of grass hedges as barriers for capturing eroding soils and suggest that the recent deposition is associated with the grass hedge but that there is still a net loss of soil near the hedge position over the past 45 years. (author)

  1. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  2. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireles, F.; Garcia, M.L.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C.; Montero, M.E.; Colmenero, L.; Villalba, L.

    2007-01-01

    Indoor radon gas ( 222 Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238 U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm -3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm -3 , respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm -3 . These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm -3

  3. Radon survey and soil gamma doses in primary schools of Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Aldemir, Kamuran

    2014-06-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in 42 primary schools located in Batman, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Indoor radon measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector-based radon dosimeters. The overall mean annual (222)Rn activity in the surveyed area was found to be 49 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 0.25 mSv). However, in one of the districts (Besiri) the maximum radon value turned out to be 307 Bq m(-3). The estimated annual effective doses are less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv). It is found that the radon concentration decreases with increasing floor number. The concentrations of natural and artificial radioisotopes were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples collected in close vicinity of the studied schools. The mean gamma activity concentrations in the soil samples were 31, 25, 329 and 12 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The radiological parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent were calculated. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values.

  4. Huerta del Rey: Edafic Characterization of a Historic Area of the Mercury Mining and Study of the Transfer of Mercury from the Soil to Plantago Major; Huerta del Rey: Caracterizacion Edafica de una Zona Historica de la Mineria del Mercurio y Estudio de la Transferencia del Mercurio a Plantago Major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C; Manero, L; Sierra, M J; Rodriguez-Alonso, M; Millan, R

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this scientific-technical report is to carry out a characterization of study plot called Huerta del Rey in the mercury (Hg) mining district of Almaden. For this goal, an edaphic characterization has been performed and the Hg behavior in the soil study has been evaluated. Then, total Hg concentration and easily available Hg for plants have been determined and the absorption and distribution of Hg in Plantago major L (typical specie from the study area) have been studied. The results showed that the total Hg concentrations in the soil ranged from 530 {+-} 32 mg kg{sup -}1 to 4300 {+-} 339 mg kg{sup -}1 even to 12378 {+-} 1051mg kg{sup -}1. It is in accordance with the normal values measured in a Hg mining area. Otherwise, the percentage of soluble Hg in soil with respect to the total Hg concentration is low (< 0.3 %) although if concentration instead of percentage is taking into account, the soluble Hg reached values up to 1.33 {+-}0.14 mg kg{sup -}1 that could mean a potential risk of pollution of groundwater by leaching process. Finally a brief description about different technologies for decreasing Hg concentration in the study soil, including phytoremediation, has been performed. (Author) 96 refs.

  5. Removal of mercury by adsorption: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Yue, Bao-Yu; Wu, Xiong-Wei; Liu, Qi; Jiao, Fei-Peng; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Due to natural and production activities, mercury contamination has become one of the major environmental problems over the world. Mercury contamination is a serious threat to human health. Among the existing technologies available for mercury pollution control, the adsorption process can get excellent separation effects and has been further studied. This review is attempted to cover a wide range of adsorbents that were developed for the removal of mercury from the year 2011. Various adsorbents, including the latest adsorbents, are presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancements on their preparation, modification technologies, and strategies. By comparing their adsorption capacities, it is evident from the literature survey that some adsorbents have shown excellent potential for the removal of mercury. However, there is still a need to develop novel, efficient adsorbents with low cost, high stability, and easy production and manufacture for practical utility.

  6. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  7. Novel Strategies for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Soils and Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, D. Max

    2004-02-01

    This article surveys the toxicities of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, cadmium, and the actinides. Strategies for the removal of these metals include surfactants, aqueous biphasic systems, and liquid membranes. For soils, both in situ stabilization and detection are discussed. For extraction from soils, electrokinetic extraction, phytoremediation, and bioremediation methods are critically evaluated. This article provides an educator with the resources to set up a series of lectures on inorganic aspects of environmental chemistry.

  8. Permafrost stores a globally significant amount of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Schuster, P. F.; Antweiler, R.; Aiken, G.; DeWild, J.; Gryziec, J. D.; Gusmeroli, A.; Hugelius, G.; Jafarov, E.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Liu, L.; Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Mu, C.; Roth, D. A.; Schaefer, T.; Striegl, R. G.; Wickland, K.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate in northern regions is causing permafrost to thaw with major implications for the cycling of mercury in arctic and subarctic ecosystems. Permafrost occurs in nearly one quarter of the Earth's Northern Hemisphere. We measured total soil mercury concentration in 588 samples from 13 soil permafrost cores from the interior and the North Slope of Alaska. The median concentration was 47.7±23.4 ng Hg g soil-1 and the median ratio of Hg to carbon was 1.56±0.86 µg Hg g C-1. We estimate Alaskan permafrost stores 56±32 kilotons of mercury and the entire northern hemisphere permafrost land mass stores 773±441 kilotons of mercury. This increases estimates of mercury stored in soils by 60%, making permafrost the second largest reservoir of mercury on the planet. Climate projections indicate extensive permafrost thawing, releasing mercury into the environment through a variety of mechanisms, for example, terrestrial transport via dissolved organic carbon (DOC), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) evasion, forest fires, atmospheric mixing processes with ozone, and Springtime atmospheric Hg depletion after the polar sunrise. These findings have major implications for terrestrial and aquatic life, the world's fisheries, and ultimately human health.

  9. The effect of mercury on trees and their mycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Philippe, Sharon R., E-mail: jeanphil@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, 274 Ellington Plant Science Building, 2431 Joe Johnson Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996-4563 (United States); Franklin, Jennifer A., E-mail: jafranklin@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, 274 Ellington Plant Science Building, 2431 Joe Johnson Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996-4563 (United States); Buckley, David S., E-mail: dbuckley@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, 274 Ellington Plant Science Building, 2431 Joe Johnson Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996-4563 (United States); Hughes, Karen, E-mail: khughes@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 350 Hesler Biology Building and Greenhouse, 1406 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The Oak Ridge Reservation, established in 1942, was the designated site for the construction of the atomic bomb. During a 20-year period from 1944 to 1963 radioactive and toxic chemical pollutants, especially mercury compounds were released into the surrounding waterways. Tree diversity and mycorrhizal presence and abundance were analyzed in the mercury-contaminated floodplains of East Fork Poplar Creek Oak Ridge (EFPC) (Tennessee). A subsequent greenhouse study was conducted to assess the phytotoxic effects of different mercuric solutions on Platanus occidentalis (American Sycamore), inoculated with soils from EFPC. Total soil mercury in the field had no effect on tree diversity. Organic species of mercury proved to be more toxic than inorganic species of mercury and soil inoculants from EFPC had no protective effects against Hg toxicity in our greenhouse study. Comparison of the effects of mercury contamination in our field and greenhouse studies was difficult due to uncontrolled factors. - Highlights: > Heavy metals effects on ecosystems may be difficult to pinpoint in the field. > Toxic effects of mercury depend on its chemical form and concentration. > Mycorrhizae have been shown to be increase heavy metal tolerance in host plant. - Though evidence suggests that mercury-contaminated soils may reduce tree and fungal populations, there are tolerant species that may remain and survive following contamination.

  10. Ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on mercury chloride‑induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Mercury is a highly toxic metal that exerts its adverse effects on the health of humans and animals through air, soil, water and food. Aim: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of the effects of ascorbic acid on mercury chloride-induced changes on the histomorphology of the spleen of adult Wistar Rats.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey programs and investigations related to soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a rich tradition of collecting hydrologic data, especially for fluxes of water and suspended sediment, that provide a foundation for studies of soil and water conservation. Applied and basic research has included investigations of the effects of land use on rangelands, croplands, and forests; hazards mapping; derivation of flood and drought frequency, and other statistics related to streamflow and reservoir storage; development and application of models of rainfall-runoff relations, chemical quality, and sediment movement; and studies of the interactive processes of overland and channel flow with vegetation. Networks of streamgaging stations and (or) sampling sites within numerous drainage basins are yielding information that extends databases and enhances the ability to use those data for interpretive studies.

  12. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  13. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  14. Mercury in terrestrial forested systems with highly elevated mercury deposition in southwestern China: The risk to insects and potential release from wildfires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Sun, Ting; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Forests are considered a pool of mercury in the global mercury cycle. However, few studies have investigated the distribution of mercury in the forested systems in China. Tieshanping forest catchment in southwest China was impacted by mercury emissions from industrial activities and coal combustions. Our work studied mercury content in atmosphere, soil, vegetation and insect with a view to estimating the potential for mercury release during forest fires. Results of the present study showed that total gaseous mercury (TGM) was highly elevated and the annual mean concentration was 3.51 ± 1.39 ng m"−"2. Of the vegetation tissues, the mercury concentration follows the order of leaf/needle > root > bark > branch > bole wood for each species. Total ecosystem mercury pool was 103.5 mg m"−"2 and about 99.4% of the mercury resides in soil layers (0–40 cm). The remaining 0.6% (0.50 mg m"−"2) of mercury was stored in biomass. The large mercury stocks in the forest ecosystem pose a serious threat for large pluses to the atmospheric mercury during potential wildfires and additional ecological stress to forest insect: dung beetles, cicada and longicorn, with mercury concentration of 1983 ± 446, 49 ± 38 and 7 ± 5 ng g"−"1, respectively. Hence, the results obtained in the present study has implications for global estimates of mercury storage in forests, risks to forest insect and potential release to the atmosphere during wildfires. - Highlights: • Mercury in air, soil, biomass and insect were studied at a subtropical forest. • 99.4% of the total ecosystem mercury pools was resided in soil layers. • High mercury pools were large pulses to the atmosphere during potential wildfires. • High mercury deposition in forest pose an ecological stress to insect. - Large mercury pools in forest pose a serious threat for large pluses to the atmospheric mercury during potential wildfires and ecological stress to insect.

  15. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1992-02-01

    In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant.

  16. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Keon Hoon; Cho, Dae Seong; Lee, Jinmoo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Elhag, Mousab Siddig; Khaled, Soheir Gabralla Ahmad; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa; Siddig, Nahid Abdelgadeir Ali; Abdelrazig, Hana; Awadelkareem, Sarah; Elshafie, Azza Tag Eldin; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Amin, Mutamad

    2017-09-12

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. A school-based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control program. The mapping data will also be used for overviewing

  17. Geophysical surveys combined with laboratory soil column experiments to identify and explore risk areas for soil and water pollution in feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Pérez, Antonio Jesus; Sainato, Claudia Mabel; Jairo Márquez-Molina, John; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use without a correct planning may produce its deterioration with their social, economical and environmental irreversible consequences over short to medium time range. In Argentina, the expansion of soybean fields induced a reduction of the area of pastures dedicated to stockbreeding. As cattle activity is being progressively concentrated on small pens, at feedlots farms, problems of soil and water pollution, mainly by nitrate, have been detected. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content is very important because the mostly advective transport of solutes. To avoid intensive soil samplings, very expensive, one has to recur to geophysical exploration methods. The objective of this work was to identify risk areas within a feedlot of the NW zone of Buenos Aires Province, in Argentina through geophysical methods. The surveys were carried out with an electromagnetic induction profiler EMI-400 (GSSI) and a Time domain Reflectometry (TDR) survey of depth 0-0.10 m with soil sampling and measurement of moisture content with gravimetric method (0-1.0 m). Several trenches were dug inside the pens and also at a test site, where texture, apparent density, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract and organic matter content (OM) were measured. The water retention curves for these soils were also determined. At one of the pens undisturbed soil columns were extracted at 3 locations. Laboratory analysis for 0-1.0 m indicated that soil texture was classified as sandy loam, average organic matter content (OM) was greater than 2.3% with low values of apparent density in the first 10 cm. The range of spatial dependence of data suggested that the number of soil samples could be reduced. Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil moisture were well correlated and indicated a clear spatial pattern in the corrals. TDR perform