WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveys included questions

  1. Questions for Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  2. Questions for Online Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The primary function of an evaluation is often to assess the degree of success of a program or to collect information that may be used to improve a program, product, or service. To meet an evaluation's goals and objectives by using an online survey, it is imperative that the questionnaire contain valid and reliable items asked about specific…

  3. Biomedical question answering: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athenikos, Sofia J; Han, Hyoil

    2010-07-01

    In this survey, we reviewed the current state of the art in biomedical QA (Question Answering), within a broader framework of semantic knowledge-based QA approaches, and projected directions for the future research development in this critical area of intersection between Artificial Intelligence, Information Retrieval, and Biomedical Informatics. We devised a conceptual framework within which to categorize current QA approaches. In particular, we used "semantic knowledge-based QA" as a category under which to subsume QA techniques and approaches, both corpus-based and knowledge base (KB)-based, that utilize semantic knowledge-informed techniques in the QA process, and we further classified those approaches into three subcategories: (1) semantics-based, (2) inference-based, and (3) logic-based. Based on the framework, we first conducted a survey of open-domain or non-biomedical-domain QA approaches that belong to each of the three subcategories. We then conducted an in-depth review of biomedical QA, by first noting the characteristics of, and resources available for, biomedical QA and then reviewing medical QA approaches and biological QA approaches, in turn. The research articles reviewed in this paper were found and selected through online searches. Our review suggested the following tasks ahead for the future research development in this area: (1) Construction of domain-specific typology and taxonomy of questions (biological QA), (2) Development of more sophisticated techniques for natural language (NL) question analysis and classification, (3) Development of effective methods for answer generation from potentially conflicting evidences, (4) More extensive and integrated utilization of semantic knowledge throughout the QA process, and (5) Incorporation of logic and reasoning mechanisms for answer inference. Corresponding to the growth of biomedical information, there is a growing need for QA systems that can help users better utilize the ever

  4. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  5. Question Quality in Community Question Answering Forums : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltadzhieva, Antoaneta; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Community Question Answering websites (CQA) offer a new opportunity for users to provide, search and share knowledge. Although the idea of receiving a direct, targeted response to a question sounds very attractive, the quality of the question itself can have an important effect on the likelihood of

  6. Surveying problem solution with theory and objective type questions

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, AM

    2005-01-01

    The book provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of the various principles and methods for solving problems in land surveying. Each chapter starts with basic concepts and definitions, then solution of typical field problems and ends with objective type questions. The book explains errors in survey measurements and their propagation. Survey measurements are detailed next. These include horizontal and vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Measurement using stadia tacheometry and EDM are then highlighted, followed by various types of levelling problems. Traversing is then explained, followed by a detailed discussion on adjustment of survey observations and then triangulation and trilateration.

  7. Relativistic reference frames including time scales - Questions and answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffel, M. H.; Brumberg, V. A.

    1991-12-01

    The subject of relativistic reference frames in astronomy is discussed with respect to the problems and needs of the various user groups. For didactical reasons the discussion is presented in the form of a sequence of questions and answers.

  8. Demystifying Survey Research: Practical Suggestions for Effective Question Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah H. Charbonneau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ Recent research has yielded several studies helpful for understanding the use of the survey technique in various library environments. Despite this, there has been limited discussion to guide library practitioners preparing survey questions. The aim of this article is to provide practical suggestions for effective questions when designing written surveys.Methods ‐ Advice and important considerations to help guide the process of developing survey questions are drawn from a review of the literature and personal experience.Results ‐ Basic techniques can be incorporated to improve survey questions, such as choosing appropriate question forms and incorporating the use of scales. Attention should be paid to the flow and ordering of the survey questions. Careful wording choices can also help construct clear, simple questions. Conclusion ‐ A well‐designed survey questionnaire can be a valuable source of data. By following some basic guidelines when constructing written survey questions, library and information professionals can have useful data collection instruments at their disposal.

  9. Measuring workplace travel behaviour: validity and reliability of survey questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrunoff, N.A.; Xu, H.; Rissel, C.; Wen, L.M.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed

  10. Probabilistic survey questions and incorrect answers : Retirement income replacement rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, P.C.; Alessie, R.J.M.; Kalwij, A.S.

    We study responses to subjective retirement income replacement rate expectations questions in a survey of Dutch employees. One out of three respondents is unable to provide probabilities satisfying the requirements of a cumulative distribution function. We show that using probabilistic survey

  11. A survey on question answering systems with classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mishra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question answering systems (QASs generate answers of questions asked in natural languages. Early QASs were developed for restricted domains and have limited capabilities. Current QASs focus on types of questions generally asked by users, characteristics of data sources consulted, and forms of correct answers generated. Research in the area of QASs began in 1960s and since then, a large number of QASs have been developed. To identify the future scope of research in this area, the need of a comprehensive survey on QASs arises naturally. This paper surveys QASs and classifies them based on different criteria. We identify the current status of the research in the each category of QASs, and suggest future scope of the research.

  12. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  13. Measuring workplace travel behaviour: validity and reliability of survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunoff, Nicholas A; Xu, Huilan; Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested) reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K = 0.62, P travel time (ρ = 0.75, P travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K = 0.82, P travel time (ρ = 0.83, P travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. The survey question "How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance) portion of your journey" is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  14. Survey questions about party competence: Insights from cognitive interviews☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Voter assessments of party competence have become a key explanation of electoral decision-making. However, there are at least three important aspects to understanding responses to questions on issue-specific party competence: comprehension difficulties; a lack of well-formed attitudes and relevant information; and the use of response heuristics. We used 20 cognitive interviews carried out in Austria in 2011 to test competence questions. The interviews show us how respondents explain their responses. We find evidence that many people (1) may hold only weak opinions and have little information on issue-specific party competence and (2) may make use of distinct but related concepts, particularly salience and position, when answering questions about competence. We provide recommendations for researchers and survey designers based on our findings. PMID:25844005

  15. Survey questions about party competence: Insights from cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Voter assessments of party competence have become a key explanation of electoral decision-making. However, there are at least three important aspects to understanding responses to questions on issue-specific party competence: comprehension difficulties; a lack of well-formed attitudes and relevant information; and the use of response heuristics. We used 20 cognitive interviews carried out in Austria in 2011 to test competence questions. The interviews show us how respondents explain their responses. We find evidence that many people (1) may hold only weak opinions and have little information on issue-specific party competence and (2) may make use of distinct but related concepts, particularly salience and position, when answering questions about competence. We provide recommendations for researchers and survey designers based on our findings.

  16. Experimental U.S. Census Bureau Race and Hispanic Origin Survey Questions: Reactions from Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Rodney L.; Fond, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    People of Hispanic origin, including monolingual Spanish speakers, have experienced difficulty identifying with a race category on U.S. demographic surveys. As part of a larger research effort by the U.S. Census Bureau to improve race and Hispanic origin questions for the 2020 Census, we tested experimental versions of race and Hispanic origin…

  17. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data. The new developments thus enhance the capacity of the questions to measure cross-nationally, sensitive aspects of young people’s sexual behaviour. These questions were included in the 2013/2014 round of the HBSC survey and will continue to be used to monitor trends in adolescent sexual health and behaviours, and to inform and influence health services and health education policy and practice at local, national and international levels.

  18. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 3. Question-by-question results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Tabulations are presented of responses to approximately 105 questions. Results are tabulated by 9 geographic regions: the four states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington; four climate zones in the region; and a weighted Pacific Northwest total. A description of the tabulated data is given in the Introduction. Tabulated data deal with questions on dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and swelling characteristics; and insulation.

  19. Has protest increased since the 1970s? How a survey question can construct a spurious trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The literature on political participation asserts that protest has increased over the last four decades, all over the world. This trend is derived from surveys asking questions about participation in various forms of protest, including demonstrations, boycotts, and unofficial strikes. The latter question made sense in the context in which it was formulated, Britain in the early 1970s, and with regard to the original methodological aim, measuring 'protest potential'. The absence of a generic question on strikes, however, distorts our understanding of protest. Two sources of data on Britain in the 1980s and 1990 s - a population survey and an event catalogue - comprehensively measure strikes. They show that strikes greatly outnumbered demonstrations and other forms of protest. Another claim in the literature, that protesters are highly educated, no longer holds once strikes are properly counted. Strikes in Britain, as in many countries, have dramatically declined since the 1980s. This decline more than offsets any increase in demonstrations and boycotts, meaning that the total volume of protest has decreased. The episode illustrates how survey questions, when replicated without scrutiny, can misconstrue social trends. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  20. Survey process quality: a question of healthcare manager approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Petra; Blomqvist, Kerstin

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how healthcare first-line managers think about and act regarding workplace survey processes. Design/methodology/approach This interview study was performed at a hospital in south Sweden. First-line healthcare managers ( n=24) volunteered. The analysis was inspired by phenomenography, which aims to describe the ways in which different people experience a phenomenon. The phenomenon was a workplace health promotion (WHP) survey processes. Findings Four main WHP survey process approaches were identified among the managers: as a possibility, as a competition, as a work task among others and as an imposition. For each, three common subcategories emerged; how managers: stated challenges and support from hospital management; described their own work group and collaboration with other managers; and expressed themselves and their situation in their roles as first-line managers. Practical implications Insights into how hospital management can understand their first-line managers' motivation for survey processes and practical suggestions and how managers can work proactively at organizational, group and individual level are presented. Originality/value Usually these studies focus on those who should respond to a survey; not those who should run the survey process. Focusing on managers and not co-workers can lead to more committed and empowered managers and thereby success in survey processes.

  1. A survey on question answering systems with classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Amit; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ...’s ( Androutsopoulos et al., 1995; Kolomiyets, 2011 ). Current QASs attempt to answer questions asked by users in natural languages after retrieving and processing information from different data sources even like semantic web ( Vanessa, 2011; Dwivedi, 2013; Suresh kumar and Zayaraz, 2014 ). The format of answers is also going to be changed from sim...

  2. Surveying Parental Mediation: Connections, Challenges and Questions for Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three strategies of parental mediation--coviewing, restrictive mediation, and active mediation--in order to make connections, challenge, and raise questions for media literacy. Coviewing, whether it is intentional practice, or whether it functions to promote media literacy, is explored. Restrictive mediation, how it connects to…

  3. Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    indicators and several points in time. American Sociological Review, 351, 101–111. Cronbach , L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal...original DEOCS and the DEOCS with follow-up questions. Reliability of scales is most typically measured using Cronbach’s Alpha . Statistics...Cronbach’s Alpha (reliability coefficient) is the most common estimate of internal consistency. Alpha measures the extent to which item responses obtained

  4. Chapel Hill COMMUNITY SURVEY ALL QUESTIONS with Geolocation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This is the 2015 Town of Chapel Hill Community Survey.Using a scale of 1 to 5 where 5 means “Very Satisfied” and 1 means “Very Dissatisfied,” residents were asked...

  5. Developing a Why–How Question Answering system on community web boards with a causality graph including procedural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pechsiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to develop an automatic Question Answering system, in particular Why and How questions, on community web-boards to support ordinary people in preliminary diagnosis and problem solving, such as plant disease problems. The research includes two main problems: Why and How question identification and Why and How answer determination, where Why and How questions are based on explanations. Therefore, the research applies machine learning techniques for question type identification. We also propose an integrated causality graph with extracted procedural knowledge from text to determine the visualized answers based on the information retrieval technique. The experiment shows the Question Answering system can achieve answers at Rank 1 with 91.1% and 88.9% correctness for Why questions and How questions, respectively.

  6. A Survey on the Levels of Questioning of ELT: A Case Study in an Indonesian Tertiary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rido Imam Ashadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This present study focused on examining the levels of questions in Indonesia tertiary education. A survey research was conducted in one of the private universities in North Sumatra. The English summative assessment in an undergraduate education was used as target of survey.  There were a collection of questions that had been administered by four English lecturers from Faculty of English Education in Universitas Muslim Nusantara (UMN Al-Washliyah Medan, Indonesia. The sample of research included the sixty five questions of summative tests. The qualitative content analysis which is based on Gallagher/Aschner Bloom Classification System used to categorize the questions. It was found that the lower order thinking level still dominated the question types (69%. There was only 31% higher order questions used on the summative test.

  7. 76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice of request... Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre Program Survey Questions OMB Control Number: None Type... participants in ECA exchange programs that focus on critical language learning instruction. Estimated Number of...

  8. On the interpretation of World Values Survey trust question - global expectations vs. local beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    How should we interpret the World Values Survey (WVS) trust question? We conduct an experiment in India - a low trust country, to correlate the WVS trust question with trust decisions in an incentivized Trust Game. Evidence supports findings from one strand of the fractured literature - the WVS t...... study is that survey based methods may not be used to measure contextualized beliefs.......How should we interpret the World Values Survey (WVS) trust question? We conduct an experiment in India - a low trust country, to correlate the WVS trust question with trust decisions in an incentivized Trust Game. Evidence supports findings from one strand of the fractured literature - the WVS...

  9. Framing Higher Education: Questions and Responses in the British Social Attitudes Survey, 1983-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna; Jones, Steven; Sullivan, Alice; Heath, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on questions and attitudes towards higher education in the British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey series. First, we analyse the changing BSA questions (1983-2010) in the context of key policy reports. Our results show that changes in the framing of higher education questions correspond with changes in the macro-discourse of…

  10. The Impact of Question Format, Context, and Content on Survey Answers in Early and Late Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diersch Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-reports in surveys are often influenced by the presented question format and question context. Much less is known about how these effects influence the answers of younger survey respondents. The present study investigated how variations in response format, answer scale frequency, and question order influence self-reports of two age groups: younger (11–13 years old and older (16–18 years old adolescents. In addition, the impact of the respondents’ level of familiarity with the question content was taken into account. Results indicated that younger adolescents are more strongly influenced by the presented question format and context than older adolescents. This, however, was dependent on the particular question content, implying that response effects are more pronounced when questions deal with issues that lie outside of the respondents’ field of experience. Implications of these findings in survey research with younger respondents are discussed.

  11. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  12. Parameter Estimation in Stratified Cluster Sampling under Randomized Response Models for Sensitive Question Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiangke; Gao, Ge; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Randomized response is a research method to get accurate answers to sensitive questions in structured sample survey. Simple random sampling is widely used in surveys of sensitive questions but hard to apply on large targeted populations. On the other side, more sophisticated sampling regimes and corresponding formulas are seldom employed to sensitive question surveys. In this work, we developed a series of formulas for parameter estimation in cluster sampling and stratified cluster sampling under two kinds of randomized response models by using classic sampling theories and total probability formulas. The performances of the sampling methods and formulas in the survey of premarital sex and cheating on exams at Soochow University were also provided. The reliability of the survey methods and formulas for sensitive question survey was found to be high.

  13. Parameter Estimation in Stratified Cluster Sampling under Randomized Response Models for Sensitive Question Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangke Pu

    Full Text Available Randomized response is a research method to get accurate answers to sensitive questions in structured sample survey. Simple random sampling is widely used in surveys of sensitive questions but hard to apply on large targeted populations. On the other side, more sophisticated sampling regimes and corresponding formulas are seldom employed to sensitive question surveys. In this work, we developed a series of formulas for parameter estimation in cluster sampling and stratified cluster sampling under two kinds of randomized response models by using classic sampling theories and total probability formulas. The performances of the sampling methods and formulas in the survey of premarital sex and cheating on exams at Soochow University were also provided. The reliability of the survey methods and formulas for sensitive question survey was found to be high.

  14. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  15. Sensitive Questions in Online Surveys: An Experimental Evaluation of Different Implementations of the Randomized Response Technique and the Crosswise Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Höglinger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-administered online surveys may provide a higher level of privacy protection to respondents than surveys administered by an interviewer. Yet, studies indicate that asking sensitive questions is problematic also in self-administered surveys. Because respondents might not be willing to reveal the truth and provide answers that are subject to social desirability bias, the validity of prevalence estimates of sensitive behaviors from online surveys can be challenged. A well-known method to overcome these problems is the Randomized Response Technique (RRT. However, convincing evidence that the RRT provides more valid estimates than direct questioning in online surveys is still lacking. We therefore conducted an experimental study in which different implementations of the RRT, including two implementations of the so-called crosswise model, were tested and compared to direct questioning. Our study is an online survey (N = 6,037 on sensitive behaviors by students such as cheating in exams and plagiarism. Results vary considerably between different implementations, indicating that practical details have a strong effect on the performance of the RRT. Among all tested implementations, including direct questioning, the unrelated-question crosswise-model RRT yielded the highest estimates of student misconduct.

  16. Matching loci surveyed to questions asked in phylogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetski, Sergei V.; Zink, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has long been used for assessing genetic variation within and between populations, its workhorse role in phylogeography has been criticized owing to its single-locus nature. The only choice for testing mtDNA results is to survey nuclear loci, which brings into contrast the difference in locus effective size and coalescence times. Thus, it remains unclear how erroneous mtDNA-based estimates of species history might be, especially for evolutionary events in the recent past. To test the robustness of mtDNA and nuclear sequences in phylogeography, we provide one of the largest paired comparisons of summary statistics and demographic parameters estimated from mitochondrial, five Z-linked and 10 autosomal genes of 30 avian species co-distributed in the Caucasus and Europe. The results suggest that mtDNA is robust in estimating inter-population divergence but not in intra-population diversity, which is sensitive to population size change. Here, we provide empirical evidence showing that mtDNA was more likely to detect population divergence than any other single locus owing to its smaller Ne and thus faster coalescent time. Therefore, at least in birds, numerous studies that have based their inferences of phylogeographic patterns solely on mtDNA should not be readily dismissed. PMID:26962145

  17. The Extend of Adaptation Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain In English Questions Included in General Secondary Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akram Alzu'bi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing English questions of the Jordanian Secondary Certificate Examinations via Blooms' cognitive levels. An analysis sheet was prepared by the researcher for the purpose of the study, which was ensured to be valid and reliable. The whole questions of the general secondary examinations for English course in both levels (level three and level four during 2010-2013 composed the sample of the study. Frequencies and percentages were tabulated to facilitate the analysis of the results. The result of the study revealed that the total percentage of the first three levels (comprehension, knowledge, and analysis is (69.6 but the total percentage of the last three levels (application, synthesis, and evaluation is (30.4 so it indicated that the English questions included in general secondary examinations emphasize low order thinking levels. The researcher recommended that the questions designers should improve their questioning techniques in writing questions of exams.

  18. Does uncontrolled cardiac death for organ donation raise ethical questions? An opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, V; Albouy-Llaty, M; Migeot, V; Pain, B; Dayhot-Fizelier, C; Pinsard, M; Gil, R; Beloucif, S; Robert, R

    2013-11-01

    Organ donation after uncontrolled cardiac death raises complex ethical issues. We conducted a survey in a large hospital staff population, including caregivers and administrators, to determine their ethical viewpoints regarding organ donation after uncontrolled cardiac death. Multicenter observational survey using a questionnaire, including information on the practical modalities of the procedure. Respondents were asked to answer 15 detailed ethical questions corresponding to different ethical issues raised in the literature. Ethical concerns was defined when respondents expressed ethical concerns in their answers to at least three of nine specifically selected ethical questions. One thousand one hundred ninety-six questionnaires were received, and 1057 could be analysed. According to our definition, 573 respondents out of 1057 (54%) had ethical concerns with regard to donation after cardiac death and 484 (46 %) had no ethical concerns. Physicians (55%) and particularly junior intensivists (65%) tended to have more ethical issues than nurses (52%) and hospital managers (37%). Junior intensivists had more ethical issues than senior intensivists (59%), emergency room physicians (46%) and transplant specialists (43%). Only 46% of hospital-based caregivers and managers appear to accept easily the legitimacy of organ donation after cardiac death. A significant number of respondents especially intensivists, expressed concerns over the dilemma between the interests of the individual and those of society. These results underline the need to better inform both healthcare professionals and the general population to help to the development of such procedure. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  20. Attitudes towards assisted dying are influenced by question wording and order: a survey experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magelssen, Morten; Supphellen, Magne; Nortvedt, Per; Materstvedt, Lars Johan

    2016-04-27

    Surveys on attitudes towards assisted dying play an important role in informing public debate, policy and legislation. Unfortunately, surveys are often designed with insufficient attention to framing effects; that is, effects on the respondents' stated attitudes caused by question wording and context. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and measure such framing effects. Survey experiment in which an eight-question survey on attitudes towards assisted dying was distributed to Norwegian citizens through a web-based panel. Two variations of question wording as well as two variations of question order were employed. Respondents were randomized to receive one of four questionnaire versions. Three thousand and fifty responses were received. There were moderate to large question wording and question order effects. A majority of Norwegian citizens favour the legalization of assisted dying for patients with terminal or chronic disease. Stakeholders in the assisted dying debate need to acknowledge potential framing effects, and accordingly should interpret survey results with caution. The same holds for researchers who conduct attitude surveys in the field of bioethics.

  1. Different survey questions on the same topic : How to make responses comparable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. de Jonge (Tineke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Survey data are often used for comparison purposes, such as comparisons across nations or comparisons over time. Ideally, this would require equivalent questions and equivalent responses options to these questions. Yet there is a lot of variation in the response

  2. The effect of changes to question order on the prevalence of 'sufficient' physical activity in an Australian population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Christine; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-03-01

    Population surveys are frequently used to assess prevalence, correlates and health benefits of physical activity. However, nonsampling errors, such as question order effects, in surveys may lead to imprecision in self reported physical activity. This study examined the impact of modified question order in a commonly used physical activity questionnaire on the prevalence of sufficient physical activity. Data were obtained from a telephone survey of adults living in Queensland, Australia. A total of 1243 adults participated in the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey conducted in July 2008 which included the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ) presented in traditional or modified order. Binary logistic regression analyses was used to examine relationships between question order and physical activity outcomes. Significant relationships were found between question order and sufficient activity, recreational walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and total activity. Respondents who received the AAQ in modified order were more likely to be categorized as sufficiently active (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). This study highlights the importance of question order on estimates of self reported physical activity. This study has shown that changes in question order can lead to an increase in the proportion of participants classified as sufficiently active.

  3. Positive versus Negative. A cognitive perspective on wording effects for contrastive questions in attitude surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, N.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized surveys are used in many contexts to measure people’s opinions and attitudes. Although it is widely assumed that survey answers represent the ‘true values’ of the concepts measured, a large body of research has shown that seemingly irrelevant question characteristics influence how

  4. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  5. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    OPA), has been conducting surveys of gender issues for the active duty military since 1988. RSSC uses scientific state of the art statistical...misunderstood. The following details some common questions about our methodology as a whole and the 2016 WGRA specifically. 1. What was the population of...subgroups. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members 2017 434 | OPA OPA scientifically weights the data so findings can

  6. Improving English Reading Comprehension Ability through Survey, Questions, Read, Record, Recite, Review Strategy (SQ4R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusniyah, Nurul Lailatul; Lustyantie, Ninuk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the survey, questions, read, record, recite, review (SQ4R) strategy of the reading comprehension ability students of 2nd semester. The research study was used action research method. The sampling was taken by 34 students. The validity of data used credibility, transferability, dependability, and…

  7. Why are negative questions difficult to answer? On the processing of linguistic contrasts in surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, P.; Sanders, T.; van den Bergh, H.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that respondents are generally more likely to disagree with negative survey questions (e.g., This book is bad. Yes/No) than to agree with positive ones (e.g., This book is good. Yes/No). In the current research, we related this effect to the cognitive processes underlying

  8. Why are negative questions difficult to answer? : On the processing of linguistic contrasts in surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314011951; Holleman, Bregje|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183083547; Mak, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215700392; Sanders, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075243911; van den Bergh, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074044400

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that respondents are generally more likely to disagree with negative survey questions (e.g., This book is bad. Yes/No) than to agree with positive ones (e.g., This book is good. Yes/No). In the current research, we related this effect to the cognitive processes underlying

  9. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  10. Synthesis of Survey Questions That Accurately Discriminate the Elements of the TPACK Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikaran-Doe, Seeta; Doe, Peter Edward

    2015-01-01

    A number of validated survey instruments for assessing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) do not accurately discriminate between the seven elements of the TPACK framework particularly technological content knowledge (TCK) and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK). By posing simple questions that assess technological,…

  11. Testing the Question-Behavior Effect of Self-Administered Surveys Measuring Youth Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briney, John S; Brown, Eric C; Kuklinski, Margaret R; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2017-09-29

    Concern that asking about a specific behavior could elicit that behavior is often cited as a reason that communities and schools should not administer surveys about youth drug use. In this study, we investigated if this question-behavior effect exists related to substance use. We examined if simply asking a student about their current drug use leads to an increase in drug use 1 year later. This study tests the validity of the question-behavior effect on youth drug use in a longitudinal panel of 2,002 elementary school students. The sample of students was drawn from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized test of the Communities That Care prevention system. If the prevalence of self-reported drug use in sixth grade in a sample surveyed in fifth and sixth grades was higher than in an accretion sample surveyed only in sixth grade, the difference could indicate a question-behavior effect. Results from logistic regression analyses did not provide any evidence of a question-behavior effect on 30-day or lifetime prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, inhalant, or marijuana use reported in sixth grade. Asking youth about drug use in a survey did not increase the rates of self-reported drug use measured 1 year later. The absence of evidence of a question-behavior effect should ease concerns of communities and schools when administering surveys asking youth about their drug use. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polish version of standardized noise reaction questions for community noise surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Anna; Kaczmarek, Tomasz; Wojciechowska, Hanna; Zera, Jan; Fields, James M

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the Polish version of two standardized noise reaction questions for community noise surveys. An internationally comparable noise reaction measure for social surveys was published by Fields et al. as a result of work performed by the Community Response to Noise Team of the International Commission on the Biological Effects of Noise. This measure consists of two recommended noise reaction questions: a 5-point verbal scale question and a 0-10-point numeric scale question. The Polish words for a 5-point noise annoyance verbal scale were selected by respondents from a group of 21 potential adverbs following the method described by Fields et al. The same standardized empirical study protocol was used to select annoyance scale words (a 5-point verbal scale question) for the nine different languages. The following words for a 5-point noise annoyance scale were obtained: not at all, a little, rather, substantially, extremely annoying. The Polish version of the scale described in this paper has international counterparts. It means that our data expand the world database on human reactions to noise in different communities and become more comparable with the data from other countries.

  13. Who Justifies Questionable Reporting Practices? Answers from a Representative Survey of Journalists in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baugut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a secondary analysis of representative survey data of journalists in Germany (n= 1536, this paper draws attention to two variables that are important when it comes to explain whether journalists accept questionable reporting practices, such as paying people to obtain information or using confidential government documents without permission. First, perceived role achievement is important, as journalists who do not feel able to achieve an active role tend to accept questionable reporting practices more often. Second, however, this relationship is only true for journalists having a moderate tendency to the political left. Findings are explained by means of the theory of cognitive dissonance.

  14. Developing a Why–How Question Answering system on community web boards with a causality graph including procedural knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pechsiri, C; Piriyakul, R

    2016-01-01

    ... by asking a Why question (Why-Q) type, asking for reasons, and/or a How question (How-Q) type, asking for a problem solving approach. However, the speed of response to questions depends on the question domain, the chat room type of a certain web-board, the web-board domain, etc. Most plant disease questions receive responses within a week through ...

  15. The effect of question wording in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Przemyslaw

    2012-12-01

    To identify factors that contribute to the high variability of the rates of use of placebo interventions reported in questionnaire surveys, the author investigated the effect of the explicit use of the word "placebo" in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice on the results obtained. 190 primary care physicians in Poland were divided randomly into two groups. The groups received a questionnaire in which either the word placebo or the term "nonspecific methods of treatment" was used. The respondents who were asked explicitly about the use of placebo interventions declared that they never used placebo interventions significantly more often than participants asked about the use of nonspecific treatment methods. Moreover, the former reported significantly rarer use of placebo interventions than the latter. The study demonstrates that differences in the wording of questions in questionnaire surveys on placebo use can create statistically significant differences in results.

  16. 76 FR 39966 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA/P/V Youth and Leadership Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA/P/V Youth and Leadership Survey Questions ACTION: Notice... Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: ECA/P/V Youth and Leadership Programs: Pre Program Survey Questions. OMB Control...

  17. A Survey on the Levels of Questioning of ELT: A Case Study in an Indonesian Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashadi, Rido Imam; Lubis, Nazriani

    2017-01-01

    This present study focused on examining the levels of questions in Indonesia tertiary education. A survey research was conducted in one of the private universities in North Sumatra. The English summative assessment in an undergraduate education was used as target of survey. There were a collection of questions that had been administered by four…

  18. Using Reinterview and Reconciliation Methods to Design and Evaluate Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Morton

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting reinterviews is an effective method to estimate and reduce response errors in interview surveys. As part of the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 (SHPPS, RTI used reinterview methods to assist in designing and evaluating survey questions. Reinterviews were conducted in the field test with selected respondents to identify discrepancies between the original interviews and reinterviews. Reconciliation interviews were then conducted to determine the reasons for the discrepancies in terms of comprehension, recall, encoding, response options, or other problems. In this paper, we describe the design of the reinterview and reconciliation study and discuss the implications of using these methods for questionnaire design and evaluation, specifically in comparison to cognitive interviewing.

  19. Retirement Confidence Survey 2000 including results from the RCS Minority Survey and the Small Employer Retirement Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, D L; Helman, R; Ostuw, P; Yakoboski, P

    2000-06-01

    The year 2000 represents the 10th anniversary of the Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), and the third year for the Minority RCS and Small Employer Retirement Survey (SERS). Key RCS findings over the past 10 years include: The fraction of workers saving for retirement has trended upward, and today 80 percent of households report that they have begun to save. The fraction of workers who have attempted to calculate how much they need to save for retirement has risen noticeably over the past several years. Today, 56 percent of households report that they have attempted the calculation. One-half of workers who have attempted such a calculation report that it has changed their behavior, such as saving more and/or changing where they invest their retirement savings. Workers who have done the calculation appear to be in better shape regarding their retirement finances. Worker confidence in the ability of Social Security to maintain benefit levels bottomed out in 1994 and 1995. Workers today are just as confident as they were in 1992, although the majority remain not confident in Social Security. Regarding overall retirement confidence, Hispanic-Americans tend to be the least confident among the surveyed minority groups that they will have enough money to live comfortably throughout their retirement years. Key SERS findings include: While cost and administrative issues do matter to small employers, they are not the primary reasons for low plan sponsorship rates. Employee-related reasons are most often cited as the most important factor for not offering a retirement plan. Business-related reasons, such as profitability, are also a main decision-driver. It is important to note what small employers without plans do not know about plan sponsorship. Small employers that do sponsor a retirement plan report that offering a plan has a positive impact on both their ability to attract and retain quality employees and the attitude and performance of their employees. The survey

  20. Point of data saturation was assessed using resampling methods in a survey with open-ended questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Porcher, Raphael; Falissard, Bruno; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    To describe methods to determine sample sizes in surveys using open-ended questions and to assess how resampling methods can be used to determine data saturation in these surveys. We searched the literature for surveys with open-ended questions and assessed the methods used to determine sample size in 100 studies selected at random. Then, we used Monte Carlo simulations on data from a previous study on the burden of treatment to assess the probability of identifying new themes as a function of the number of patients recruited. In the literature, 85% of researchers used a convenience sample, with a median size of 167 participants (interquartile range [IQR] = 69-406). In our simulation study, the probability of identifying at least one new theme for the next included subject was 32%, 24%, and 12% after the inclusion of 30, 50, and 100 subjects, respectively. The inclusion of 150 participants at random resulted in the identification of 92% themes (IQR = 91-93%) identified in the original study. In our study, data saturation was most certainly reached for samples >150 participants. Our method may be used to determine when to continue the study to find new themes or stop because of futility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethical questions raised by the first allotransplantations of the face: a survey of French surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Philippe; Foo, Roy; Hervé, Christian; Meningaud, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    More than any other allograft, the allotransplantation of the face has a symbolic character, which raises a large number of questions. The objective of this article is to make an analysis through a survey carried out among French surgeons. A file of 909 e-mail addresses of surgeons was created so as to send out a questionnaire regarding 10 ethical issues. Beyond the technical prowess, the surgeons ethical reflection initially focused on the notion of consent to donation and care. They attached equal importance to all ethical questions. They spontaneously raised the issue of over-mediatization of these first transplants and the place of the transplant surgeons and their patients in the medical information. Over two thirds of the surgeons attached importance to ethical issues regarding the donor and recipient of a facial allograft. Some of the principal questions facing facial transplantation is of an ethical nature as it is an unprecedented procedure that is challenged by the axiom to first do no harm and the need of modern medicine to limit risk to as close to zero as possible. For the non-specialist, accepting psychologically the face of another individual appears to be a real issue. Contrary to that, the main demand expressed by the facial transplant recipients appears to be related to facial functions rather than appearance. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Place at the Blackboard: Including Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, and Queer/Questioning Issues in the Education Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Todd A.; Harley, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known from history that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people have always existed in society. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersexed, and queer/questioning (LGBTIQ) individuals, collectively known as sexual minorities, represent approximately 10% of the population. As many as nine students in every classroom of 30 are in…

  3. Homogenizing Responses to Different Survey Questions on the Same Topic: Proposal of a Scale Homogenization Method Using a Reference Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. de Jonge (Tineke); R. Veenhoven (Ruut); L.R. Arends (Lidia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSurvey data are often used for comparison purposes, such as comparisons across nations or comparisons over time. To be effective, this would require equivalent questions and equivalent responses options to the questions. Yet there is a lot of variation in the response scales used, which,

  4. A Survey of State-of-the-Art Methods on Question Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loni, B.

    2011-01-01

    The task of question classification (QC) is to predict the entity type of a question which is written in natural language. This is done by classifying the question to a category from a set of predefined categories. Question classification is an important component of question answering systems and

  5. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina M.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Binns, Colin W.; Phillips, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and typ...

  6. Graduate entry nurses' initial perspectives on nursing: Content analysis of open-ended survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Brooks, Ingrid; Vanderheide, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Graduate entry nursing courses offer individuals with prior degrees the opportunity to gain nursing qualifications and facilitate career change. While it is known that accelerated graduate entry courses are increasingly popular, the perceptions of nursing held by such individuals and the influence this has on those seeking to enter the profession are less clearly understood. To explore graduate entry nursing students' perceptions of nursing on entering their pre-registration course. A descriptive design utilising cross-section survey with two open-ended questions: What do you believe the role of the nurse is? What things have influenced that view? were asked. Demographic data were analysed using descriptive frequencies, while the two open-ended questions were analysed using summative content analysis. One university-based postgraduate graduate entry nursing course in Australia PARTICIPANTS: Eight cohorts (n=286) commencing students with prior degrees other than nursing. The course attracts students from diverse backgrounds. Exposure to nursing and nurses, either as a consumer of health care or other health care role, plays a primary role in influencing career change. However, similar to those found with school leavers, there remains much misinformation about nurses' roles for students in these courses. Most identify the role of caring in nursing. For some, media representations are the only information sources. Graduate entry courses offer opportunities to attract new nurses and contribute to addressing workforce shortages. However, there is still a lack of knowledge of nursing roles among students on entry. More work is required by the profession to ensure nursing is accurately and positively represented to the community. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating Cognitive Effort and Response Quality of Question Formats in Web Surveys Using Paradata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Jan Karem; Schlosser, Stephan; Krebs, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    Measuring attitudes and opinions employing agree/disagree (A/D) questions is a common method in social research because it appears to be possible to measure different constructs with identical response scales. However, theoretical considerations suggest that A/D questions require a considerable cognitive processing. Item-specific (IS) questions,…

  8. Validating the Force Concept Inventory with Sub-Questions: Preliminary Results of the Second Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Yasuda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We address the validity of the FCI, that is, whether respondents who answer FCI questions correctly have an actual understanding of the concepts of physics tested in the questions. We used sub-questions that test students on concepts believed to be required to answer the actual FCI questions. Our sample size comprises about five hundred respondents; we derive false positive ratios for pre-learners and post-learners, and evaluate the significant difference between them. Our analysis shows a significant difference at the 95 % confidence level for Q.6, Q.7, and Q.16, implying that it is possible for post-learners to answer three questions without understanding the concepts of physics tested in the questions; therefore, Q.6, Q.7 and Q.16 are invalid.

  9. What do Americans think about public transit? A review of U.S. public opinion polling survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This seed grant research project compiled a set of 56 US public opinion polls that asked respondents their opinions about public : transit. The first and primary goal of the project was to assemble a large set of transit-related survey question...

  10. Spouses of military members' experiences and insights: qualitative analysis of responses to an open-ended question in a survey of health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Catherine E; Waller, Michael; MacKenzie, Alison; McGuire, Annabel C L

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on the experiences of spouses of military members, with most focused on adverse impacts of deployment. Responses to an open-ended question in a survey of spouses' health and wellbeing enabled access to perceptions and insights on a broad range of topics. The objective of this investigation was to examine how respondents used the open-ended question and what they discussed, in aim of informing support service agencies and spouses of military members. Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to the open-ended question. Descriptive analysis was performed on the demographics, military member characteristics and self-reported health of respondents and non-respondents to the open-ended question. Over a quarter (28.5%) of the 1,332 survey participants answered the open-ended question, with respondents having a significantly higher level of education than non-respondents. Respondents expressed negative and positive experiences and insights on military life, provided personal information, commented on the survey, and qualified their responses to closed-ended questions. Topics included 'inadequate support', 'deployment impacts', 'suggestions for supporting agencies', 'appraisal of experiences' and 'coping strategies'. This investigation uncovered issues of importance to spouses of military members that were not included or identified in a quantitative study. The findings provide a platform from which to explore these issues further, particularly the impact of military life on the non-serving spouse's career. The findings also provide support agencies with evidence to strengthen their services and they give spouses an opportunity to reflect on their own and others' feelings and evaluations of military life.

  11. Spouses of Military Members' Experiences and Insights: Qualitative Analysis of Responses to an Open-Ended Question in a Survey of Health and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Catherine E.; Waller, Michael; MacKenzie, Alison; McGuire, Annabel C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are few studies on the experiences of spouses of military members, with most focused on adverse impacts of deployment. Responses to an open-ended question in a survey of spouses' health and wellbeing enabled access to perceptions and insights on a broad range of topics. The objective of this investigation was to examine how respondents used the open-ended question and what they discussed, in aim of informing support service agencies and spouses of military members. Methods Thematic analysis was conducted on responses to the open-ended question. Descriptive analysis was performed on the demographics, military member characteristics and self-reported health of respondents and non-respondents to the open-ended question. Findings Over a quarter (28.5%) of the 1,332 survey participants answered the open-ended question, with respondents having a significantly higher level of education than non–respondents. Respondents expressed negative and positive experiences and insights on military life, provided personal information, commented on the survey, and qualified their responses to closed-ended questions. Topics included ‘inadequate support’, ‘deployment impacts’, ‘suggestions for supporting agencies’, ‘appraisal of experiences’ and ‘coping strategies’. Conclusions This investigation uncovered issues of importance to spouses of military members that were not included or identified in a quantitative study. The findings provide a platform from which to explore these issues further, particularly the impact of military life on the non-serving spouse's career. The findings also provide support agencies with evidence to strengthen their services and they give spouses an opportunity to reflect on their own and others' feelings and evaluations of military life. PMID:25479135

  12. How Valid Are the Responses to Nursing Home Survey Questions? Some Issues and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Denise A.; Shield, Renee R.; Rosenthal, Marsha; Miller, Susan C.; Wetle, Terrie; Clark, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Although surveys are usually piloted before fielding, cognitive-based testing of surveys is not standard practice in nursing home (NH) research. Many terms used in the literature do not have standard definitions and may be interpreted differently by researchers, respondents, and policy makers. The purpose of this study was to ensure that…

  13. [Adolescents ask physicians on the Internet: a one-year survey of adolescents' questions on health issues in an Internet forum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoff, Daniel; Friedman, Rina; Pilo, Nurit; Friedman, Fernando; Greilsammer, Daniel; Rigler, Shmuel

    2012-06-01

    During the past decade, the internet has become a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among young people and adolescents who seek health information via the internet. Until now, the contents of Israeli adolescents' questions regarding health issues on internet sites have not been published. (1) A survey of the characteristics of adolescents who seek health information and their questions presented to the Ynet forum "The body during adolescence". In this forum physicians experienced in adolescent medicine respond to these questions and to comments of other forum participants. (2) Presentation of problematic issues in professionals' responses to health questions in the internet. Survey of a representative sample of contacts to the Ynet forum "The body during adolescence" during 2009 gathering information on gender and age of contacting person, parents' contacts, contacts' contents and physicians responses. A total of 412 contacts were surveyed, 210 (51%) females, aged 14-17 years--60%, 10-13 years--17% and 18-21 years 15%. Parents' questions appeared in 39 (9%) of contacts. Of all contacts, 44% related to sexuality issues and 17% related to self image and body composition. The physicians provided complete responses to 60% of the contacts, while in 40% the physician's responses included referral to clinical medical consultation. An internet health forum enables adolescents and parents to ask questions and raise doubts and anxieties regarding various health issues without the fear of being exposed and enables them to express their concerns face-to-face with a healthcare provider Sensitive issues regarding sexuality and self-image, which are not raised frequently during clinical encounters, are expressed and receive professional responses in the forum. Notwithstanding the significance of a rapid professional contribution, physicians responding to contacts in internet forums need to recognize the barrier related to professional

  14. Senior nurse role expectations of graduate registered and enrolled nurses in Australia: Content analysis of open-ended survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, E; McKenna, L; D'Amore, A Angelo

    2014-10-27

    Abstract Changes to educational preparation and scope of practice for enrolled nurses in Australia have impacted on role expectations. This paper reports results of a survey of senior nurses in Victoria, Australia, regarding opinions of the differences in role expectation and scope of practice for graduate registered and enrolled nurses. Content analysis of open-ended survey questions was used to identify themes in the written data. Results identified education, skill level and responsibility as differences between the levels of graduate nurses despite many respondents perceiving there to be no or little difference in graduate roles.

  15. Cross-Sectional and Panel Data Analyses of an Incompletely Observed Variable Derived from the Nonrandomized Method for Surveying Sensitive Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    This article describes (1) the survey methodological and statistical characteristics of the nonrandomized method for surveying sensitive questions for both cross-sectional and panel survey data and (2) the way to use the incompletely observed variable obtained from this survey method in logistic regression and in loglinear and log-multiplicative…

  16. The difference between a question and a statement: A cross-dialect survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, Greg; Grabe, Esther; Coleman, John

    2004-05-01

    Seven British English dialects were studied to see what prosodic distinctions are made between statements and questions in read speech. A set of Bayesian classifiers was built upon feature vectors obtained from a spectral analysis of measures of (1) f0, (2) loudness, (3) spectral slope and (4) voicing periodicity. It was found that the prosodic information useful for the question/statement distinction is distributed broadly across the utterance, and that loudness and spectral slope can be nearly as informative as f0 (voicing is less informative). The three important acoustic features carry somewhat less than one bit of information each, so prosodic information could be valuable to the listener, and the listener may be able to make the question/statement decision early in the utterance. The contrast differs from one acoustic property to the next: f0 is marked primarily by slow variations. Conversely, the spectral slope and loudness measurements primarily use shorter-wavelength features, corresponding to structures that are a syllable or two long. We also find substantial differences in the prosodic information that different dialects use, and substantial differences between speakers of the same dialect. [Research supported by the UK Economic and Social Research Council, Grant RES 00-23-1049.

  17. "The Questions Shape the Answers": Assessing the Quality of Published Survey Instruments in Health Professions Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Phillips, Andrew W; Utrankar, Amol; Ta, Andrew Q; Durning, Steven J

    2017-10-31

    Surveys are widely used in health professions education (HPE) research, yet little is known about the quality of the instruments employed. Poorly designed survey tools containing unclear or poorly formatted items can be difficult for respondents to interpret and answer, yielding low-quality data. This study assessed the quality of published survey instruments in HPE. In 2017, the authors performed an analysis of HPE research articles published in three high-impact journals in 2013. They included articles that employed at least one self-administered survey. They designed a coding rubric addressing five violations of established best practices for survey item design and used it to collect descriptive data on the validity and reliability evidence reported and to assess the quality of available survey items. Thirty-six articles met inclusion criteria and included the instrument for coding, with one article using 2 surveys, yielding 37 unique surveys. Authors reported validity and reliability evidence for 13 (35.1%) and 8 (21.6%) surveys, respectively. Results of the item-quality assessment revealed that a substantial proportion of published survey instruments violated established best practices in the design and visual layout of Likert-type rating items. Overall, 35 (94.6%) of the 37 survey instruments analyzed contained at least one violation of best practices. The majority of articles failed to report validity and reliability evidence, and a substantial proportion of the survey instruments violated established best practices in survey design. The authors suggest areas of future inquiry and provide several improvement recommendations for HPE researchers, reviewers, and journal editors.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not

  18. Surveys on attitudes towards legalisation of euthanasia: importance of question phrasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelin, J; Nilstun, T; Hau, J; Carlsson, H

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Results were compared from two different surveys in populations with similar characteristics. The alternatives "positive", "negative", and "don't know" (first questionnaire) were replaced with an explanatory text, "no legal sanction", four types of legal sanctions, and no possibility to answer "don't know" (second questionnaire). Four undergraduate student groups (engineering, law, medicine, and nursing) answered. Results: In the first questionnaire (n = 684) 43% accepted euthanasia (range 28–50%), 14% (8–33%) did not, and 43% (39–59%) answered "don't know". Two per cent of the respondents declined to answer. In comparison with previous surveys on attitudes to euthanasia the proportion of "don't know" was large. The results of the second questionnaire (n = 639), showed that 38% favoured "no legal prosecution" (26–50%). However, 62% (50–74%) opted for different kinds of legal sanctions, and two of four groups expressed significantly different views in the two surveys. A proportion of 10% declined to answer the second questionnaire. Conclusion: An introduction of an explanatory text and a wider range of response alternatives produced differences between the results of the two surveys conducted. PMID:15574435

  19. A survey of intestinal parasites including associated risk factors in humans in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Nidia R; Ríos, Nivia; Mena, Alberto; Fernández, Rigoberto; Perea, Milixa; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Santa-Quiteria, José A Ruiz; Hernández-Gonzalez, Ana; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide, leading to illness with serious and long lasting implications in children and immunocompromised people. Transmission of intestinal parasites is more frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where sanitation is poor and socioeconomic conditions are deficient. Panama is a country where climate and social conditions could be reflected in a high number of people infected with intestinal parasites. The presence, prevalence, and distribution of intestinal parasites in this country have been approached to date only in very restricted areas and population groups, but the impact of intestinal parasite infections at the national level is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between 2008 and 2010 to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites across Panama. Overall, 14 municipalities in seven provinces of Panama were surveyed. The presence of eggs, cysts, and larvae was assessed by microscopy in 1123 human fecal samples using a concentration technique. A questionnaire to identify risk factors associated with the frequency of intestinal parasites in the study population was also prepared and performed. Overall, 47.4% of human samples presented parasites. Variables including community type, age group, occupation, co-presence of commensals and socioeconomic factors (use of shoes and type of sanitation) were significantly associated with intestinal parasites (pPanama, place intestinal parasitism as a major health problem in this country. Specific interventions should be planned for the indigenous population, the group most afflicted by intestinal parasites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Asking the Right Question'. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Gathering Data on 'Herbals' Use in Survey Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McLay

    Full Text Available Over the last decade academic interest in the prevalence and nature of herbal medicines use by pregnant women has increased significantly. Such data are usually collected by means of an administered questionnaire survey, however a key methodological limitation using this approach is the need to clearly define the scope of 'herbals' to be investigated. The majority of published studies in this area neither define 'herbals' nor provide a detailed checklist naming specific 'herbals' and CAM modalities, which limits inter-study comparison, generalisability and the potential for meta-analyses. The aim of this study was to compare the self-reported use of herbs, herbal medicines and herbal products using two different approaches implemented in succession.Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys of women attending for their mid-trimester scan or attending the postnatal unit following live birth at the Royal Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, North-East Scotland. The questionnaire utilised two approaches to collect data on 'herbals' use, a single closed yes/no answer to the question "have you used herbs, herbal medicines and herbal products in the last three months"; and a request to tick which of a list of 40 'herbals' they had used in the same time period.A total of 889 responses were obtained of which 4.3% (38 answered 'yes' to herbal use via the closed question. However, using the checklist 39% (350 of respondents reported the use of one or more specific 'herbals' (p<0.0001. The 312 respondents who reported 'no' to 'herbals' use via the closed question but "yes" via the checklist consumed a total of 20 different 'herbals' (median 1, interquartile range 1-2, range 1-6.This study demonstrates that the use of a single closed question asking about the use of 'herbals', as frequently reported in published studies, may not yield valid data resulting in a gross underestimation of actual use.

  1. New Survey Questions and Estimators for Network Clustering with Respondent-Driven Sampling Data

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    Verdery, Ashton M; Siripong, Nalyn; Abdesselam, Kahina; Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a popular method for sampling hard-to-survey populations that leverages social network connections through peer recruitment. While RDS is most frequently applied to estimate the prevalence of infections and risk behaviors of interest to public health, like HIV/AIDS or condom use, it is rarely used to draw inferences about the structural properties of social networks among such populations because it does not typically collect the necessary data. Drawing on recent advances in computer science, we introduce a set of data collection instruments and RDS estimators for network clustering, an important topological property that has been linked to a network's potential for diffusion of information, disease, and health behaviors. We use simulations to explore how these estimators, originally developed for random walk samples of computer networks, perform when applied to RDS samples with characteristics encountered in realistic field settings that depart from random walks. In partic...

  2. Framing of research question using the PICOT format in randomised controlled trials of venous ulcer disease: a protocol for a systematic survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbade, Luciana P F; Wang, Mei; Sriganesh, Kamath; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-11-11

    Although venous ulcers have a great social and economic impact, there is a lack of evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to support appropriate management for this disease. Framing the research question using the Population; Intervention; Comparator; Outcome; Time frame (PICOT) format in RCTs can improve the quality of the research design. To evaluate how the PICOT format is used to frame a research question in reports of RCTs of venous ulcer disease and to determine the factors associated with better adherence to the PICOT format in framing the research question. We will conduct a systematic survey of RCTs on venous ulcers published in the National Institute of Health, PubMed database between January 2009 and May 2016. We will include all RCTs addressing therapeutic intervention for venous ulcer disease involving human subjects, and published in the English language. The selection process will be carried out in duplicate by two independent investigators. First, titles and abstracts will be screened, then full-text articles. We will examine whether the five elements of the PICOT format are used in formulating the research question and give a score between 0 and 5. The primary outcome will be the proportion of studies that have adequately reported all five PICOT elements. This will be the first survey to assess how the PICOT format is used to frame research questions on the management of venous ulcers in reports of RCTs. On completion, this review will be submitted to a peer-reviewed biomedical journal for publication and the findings will also be presented at scientific conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. [Dentists' Knowledge of Ethical Questions Regarding Dental Medicine - A Survey of Dentists from Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia (Germany)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochow, M; Christel, A; Lautenschläger, C; Steger, F

    2016-12-01

    Background: Subjects regarding ethical questions in dental medicine are only slightly touched in the study of dental medicine or in the working regulations of the dentists' association. However, dentists are confronted with these matters in everyday working life. The empirical study at hand collects current data regarding the ethical knowledge about dental medicine in the practical experience of dentists in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia. Methods: The tool used in the survey was a structured questionnaire. Out of 600 randomly chosen and contacted dentists from Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia, 290 replied (response rate: 48.3%). The anonymised assessment took place between June and November 2013. Results: Dentists frequently encounter ethical questions regarding dental matters. The dentists interviewed in the study are in favour of a participative relationship between patient and dentist. Simultaneously, the patient's health is predominantly seen as the good of higher value than his or her self-determination. The dentists show competent knowledge of ethical dental subjects, although increased uncertainties could be observed in more complex situations, e. g. considering contact with patients who are HIV-positive. Conclusions: Questions dealing with dental ethical questions do play a major role in the daily professional life of dentists. In order to further support and strengthen dentists in their individual dental ethical competence, we see a need for advanced training and further education regarding questions and problems in the area of ethics in dental medicine. Also, these topics should become a component in the curriculum of the study of dental medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Homogenizing Responses to Different Survey Questions on the Same Topic: Proposal of a Scale Homogenization Method Using a Reference Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Tineke; Veenhoven, Ruut; Arends, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Survey data are often used for comparison purposes, such as comparisons across nations or comparisons over time. To be effective, this would require equivalent questions and equivalent responses options to the questions. Yet there is a lot of variation in the response scales used, which, for example, differ in the number of response options used and the labeling of these options. This is the case in happiness research, and as a result most of the research data in this field is incomparable. Several methods have been proposed to transform ratings on verbal response scales to a common numerical scale, typically ranging from 0 to 10. In this paper we give an overview of the progress made in those Scale Homogenization methods over time. We describe two early methods: Linear Stretch and the Semantic Judgement of Fixed Word Value Method. Next we discuss the Semantic Judgement of Word Value in Context Method in more detail. Based on these discussions we propose a new Reference Distribution Method. We apply the Semantic Judgement of Word Value in Context and the Reference Distribution Methods to data on happiness in The Netherlands for the years 1989-2009. We show that the Reference Distribution Method produces comparable time series on different questions and that it allows discontinuities in data to be corrected.

  5. Workplace aggression, including bullying in nursing and midwifery: a descriptive survey (the SWAB study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran

    2012-11-01

    Workplace aggression remains an important source of distress among nurses and midwives and has negative effects on staff health, patient care and organisations' reputation and fiscal health. To report on the nature and extent of workplace aggression, including bullying experienced by nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia. A descriptive study design was chosen. The Nurses Board of Victoria posted 5000 surveys to the randomly selected registered nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The participants were asked about their experiences of violence (from clients) and bullying (from colleagues) within their most recent four working weeks. In addition, the study investigated staff actions following incidents, staff training and safety at work, and what staff believe contribute to incidents. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages. Chi square tests and P value were used to assess differences in categorical data. 1495 returned questionnaires were included in the study (30% response rate). Over half of the participants (52%) experienced some form of workplace aggression. Thirty-six percent experienced violence mostly from patients or their visitors/relatives and 32% experienced bullying mostly from colleagues or from their managers/supervisors. Significant differences were found between those who experienced aggression from patients and those who were bullied in respect to handling of incidents; factors thought to contribute to incidents; and organisations' handling of incidents. The study suggests that staff are less worried by patient initiated aggression compared to bullying from colleagues. For all types of aggression, respondents clearly wanted better/more realistic training, as well as enforcement of policies and support when incidents arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

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    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  7. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  8. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  9. Necessity of including medico-legal autopsy data in epidemiological surveys of individuals with major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher, A; Wingren, C J; Ottosson, A; Andersson, L; Wangefjord, S; Acosta, S

    2015-08-01

    It is rare that epidemiological surveys of patients with major trauma include both those admitted to the emergency department and those sent for medico-legal autopsy. The main aim of the present population-based study of major trauma was to examine the importance of medico-legal autopsy data. A new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was used as criteria for major trauma and to identify patients at the emergency, anaesthesiology and forensic departments and/or being within the jurisdiction of the Malmö police authority and subjected to a medico-legal autopsy between 2011 and 2013. According to Swedish legislation all trauma related deaths should be reported to the police who refer these cases for medico-legal autopsy. Among the 174 individuals included, 92 (53%) died and 81 (47%) underwent medico-legal autopsy. One hundred twenty-six patients were primarily admitted to hospital and 48 died before admission to hospital and were sent directly for medico-legal autopsy. Forty-four in-hospital deaths occurred, of whom 33 (75%) were sent to medico-legal autopsy. In those sent directly to the department of forensic medicine the proportion of accidents was lower (pforensic toxicology screening in the 81 fatalities were ethanol (20%), sedatives (16%), anti-depressives (15%) and illicit narcotics (9%). Forty-four cases (54%) were positive for at least one drug, and twenty-eight cases (35%) were positive for two or more drugs. Factors associated with a lower rate of medico-legal autopsies among trauma-related deaths at hospital were high age (pforensic data shows that more than half of the individuals sustaining major trauma died. An additional 25% of the in-hospital fatalities should have undergone medico-legal autopsy according to legislation, but did not. The high proportion of positive toxicological findings among fatalities examined at medico-legal autopsy implies that toxicology screening should be routine in major trauma patients, in order to improve

  10. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  11. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina M; Kerr, Deborah A; Binns, Colin W; Phillips, Michael

    2015-08-04

    For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI) and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI). Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for "at risk" groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations.

  12. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Daly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI. Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for “at risk” groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations.

  13. The framing of research questions using the PICOT format in randomized controlled trials of venous ulcer disease is suboptimal: A systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbade, Luciana P F; Wang, Mei; Sriganesh, Kamath; Jin, Yanling; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana

    2017-09-01

    Despite several publications on venous ulcers, there is still a lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support certain treatments for patients with this disorder. Well-designed research questions using the PICOT (Population; Intervention; Comparator; Outcome; Time-frame) format in RCTs can improve the quality of research. The objectives of this study were to assess how the PICOT format is used to frame research questions in RCTs published on venous ulcer disease and to determine the factors associated with better adherence to the PICOT format. We conducted a systematic survey of RCTs on venous ulcers published in the PubMed database between January 2009 and May 2016. All RCTs published in English addressing therapeutic interventions for venous ulcer disease in human subjects were included. We examined whether the five elements of the PICOT format were used in formulating the research question and scored them between 0 and 5. The primary outcome of this systematic survey was the percentage of studies that adequately reported all five PICOT elements. Eighty-five (85) RCTs were included with median PICOT score of 3 (IQR = 1.5). Four elements of PICOT were present in 28 reports (32.9%) and only 2 RCTS (2.3%) reported all the PICOT elements. Population and intervention were often appropriately described, in (70/85) 82.4% and (83/85) 97.6% of the studies, respectively; however, comparison intervention and outcome were presented in only (53/85) 62.3% and (48/85) 56.5% of studies, respectively. Very few RCTs (7.1%; 6/85) reported the study time frame. No journal or RCT characteristics were found to be significantly associated with better reporting. Use of the PICOT format to frame research questions in RCTs published on venous ulcers is suboptimal, and our study reinforces the importance of framing a good research question to improve the design of trials and quality of evidence in venous ulcer disease. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  15. PENERAPAN METODE SURVEY, QUESTION, READ, RECITE, REVIEW (SQ3R UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN MAHASISWA PADA KONSEP MANAJEMEN SUMBERDAYA MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnanik Harnanik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Students need to understand the concepts of Human Resources Management (HRM because it is very useful in the job world. Unfotunately, the fact showed that students were less enhusiastic in teaching and learning process of the subject. The promblem of this research was: 1 did the SQ3R method improve students’ understanding to the concept of HRM? Thus; the objective of the research was: 1 to improve the quality of HRM learning, to improve students’ enthusiasm in learning the subject, to upgrade the lecturer’s skill in developing the learning model media also to improve students’ achievement. It was a class action researchconsisted of three cycles. The result of research showed that the students’ achievement were better on each cycle. The complete learning before applying the SQ3R methode was only 0%. It increased up to 8% after applying the SQ3R methode. Furthermore, the students’ enthusiasm, livelinnes and cooperation (the ranges are among 1-4 were at good category (3.2. Similarly, the result averages of the lecturer’s skill in teaching HRM were 3.2 from the 1st cycle, 2nd cycle, and 3rd cycle by applying the SQ3R method. Based on the results above, it is suggested: 1 for the lecturers of HRM to implement the SQ3R method in teaching the subject since the method can improve students’ ability and understanding. The method gives opportunity for students to do survey, compile questions, read literature, review the concept, and discuss to other students. 2 for other researchers to continue this research on other subjects or other students.

  16. Survey context and question wording affects self reported annoyance due to road traffic noise: a comparison between two cross-sectional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Surveys are a common way to measure annoyance due to road traffic noise, but the method has some draw-backs. Survey context, question wording and answer alternatives could affect participation and answers and could have implications when comparing studies and/or performing pooled analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in annoyance reporting due to road traffic noise in two types of surveys of which one was introduced broadly and the other with the clearly stated aim of investigating noise and health. Methods Data was collected from two surveys carried out in the municipality of Malmö, southern Sweden in 2007 and 2008 (n = 2612 and n = 3810). The first survey stated an aim of investigating residential environmental exposure, especially noise and health. The second survey was a broad public health survey stating a broader aim. The two surveys had comparable questions regarding noise annoyance, although one used a 5-point scale and the other a 4-point scale. We used geographic information systems (GIS) to assess the average road and railway noise (LAeq,24h) at the participants' residential address. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for annoyance in relation to noise exposure. Results Annoyance at least once a week due to road traffic noise was significantly more prevalent in the survey investigating environment and health compared to the public health survey at levels > 45 dB(A), but not at lower exposure levels. However no differences in annoyance were found when comparing the extreme alternatives "never" and "every day". In the study investigating environment and health, "Noise sensitive" persons were more likely to readily respond to the survey and were more annoyed by road traffic noise compared to the other participants in that survey. Conclusions The differences in annoyance reporting between the two surveys were mainly due to different scales, suggesting that extreme alternatives are to prefer before

  17. Survey context and question wording affects self reported annoyance due to road traffic noise: a comparison between two cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodin Theo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys are a common way to measure annoyance due to road traffic noise, but the method has some draw-backs. Survey context, question wording and answer alternatives could affect participation and answers and could have implications when comparing studies and/or performing pooled analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in annoyance reporting due to road traffic noise in two types of surveys of which one was introduced broadly and the other with the clearly stated aim of investigating noise and health. Methods Data was collected from two surveys carried out in the municipality of Malmö, southern Sweden in 2007 and 2008 (n = 2612 and n = 3810. The first survey stated an aim of investigating residential environmental exposure, especially noise and health. The second survey was a broad public health survey stating a broader aim. The two surveys had comparable questions regarding noise annoyance, although one used a 5-point scale and the other a 4-point scale. We used geographic information systems (GIS to assess the average road and railway noise (LAeq,24h at the participants' residential address. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for annoyance in relation to noise exposure. Results Annoyance at least once a week due to road traffic noise was significantly more prevalent in the survey investigating environment and health compared to the public health survey at levels > 45 dB(A, but not at lower exposure levels. However no differences in annoyance were found when comparing the extreme alternatives "never" and "every day". In the study investigating environment and health, "Noise sensitive" persons were more likely to readily respond to the survey and were more annoyed by road traffic noise compared to the other participants in that survey. Conclusions The differences in annoyance reporting between the two surveys were mainly due to different scales, suggesting that extreme

  18. The diverse values and motivations of family forest owners in the United States: An analysis of an open-ended question in the National Woodland Owner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Stanley T. Asah; Brett J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    The number of family forest owners in the USA has increased continuously in recent decades, and the fate of much of US forests lies in the hands of this diverse and dynamic group of people. The National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is a recurring and comprehensive national survey of US private forest owners, including family forest owners. The NWOS includes an open-...

  19. An Assessment of FY2016 Locally Developed Questions from the DEOMI Organizational Climate Survey: Recommendations and Potential Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-11

    treated with respect. My supervisor encourages respect in the workplace. Discrimination with regard to race, color, gender , age, physical or mental...for Individuals 13 6.3% Sexual Harassment/ Discrimination 4 2.3% Skill Utilization/Appropriate Level of Assigned Duties 7 1.5% Special Observances... discrimination ’ (two LDQs) and ‘hazing’. And, the Army was the only Service to ask an LDQ for the factor ‘fairness’. Among the top 15 questions overall

  20. Burning Questions about Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  1. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  2. Cross-sectional survey of workers exposed to aliphatic diisocyanates using detailed respiratory medical history and questions regarding accidental skin and respiratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, James A; Molenaar, Donald M; Cassidy, Laura D; Feeley, Timothy M; Cummings, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    To identify possible cases of occupational asthma and assess accidental skin and inhalation exposures to aliphatic diisocyanates. Seventy-three employees from two plants, manufacturing or producing aliphatic diisocyanates, were surveyed using a detailed respiratory history questionnaire with additional questions on accidental skin and inhalation exposures. Further reviews of medical records and interviews were used to determine whether any of 15 employees with questionable responses had developed occupational asthma. No cases of occupational asthma were identified. Nevertheless, many employees reported occasional accidental unprotected skin exposures and/or detecting the odor of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate or isophorone diisocyanate. Consistent with a previous study, no cases of occupational asthma were identified from exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, methylene bis(4-cyclohexyl isocyanate), or their polyisocyanates even though many employees reported detection of odors (93%) or skin exposures (53%).

  3. The "Something Else" of Sexual Orientation: Measuring Sexual Identities of Older Lesbian and Bisexual Women Using National Health Interview Survey Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J; Radix, Asa; McElroy, Jane A; Garbers, Samantha; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Terminology related to sexuality and gender is constantly evolving, and multiple factors are at play when individuals answer questions on surveys. We examined patterns of responding to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) sexual identity questions in a multisite health intervention study for lesbian and bisexual women aged 40 to 84 years. Of 376 participants, 80% (n = 301) chose "lesbian or gay," 13% (n = 49) selected "bisexual," 7% (n = 25) indicated "something else," and 1 participant chose "don't know the answer." In response to the follow-up question for women who said "something else" or "don't know," most (n = 17) indicated that they were "not straight, but identify with another label." One participant chose "transgender, transsexual, or gender variant," five chose "You do not use labels to identify yourself," and three chose "you mean something else." Lesbian, bisexual, and "something else" groups were compared across demographic and health-related measures. Women who reported their sexual identity as "something else" were younger, more likely to have a disability, more likely to be in a relationship with a male partner, and had lower mental health quality of life than women who reported their sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Respondents who answer "something else" pose challenges to analysis and interpretation of data, but should not be discarded from samples. Instead, they may represent a subset of the community that views sexuality and gender as fluid and dynamic concepts, not to be defined by a single label. Further study of the various subsets of "something else" is warranted, along with reconsideration of the NHIS question options. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  4. Including information about comorbidity in estimates of disease burden: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Chatterji, Somnath; Heeringa, Steven; Schoenbaum, Michael; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Rojas-Farreras, Sonia; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kovess, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Liu, Zhaorui; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose; Uda, Hidenori; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The methodology commonly used to estimate disease burden, featuring ratings of severity of individual conditions, has been criticized for ignoring comorbidity. A methodology that addresses this problem is proposed and illustrated here with data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Although the analysis is based on self-reports about one’s own conditions in a community survey, the logic applies equally well to analysis of hypothetical vignettes describing comorbid condition profiles. Methods Face-to-face interviews in 13 countries (six developing, nine developed; n = 31,067; response rate = 69.6%) assessed 10 classes of chronic physical and 9 of mental conditions. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess overall perceived health. Multiple regression analysis with interactions for comorbidity was used to estimate associations of conditions with VAS. Simulation was used to estimate condition-specific effects. Results The best-fitting model included condition main effects and interactions of types by numbers of conditions. Neurological conditions, insomnia, and major depression were rated most severe. Adjustment for comorbidity reduced condition-specific estimates with substantial between-condition variation (.24–.70 ratios of condition-specific estimates with and without adjustment for comorbidity). The societal-level burden rankings were quite different from the individual-level rankings, with the highest societal-level rankings associated with conditions having high prevalence rather than high individual-level severity. Conclusions Plausible estimates of disorder-specific effects on VAS can be obtained using methods that adjust for comorbidity. These adjustments substantially influence condition-specific ratings. PMID:20553636

  5. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effect on response of including a lottery incentive in health surveys [ISRCTN32203485

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, LM; Wilson, S; Roalfe, A; Bridge, P

    2004-01-01

    Background Postal questionnaires are an economical and simple method of data collection for research purposes but are subject to non-response bias. Several studies have explored the effect of monetary and non-monetary incentives on response. Recent meta-analyses conclude that financial incentives are an effective way of increasing response rates. However, large surveys rarely have the resources to reward individual participants. Three previous papers report on the effectiveness of lottery incentives with contradictory results. This study aimed to determine the effect of including a lottery-style incentive on response rates to a postal health survey. Methods Randomised controlled trial. Setting: North and West Birmingham. 8,645 patients aged 18 or over randomly selected from registers of eight general practices (family physician practices). Intervention: Inclusion of a flyer and letter with a health questionnaire informing patients that returned questionnaires would be entered into a lottery-style draw for £100 of gift vouchers. Control: Health questionnaire accompanied only by standard letter of explanation. Main outcome measures: Response rate and completion rate to questionnaire. Results 5,209 individuals responded with identical rates in both groups (62.1%). Practice, patient age, sex and Townsend score (a postcode based deprivation measure) were identified as predictive of response, with higher response related to older age, being female and living in an area with a lower Townsend score (less deprived). Conclusion This RCT, using a large community based sample, found that the offer of entry into a lottery style draw for £100 of High Street vouchers has no effect on response rates to a postal health questionnaire. PMID:15533256

  6. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effect on response of including a lottery incentive in health surveys [ISRCTN32203485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridge P

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postal questionnaires are an economical and simple method of data collection for research purposes but are subject to non-response bias. Several studies have explored the effect of monetary and non-monetary incentives on response. Recent meta-analyses conclude that financial incentives are an effective way of increasing response rates. However, large surveys rarely have the resources to reward individual participants. Three previous papers report on the effectiveness of lottery incentives with contradictory results. This study aimed to determine the effect of including a lottery-style incentive on response rates to a postal health survey. Methods Randomised controlled trial. Setting: North and West Birmingham. 8,645 patients aged 18 or over randomly selected from registers of eight general practices (family physician practices. Intervention: Inclusion of a flyer and letter with a health questionnaire informing patients that returned questionnaires would be entered into a lottery-style draw for £100 of gift vouchers. Control: Health questionnaire accompanied only by standard letter of explanation. Main outcome measures: Response rate and completion rate to questionnaire. Results 5,209 individuals responded with identical rates in both groups (62.1%. Practice, patient age, sex and Townsend score (a postcode based deprivation measure were identified as predictive of response, with higher response related to older age, being female and living in an area with a lower Townsend score (less deprived. Conclusion This RCT, using a large community based sample, found that the offer of entry into a lottery style draw for £100 of High Street vouchers has no effect on response rates to a postal health questionnaire.

  7. Critiquing Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  8. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  9. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  10. Use of therapies other than disease-modifying agents, including complementary and alternative medicine, by patients with multiple sclerosis: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon S; Nieves, Christine; Tabby, David Stuart; Schwartzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with multiple sclerosis use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement their traditional treatment. To identify both the prevalence and frequency of use of therapies other than disease-modifying agents (DMAs), including CAM, among patients with multiple sclerosis. The authors administered a 13-question survey regarding patients' current use of non-DMA therapies-including dietary supplements, exercise, and "true" CAM (eg, acupuncture, chiropractic, massage)-and mainstream treatments, including physical therapy and osteopathic manipulative treatment. Patients rated their level of disability on a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being most severe). A hospital outpatient clinic in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Inclusion criteria were physician-confirmed multiple sclerosis (either relapsing-remitting or progressive), regardless of sex, duration of disease, age at onset, disability level, or type of disease. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years. Patient-reported use of non-DMA therapies and perception of disability. A total of 111 patients with multiple sclerosis completed the survey properly. All respondents used non-DMA therapies. Twenty-three patients (20.7%) used these therapies without concomitantly taking a DMA. A plurality (34.8%) of those patients reported a disability score of 7 or 8. Sixty-two of the 88 participants (70.5 %) who used DMAs reported disability scores of 5 or less. Sixty-five patients (58.6.%) reported exercising on a weekly basis. Among those patients, 47 (72.3%) reported a disability score of 5 or less. Sixty-four patients (57.7%) used such CAM therapies as acupuncture and massage, or such other non-DMA treatments as osteopathic manipulative treatment and psychotherapy. Among those patients, 37 (64.9%) reported a disability score of 5 or less. Many patients with multiple sclerosis are seeking more than traditional medical treatment. Physicians and other health care professionals must be aware of the

  11. Question Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  12. Essential Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  13. Ask Questions to Encourage Questions Asked

    Science.gov (United States)

    belcastro, sarah-marie

    2017-01-01

    We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate questions and to initiate exploration of those questions. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…

  14. Inappropriate Suppression of Thyrotropin Concentrations in Young Patients with Thyroid Nodules Including Thyroid Cancer: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohkouchi, Chiyo; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Ito, Yuko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Matsuzuka, Takashi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    Serum thyroid hormone concentration is regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between thyroid hormone regulation and ultrasonographic findings in subjects with thyroid nodules detected during thyroid ultrasound examination for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. As of October 31, 2014, a total of 296,253 subjects, who had been living in Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and were aged ≤18 years on March 11, 2011, participated in two concurrent screening programs. In the primary screening, thyroid nodules were detected in 2241 subjects. A secondary confirmatory thyroid ultrasound examination and blood sampling for thyroid function tests were performed on 2004 subjects. The subjects were reassessed and classified into disease-free subjects (Group 1), subjects with cysts only (Group 2), subjects with nodules (Group 3), and subjects with malignancy or suspected malignancy (Group 4). Serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, and the fT3/fT4 ratio were classified according to the diagnoses. Inverse relationships between age and log TSH values (Spearman's correlation r = -0.311, p = 0.015), serum fT3 concentration (r = -0.688, p < 0.001), and the fT3/fT4 ratio (r = -0.520, p < 0.001) were observed in Group 1. When analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons was used in the four groups, the log TSH values were significantly lower in both Group 3 and Group 4 compared with Group 1 and Group 2 after correcting for age (p < 0.001; Group 1 vs. Group 3, p = 0.016; Group 1 vs. Group 4, p = 0.022; Group 2 vs. Group 3, p = 0.001; Group 2 vs. Group 4, p = 0.008). However, no significant differences were observed between the four groups regarding levels of fT3, fT4, fT3/fT4 ratio, and thyroglobulin (p = 0.304, 0.340, 0.208, and 0

  15. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  16. Sourcebook of locations of geophysical surveys in tunnels and horizontal holes, including results of seismic refraction surveys, Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Area 16, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic refraction surveys have been obtained sporadically in tunnels in zeolitized tuff at the Nevada Test Site since the late 1950's. Commencing in 1967 and continuing to date (1982), .extensive measurements of shear- and compressional-wave velocities have been made in five tunnel complexes in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas and in one tunnel complex in Shoshone Mountain. The results of these surveys to 1980 are compiled in this report. In addition, extensive horizontal drilling was initiated in 1967 in connection with geologic exploration in these tunnel complexes for sites for nuclear weapons tests. Seismic and electrical surveys were conducted in the majority of these holes. The type and location of these tunnel and borehole surveys are indexed in this report. Synthesis of the seismic refraction data indicates a mean compressional-wave velocity near the nuclear device point (WP) of 23 tunnel events of 2,430 m/s (7,970 f/s) with a range of 1,846-2,753 m/s (6,060-9,030 f/s). The mean shear-wave velocity of 17 tunnel events is 1,276 m/s (4,190 f/s) with a range of 1,140-1,392 m/s (3,740-4,570 f/s). Experience indicates that these velocity variations are due chiefly to the extent of fracturing and (or) the presence of partially saturated rock in the region of the survey.

  17. A Comparison of the Cheater Detection and the Unrelated Question Models: A Randomized Response Survey on Physical and Cognitive Doping in Recreational Triathletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Schröter

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of physical and cognitive doping in recreational triathletes with two different randomized response models, that is, the Cheater Detection Model (CDM and the Unrelated Question Model (UQM. Since both models have been employed in assessing doping, the major objective of this study was to investigate whether the estimates of these two models converge.An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2,967 athletes at two triathlon events (Frankfurt and Wiesbaden, Germany. Doping behavior was assessed either with the CDM (Frankfurt sample, one Wiesbaden subsample or the UQM (one Wiesbaden subsample. A generalized likelihood-ratio test was employed to check whether the prevalence estimates differed significantly between models. In addition, we compared the prevalence rates of the present survey with those of a previous study on a comparable sample.After exclusion of incomplete questionnaires and outliers, the data of 2,017 athletes entered the final data analysis. Twelve-month prevalence for physical doping ranged from 4% (Wiesbaden, CDM and UQM to 12% (Frankfurt CDM, and for cognitive doping from 1% (Wiesbaden, CDM to 9% (Frankfurt CDM. The generalized likelihood-ratio test indicated no differences in prevalence rates between the two methods. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in prevalences between the present (undertaken in 2014 and the previous survey (undertaken in 2011, although the estimates tended to be smaller in the present survey.The results suggest that the two models can provide converging prevalence estimates. The high rate of cheaters estimated by the CDM, however, suggests that the present results must be seen as a lower bound and that the true prevalence of doping might be considerably higher.

  18. A Comparison of the Cheater Detection and the Unrelated Question Models: A Randomized Response Survey on Physical and Cognitive Doping in Recreational Triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Hannes; Studzinski, Beatrix; Dietz, Pavel; Ulrich, Rolf; Striegel, Heiko; Simon, Perikles

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of physical and cognitive doping in recreational triathletes with two different randomized response models, that is, the Cheater Detection Model (CDM) and the Unrelated Question Model (UQM). Since both models have been employed in assessing doping, the major objective of this study was to investigate whether the estimates of these two models converge. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2,967 athletes at two triathlon events (Frankfurt and Wiesbaden, Germany). Doping behavior was assessed either with the CDM (Frankfurt sample, one Wiesbaden subsample) or the UQM (one Wiesbaden subsample). A generalized likelihood-ratio test was employed to check whether the prevalence estimates differed significantly between models. In addition, we compared the prevalence rates of the present survey with those of a previous study on a comparable sample. After exclusion of incomplete questionnaires and outliers, the data of 2,017 athletes entered the final data analysis. Twelve-month prevalence for physical doping ranged from 4% (Wiesbaden, CDM and UQM) to 12% (Frankfurt CDM), and for cognitive doping from 1% (Wiesbaden, CDM) to 9% (Frankfurt CDM). The generalized likelihood-ratio test indicated no differences in prevalence rates between the two methods. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in prevalences between the present (undertaken in 2014) and the previous survey (undertaken in 2011), although the estimates tended to be smaller in the present survey. The results suggest that the two models can provide converging prevalence estimates. The high rate of cheaters estimated by the CDM, however, suggests that the present results must be seen as a lower bound and that the true prevalence of doping might be considerably higher.

  19. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-05-19

    To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. 16 general practices in the south west of England. Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Data from a survey of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile shedding by dogs and cats in the Madrid region (Spain, including phenotypic and genetic characteristics of recovered isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Álvarez-Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains information related to a recent survey of the prevalence of fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile by dogs and cats attended in veterinary clinics located in the Madrid region (Spain. Specifically, we provide detailed information about the clinics that participated in the survey, the demographic and clinic characteristics of recruited animals and the genetic and phenotypic characteristics (including antimicrobial susceptibility data, of recovered bacterial isolates.

  1. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  2. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  3. Survey of tracking systems and rotary joints for coolant piping. Final report, August 15, 1978-August 14, 1978. [Includes patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furaus, J P; Gruchalla, M E; Sower, G D

    1980-01-01

    Problems were surveyed and evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms and rotary joints for coolant piping. An analytical development of celestial mechanics, one- and two-axis tracking configurations and the effect of tracking accuracy versus collector efficiency are reported. Daily operational requirements and tracking modes were defined and evaluated. A literature and patent search on solar tracking technology was performed. Tracking system and control system performance specifications were determined. Alternative conceptual tracking approaches were defined and a cost and performance evaluation of a mechanical tracking concept was performed. Fluid coupling service specifications were determined. The cost and performance of several types of actuators and error detectors were evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms.

  4. A galaxy model from two micron all sky survey star counts in the whole sky, including the plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, P.; Jablonski, F. [Divisão de Astrofísica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Avenida dos Astronautas 1758, 12227-010 São José dos Campos SP (Brazil); Lépine, J. R. D., E-mail: pripolido@gmail.com [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-20

    We use the star count model of Ortiz and Lépine to perform an unprecedented exploration of the most important Galactic parameters comparing the predicted counts with the Two Micron All Sky Survey observed star counts in the J, H, and K{sub S} bands for a grid of positions covering the whole sky. The comparison is made using a grid of lines of sight given by the HEALPix pixelization scheme. The resulting best-fit values for the parameters are: 2120 ± 200 pc for the radial scale length and 205 ± 40 pc for the scale height of the thin disk, with a central hole of 2070{sub −800}{sup +2000} pc for the same disk, 3050 ± 500 pc for the radial scale length and 640 ± 70 pc for the scale height of the thick disk, 400 ± 100 pc for the central dimension of the spheroid, 0.0082 ± 0.0030 for the spheroid to disk density ratio, and 0.57 ± 0.05 for the oblate spheroid parameter.

  5. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  6. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  7. Practice of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection, including training and implementation, in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Naredo, Esperanza; Conaghan, Philip G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To document the practice and training opportunities of US-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection (UGAJ) among rheumatologists in the member countries of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). Methods. An English-language questionnaire, containing questions on demographics......, clinical and practical aspects of UGAJ, training options in UGAJ for rheumatologists, UGAJ education in the rheumatology training curriculum and other structured education programmes in UGAJ was sent to three different groups: (i) all national rheumatology societies of EULAR; (ii) all national societies...... variations in practice and the lack of available structured training programmes for trainees in most countries indicates the need for standardization in areas including training guidelines....

  8. Question answering for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana; Leser, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    Biologists often pose queries to search engines and biological databases to obtain answers related to ongoing experiments. This is known to be a time consuming, and sometimes frustrating, task in which more than one query is posed and many databases are consulted to come to possible answers for a single fact. Question answering comes as an alternative to this process by allowing queries to be posed as questions, by integrating various resources of different nature and by returning an exact answer to the user. We have surveyed the current solutions on question answering for Biology, present an overview on the methods which are usually employed and give insights on how to boost performance of systems in this domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  10. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  11. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  12. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  13. Documenting drug information questions using software for poison information documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Christopher S; Pummer, Tara L; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2009-06-01

    Current and alternative approaches to documenting drug information (DI) questions at DI centers in the United States and features of a software program used for documenting poison information are described. A survey was distributed through an Internet listserver for DI specialists in institutional or academic practices. The survey requested information regarding the use of electronic databases to document DI inquiries and the type of databases used. Documented DI questions during a nine-month period using Visual Dotlab (Visual Dotlab Enterprises, Fresno, CA) at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) DI center were analyzed to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the software for documenting DI questions. Thirty-three DI centers responded to the survey, and 22 (67%) used electronic databases for question documentation. Of these, 15 (68%) were created with Microsoft Office Access (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). At the UPMC DI center, 841 DI questions were documented using Visual Dotlab. Questions from pharmacists, nurses, and physicians accounted for 654 (78%) of entries. Drug-drug interactions (12%) and dosage recommendations (12%) were the most common types of questions received. On average, DI specialists spent 46 minutes per response, which required an average of 1.7 follow-up calls per inquiry. Quality assurance was performed on 98% of questions documented. Visual Dotlab is not well-known and is currently not used widely by DI centers. However, it includes features that may help DI centers document and retrieve DI questions efficiently and comprehensively.

  14. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...... zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model...... is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting...

  15. Question analysis for biomedical question answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Carl; Lee, Minsuk; Zhu, Hai Ran; Yu, Hong

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a biomedical question answering system. This paper describes our system's architecture and our question analysis component. Specifically, we have explored the use of various supervised machine learning approaches to filter out unanswerable questions based on physicians' annotations.

  16. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  17. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  18. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  19. Interpreting Survey Questions About Sexual Aggression in Cross-Cultural Research : A Qualitative Study with Young Adults from Nine European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahé, Barbara; de Haas, Stans; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Bianchi, Gabriel; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Fuertes, Antonio; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Hellemans, Sabine; Kouta, Christiana; Meijnckens, Dwayne; Murauskiene, Liubove; Papadakaki, Maria; Ramiro, Lucia; Reis, Marta; Symons, Katrien; Tomaszewska, Paulina; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Zygadlo, Andrzej

    Examining equivalence in the interpretation of survey items on sexual assault by participants from different cultures is an important step toward building a valid international knowledge base about the prevalence of sexual aggression among young adults. Referring to the theoretical framework of

  20. Are There Differences Depending on the Device Used to Complete a Web Survey (PC or Smartphone) for Order-by-Click Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    The development of web surveys has been accompanied by the emergence of new scales, taking advantages of the visual and interactive features provided by the Internet like drop-down menus, sliders, drag-and-drop, or order-by-click scales. This article focuses on the order-by-click scales, studying the comparability of the data obtained for this…

  1. SED_ARCHIVE - Database for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples, including locations, sample data and collection information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community for over 40 years. In that time...

  2. Developing a weighting strategy to include mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey using an overlapping dual-frame design with limited benchmark information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Hughes, Phil J; Steel, David G

    2014-09-04

    In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The weighting strategy needed to be significantly expanded to manage the differing probabilities of selection by frame, including that of children of mobile-only phone users, and to adjust for the increased chance of selection of dual-phone users. This paper describes the development of the final weighting strategy to properly combine the data from two overlapping sample frames accounting for the fact that population benchmarks for the different sampling frames were not available at the state or regional level. Estimates of the number of phone numbers for the landline and mobile phone frames used to calculate the differing probabilities of selection by frame, for New South Wales (NSW) and by stratum, were obtained by apportioning Australian estimates as none were available for NSW. The weighting strategy was then developed by calculating person selection probabilities, selection weights, applying a constant composite factor to the dual-phone users sample weights, and benchmarking to the latest NSW population by age group, sex and stratum. Data from the NSWPHS for the first quarter of 2012 was used to test the weighting strategy. This consisted of data on 3395 respondents with 2171 (64%) from the landline frame and 1224 (36%) from the mobile frame. However, in order to calculate the weights, data needed to be available for all core weighting variables and so 3378 respondents, 2933 adults and 445 children, had sufficient data to be included. Average person weights were 3.3 times higher for the mobile-only respondents, 1.3 times higher for the landline-only respondents and 1.7 times higher for dual-phone users in the mobile frame

  3. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches.

  4. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: MGossman@TSRCC.com [Regulation Directive Medical Physics, Russell, KY (United States); Wilkinson, Jeffrey D. [Medtronic, Inc., Mounds View, MN (United States); Mallick, Avishek [Department of Mathematics, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  5. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-04-15

    To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤ 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (fat (≥ 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥ 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

  6. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Community Observer Program including the Science Enhancement Option Box (SEO Box) - 12 TB On-board Flash Memory for Serendipitous Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingler, Robert; Villasenor, J. N.; Ricker, G. R.; Latham, D. W.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ennico, K. A.; Lewis, B. S.; Bakos, G.; Brown, T. M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Deming, L. D.; Doty, J. P.; Dunham, E. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Holman, M. J.; Ida, S.; Jenkins, J. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kawai, N.; Laughlin, G. P.; Lissauer, J. J.; Martel, F.; Sasselov, D. D.; Seager, S.; Torres, G.; Udry, S.; Winn, J. N.; Worden, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will perform an all-sky survey in a low-inclination, low-Earth orbit. TESS's 144 GB of raw data collected each orbit will be stacked, cleaned, cut, compressed and downloaded. The Community Observer Program is a Science Enhancement Option (SEO) that takes advantage of the low-radiation environment, technology advances in flash memory, and the vast amount of astronomical data collected by TESS. The Community Observer Program requires the addition of a 12 TB "SEO Box” inside the TESS Bus. The hardware can be built using low-cost Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components and fits within TESS's margins while accommodating GSFC gold rules. The SEO Box collects and stores a duplicate of the TESS camera data at a "raw” stage ( 4.3 GB/orbit, after stacking and cleaning) and makes them available for on-board processing. The sheer amount of onboard storage provided by the SEO Box allows the stacking and storing of several months of data, allowing the investigator to probe deeper in time prior to a given event. Additionally, with computation power and data in standard formats, investigators can utilize data-mining techniques to investigate serendipitous phenomenon, including pulsating stars, eclipsing binaries, supernovae or other transient phenomena. The Community Observer Program enables ad-hoc teams of citizen scientists to propose, test, refine and rank algorithms for on-board analysis to support serendipitous science. Combining "best practices” of online collaboration, with careful moderation and community management, enables this `crowd sourced’ participatory exploration with a minimal risk and impact on the core TESS Team. This system provides a powerful and independent tool opening a wide range of opportunity for science enhancement and secondary science. Support for this work has been provided by NASA, the Kavli Foundation, Google, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  7. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  8. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  9. Question Analysis for Biomedical Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Sable, Carl; Lee, Minsuk; Zhu, Hai Ran; Yu, Hong

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a biomedical question answering system. This paper describes our system’s architecture and our question analysis component. Specifically, we have explored the use of various supervised machine learning approaches to filter out unanswerable questions based on physicians’ annotations.

  10. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. E.; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Ekholm, O.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires......; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person...... Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1–3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four...

  11. Including mobile-only telephone users in a statewide preventive health survey-Differences in the prevalence of health risk factors and impact on trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Bernard; Roselli, Tim; Haynes, Michele; Bon, Joshua J; Western, Mark; Clemens, Susan

    2017-09-01

    The Queensland preventive health survey is conducted annually to monitor the prevalence of behavioural risk factors in the north-east Australian state. Prompted by domestic and international trends in mobile telephone usage, the 2015 survey incorporated both mobile and landline telephone numbers from a list-based sampling frame. Estimates for landline-accessible and mobile-only respondents are compared to assess potential bias in landline-only surveys in the context of public health surveillance. Significant differences were found in subcategories of all health prevalence estimates considered (alcohol consumption, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity) from 2015 survey results. Results from Australian and international studies that have considered mobile telephone non-coverage bias are also summarised and discussed. We find that adjusting for sampling biases of telephone surveys by weighting does not fully compensate for the differences in prevalence estimates. However, predicted trends from previous years' surveys only differ significantly for the 2015 prevalence estimates of alcohol consumption. We conclude that the inclusion of mobile telephones into standard telephones surveys is important for obtaining valid, reliable and representative data to reduce bias in health prevalence estimates. Importantly, unlike some international experiences, the addition of mobiles telephones into the Queensland preventive health survey occurred before population trends were significantly affected.

  12. The Green Bank Telescope 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey II: Data Analysis and the Timing of 10 New Pulsars, Including a Relativistic Binary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, R.S.; Boyles, J.; Ransom, S.M.; Stairs, I.H.; Lorimer, D.R.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Kaspi, V.M.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Archibald, A.M.; Berndsen, A.; Cardoso, R.F.; Cherry, A.; Epstein, C.R.; Karako-Argaman, C.; McPhee, C.A.; Pennucci, T.; Roberts, M.S.E.; Stovall, K.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We have completed a 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered ~10,300 deg2 and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have

  13. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  14. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  15. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  16. A questioning environment for scaffolding learners' questioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to the textual world of academia requires that learners are familiar with the critical open-ended questioning stance demanded by textuality. Anecdotal evidence suggests that learners registered for the Bachelor of Education Honours degree are unable to generate appropriate questions to interrogate academic text, ...

  17. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE 350 MHz DRIFT-SCAN SURVEY II: DATA ANALYSIS AND THE TIMING OF 10 NEW PULSARS, INCLUDING A RELATIVISTIC BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Archibald, Anne M.; Karako-Argaman, Chen [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Boyles, Jason; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Cardoso, Rogerio F. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, 111 White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid H.; Berndsen, Aaron; Cherry, Angus; McPhee, Christie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Van Leeuwen, Joeri [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Epstein, Courtney R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pennucci, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Roberts, Mallory S. E. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Stovall, Kevin, E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We have completed a 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered {approx}10,300 deg{sup 2} and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have discovered a total of 31 new pulsars, 7 of which are recycled pulsars. A companion paper by Boyles et al. describes the survey strategy, sky coverage, and instrumental setup, and presents timing solutions for the first 13 pulsars. Here we describe the data analysis pipeline, survey sensitivity, and follow-up observations of new pulsars, and present timing solutions for 10 other pulsars. We highlight several sources-two interesting nulling pulsars, an isolated millisecond pulsar with a measurement of proper motion, and a partially recycled pulsar, PSR J0348+0432, which has a white dwarf companion in a relativistic orbit. PSR J0348+0432 will enable unprecedented tests of theories of gravity.

  18. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  19. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure your ... how you incorporate it into your life. The survey will take 5 to 7 minutes to complete. ...

  20. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  1. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, M E; Sørensen, M R; Ekholm, O; Rasmussen, N K

    2013-10-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1-3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four samples from 57 to 100 min/day. Question order was associated with the reported number of minutes spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and with prevalence of meeting the recommendation, whereas physical inactivity was associated with the differences in formulation of the question. Questionnaire context influences the way people respond to questions about physical activity significantly and should be tested systematically in validation studies of physical activity questionnaires. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antarctica is the planet's fifth largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)]; it contains the Earth's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets; it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report is the introduction to a series that covers 60 years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientific activity in Antarctica. It will concentrate primarily on three major topics:

  3. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    OpenAIRE

    Visagie,Cobus; Yilmaz,Neriman; Renaud,Justin; Sumarah,Mark; Hubka,Vit; Frisvad,Jens; Chen,Amanda; Meijer,Martin; Seifert,Keith

    2017-01-01

    Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called E...

  4. Survei: Question Classification Untuk Question Answering System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdiansah, Abdiansah; Sari, Anny K

    2015-01-01

    Question Classification (QC) merupakan salahsatu dari tiga komponen utama yang ada dalam QuestionAnswering System (QAS). QC berfungsi untuk mereduksi ruangpencarian sehingga dapat meningkatkan kecepatan dan akurasiQAS. Secara umum kajian tentang QC dapat dibagi menjadi duabidang yaitu memperdalam analisis fitur yang meliputi analisisleksikal, sintaksis dan semantik serta improvisasi algoritmaklasifikasi. Artikel ini berisi laporan survei tentang algoritmaklasifikasi untuk QC berdasarkan tiga...

  5. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Edelman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS and sexually transmitted infection (STI testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. Methods We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16–44 years, who participated in Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010–2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a 2+ partners in the last year (2PP; b non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC; c non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC. We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure. Results Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion, and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever, younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year, and living at home with both

  6. Important clinical descriptors to include in the examination and assessment of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: an international and multi-disciplinary Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, M P; Thorborg, K; Covington, K; Cook, C E; Hölmich, P

    2017-06-01

    Determine which examination findings are key clinical descriptors of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) through use of an international, multi-disciplinary expert panel. A three-round Delphi survey utilizing an international, multi-disciplinary expert panel operationally defined from international publications and presentations was utilized. All six domains (subjective examination, patient-reported outcome measures, physical examination, special tests, physical performance measures, and diagnostic imaging) had at least one descriptor with 75% consensus agreement for diagnosis and assessment of FAIS. Diagnostic imaging was the domain with the highest level of agreement. Domains such as patient-reported outcome measures (PRO's) and physical examination were identified as non-diagnostic measures (rather as assessments of disease impact). Although it also had the greatest level of variability in description of examination domains, diagnostic imaging continues to be the preeminent diagnostic measure for FAIS. No single domain should be utilized as the sole diagnostic or assessment parameter for FAIS. While not all investigated domains provide diagnostic capability for FAIS, those that do not are able to serve purpose as a measure of disease impact (e.g., impairments and activity limitations). The clinical relevance of this Delphi survey is the understanding that a comprehensive assessment measuring both diagnostic capability and disease impact most accurately reflects the patient with FAIS. V.

  7. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  8. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Campylobacter Questions and Answers What is Campylobacter ? What harm can Campylobacter bacteria ... divisions/dfbmd/diseases/campylobacter/ [ Top of Page ] Campylobacter Questions and Answers Last Modified Aug 07, 2013 ').tablesorter({debug:false}). ...

  9. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  10. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  11. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  12. Making Questions Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  13. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  14. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  15. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobus M. Visagie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified. Additional cultures deposited as Eurotium were received from the Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures and were also re-identified during this study. Among all strains, two species were found to be new and are introduced here as A. mallochii and A. megasporus. Phylogenetic comparisons with other species of section Aspergillus were made using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit. Morphological observations were made from cultures grown under standardized conditions. Aspergillus mallochii does not grow at 37 °C and produces roughened ascospores with incomplete equatorial furrows. Aspergillus megasporus produces large conidia (up to 12 µm diam and roughened ascospores with equatorial furrows. Echinulin, quinolactacin A1 & A2, preechinulin and neoechinulin A & B were detected as major extrolites of A. megasporus, while neoechinulin A & B and isoechinulin A, B & C were the major extrolites from A. mallochii.

  16. Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-09-24

    To quantify global intakes of key foods related to non-communicable diseases in adults by region (n=21), country (n=187), age and sex, in 1990 and 2010. We searched and obtained individual-level intake data in 16 age/sex groups worldwide from 266 surveys across 113 countries. We combined these data with food balance sheets available in all nations and years. A hierarchical Bayesian model estimated mean food intake and associated uncertainty for each age-sex-country-year stratum, accounting for differences in intakes versus availability, survey methods and representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Global adult population, by age, sex, country and time. In 2010, global fruit intake was 81.3 g/day (95% uncertainty interval 78.9-83.7), with country-specific intakes ranging from 19.2-325.1 g/day; in only 2 countries (representing 0.4% of the world's population), mean intakes met recommended targets of ≥300 g/day. Country-specific vegetable intake ranged from 34.6-493.1 g/day (global mean=208.8 g/day); corresponding values for nuts/seeds were 0.2-152.7 g/day (8.9 g/day); for whole grains, 1.3-334.3 g/day (38.4 g/day); for seafood, 6.0-87.6 g/day (27.9 g/day); for red meats, 3.0-124.2 g/day (41.8 g/day); and for processed meats, 2.5-66.1 g/day (13.7 g/day). Mean national intakes met recommended targets in countries representing 0.4% of the global population for vegetables (≥400 g/day); 9.6% for nuts/seeds (≥4 (28.35 g) servings/week); 7.6% for whole grains (≥2.5 (50 g) servings/day); 4.4% for seafood (≥3.5 (100 g) servings/week); 20.3% for red meats (≤1 (100 g) serving/week); and 38.5% for processed meats (≤1 (50 g) serving/week). Intakes of healthful foods were generally higher and of less healthful foods generally lower at older ages. Intakes were generally similar by sex. Vegetable, seafood and processed meat intakes were stable over time; fruits, nuts/seeds and red meat, increased; and whole

  17. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    ... to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking...

  18. Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (rs = 0.5052, p < .01). Addressing gender identity and sexuality issues within medical curricula may remove barriers to accessing health care and improve encounters for LGBTQ patients.

  19. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  20. Public Awareness Survey Recommendations of the NHTSA-GHSA Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) developed a basic set of survey questions including information on seat belt use, impaired driving, and speeding. These core questions can ...

  1. Challenges in Cultivating EOSDIS User Survey Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquist, C. L.; Sofinowski, E. J.; Walter, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004 NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to determine user satisfaction with its services. The surveys have been conducted by CFI Group under contract with the Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of these annual surveys is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. The survey questions include demographic and experiential questions in addition to the ACSI and EOSDIS specific rating questions. In addition to customer satisfaction, analysis of each year's results has provided insight into the survey process. Although specific questions have been added, modified, or deleted to reflect changes to the EOSDIS system and processes, the model rating questions have remained the same to ensure consistency for evaluating cross year trends. Working with the CFI Group, we have refined the invitation and questions to increase clarity and address the different ways diverse groups of users access services at EOSDIS data centers. We present challenges in preparing a single set of questions that go to users with backgrounds in many Earth science disciplines. These users may have contacted any of the 12 EOSDIS data centers for information or may have accessed data or data products from many kinds of aircraft and satellite instruments. We discuss lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete and to encourage increased participation.

  2. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  3. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  4. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  5. Questions in logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation pursues two tightly interwoven goals: to bring out the relevance of questions for the field of logic, and to establish a solid theory of the logic of questions within a classical logical setting. These enterprises feed into each other: on the one hand, the development of our formal

  6. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers information about the disease and vaccines What causes pneumococcal disease? Pneumococcal disease is caused by the bacterium ... d/ p4213. pdf • Item #P4213 (3/16) Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers (continued) page 2 of 4 elderly and patients ...

  7. The population question revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee S-w

    1978-09-01

    Although discussion of the world poplation problem began in the 1950s and progress was made in applied demographic research and family planning in the 1960s, an international consensus on population did not begin to form until the 1970s. This paper considers future guidelines for the Korean family planning program in light of the worldwide necessity of achieving a stationary population with the lowest possible further growth from the present 4 billion. Korea is about to move from the first stage of its family planning program, whose aim was to prevent unwanted births, to the second stage where the aim is to establish the 2-child norms as a way of life. Past population growth has already assured that Korea will have a plentiful labor supply until the end of the century. The social cost of maintaining the unemployed and underemployed represents funds that would be available for investment if such excess manpower were eliminated through adoption of the 2-child norm. A recent survey showed that the average desired number of children among Korean families varies from 2.3 to 3.1 depending on survey strata, indicating that individual parents are not too distant in their desires from the 2-child norm, and might be influenced by public policy measures favoring the 2-child norm, as in Japan. Family planners should also press for more equitable distribution of income because of its association with low fertility. The author's recommendations based on these arguments include incorporation of the 2-child norm into development activities, alteration of civil and family laws to promote the 2-child norm, and encouragement of programs to implement mre equitable distribution of income.

  8. What is a Question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  9. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  10. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter....... It undergoes the process of data query and manipulation: requesting data and receiving responses in a standardized format through mathematical operators. This article discusses the role of operators in which they constitute the unpredictability of queries. By understanding the operational and cultural logic...

  11. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  12. Answering Essay Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuvitz, William

    2008-03-01

    Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, "Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?" Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

  13. Panspermia asks new questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  14. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  15. Survey of Macrofungi (including Truffles in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda F Al-Thani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen macrofungal genera belonging to 11 families and 7 orders were identified. These were isolated from different habitats (semi- desert, gardens, park, decayed roots of dead trees and under trees in Qatar. Macrofungi are defined here as ascomycetes and basidiomycetes with large, conspicuous spore-bearing structures that form above or beneath ground. This study indicated that the distribution of macrofungi is dependent on the plant community and the environmental conditions.

  16. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2013-10-07

    A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between countries. Moreover, the common trends observed in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan may be useful to improve PSC in other countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on PSC in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using HSOPS. The HSOPS questionnaire measures 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, with higher scores indicating a more positive PSC. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate the impact of working hours on PSC outcome measures (patient safety grade and number of events reported). Tukey's test and Cohen's d values were used to verify the relationships between nurse working hours and the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC. Nurses working ≥60 h/week in Japan and the US had a significantly lower OR for patient safety grade than those working teamwork within units' was significantly lower in the ≥60-h group than in the teamwork within units' in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan.

  17. More with thermal energy storage. Report 2. Literature survey. Overview of knowledge and research questions with regard to thermal energy storage. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 2. Literatuuronderzoek. Overzicht van kennis en onderzoeksvragen rondom bodemenergie. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieten, S.; De Vries, E. [Bioclear, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Baaren, E.; Bakr, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Hartog, N.; Meinderstma, W.; Van Nieuwkerk, E.; Van Oostrom, N.; Woning, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands); Drijver, B.; Krajenbrink, H.; Mathijssen, H.; Wennekes, R. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. The aim of this literature survey is to search for knowledge that is available worldwide on the effects of heat and cold storage and the possibilities to combine this technology with controlling contaminants in soil and groundwater [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en collectieve

  18. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management......The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education....... Contemporary as well as the 19th century debates about the social dimension and the social question deal with social integration. The recent London Communiqué of Ministers emphasizes the importance of the social dimension in higher education in terms of fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities...

  19. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  20. Classroom Questioning for Georgraphy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Gary

    1973-01-01

    Questioning is an important teaching skill. Teaching should be able to ask thinking' questions as well as memory' questions and they should be able to ask questions about ideas as well as facts. Two dimensions of a question are reviewed; the dimensions are then combined into a matrix illustrating thirteen types of cognitive questions. (Author)

  1. A Question of Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabiner Gene

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies.

  2. My Favorite Exam Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  3. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...

  4. Shaping Faster Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lloyd O.

    To test a hypothesis that question answering speed and accuracy can be increased by an automated shaping procedure, a film, "The Analysis of Behavior," was presented individually by a teaching machine during twice-per-week sessions to one high school student and 12 junior college students. Six of the students were informed of monetary rewards for…

  5. Some Questions on Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Robert J. R.

    An educational publisher poses several questions that are related to accountability for the purpose of stimulating discussion on this topic at a national convention of social studies teachers. Is it appropriate to insist upon the verification or validation of instructional materials? Is it possible to make more money available for the purchase of…

  6. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ICA staff and volunteers answer questions from patients, healthcare providers, researchers and the public. Below are some of the most commonly asked ... Exercise & IC Managing Stress Sleep & IC Quitting Smoking Public Restrooms ... IC & Healthcare Toolkit Health Insurance Finding the Right Doctor Pain ...

  7. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Eighth triennial toxicology salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This survey serves as the eighth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5800 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 2057 responses were received (response rate 35.5%). The results of the 2012 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists.

  9. The relevance of surveying content in mining engineering education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomi Oshokoya

    institution where a mine surveyor can obtain a Master's degree specialising in any one of 5 mining specialisations, including Mine Surveying. This article attempts to answer the question as to what mining engineers should know about mine surveying. The paper will also explain how mine surveying training is beneficial to a ...

  10. The political economy of international environmental agreements: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangler, L.; Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on the political economy of the formation of international environmental agreements. The survey covers theoretical modelling approaches and empirical studies including experimental work. Central to our survey is the question how the political process impacts

  11. Anonymized survey responses from two inception workshops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Inception Workshop approach we conducted a survey, in two experimental workshops. The survey was done in two stages, with pre- and post- workshop questionnaires. Both questionnaires included the same set of questions, in which the respondents were asked to

  12. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  13. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-01-01

    The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of ...

  14. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising.

  15. Living in the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally.

  16. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  17. Quantum theory from questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).

  18. Questions of wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra

    2009-04-01

    In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.

  19. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  20. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  1. Augmenting Fellow Education Through Spaced Multiple-Choice Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoumian, Alice E; Yun, Heather C

    2018-01-01

    The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Infectious Disease Fellowship program historically included a monthly short-answer and multiple-choice quiz. The intent was to ensure medical knowledge in relevant content areas that may not be addressed through clinical rotations, such as operationally relevant infectious disease. After completion, it was discussed in a small group with faculty. Over time, faculty noted increasing dissatisfaction with the activity. Spaced interval education is useful in retention of medical knowledge and skills by medical students and residents. Its use in infectious disease fellow education has not been described. To improve the quiz experience, we assessed the introduction of spaced education curriculum in our program. A pre-intervention survey was distributed to assess the monthly quiz with Likert scale and open-ended questions. A multiple-choice question spaced education curriculum was created using the Qstream(R) platform in 2011. Faculty development on question writing was conducted. Two questions were delivered every 2 d. Incorrectly and correctly answered questions were repeated after 7 and 13 d, respectively. Questions needed to be answered correctly twice to be retired. Fellow satisfaction was assessed at semi-annual fellowship reviews over 5 yr and by a one-time repeat survey. Pre-intervention survey of six fellows indicated dissatisfaction with the time commitment of the monthly quiz (median Likert score of 2, mean 6.5 h to complete), neutral in perceived utility, but satisfaction with knowledge retention (Likert score 4). Eighteen fellows over 5 yr participated in the spaced education curriculum. Three quizzes with 20, 39, and 48 questions were designed. Seventeen percentage of questions addressed operationally relevant topics. Fifty-nine percentage of questions were answered correctly on first attempt, improving to 93% correct answer rate at the end of the analysis. Questions were attempted 2,999 times

  2. Unanswered Questions in Contemporary Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Lauren G; Snipelisky, David; AbouEzzeddine, Omar; Vader, Justin; Cooper, Lauren; Kelley, Jacob; Perez, Antonio; Varian, Kenneth; Lala, Anuradha; Shah, Monica; Stevenson, Lynne W

    2017-10-01

    The epidemiology of heart failure (HF) is changing. This study aimed to describe questions that arise during the routine care of HF patients that are unanswered by the current literature and describe how the type and focus of these questions has changed over time. Investigators from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Heart Failure Apprentice Network collected and categorized questions from 5 academic hospitals over 12 months. A total of 174 unanswered questions were collected and analyzed. Compared with 2004, there were more unanswered questions about "whether" to use therapies and fewer about "how" to use therapies. There were fewer questions about what therapeutic targets, therapy adjustment, and combination therapies. There were more questions about whether or how to stop therapies and how to add therapies back. Newly prominent topics, not observed in 2004, including novel therapeutics, refractory ventricular tachycardia, right heart failure, and nutrition/frailty, accounted for 24% of questions. Compared with 2004, there are fewer unanswered questions about how to use, adjust, and combine therapies. There were more unanswered questions about whether and how to stop therapies. Almost 25% of unanswered questions dealt with topics indicative of more advanced disease which were not observed in 2004. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  4. A survey of gunshot residue analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, R L; Davis, D; Houck, M M

    1996-03-01

    A survey was sent to 80 forensic laboratories in 44 States and two Canadian Provinces concerning methodology in analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) and interpreting the results. Of the 80 surveys, 50 (63%) were returned completed. Questions included standard procedures, collection methods, thresholding problems and specificity of data. These results are compared to a previous survey reported in 1990. Implications for the interpretation and future study of these methods are discussed.

  5. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  6. Simple Texts, Complex Questions: Helping Young Children Generate Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    As they are naturally curious about the world around them, young children ask lots and lots of questions. In classrooms today, however, there seems to be little space for these student-generated questions as teachers are more likely to pose the questions. Research indicates that question generation is an effective strategy to motivate young…

  7. Automatically classifying question types for consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification.

  8. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  9. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  10. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  11. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  12. 1. Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this monographic section aims at analysing some methodological questions concerning identities, ethnicities, collectivities and religions, starting from the academic debate occurred between historians and anthropologists since the last decades of Twentieth Century, considering its reception especially for the study of ethnicity and collective and/or (so-called religious identities in the cultural context of ancient Greece. Another aspect of such a methodological section deals with the innovative approach inaugurated by the so-called “School of Wien” in the study of ethnic identity-constructions, especially analysing the relationships with Biblical texts as well as their multiform receptions between late-antiquity and early medieval period.

  13. The Deflection Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  14. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey A qualidade de vida e o poder de discriminação de dois questionários em pacientes com fibromialgia: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire e Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Assumpção

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG and Control Group (CG (n=75 in each group. The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05 and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve - sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8±8.1; FG: 47.0±7.7 years. A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa caracterizada por dor espalhada e crônica e sintomas associados com um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Considerando a subjetividade da mensuração de qualidade de vida, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o poder de discriminação de dois questionários que avaliam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia: o genérico Medical Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36 e o específico Questionário do Impacto da Fibromialgia (QIF. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo fibromialgia (FM e grupo controle (GC (n=75 em ambos. Os pacientes foram avaliados pelo SF-36 e pelo QIF. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste "t de Student" com α=0,05 e a Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve. RESULTADOS: As amostras

  15. Differentiation of three common deep-water hermit crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Parapaguridae from the South African demersal abundance surveys, including the description of a new species of Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannes Landschoff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae can be abundant (up to 20 kg or 1000 hermit crab individuals per haul in the trawl bycatch collected during South African demersal abundance research surveys. Until recently, only two parapagurid species had been recognized in the bycatch; Parapagurus bouvieri Stebbing, 1910, and Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883. Detailed examination of numerous samples of parapagurid specimens from research surveys revealed the existence of a third, undescribed species previously confounded with S. dimorphus, but in fact belonging to a different genus. This new species, Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is the 25th in the genus Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996, and has been found only in a small region on the West Coast shelf of South Africa, at depths of 199–277 m. The species is herein fully described and illustrated, including colour images, µCT scans of selected body parts, and CO1 barcode data. The new species is morphologically most similar to P. ventilatus Lemaitre, 2004, a species associated with hydrothermal vents, but differs in armature of the fourth antennal segment (armed with a spine on the dorsolateral distal angle vs. unarmed in P. ventilatus; setation of the antennal flagella (nearly naked vs. with dense setae in P. ventilatus; plumose setation on the third maxillipeds and basal segments of chelipeds (absent vs. present in P. ventilatus; number of rows of scales on the propodal rasp of pereopod 4 (two or three rows vs. one row in P. ventilatus; and degree of telson asymmetry (weakly asymmetrical vs. strongly asymmetrical in P. ventilatus. Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is superficially similar to S. dimorphus, with males of the two species showing the same extreme degree of sexual dimorphism on the right cheliped, general light orange colouration, and frequent use of colonial zoanthid carcinoecia for pleonal protection. To aid in future identifications and to facilitate data gathering

  16. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Holm, Lotte

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... household vs single household). The results also showed that gender difference in dietary habits is associated with other sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The selected food frequency questions proved sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and this method may......". DESIGN: Cross-sectional population survey. SUBJECTS: A total of 480 men, 515 women, aged 15-90 y. Random sample of private telephone numbers drawn from regional telephone records, geographically stratified. Participation rate 62%. METHODS: Computer-assisted telephone interviews, including six food...

  17. Automatic Chinese Factual Question Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Rus, Vasile; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Question generation is an emerging research area of artificial intelligence in education. Question authoring tools are important in educational technologies, e.g., intelligent tutoring systems, as well as in dialogue systems. Approaches to generate factual questions, i.e., questions that have concrete answers, mainly make use of the syntactical…

  18. Assessing Question Quality Using NLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Johnson, Amy M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    An NLP algorithm was developed to assess question quality to inform feedback on questions generated by students within iSTART (an intelligent tutoring system that teaches reading strategies). A corpus of 4575 questions was coded using a four-level taxonomy. NLP indices were calculated for each question and machine learning was used to predict…

  19. A Question of Fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Rompaey

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available pA review of Peter Hallward (ed., emThink Again: Alain Badiou and the Future of Philosophy/em, Continuum, London, 2004. ISBN: HB: 0-8264-5906-4, PB: 0-8264-5907-2/ppThe review surveys the contents of Peter Hallward, ed., Think Again: Alain Badiou and the Future of Philosophy and seeks to categorize the various kinds of contributions. It finds that, while some of the essays offer valuable critiques of Badiou#39;s work or else clarify key concepts in productive ways, others challenge aspects of his thought for reasons that are demonstrably spurious. The overall assessment, though, is that the book provides a useful and timely appraisal of Badiou#39;s impact on contemporary philosophy./p

  20. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  1. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  2. Climatic change in urban areas. A survey of existing knowledge and outstanding questions on effects and adaptation options; Klimaatverandering in stedelijke gebieden. Een inventarisatie van bestaande kennis en openstaande kennisvragen over effecten en adaptiemogelijkheden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.; Lasage, R. [Klimaat voor Ruimte, p/a Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brinkman, S. (ed.) [Brinkman Climate Change, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2007-11-15

    The research into climate change and urban areas in the Netherlands is based on literature research, internet research and phone interviews with four experts in the Netherlands. Chapter 2 describes the main impacts of climate change on urban areas in the Netherlands. The authors discuss effects of extreme rainfall, heat waves, droughts and heat-island effect. In Chapter 3, answers are given to knowledge questions such as: what questions are being studied in the relevant research programs in the Netherlands? Chapter 4 deals with the relationship between mitigation and adaptation. The fifth chapter describes adaptation options with respect to the impacts of climate change in urban areas. Chapter 6 describes the barriers that occur when entering adaptation options. These can be institutional, technical, socio-cultural and economical. In Chapter 6 research questions are formulated which are also open in response to the identified barriers. The final chapter comprises conclusions and recommendations. [Dutch] Het hier beschreven onderzoek naar klimaatverandering en stedelijke gebieden in Nederland is gedaan door literatuuronderzoek, een internetonderzoek en vier telefonische interviews met experts in Nederland. Hoofdstuk 2 beschrijft de belangrijkste effecten van klimaatverandering op stedelijke gebieden in Nederland. Met name gaan wij in op effecten van extreme neerslag, hittegolven/droogte en het hitte-eilandeffect. In Hoofdstuk 3 komen de kennisvragen aan de orde: welke vragen worden nu bestudeerd in de relevante onderzoeksprogramma's in Nederland? Hoofdstuk 4 gaat over de relatie tussen mitigatie en adaptatie. Het vijfde hoofdstuk beschrijft opties die de klimaatbestendigheid in stedelijke gebieden kunnen vergroten. Hoofdstuk 6 beschrijft de barrieres die optreden bij het invoeren van adaptatieopties. Deze kunnen institutioneel, technisch, sociaal-cultureel en economisch van aard zijn. In Hoofdstuk 6 formuleren we ook openstaande kennisvragen naar aanleiding van

  3. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... change how the FDA evaluates the safety of foods? The FDA uses the most up-to-date science, including information from the EPA, when it conducts safety assessments. The FDA will review the new information ...

  4. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  5. Automatically classifying question types for consumer health questions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources...

  6. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  7. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  8. When Is a Question a Question for Children and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Mathieu R.; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Terminal changes in fundamental frequency provide the most salient acoustic cues to declarative questions, but adults sometimes identify such questions from pre-terminal cues. In the present study, adults and 7- to 10-year-old children judged a single speaker's adult- and child-directed utterances as questions or statements in a gating task with…

  9. [Oral contraception: users' questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolongeau, J F

    1993-02-01

    Answers are provided to common questions about the safety and use of oral contraceptives (OCs). Amenorrhea during OC use has no pathologic significance. It is related to endometrial atrophy resulting from insufficient estrogen after longterm pill use. A formulation with a higher estrogen content may be used for one or two cycles to regenerate the endometrium. If amenorrhea persists for more than a few months after discontinuation of pills, pituitary adenoma should be ruled out. Bromocriptine may be indicated in cases of moderate hyperprolactinemia if pregnancy is desired. All intermenstrual bleeding in pill users should be investigated for organic cause. Once endometrial polyps and other pathologies are ruled out, the cause may be assumed to be functional metrorrhagia due to endometrial atrophy identical to that causing amenorrhea in OC users. Intermenstrual bleeding may occasionally result from interactions with specific classes of drugs. Minor bleeding in the first cycles of pill use is common and usually temporary. Accidentally taking two pills in one day is without consequence. If the interval between pill cycles exceeds one week, there is risk of follicular maturation and a different contraceptive method should be used until the next cycle. Forgetting a combined pill is without consequence for delays of under twelve hours. Another method should be used until the next cycle if two pills are forgotten. Low-dose oral progestins rapidly lose efficacy if not taken at the same time every day. "Morning-after" pills may be used up to 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. The current generation of OCs entails no teratogenic risks. The cause of any pill failure should be sought. There is no increased risk of multiple pregnancy after discontinuation of pills, and fecundity does not decline after longterm pill use. OCs should be avoided by users of some antiepileptic drugs or of drugs that increase hepatic toxicity or act as enzyme inductors. All conditions accompanied

  10. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  11. Writing clinical scenarios for clinical science questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C

    2016-04-01

    Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  12. Grammaire nouvelle? Questions pour des questions (New Grammar? Questions about Questions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Andre

    1987-01-01

    Implications of the "new grammar" approach to teaching French are examined, including the issues of nomenclature, definition, rules and generalizations, and native language use in the second language class. Grammar itself has not changed, and the principal concern is still good usage. (MSE)

  13. Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    IDRC response: Please be advised that references to be included with each submission, as indicated in Part A- Instructions, Item 4, should be individuals who may be contacted by IDRC who have first-hand knowledge and experience with the candidate's (whether individual or team) relevant work in development finance.

  14. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosnick, J A

    1999-01-01

    For the first time in decades, conventional wisdom about survey methodology is being challenged on many fronts. The insights gained can not only help psychologists do their research better but also provide useful insights into the basics of social interaction and cognition. This chapter reviews some of the many recent advances in the literature, including the following: New findings challenge a long-standing prejudice against studies with low response rates; innovative techniques for pretesting questionnaires offer opportunities for improving measurement validity; surprising effects of the verbal labels put on rating scale points have been identified, suggesting optimal approaches to scale labeling; respondents interpret questions on the basis of the norms of everyday conversation, so violations of those conventions introduce error; some measurement error thought to have been attributable to social desirability response bias now appears to be due to other factors instead, thus encouraging different approaches to fixing such problems; and a new theory of satisficing in questionnaire responding offers parsimonious explanations for a range of response patterns long recognized by psychologists and survey researchers but previously not well understood.

  15. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  16. Documenting Questions: A crash course

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Wendy; Johnson, Jon,; Duffes, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    The most significant area of DDI adoption since 2008 has been around the development, management, and use of Questions. The creation of question banks, development of tools to organize and field questionnaires, and interest in new and specialized means of data capture has fueled development in the DDI. For those of you that have "Questions" and want to do something with them this half-day tutorial will address the following: Question structures in DDI: What have these structur...

  17. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  18. Does Anyone Have Any Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  19. Student questioning : a componential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on student questioning, organized through a modified version of Dillon's (1988a, 1990) componential model of questioning. Special attention is given to the properties of assumptions, questions, and answers. Each of these main elements are the result of certain

  20. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  1. Nomenclator Actinologicus seu Indices Ptychodactiariarum, Corallimorphariarum et Actiniarianum comprising indexes of the taxa, synonyms, authors and geographical distributions of the sea anemones of the world included in Professor Oskar Carlgren's 1949 survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    In 1949, the late Professor Oskar Carlgren of Lund, Sweden, published a bibliographical survey of the sea anemones of the world, comprising 42 families, 201 genera and 848 species. The survey is an essential starting point for any taxonomic or zoogeographical work on sea anemones. However, the

  2. PSD Increment Consumption Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. A question of scale

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If you search for 'collective behaviour' with your web browser most of the texts popping up will be about group activities of humans, including riots, fashion and mass panic. Nevertheless, collective behaviour is also considered to be an important aspect of observed phenomena in atoms and molecules, for example, during spontaneous magnetization. In your web search, you might also find articles on collectively migrating bacteria, insects or birds; or phenomena where groups of organisms or non- living objects synchronize their signals or motion (think of fireflies flashing in unison or people clapping in phase during rhythmic applause).

  4. Questions of copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfray, Caroline; Emery, Marie-Pierre; Conway, Katrin; Acquadro, Catherine

    2012-01-31

    The Berne Convention and the national laws on intellectual property fully apply to PRO instruments. The identification of and access to an original PRO instrument is often associated with copyright ownership. This is the copyright holder of the instrument who will control its access (distribution and reproduction), its adaptation or modification, and its translation. Copyright is a means to protect the integrity of an instrument. The ownership of an instrument should be defined in the beginning between all parties involved, and each step of the instrument's life, including distribution, should be anticipated for purpose of copyright.

  5. A Question of Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quedas, Fátima; Ponte, João; Trindade, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    than 40 per cent of breads were indeed over the labelling threshold, and should be labelled. This includes GM maize that is not cultivated in the EU and enters the supply chain via international trade. We conclude that the realisation of coexistence and segregation requires involvement of the full...... supply chain, rather than just segregation at the start, if bread is to be sold with a GMO content below the 0.9 per cent threshold level. Alternatively, retailers can label their bread. This might be a cheaper solution and as a study from Switzerland shows may not result in adverse consumer reaction....

  6. Semi-customizing patient surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiskjær, Erik; Ammentorp, Jette; Nielsen, Jørn Flohr

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The study investigated the needs and consequences of semi-customizing patient satisfaction surveys to low organizational levels and explored whether patient satisfaction was correlated with local organizational conditions. Design. From 1999 to 2006, the County of Aarhus carried out 398....... Establishing a link between patient satisfaction and organizational variables broadens the quality development focus to include more than simply analysis of specific questions. Semi-customizing patient surveys are recommended....... surveys during four rounds in eight hospitals. To explain differences between the wards, data on the 40 wards with the best and the 40 wards with the worst evaluations (identified by patient surveys) were compared with the data from job satisfaction surveys and management information systems. Setting...

  7. The Evolution of Quality Teaching and Four Questions for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Today we look to determine teaching quality through a combination of observation, surveys, and test scores. These measures fail to answer the most important question about quality teaching: How is it accomplished? How has this teacher used questioning today, and what drove their decision to do so? How has this teacher structured independent…

  8. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  9. Lessons learned in attempting to survey hard-to-reach ethnic segments along with the presentation of a comprehensive questionnaire that includes some uncommon independent variables and some uncommon methods of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to transit users in the Sacramento Metropolitan Area to analyze the degree to which global satisfaction with transit is impacted by ethnicity and other relevant independent variables : Although th...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0157595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Jarvis and Wake from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0163747)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  12. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-26 (NCEI Accession 0157564)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of American Samoa from 2015-02-15 to 2015-03-23 (NCEI Accession 0157566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0157590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0157565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  17. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2008-01-27 to 2012-09-13 (NCEI Accession 0162472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (nSPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  18. Important considerations when analyzing health survey data collected using a complex sample design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Joseph W; West, Brady T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often use survey data to answer important public health policy questions. Examples of common data sources used in public health research include the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the National Health Interview Survey, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. All these surveys employ a complex sample design to recruit participants into the survey. When performing secondary analyses of complex sample survey data, it is necessary to remind ourselves of the key features of these designs that must be taken into account to produce valid statistical estimates.

  19. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  20. And the next question is powerful questions for sticky moments

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A very practical and easy to use book of 3,000+ powerful questions, forming part of every coach''s / manager''s toolkit; it enables you to easily find key questions in some of the most distinctive areas of coaching, such as confidence, communications & leadership.

  1. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural...... productions of such 'intonation questions', two perception experiments were run. Experiment 1 is based on a gating paradigm, which was applied to naturally produced questions and statements. Experiment 11 includes two indirect-identification tasks. Resynthesized stimuli were judged in relation to two context...... to the intonational nucleus. Rather, listeners can refer to shape, slope, and alignment differences of the preceding prenuclear pitch accent to identify sentence mode. These findings are in line with studies suggesting that the utterance-final rise versus fall contrast is not directly related to sentence modality...

  2. Medical school 2.0: How we developed a student-generated question bank using small group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooi, Adrian C C; Sommerfeld, Connor S

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is one of the most common methods for formative and summative assessment in medical school. Common challenges with this format include (1) creating vetted questions and (2) involving students in higher-order learning activities. Involving medical students in the creation of MCQs may ameliorate both of these challenges. What we did: We used a small group learning structure to develop a student-generated question bank. Students created their own MCQ based on self-study materials, and then reviewed each other's questions within small groups. Selected questions were reviewed with the class as a whole. All questions were later vetted by the instructor and incorporated into a question bank that students could access for formative learning. Post-session survey indicated that 91% of the students felt that the class-created MCQ question bank was a valuable resource, and 86% of students would be interested in collaborating with the class for creating practice questions in future sessions. Developing a student-generated question bank can improve the depth and interactivity of student learning, increase session enjoyment and provide a potential resource for student assessment.

  3. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2012-01-01

    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  4. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  5. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  6. The Sincerity of Questioned People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller István

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying questionnaires is one of the basic methodologies in sociology. Usually sociologists consider that choosing a representative sample and properly formulated questions, the results will show real characteristics of the society. But the following main question should always be analyzed: are people sincere? Psychology proved that we try to meet the society's expectation. In this way the answers do not represent the questioned person’s thought, but what they considered expect from society. The present study analyzes the sincerity of police officers, asked to complete a questionnaire for a scientific purpose, respecting the principle of anonymity. The results show that around 2/3 of the questioned persons did not give sincere answers, offering importance for an inexistent person (Schnade. By analyzing the answers to another question (the importance of the television and the bicycle for the questioned persons, it was found that insincere people could be not easily excluded: the sincerity is changing from question to question; some persons are sincere regarding a specific domain and not sincere in another domain.

  7. The Role Of Gender In Asking Questions At Cool Stars 18 And 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Douglas, Stephanie; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Booth, Rachel S.; Davenport, James R. A.; Mace, Gregory N.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the gender balance of the 18th and 19th meetings of the Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stellar Systems and the Sun (CS18 and CS19). The percent of female attendees at both meetings (31% at CS18 and 37% at CS19) was higher than the percent of women in the American Astronomical Society (25%) and the International Astronomical Union (18%). The representation of women in Cool Stars as SOC members, invited speakers, and contributed speakers was similar to or exceeded the percent of women attending the meetings. We requested that conference attendees assist in a project to collect data on the gender of astronomers asking questions after talks. Using this data, we found that men were over-represented (and women were under-represented) in the question sessions after each talk. Men asked 79% of the questions at CS18 and 75% of the questions at CS19, but were 69% and 63% of the attendees respectively. Contrary to findings from previous conferences, we did not find that the gender balance of questions was strongly affected by the session chair gender, the speaker gender, or the length of the question period. We also found that female and male speakers were asked a comparable number of questions after each talk. The contrast of these results from previous incarnations of the gender questions survey indicate that more data would be useful in understanding the factors that contribute to the gender balance of question askers. We include a preliminary set of recommendations based on this and other work on related topics, but also advocate for additional research on the demographics of conference participants. Additional data on the intersection of gender with race, seniority, sexual orientation, ability and other marginalized identities is necessary to fully address the role of gender in asking questions at conferences.

  8. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  9. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  10. Toward automated consumer question answering: automatically separating consumer questions from professional questions in the healthcare domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D; Yu, Hong

    2011-12-01

    Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. The 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. Healthcare consumer

  11. Respiratory Cytology--Current Trends Including Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy and Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy: Analysis of Data From a 2013 Supplemental Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Charles D; Marshall, Carrie B; Barkan, Guliz A; Booth, Christine N; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Souers, Rhona J; Keylock, Joren B; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Russell, Donna K; Moriarty, Ann T; Doyle, Mary A; Thomas, Nicole; Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Collins, Brian T; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Crothers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Nongynecologic cytology (NGC) practices are expanding in relationship to historical gynecologic cytology screening programs. Bronchopulmonary cytology is experiencing an evolution regarding new procedural types. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) tracks practice patterns in NGC by developing questionnaires, surveying participants, and analyzing respondent data. To analyze responses to a 2013 CAP supplemental survey from the Interlaboratoy Comparison Program on bronchopulmonary NGC. The "NGC 2013 Supplemental Questionnaire: Demographics in Performance and Reporting of Respiratory Cytology" was mailed to 2074 laboratories. The survey response rate was 42% (880 of 2074) with 90% of respondents (788 of 880) indicating that their laboratories evaluated cytology bronchopulmonary specimens. More than 95% of respondents indicated interpreting bronchial washings (765 of 787) and bronchial brushings (757 of 787). A minority of laboratories (43%, 340 of 787) dealt with endobronchial ultrasound-guided samples, and an even smaller fraction of laboratories (14%, 110 of 787) saw cases from electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy. Intraprocedural adequacy assessments by pathologists (and less often by cytotechnologists or pathologists-in-training) were routinely performed in percutaneous transthoracic aspiration cases (74%, 413 of 560) with less involvement for other case types. Most laboratories reported that newly diagnosed primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas were triaged for molecular testing of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. The parameters examined in this 2013 survey provide a snapshot of current pulmonary cytopathology practice and may be used as benchmarks in the future.

  12. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  13. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. How Do Question Writers Compose External Examination Questions? Question Writing as a Socio-Cognitive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin; Constantinou, Filio; Crisp, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the practice of education examination question writing. Educational examinations are tests that are taken by candidates in schools or colleges but that are externally developed, administered and marked by an assessment organisation. Whilst the practice of writing external examination questions is ubiquitous,…

  15. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  16. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

    2010-01-01

    In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified…

  17. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  18. More Questions and Answers about Slow Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Presented are responses to questions often asked about slow learners, including: What kinds of materials can be used with slow learners? Is it advisable to deliver lecture lessons to slow learners? How do you start a class lesson? Can the teacher of slow learners reach every student? Teaching techniques and learning activities are described.…

  19. Questioning the Founders--and Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The question of the relation between liberal education and political liberty, perennially important, is driven for this forum by the Obama administration's endorsement of "A Crucible Moment: College Learning & Democracy's Future," according to which the chief ends of postsecondary civic education ought to include the promotion of sweeping…

  20. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice....

  1. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  2. Questions and Answers about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke: Hope Through Research Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

  3. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  4. Resource Classification for Medical Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task.

  5. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  6. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  7. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is an infectious liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). How does hepatitis A virus ...

  8. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hakan Türkçapar; Melis Sedef Kahraman; A. Emre Sargýn

    2015-01-01

    “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method ...

  9. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  10. [Youth health behavior survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meboniia, N M; Sturua, L Z; Chachava, T D; Kalandadze, I L; Merabishvili, Z G

    2005-11-01

    High-risk behaviours -- smoking, drug use, alcohol use and etc. are the main risk factors of non-communicable diseases and main reasons of morbidity and mortality in many countries of the world. We conducted the "Youth Health Behaviour Survey" among the students in Tbilisi, Mtskheta and Dusheti. The survey included questioning of students (14-17 years old) by modified questionnaire. There were questioned 300 students, 100 in each region. Mtskheta is very close to Tbilisi, it's a peri-urban area; Dusheti is quite far rural area. The survey results show that teenagers both in central and peripheral areas are becoming familiar with alcohol in early ages and using alcohol is several times higher in Tbilisi. In Tbilisi as in Mtskheta and Dusheti students use wine and spirits with same frequency. Smoking is a bit high in Tbilisi and Mtskheta; regular smoking starts at age 13-14, boys are smoking more than girls. Drug use wasn't identified. Sexual intercourse had almost half of boys from Tbilisi and about one third of boys in Mtskheta and Dusheti. Safe sex methods more frequently are used in Tbilisi. Propaganda of healthy life style is essential in supporting healthy youth development. It's very important to set different interventions in different regions of Georgia, to adapt materials to real situation.

  11. IT Department User Survey Engineering Tools Usage Report

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Pete

    2017-01-01

    Engineering tools are supports by the IT-CDA-AD section and these include Electronic, Mechanical, Mathematical and Field Solver tools. The survey carried out by IT-CDA during 2016 asked CERN users questions concerning their working environments, habits and preferences and also included several question pertaining to the use of engineering tools. This analysis will help IT-CDA to better understand who is using these tools, the user requirements and their problems and so help us to improve the service.

  12. Learning from Chatting: How Our Virtual Reference Questions Are Giving Us Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Rourke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This research compares two types of online reference services and attempts to determine whether the same sorts of questions are being asked; which questions are being asked most often; and whether patron and staff behaviour is consistent or different in the two types of online reference sessions. Patron satisfaction with the two types of online reference services is also examined.Methods ‐ The researchers reviewed over 1400 online reference transcripts, including 744 from Docutek virtual reference (VR transactions and 683 from MSN chat reference (IM transactions. The questions were classified according to categories of reference questions based on recurring questions discovered during the review. Each transaction was also categorized as ʺinformalʺ or ʺformalʺ based on patron language and behaviour, and general observations were made about the interactions between patrons and librarians. In addition, results from 223 user surveys were examined to determine patron satisfaction with online reference services and to determine which type of service patrons preferred.Results ‐ The analysis suggests that patrons are using VR and IM services differently. In general, VR questions tend to be more research intensive and formal, while IM questions are less focused on academic research and informal. Library staff and patrons appear to alter their behaviour depending upon which online environment they are in. User surveys demonstrated that patrons are generally satisfied with either type of online reference assistance.Conclusion ‐ Both types of online reference service are meeting the needs of patrons. They are being used for different purposes and in different ways, so it may be worthwhile for libraries to consider offering both VR and IM reference. The relationship building that appears to take place more naturally in IM interactions demonstrates the benefits of librarians being more approachable with patrons in order to provide a

  13. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. SALES STRATEGIES CENTERED ON ELABORATING QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu DORLE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview gives the true measure of his/her professionalism. Elaborated based on the taxonomy of the sales steps and depending on customer objections, questions may constitute a basic premise in the development of sales strategies and techniques

  15. Survey questions evidence of US female hiring bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-09-01

    An analysis by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) suggests that the complete absence of female faculty in more than a third of US university physics departments does not necessarily constitute evidence that they discriminate against women.

  16. A Critical Question: Can We Trust Smartphone Survey Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Murat

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine whether a significant difference exits among data collection with printed materials and with smart phones. The research was conducted with 282 teacher candidates who take pedagogical formation training. Three data collection tools were used throughout the study. As the results of the current research, no…

  17. A practical guide to surveys and questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Eric L; Voelker, Courtney C J; Nussenbaum, Brian; Rich, Jason T; Paniello, Randal C; Neely, J Gail

    2011-06-01

    Surveys with questionnaires play a vital role in decision and policy making in society. Within medicine, including otolaryngology, surveys with questionnaires may be the only method for gathering data on rare or unusual events. In addition, questionnaires can be developed and validated to be used as outcome measures in clinical trials and other clinical research architecture. Consequently, it is fundamentally important that such tools be properly developed and validated. Just asking questions that have not gone through rigorous design and development may be misleading and unfair at best; at worst, they can result in under- or overtreatment and unnecessary expense. Furthermore, it is important that consumers of the data produced by these instruments understand the principles of questionnaire design to interpret results in an optimal and meaningful way. This article presents a practical guide for understanding the methodologies of survey and questionnaire design, including the concepts of validity and reliability, how surveys are administered and implemented, and, finally, biases and pitfalls of surveys.

  18. The central question in superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    I will argue that the most basic and fundamental question in superconductivity is: when a superconductor in a magnetic field goes normal, how does the supercurrent stop? The supercurrent has to stop before the material becomes resistive because the transition is reversible in an ideal situation, with no Joule heat dissipated. I will argue that the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity cannot answer this question. I will propose an answer to this question that requires that there is flow and counterflow of charge across the normal-superconductor phase boundary, and requires that the normal state current carriers have hole-like character. The conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

  20. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fit...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  1. On asking the right questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, P

    1986-03-01

    Despite the vast array of theoretical formulations now available, none is sufficiently well developed. Some of the philosophical questions thrown up by such material are posed. Under the heading of "Discourse," the questions of what constitutes reasonableness and how logical validity is established are raised. Under the heading of "Epistemology," the nature of concept formulation and causality is raised. Under the heading of "Language," the nature of linguistic representation and artificially constructed language or "artificial intelligence" is raised. It is suggested that these and other issues in the philosophy of science require the urgent attention of family therapy theorists.

  2. The experiences of smoking in school children up to and including high school ages and the current status of smoking habits; a survey of male high school students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Masakazu; Kiyohara, Chikako; Morioka, Seiji; Mori, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The burden of tobacco-induced cancer is so heavy that every country should give the highest priority to tobacco control in its fight against cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the actual conditions of tobacco smoking among boys in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire survey. Two thousand and fourteen high school boys in Fukuoka City, Japan, answered unsigned self-administered anonymous questionnaires about tobacco smoking. Among 2014 students, 10.9% were current smokers. The rates of current smokers increased with the school age: 6.3% in the first grade; 11.3% in the second grade; and 15.5% in the third grade (P(trend)vending machines. Health education for anti-smoking in all primary and secondary schools as well as restriction of cigarette vending machines should be strongly recommended.

  3. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  4. Semi-automated categorization of open-ended questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Text data from open-ended questions in surveys are difficult to analyze and are frequently ignored. Yet open-ended questions are important because they do not constrain respondents’ answer choices. Where open-ended questions are necessary, sometimes multiple human coders hand-code answers into one of several categories. At the same time, computer scientists have made impressive advances in text mining that may allow automation of such coding. Automated algorithms do not achieve an overall accuracy high enough to entirely replace humans. We categorize open-ended questions soliciting narrative responses using text mining for easy-to-categorize answers and humans for the remainder using expected accuracies to guide the choice of the threshold delineating between “easy” and “hard”. Employing multinomial boosting avoids the common practice of converting machine learning “confidence scores” into pseudo-probabilities. This approach is illustrated with examples from open-ended questions related to respondents’ advice to a patient in a hypothetical dilemma, a follow-up probe related to respondents’ perception of disclosure/privacy risk, and from a question on reasons for quitting smoking from a follow-up survey from the Ontario Smoker’s Helpline. Targeting 80% combined accuracy, we found that 54%-80% of the data could be categorized automatically in research surveys.

  5. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of questions...

  6. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  7. The Power of the Question

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 8. The Power of the Question. Richard N Zare. Reflections Volume 14 Issue 8 August 2009 pp 818-819. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/08/0818-0819. Author Affiliations.

  8. Big Questions and Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen Meerkerk, van Elise

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that global labour history (GLH) and global economic history have much to offer each other. GLH would do well to raise sweeping questions - for instance about the origins of global inequality - engage more with theory, and increasingly use quantitative methods. Instead of

  9. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  10. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  11. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as…

  12. 78 FR 5458 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... about the submission which includes the following: ++ Name. ++ Title. ++ Organization. ++ Mailing... journal articles or full citations. When submitting publicly available instruments or survey questions, we...). ++ Relevant peer-reviewed journal articles or full citations. ++ CAHPS trademark status. ++ National Quality...

  13. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  14. Web surveys' hidden hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Palmer

    2003-07-01

    The same question posed on the Web and in print can yield very different answers, dramatically distorting survey results and misleading management. But, as psychologist Palmer Morrel-Samuels demonstrates, the problems are readily fixed.

  15. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Questioning assent: how are children's views included as families make decisions about clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, L; Shilling, V; Woolfall, K; Sowden, E; Smyth, R L; Williamson, P R; Young, B

    2016-11-01

    Assent is used to take children's wishes into account when they are invited into clinical trials, but the concept has attracted considerable criticism. We investigated children's accounts of decision-making with the aim of informing practice in supporting children when invited to join a clinical trial. We audio-recorded qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 22 children aged 8-16 years about being invited to take part in a clinical trial. Most children were interviewed with their parents. Analysis of the transcribed interviews examined the content of participants' accounts thematically, whilst also drawing on principles of discourse analysis, which examines how individuals use talk to achieve certain effects or social practices. It was not possible to separate children's knowledge of the clinical trial, or their decision-making processes from that of their parents, with parents taking a substantial mediating role in producing their children's decisions. Decision-making gradually unfolded across time and events and was interwoven within the family context, rather than happening in one moment or in the clinical setting. Whilst children valued their parents' role, a case study of child-parent disagreement indicated how children can struggle to be heard. Decisions happen within a process of family dynamics, in contrast to ideas of assent that isolate it from this context. Parents have a substantial role in children's decisions, and thus how families come to provide consent. Reflecting this we argue that assent practices need to focus on supporting parents to support their children in learning and deliberating about trials. However, this needs to be accompanied by practitioners being alert to the possibility of divergence in child and parent views and enabling children's perspectives to be heard. © 2016 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Alevi and questions of identity, including violence and insider/outsider perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin-Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alevilik is the second largest religious movement in Turkey after Sunnite Islam. The Alevi worship Ali and the twelve Imams of his family. Ali is more or less deified and therefore Alevis are considered as being ghulat (‘exaggerated’, ‘extremist’ and heterodox. The elevated Ali personifies an aspiration to justice and righteousness. He fought on the side of the weak and oppressed against those with power in society. Theologically, Ali is assumed to be blessed by the divine light and is therefore able to see into the mysterious spirituality of Islam. Many Alevis today however totally dissociate themselves from Shi’ism. Still, the degrading­ abel kızılbaş (‘red-head’ is associated with Ali and thus is something alleged to be anti-Osman, since Isma’il fought against the Osman Empire. The colour red represents the blood of Mohammed: he was wounded in battle and Ali saw the prophet’s blood flowing. As Ali grew older, he wanted to remind people of Mohammed’s struggle and therefore started wearing red headgear. Red thus became the colour of the Shi’ites and over time a symbol of Shi’ite martyrdom. Later red also gained political significance for the Alevis. The religious and the political are closely intertwined, but despite this, neither the Left nor Shi’ism does simply stand on one side and the Right/Sunni on the other – there are no such simple dichotomies in reality.

  18. Framing the Issue/Framing the Question: How are Sexual Minority Issues Included in Diversity Initiatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Tonette S.; Delgado, Antonio; Landorf, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This paper situates sexual minority issues within organizations by examining what it means to engage diversity through the perspectives of hostility, compliance, inquiry, inclusion, and advocacy. These perspectives are discussed in terms of human resource development missions of individual development, career development, and organization…

  19. Classroom questioning strategies as indicators of inquiry based science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, Linda Hale

    Inquiry teaching often rests upon the assumption that through the use of questioning and response strategies, teachers can stimulate students to actively construct knowledge. Based on this hypothesis, middle-school science lessons were observed and questioning and response strategies were identified that are related to inquiry-based instruction. Twenty-four science lessons were observed, videotaped, and ranked by inquiry characteristics other than questioning strategy. The video and audio portions of the recordings were analyzed to determine the student and teacher's questioning and response strategies in each classroom. These strategies were then compared to teaching style, along a continuum from traditional to inquiry, to identify questioning and response strategies that stimulate students to ask questions, solve problems, analyze evidence, consider alternative explanations, and other similar inquiry behaviors. The analyses indicated several questioning strategies of teachers that are related to inquiry teaching and learning and might be used as indicators of inquiry teaching in middle school science lessons. These include the number of content-related questions asked by teachers, the number of divergent questions asked by teachers, the number of times teachers probe for the intended response, the number of times teachers answer students' questions, and the number questions per concept asked by teachers. Perhaps more important was the observation that even after several decades of emphasizing the importance of inquiry methods in science education, neither students nor teachers participating in this study are asking higher-level cognitive questions deemed to be an important facet in the effective teaching and learning of science.

  20. Ankylosing Spondylitis: a Reflection and a Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Deysi Hernández Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane, joint entheses and para-articular structures of the spine, including the sacroiliac joints and limbs. We present a case of ankylosing spondylitis that had evolved for 12 years despite the relatively early diagnosis and treatment, showing flexion deformity and limitation of spinal movements. On radiological examination an early evolution to ankylosis was observed, which motivated us to make a reflection and a question.

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  3. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  4. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque,Bruno Saboia de; Callado,Marcelo de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity. O objetivo deste trabalho é promover um desafio de investigação sobre a moeda digital chamada Bitcoins, bem como e...

  6. Questions and answers in health care and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jill E

    2017-09-26

    Questions and answers are integral to the practice of health professionals and their education. Health professionals are taught to ask questions and we expect that patients will answer them. We may also invite patients to ask questions without considering that this may be difficult due to many factors including professional hierarchies. Choosing Wisely is a global initiative that frames questions for patients to ask in relation to tests and treatments. The same concept has been applied to health professional education with students and trainees also being encouraged to question their seniors about their choice of investigations and management. Now is the time for learners to also question how they are educated for their health profession. Their education should be evidence-guided and not solely informed by tradition. Asking and answering questions with respect and honesty is likely to enhance partnerships across the continuum of health and education.

  7. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  8. Improving Chinese Junior High School Students' Ability to Ask Critical Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Lederman, Norman G.; Cai, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    The present study explores ways to enhance students' question-asking ability (i.e., the ability to ask critical questions), which is the premise of scientific inquiry and a precondition for effective science teaching. A survey of junior high school students in Zhejiang province in China showed that students' questioning behavior was not well…

  9. Questions About Venus after Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The observations from Venus Express for nearly 13 Venus years or 26 solar days from April 2006 till 27 November 2014. Earlier, Venus has been explored by fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, descending probes, landers and floating balloons. These data have been supplemented by many ground based observations at reflected solar wavelengths, short and long wave infrared, millimeter to radio waves. Venus Express added significantly to the collection that will continue to be examined for understanding the planet's atmosphere and continuing analysis will inform us about new facets of the atmosphere and raise new questions. Inter-comparison of the measurements have been able to provide a general idea of the global atmosphere. However, re-visiting these observations also raises some questions about the atmosphere that have not received much attention lately but deserve to be explored and considered for future measurements. These questions are about the precise atmospheric composition in the deep atmosphere, the atmospheric state in the lower atmosphere, the static stability of the lower atmosphere, the clouds and hazes, the nature of the ultraviolet absorber(s) in the cloud layer, and wind speed and direction near the surface from equator to the pole, interaction between the atmosphere and the solid planet. The answers to these questions are important for a better understanding of Venus, its weather and climate and how the climate has evolved. The questions include: (i) What are the implications of the supercritical state of the two primary constituents of the Venus atmosphere - carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the lower atmosphere? (ii) Is the Venus (lower) atmosphere well mixed? (iii) What determines the observed alternating stable and unstable layers (static stability) in the lower atmosphere? (iv) What causes the contrasts seen in reflected sunlight which are largest at ultraviolet wavelengths and very muted at other visible wavelengths? (v) what causes the morning -afternoon

  10. Listening to Include

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  11. Questions as a tool to design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurisicchio, Marco; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an interpretation of design activity through investigating design questions. From a number of previous studies two types of question have been identified: 1) reasoning questions; and 2) strategic questions. Strategic questions are part of an experienced designers approach to ...

  12. FY14-Q1 1.2.1.3.ML.1 INL Biomass Feeding Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler L. Westover

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 20 institutions were contacted by telephone and/or electronic mail and requested to provide responses to a survey on feeding biomass feedstock materials. Fourteen individuals responded. Responses from the participants, including information that was offered in addition to answers to the survey questions are summarized in this report, which fully meets the requirements of the milestone.

  13. Learning to Love the Questions: How Essential Questions Promote Creativity and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Educators know that creativity and innovation involve questioning and the capacity to frame topics as problems to be solved. They know that we are living in a time of a new generation of standards, including the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). In the U.S., compliance with these standards requires that educators encourage students to ask…

  14. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  15. Interviewer Effects on a Network-Size Filter Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josten Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey “Panel Study ‘Labour Market and Social Security’” (PASS, where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.

  16. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  17. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  18. Nursing students collaborating to develop multiple-choice exam revision questions: A student engagement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Judy A; Christensen, Martin; Shaw, Natasha; Bakon, Shannon

    2017-12-01

    Nursing students find bioscience subjects challenging. Bioscience exams pose particular concerns for these students, which may lead to students adopting a surface-approach to learning. To promote student collective understanding of bioscience, improve their confidence for the final exam, and improve deeper understanding of bioscience. In order to address exam anxiety, and improve student understanding of content, this student engagement project involved nursing students collaborating in small groups to develop multiple-choice questions and answers, which became available to the entire student cohort. This study was conducted at two campuses of an Australian university, within a first year bioscience subject as part of the undergraduate nursing programme. All students enrolled in the subject were encouraged to attend face-to-face workshops, and collaborate in revision question writing. Online anonymous questionnaires were used to invite student feedback on this initiative; 79 respondents completed this feedback. Students collaborated in groups to write revision questions as part of in-class activities. These questions were made available on the student online learning site for revision. An online feedback survey was deployed at the conclusion of all workshops for this subject, with questions rated using a Likert scale. Participants indicated that they enjoyed the opportunity to collaborate in this activity, and almost all of these respondents used these questions in their exam preparation. There was strong agreement that this activity improved their confidence for the final exam. Importantly, almost two-thirds of respondents agreed that writing questions improved their understanding of content, and assisted in their active reflection of content. Overall, this initiative revealed various potential benefits for the students, including promoting bioscience understanding and confidence. This may improve their long-term understanding of bioscience for nursing practice

  19. [The questions of international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, M L

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified)

  20. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  1. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  2. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...

  3. Teachers' Experiences Relative to Successful Questioning and Discussion Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods, but there is often inconsistent implementation of these instructional methods. This case study explored teachers and evaluators' perceptions regarding exemplary questioning and discussion techniques. Participants included 9 teachers who earned exemplary marks on their…

  4. Frequently Asked Questions: Minimum Legal Drinking Age/Age 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides answers to questions about minimum legal drinking age. The questions include: (1) Youth in other countries are exposed to alcohol at earlier ages and engage in less alcohol abuse and have healthier attitudes toward alcohol. Don't those countries have fewer alcohol-related problems than we do?; (2) Does educating teens about…

  5. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  6. Comparison of Question Answering Systems Based on Ontology and Semantic Web in Different Environment

    OpenAIRE

    DURAISWAMY, K.; Kalaivani, S.

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Question Answering (QA) system is taking an important role in current search engine optimization concept. Natural language processing technique is mostly implemented in QA system for asking userâs question and several steps are also followed for conversion of questions to query form for getting an exact answer. Approach: This paper surveys different types of question answering system based on ontology and semantic web model with different query format. For comparison, the t...

  7. Big questions about the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  8. Questions and Answers about BSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Skillicorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (BSP is a parallel programming model that abstracts from low-level program structures in favour of supersteps. A superstep consists of a set of independent local computations, followed by a global communication phase and a barrier synchronisation. Structuring programs in this way enables their costs to be accurately determined from a few simple architectural parameters, namely the permeability of the communication network to uniformly-random traffic and the time to synchronise. Although permutation routing and barrier synch ronisations are widely regarded as inherently expensive, this is not the case. As a result, the structure imposed by BSP does not reduce performance, while bringing considerable benefits for application building. This paper answers the most common questions we are asked about BSP and justifies its claim to be a major step forward in parallel programming.

  9. To Use Constructed-Response Questions, Or Not To Use Constructed-Response Questions? That Is The Question

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Hickson; W. Robert Reed; Nicholas Sander

    2010-01-01

    Advocates of Constructed Response (CR) questions argue that CR questions provide a different assessment of student knowledge than is available from Multiple Choice (MC) questions. If that is the case, and if the benefit in terms of improved assessment is substantial, then it follows that grade outcomes using CR questions should be different from those using MC questions. We investigate this using a large dataset composed of individual assessment results from thousands of students in introduct...

  10. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times the...

  11. Answering Questions by Computer: A Logical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, J. L.

    This document is a study of the processing of questions input to computerized question-answering system such as the RAND Relational Data File. The process consists of (1)transforming the natural-language question into a symbolic question (i.e., a certain formula of predicate calculus) and (2)generating the answer by calculating the value set of…

  12. Post Disaster Household Survey in Haiti : Needs and Characteristics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The survey will include questions on: death, injury and illness; social and economic well-being; access to justice and local governance; and mental health and public ... virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the.

  13. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  14. Total Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among US Adults Was Lower When Measured Using a 1-Question Versus 4-Question Screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Park, Sohyun; Dooyema, Carrie; Blanck, Heidi M

    2017-01-01

    To compare the performance of a 1-question survey screener measuring total sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake to a screener measuring SSB types separately using 4 questions. Cross-sectional. Web-based 2014 SummerStyles survey. A total of 4167 US adults (≥18 years). Frequency of SSB intake measured using a 1-question screener was compared to frequency using a 4-question screener (regular soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, sweetened coffee/tea). SSB intake (number of time/day) was categorized as 0, >0 to questions versus 1. Paired t tests were used, and agreement was evaluated using weighted κ and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Mean SSB intake was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-1.79) times/day using 4 questions and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.56-0.62) times/day using 1 question ( P questions versus 1 was 16.0% versus 38.5% for 0 time/day, 15.6% versus 42.5% for >0 to question screener versus a 4-question screener. Researchers should assess SSB types separately or consider that daily SSB intake is likely underestimated with 1 question.

  15. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...

  16. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  17. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  18. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  19. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  20. NREL Partnership Survey - FY 2016 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts an annual partnership satisfaction survey in which we ask our clients to rate NREL in a number of areas. As a national laboratory, the principal areas we focus on include value, timeliness, quality, price, and capabilities. This fact sheet shows the results of a survey with 300 customers responding to 11 questions using ratings that vary from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree.' In FY 16, 100% of the scores improved or were equal to FY 15 numbers.

  1. On the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents' willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is rarely tested. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of their comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found to be less comprehensible by respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the crosswise model was found to be the most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning in general was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning.

  2. Assessment of a travel question to identify donors with risk of Trypanosoma cruzi: operational validity and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Chiavetta, Jo Anne; Fan, Wenli; Xi, Guoliang; Yi, Qi-Long; Goldman, Mindy; Scalia, Vito; Fearon, Margaret A

    2008-04-01

    Because Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection in Canada and the United States is largely contracted in endemic countries, targeted testing of blood donors with risk travel may improve safety. The operational validity of a travel question suitable for donor screening was tested, and it was field-tested. After 1331 donors completed a short travel question, operational validity was assessed by detailed travel histories in face-to-face interviews. Two nationwide donor surveys were carried out assessing donor responses to similar travel questions in 2001 (13,623 donors) and in 2006 (20,037 donors). All donors in Toronto, Ontario, answered a travel question in 1997 and those born in or who spent 6 months or more in Mexico, Central America, or South America were tested for antibody to T. cruzi. There was 97.3 percent agreement between the travel question and detailed interviews, with 15 donors (1.1%) failing to acknowledge risk travel (false-negative questioning responses). Of these, 6 donors were born there and 7 others had less than 1 year of cumulative travel. In 2001 and 2006, there were 2.1 and 2.0 percent of donors with risk travel, respectively, but 16.5 and 11.2 percent of these donors were identified only because they were born there (travel not acknowledge). There were 1337 (1.6%) donors in Toronto in 1997 with risk travel and none were positive for the presence of T. cruzi antibody. Donors can answer a short question about cumulative time in Latin America with similar accuracy to detailed questioning, but screening questions should also include country of birth.

  3. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what is not. Symptoms of psychosis include delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that ... and work, strained family relations, and separation from friends. The longer the symptoms go untreated, the greater ...

  4. Three growing questions about Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Crimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through three capital questions, this short essay tries to offer a general panorama and a better understanding of the proteiform complex body or Masonry. Through by a multi-level hermeneutic, this study get the ambition to be comprehensible both to Readers who are not used to this kind of literature and to the ones advanced and skilled in symbolic thought. The main important conclusion owes the quality of the symbolic level, which is the property to refuse a single interpretation: notwithstanding, this does not prevent from a clear historical and political evaluation of the phenomena under analysis, according the methodologies of social sciences. This political evaluability drives to the main valuable output of the essay, which concerns the anthropological statement that the logical label of Masonry, with this name or many others, it exists since always. Under the category of initiatory institution, we may consider the step between individual and society, and a society inside a larger one. Evolving from the needs of the individuals to the ones of social groups, the matter joins to the land of political sciences. The sociological meaning can be posed under analytic view in reason of the functionalist meaning emerging from the alternative couples status-quo/emancipation and conservatism/progressivism. Through by this perspective, anyway the theme seems not to reveal much more, because this “proteiform complex body” manifest itself as something too much complex in its inner core to be considered in a way or in another. What remains is strictly symbolic, with some theological and eschatological points that refuse to be posed under restrain.

  5. FVQA: Fact-based Visual Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Dick, Anthony; Hengel, Anton van den

    2017-09-19

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) has attracted much attention in both computer vision and natural language processing communities, not least because it offers insight into the relationships between two important sources of information. Current datasets, and the models built upon them, have focused on questions which are answerable by direct analysis of the question and image alone. The set of such questions that require no external information to answer is interesting, but very limited. It excludes questions which require common sense, or basic factual knowledge to answer, for example. Here we introduce FVQA (Fact-based VQA), a VQA dataset which requires, and supports, much deeper reasoning. FVQA primarily contains questions that require external information to answer. We thus extend a conventional visual question answering dataset, which contains image-question-answer triplets, through additional image-question-answer-supporting fact tuples. Each supporting-fact is represented as a structural triplet, such as .

  6. 'Any questions?'--Clinicians' usage of invitations to ask questions (IAQs) in outpatient plastic surgery consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Patrick, Peter L

    2014-12-01

    To explore use of 'Invitations to Ask Questions' (IAQs) by plastic surgeons in outpatient consultations, and consider how type of IAQ impacts on patients' responses to, and recollection of, IAQs. Descriptive study: 63 patients were audio recorded in consultation with 5 plastic surgeons, and completed a brief questionnaire immediately after the consultation. Consultation transcripts were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods of Discourse Analysis and compared with questionnaire findings. A taxonomy of IAQs was developed, including three types of IAQ (Overt, Covert, and Borderline). Overt IAQs were rarely identified, and almost all IAQs occurred in the closing stages of the consultation. However, when an overt IAQ was used, patients always recollected being asked if they had any questions after the consultation. Patients are rarely explicitly offered the opportunity to ask questions. When this does occur, it is often in the closing stages of the consultation. Clinicians should openly encourage patients to ask questions frequently throughout the consultation, and be mindful that subtle differences in construction of these utterances may impact upon interpretation. Clear communication, of message and intention, is essential in clinical encounters to minimize misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or missed opportunities for patients to raise concerns. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Validity of self-reported periodontal questions in a New Zealand cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster Page, L A; Thomson, W M; Broadbent, J M

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the validity of four self-reported questions for measuring periodontitis in a birth cohort. Full-mouth periodontal examinations (three sites/tooth) were undertaken at age 38 in a complete birth cohort born in 1972/1973 in New Zealand. Four self-reported periodontal screening questions were included ("Do you think you have gum disease"; "Has a dental professional ever told you that you have lost bone around your teeth"; "Have you ever had scaling, root planing, surgery, or other treatment for gum disease" and "Have you ever had any teeth that have become loose by themselves without some injury"), and the sensitivity and specificity of those self-reported items were calculated for individual questions and using a multivariable binary logistic regression model. Generalised linear models were used to compare relative risks for periodontitis and smoking, using the (a) clinical measures and (b) self-reported questions. Among the 895 who had periodontal examinations, the prevalence of periodontitis was 43.7, 22.8 and 12.0 %, respectively, for one or more sites with ≥4, ≥5 and ≥6 mm clinical attachment loss (AL). The specificity of the four self-reported questions was high (82-94 %), but the sensitivity was low for all, except the question: "Do you think you have gum disease". The four questions' highest combined sensitivity + specificity value was 1.33 for one or more sites with ≥4 mm AL, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve being greatest for one or more sites with ≥6 mm AL, at 0.84. For the smoking-periodontitis association, the estimates of relative risk for periodontitis among smokers were as follows: (a) 1.81, 2.88 and 5.79, respectively, clinically determined to have one or more sites with ≥4, ≥5 and ≥6 mm AL and (b) 2.19, 2.17, 1.23 and 1.89, respectively, for the four self-reported questions. The four self-reported periodontal screening questions performed adequately in identifying

  8. Revealing Learner Interests through Topic Mining from Question-Answering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Yijie; Wang, Na; Wang, Min; Hao, Tianyong

    2017-01-01

    In a question-answering system, learner generated content including asked and answered questions is a meaningful resource to capture learning interests. This paper proposes an approach based on question topic mining for revealing learners' concerned topics in real community question-answering systems. The authors' approach firstly preprocesses all…

  9. Marketing the Surveying and Geospatial Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, J.

    2014-04-01

    Many universities around the world are experiencing a decline in the number of students entering programs in surveying and geospatial engineering, including some institutions with prestigious pasts. For Australia, this raises the question of whether there will be adequate graduates in the future to replace the current cohort of surveying and geospatial professionals when they retire. It is not clear why it has not been possible to attract more school leavers into the surveying and geospatial programs, but it may be because the community at large is unaware of the many career opportunities. Several surveys have been carried out in Australia to determine the status of graduates entering the profession and the impact that shortages of graduates in the surveying and geospatial professions in the future. These shortages could seriously limit the development of infrastructure and housing if they are not overcome. Another issue is whether the demand for graduates is changing due to developments in technology that allow surveying and mapping to be undertaken more quickly and efficiently than in the past. Marketing of education programs into schools and the general population is essential. A solution maybe for a concerted global effort to encourage more school leavers to enrol in surveying and geospatial engineering programs and hence improve the viability of the profession for the future. The paper will review the impacts of shortages in graduates entering the profession and approaches to improve the marketing of the surveying and geospatial professions.

  10. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  11. An Ensemble Method for Spelling Correction in Consumer Health Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Orthographic and grammatical errors are a common feature of informal texts written by lay people. Health-related questions asked by consumers are a case in point. Automatic interpretation of consumer health questions is hampered by such errors. In this paper, we propose a method that combines techniques based on edit distance and frequency counts with a contextual similarity-based method for detecting and correcting orthographic errors, including misspellings, word breaks, and punctuation errors. We evaluate our method on a set of spell-corrected questions extracted from the NLM collection of consumer health questions. Our method achieves a F1 score of 0.61, compared to an informed baseline of 0.29, achieved using ESpell, a spelling correction system developed for biomedical queries. Our results show that orthographic similarity is most relevant in spelling error correction in consumer health questions and that frequency and contextual information are complementary to orthographic features.

  12. CARIAA Call - Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... The call states that CARIAA will also collaborate with the consortia on programmatic functions that support the program as a whole, including communication, outreach and engagement, knowledge management, and monitoring and evaluation. What kind of activities are envisaged? 48). The call states that ...

  13. More Questions on Precision Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Precision teaching can accelerate basic skills progress of special needs children. Issues discussed include using probes as performance tests, charting daily progress, using the charted data to modify teaching methods, determining appropriate age levels, assessing the number of students to be precision taught, and carefully allocating time. (JDD)

  14. Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

  15. Grids: The Top Ten Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Schopf

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of a national computing system and data grid has become a reachable goal from both the computer science and computational science point of view. A distributed infrastructure capable of sophisticated computational functions can bring many benefits to scientific work, but poses many challenges, both technical and socio-political. Technical challenges include having basic software tools, higher-level services, functioning and pervasive security, and standards, while socio-political issues include building a user community, adding incentives for sites to be part of a user-centric environment, and educating funding sources about the needs of this community. This paper details the areas relating to Grid research that we feel still need to be addressed to fully leverage the advantages of the Grid.

  16. Investigations of Human Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIEDUNLIMITED [3 SAME AS RPT C DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 2,c viFFiCE Sr ,�L...in the Memphis area who answered the telephone and supplied cooperative answers. Answers were deleted and replaced if the person hung up the...Minneapolis, MN 55455-0344 Nuria Sebastian Dep. Psicologia Basica Dr. Lauren Resnick Univ. Barcelona Learning R & D Center Adolf Florensa s.n. University of

  17. Asking practical ethical questions about youth participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Knowles-Yanez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on case study research conducted in an economically depressed, immigrant gateway neighborhood of Escondido, California. This study has been in progress since 2005 and involves working with children at the local middle school on rights-based community environmental action research projects in coordination with student facilitators in an upper-division uni- versity class titled “Children and the Environment.” This case study has suggested inquiry into the practical ethical dimensions of working with children, administrators, and university students on action research. Examples of the ethical questions which arose during this study include: how can continuity for the middle school children be achieved as different groups of university students move in and out of the project as they take and finish the “Children and the Environment” class, and is it ethical for the middle school children’s work to be facilitated by university students only freshly trained in the action research technique? This paper explores these and other ethical questions involving power, coercion, tension over expectations, and obligation and pro- vides direction for on-going ethical questions scholars should pursue in involving children in rights-based community environmental action research. Cet article se base sur une étude de cas menée dans un quartier immigrant défavorisé d’Escondido, Californie. Commencée en 2005, l’étude comporte le travail avec des enfants dans l’école secondaire locale autour des projets de recherche-action environnementale communautaire dans une approche de respect et de promotion des droits, avec la collaboration d’animateurs d’une université, inscrits dans le cours « Les enfants et l’environnement ». Cette étude de cas a soulevé des questions sur les dimensions éthiques du travail avec des enfants, le personnel scolaire et des étudiants universitaires dans la recherche-action. Comment peut

  18. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    of CQA services, question retrieval in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical question-answer pairs that are relevant to a query question. This article presents several new approaches to exploiting the category information of questions for improving the performance of question retrieval......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  19. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  20. Question Answering System Dan Penerapannya Pada Alkitab

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Gunawan; Lovina, Gita

    2006-01-01

    Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper), and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain...

  1. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan Gunawan; Gita Lovina

    2006-01-01

    Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper), and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain...

  2. Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Met, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

  3. Leading Questions and the Eyewitness Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1975-01-01

    Investigates how the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later. Discussion of the findings develops the thesis that questions asked about an event shortly after it occurs may distort the witness' memory of that event. (RC)

  4. Questions ouvertes/questions fermees: une dichotomie qui appelle une analyse critique (Open Questions/Closed Questions: A Dichotomy that Calls for a Critical Analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, Shirley; Bried, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Among the strategies used by the adult to engage the child in a linguistic interaction, those involving questioning occupy a central position. One of the parameters usually taken into account to differentiate the type of questions directed to the child is the opposition between closed (i.e., yes/no) and open-ended questions. The relevance of that…

  5. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  6. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  7. What Can We Learn from Students' Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeyras, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)

  8. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  9. Using the cognitive interviewing process to improve survey design by allied health: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Owen; McKinstry, Carol; Lannin, Natasha A

    2017-12-22

    Allied health professionals frequently use surveys to collect data for clinical practice and service improvement projects. Careful development and piloting of purpose-designed surveys is important to ensure intended measuring (that respondents correctly interpret survey items when responding). Cognitive interviewing is a specific technique that can improve the design of self-administered surveys. The aim of this study was to describe the use of the cognitive interviewing process to improve survey design, which involved a purpose-designed, online survey evaluating staff use of functional electrical stimulation. A qualitative study involving one round of cognitive interviewing with three occupational therapists and three physiotherapists. The cognitive interviewing process identified 11 issues with the draft survey, which could potentially influence the validity and quality of responses. The raised issues included difficulties with: processing the question to be able to respond, determining a response to the question, retrieving relevant information from memory and comprehending the written question. Twelve survey amendments were made following the cognitive interviewing process, comprising four additions, seven revisions and one correction. The cognitive interviewing process applied during the development of a purpose-designed survey enabled the identification of potential problems and informed revisions to the survey prior to its use. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. Translating questions for use with Samoan adults: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaki, Leilani A

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to present the process of translating questions about perceived risk for diabetes into Samoan and describe important cultural adaptations to the modified Brislin's translation model for cross-cultural research. With the assistance of a culture broker and several Samoan translators, 14 questions were translated into the Samoan language. Cultural adaptations included using a group approach, working with a matai, and following protocols such as fa'alavelave. Questions were back-translated and then pilot tested. Results from the pilot testing supported the use of these cultural modifications in the translation model.

  11. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  12. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, RICE COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, HOLMES COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, CITRUS County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  17. SURVEY, Cecil County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  18. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  19. SURVEY, TUSCALOSAA COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, BENTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. 1998 Harrisburg Airport Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes data collected in 1998 to evaluate the ability of lidar to survey airport obstructions in collaboration with NOAA National Geodetic Survey....

  2. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  3. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  6. Setting a research question, aim and objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Bailey, Maria E

    2016-03-01

    To describe the development of a research question, aim and objective. The first steps of any study are developing the research question, aim and objective. Subsequent steps develop from these and they govern the researchers' choice of population, setting, data to be collected and time period for the study. Clear, succinctly posed research questions, aims and objectives are essential if studies are to be successful. Researchers developing their research questions, aims and objectives generally experience difficulties. They are often overwhelmed trying to convert what they see as a relevant issue from practice into research. This necessitates engaging with the relevant published literature and knowledgeable people. This paper identifies the issues to be considered when developing a research question, aim and objective. Understanding these considerations will enable researchers to effectively present their research question, aim and objective. To conduct successful studies, researchers should develop clear research questions, aims and objectives.

  7. Assessing health risk behaviors among adolescents: the effect of question wording and appeals for honesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy D; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Ross, Jim

    2004-08-01

    To understand how methodological factors influence prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors obtained from surveys, we examined the effect of varying question wording and honesty appeals while holding other aspects of the surveys constant. A convenience sample of students (n = 4140) in grades 9 through 12 was randomly assigned to complete one of six versions of a paper-and-pencil questionnaire in classrooms. Each questionnaire version represented a different combination of honesty appeal (standard vs. strong) and questionnaire type. The questionnaire types varied in wording and in the number of questions assessing particular types of behaviors. The questionnaires were based on those used in three national surveys--the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Monitoring the Future, and the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Logistic regression analyses examined how responses to each survey question assessing behavior were associated with questionnaire type, honesty appeal, and the interaction of those two variables. Among 32 behaviors with different question wording across questionnaire types, 12 showed a significant effect of questionnaire type. Among 45 behaviors with identical question wording across questionnaire types, five showed a significant main effect of questionnaire type. Among all 77 behaviors, one showed a significant main effect for honesty appeal and two showed a significant interaction between honesty appeal and questionnaire type. When population, setting, questionnaire context, mode of administration, and data-editing protocols are held constant, differences in question wording can create statistically significant differences in some prevalence estimates. Varying honesty appeals does not have an effect on prevalence estimates.

  8. Question Order Affects the Measurement of Bullying Victimization among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Bullying among youth is recognized as a serious student problem, especially in middle school. The most common approach to measuring bullying is through student self-report surveys that ask questions about different types of bullying victimization. Although prior studies have shown that question-order effects may influence participant responses, no…

  9. Specialized Literacy Professionals as Literacy Leaders: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rita M.; Kern, Diane; Goatley, Virginia; Ortlieb, Evan; Shettel, Jennifer; Calo, Kristine; Marinak, Barbara; Sturtevant, Elizabeth; Elish-Piper, Laurie; L'Allier, Susan; Cox, Mae A.; Frost, Shari; Mason, Pamela; Quatroche, Diana; Cassidy, Jack

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale national survey of specialized literacy professionals was designed to answer questions about responsibilities, including leadership, and preparation for these roles. Questionnaires, completed by over 2,500 respondents, indicated that respondents had multiple responsibilities that included both instruction of struggling readers and…

  10. Student Teachers' Types of Probing Questions in Inquiry-Based Mathematics Teaching with and without GeoGebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähkiöniemi, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have produced several typologies of teacher questions in mathematics. Probing questions that ask students to explain are often included in the types of questions. However, only rare studies have created subtypes for probing questions or investigated how questioning differs depending on whether technology is used or not. The aims…

  11. A rapid evidence-based service by librarians provided information to answer primary care clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo

    2010-03-01

    A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.

  12. Developing critical thinking through Socratic Questioning: An Action Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Sahamid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus. This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher to assist students to respond to teacher questions through Paul’s (1993 model of Socratic Questioning which claims to develop students’ critical thinking. Data was collected through researcher’s field notes, students’ writing tasks and student interviews which were analysed after each cycle of the action research study. Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. Some of the factors affecting students’ performance included students’ language proficiency, weak reading ability and students’ anxiety towards the questioning method. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom. Keywords: Socratic questioning, teacher questioning, critical thinking, action research

  13. The effect of mode and context on survey results: Analysis of data from the Health Survey for England 2006 and the Boost Survey for London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Marilyn A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related data at local level could be provided by supplementing national health surveys with local boosts. Self-completion surveys are less costly than interviews, enabling larger samples to be achieved for a given cost. However, even when the same questions are asked with the same wording, responses to survey questions may vary by mode of data collection. These measurement differences need to be investigated further. Methods The Health Survey for England in London ('Core' and a London Boost survey ('Boost' used identical sampling strategies but different modes of data collection. Some data were collected by face-to-face interview in the Core and by self-completion in the Boost; other data were collected by self-completion questionnaire in both, but the context differed. Results were compared by mode of data collection using two approaches. The first examined differences in results that remained after adjusting the samples for differences in response. The second compared results after using propensity score matching to reduce any differences in sample composition. Results There were no significant differences between the two samples for prevalence of some variables including long-term illness, limiting long-term illness, current rates of smoking, whether participants drank alcohol, and how often they usually drank. However, there were a number of differences, some quite large, between some key measures including: general health, GHQ12 score, portions of fruit and vegetables consumed, levels of physical activity, and, to a lesser extent, smoking consumption, the number of alcohol units reported consumed on the heaviest day of drinking in the last week and perceived social support (among women only. Conclusion Survey mode and context can both affect the responses given. The effect is largest for complex question modules but was also seen for identical self-completion questions. Some data collected by interview and self

  14. Conducting Surveys and Data Collection: From Traditional to Mobile and SMS-based Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh, bias-free and valid data collected using different survey modes is considered an essential requirement for smooth functioning and evolution of an organization. Surveys play a major role in making in-time correct decisions and generating reports. The aim of this study is to compare and investigate state-of-the-art in different survey modes including print, email, online, mobile and SMS-based surveys. Results indicated that existing methods are neither complete nor sufficient to fulfil the overall requirements of an organization which primarily rely on surveys. Also, it shows that SMS is a dominant method for data collection due to its pervasiveness. However, existing SMS-based data collection has limitations like limited number of characters per SMS, single question per SMS and lake of multimedia support. Recent trends in data collection emphasis on data collection applications for smart phones. However, in developing countries low-end mobile devices are still extensively used which makes the data collection difficult from man in the street. The paper conclude that existing survey modes and methods should be improved to get maximum responses quickly in low cost manner. The study has contributed to the area of surveying and data collection by analysing different factors such as cost, time and response rate. The results of this study can help practitioners in creating a more successful surveying method for data collection that can be effectively used for low budget projects in developed as well as developing countries.

  15. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  16. Ripple Down Rules for Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat Quoc; Nguyen, Dai Quoc; Pham, Son Bao

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a new trend of building ontology-based question answering systems. These systems use semantic web information to produce more precise answers to users' queries. However, these systems are mostly designed for English. In this paper, we introduce an ontology-based question answering system named KbQAS which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first one made for Vietnamese. KbQAS employs our question analysis approach that systematically constructs a knowledge base ...

  17. Question Prompt Lists in health consultations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Janet E; Grootemaat, Pam; Duncan, Cathy

    2015-06-03

    This review examines the use and effectiveness of Question Prompt Lists (QPL) as communication aids to enhance patient question asking, information provision to patients and patient participation in health and medical consultations. A systematic search was undertaken to identify relevant literature concerning QPLs including academic databases, Google-based and snowball searching. Forty-two relevant studies reporting 50 interventions were identified. Although findings varied there was some evidence that a QPL endorsed by the physician increased total question asking. Using a QPL increased question asking concerning specific content areas (e.g. prognosis). There was some evidence that physicians provided more information during consultations. There were no consistent findings concerning effects on patient knowledge recall, anxiety and satisfaction or consultation time. Some interventions that increased question asking had longer consultation times. There is evidence that an appropriate QPL, endorsed by the physician and provided immediately before the consultation, may increase patient question asking and lead to more information being provided by the physician. There is increasing evidence to support QPL use in routine practice. Further trials might address the issues identified including an assessment of QPL optimal length and QPL adaptation for cultural and special needs groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas N. O’Reilly-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the

  19. Textbook Publishers' Website Objective Question Banks: Does Their Use Improve Students' Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott Paul; Huczynski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey of students' usage of the objective question bank section of an academic publisher's textbook website. The findings are based on a survey of 239 business and management undergraduates conducted using a quantitative research methodology. The results suggest that increased use of the objective question…

  20. Reviewing the regulatory barriers for nanomedicine: global questions and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M; Gatof, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine will play an increasing role in prevention and treatment across the entire healthcare spectrum. However, their precise market size, economic value and areas of application remain unclear. This opacity, including the question of what constitutes nanomedicine matters, especially when considered alongside the key regulatory questions and concerns. This article begins by placing these key questions into context in relation to the current scientific state of the art, focusing particular attention on the human health and safety context. In exploring these central questions surrounding the regulation of nanomedicine, this perspective also explores existing and suggested frameworks that aim to deal with emerging technologies more generally. It then outlines priority areas for action and general conclusions specific to nanomedicine.

  1. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  2. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  3. Ethical challenges in designing and conducting medicine quality surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Patricia; Parker, Michael; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Phanouvong, Souly; Yeung, Shunmay; Kitutu, Freddy E; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Mayxay, Mayfong; Guerin, Philippe J; Newton, Paul N

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the main ethical challenges related to the conduct of medicine quality surveys and make suggestions on how to address them. Most evidence-based information regarding medicine quality derives from surveys. However, existing research ethical guidelines do not provide specific guidance for medicine quality surveys. Hence, those conducting surveys are often left wondering how to judge what counts as best practice. A list of the main ethical challenges in the design and conduct of surveys is presented. It is vital that the design and conduct of medicine quality surveys uphold moral and ethical obligations and analyse the ethical implications and consequences of such work. These aspects include the impact on the local availability of and access to medicines; the confidentiality and privacy of the surveyors and the surveyed; questions as to whether outlet staff personnel should be told they are part of a survey; the need of ethical and regulatory approvals; and how the findings should be disseminated. Medicine quality surveys should ideally be conducted in partnership with the relevant national Medicine Regulatory Authorities. An international, but contextually sensitive, model of good ethical practice for such surveys is needed. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hinsley

    Full Text Available Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  5. Asking Questions: Cultivating the Habit of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, Evelyn Wortsman

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to think critically is a slow, painstaking process but one well worth cultivating. Some students never realize that questioning matters. Their smug mockery of any reflective endeavor threatens their comfort zone and creates an obstacle to thinking critically. They simply devalue it. Questioning is a sure sign that the student is…

  6. Statistics Test Questions: Content and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Audy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of a group of teacher-made test questions for statistics courses at the university level. Teachers were asked to submit tests they had used in their previous two semesters. Ninety-seven tests containing 978 questions were gathered and classified according to the SOLO taxonomy (Biggs & Collis,…

  7. Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and

  8. Answering Statistical Questions with Lexis and Westlaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, Ralph F.

    1988-01-01

    This examination of the ability of Westlaw and Lexis to answer statistical questions about judicial decision making shows that the two databases have failed to achieve an adequate level of record segmentation and data integrity to answer questions reliably, and that editorially supplied text is not an adequate substitute. (MES)

  9. 9/11: Reflections, Memories, and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, Joe

    2011-01-01

    What were you doing on September 11th? This seems like an obvious question to prompt conversations about the World Trade Center tragedy, but is it a good question to ask high school students a decade removed from the event? Many students now in high school were toddlers at the time. What do they really remember from that day? Are these memories…

  10. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  11. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  12. Questions That Stimulate Creativity and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karren

    2017-03-01

    A higher level of questioning can stimulate creativity and innovation. Stimulating innovation and change in health care is critical to advancing care delivered by nurses and the necessary changes in the systems housing this care. Staff development faculty can teach nurses how to ask these questions. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(3):102-103. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  14. Adopted Children: A Question of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Samina; Visser, John

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon a study completed in a specific school in Bangalore where most children enter at the pre-school level and continue till high school. While the particular children in the study constitute a small number--four--it was observed that questions of identity mainly arose when they started questioning the circumstances behind their…

  15. Patterns and Punctuation: Learning to Question Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning,…

  16. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. Questioning Techniques: A Study of Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan Hill, Joan

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and elicit fuller responses? How do teachers use the levels of questions and wait time as a teaching technique? How do teachers make space for students to talk together so that their thoughts are visible to other students? This article seeks to provide answers to these important…

  18. Cognitive testing of physical activity and acculturation questions in recent and long-term Latino immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrigan David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We ascertained the degree to which language (English versus Spanish, and residence time in the US influence responses to survey questions concerning two topics: self-reported acculturation status, and recent physical activity (PA. This topic is likely to be of general interest because of growing numbers of immigrants in countries worldwide. Methods We carried out qualitative (cognitive interviews of survey items on acculturation and physical activity on 27 Latino subjects from three groups: (a In Spanish, of those of low residence time (less than five years living in the U.S. (n = 9; (b In Spanish, of those of high residence time (15 or more years in the U.S (n = 9; and (c in English, of those of high residence time (n = 9. Results There were very few language translation problems; general question design defects and socio-cultural challenges to survey responses were more common. Problems were found for both acculturation and PA questions, with distinct problem types for the two question areas. Residence time/language group was weakly associated with overall frequency of problems observed: low residence time/Spanish (86%, high residence time/Spanish (67%, and English speaking groups (62%. Conclusions Standardized survey questions related to acculturation and physical activity present somewhat different cognitive challenges. For PA related questions, problems with such questions were similar regardless of subject residence time or language preference. For acculturation related questions, residence time/language or education level influenced responses to such questions. These observations should help in the interpretation of survey results for culturally diverse populations.

  19. Children's performance on ground rules questions: implications for forensic interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jason J; Brubacher, Sonja P; Poole, Debra A

    2015-02-01

    Ground rules, also called interview instructions, are included in investigative interviews with children around the world. These rules aim to manage the expectations of children who are typically unaccustomed to being questioned by adults who are naïve to the children's experiences. Although analog research has examined the efficacy of ground rules instruction, a systematic analysis of children's ability to respond appropriately to each of the rules has not been reported. In the current study, we scored the accuracy of children's (N = 501, 4 to 12 years) responses to 5 ground rules practice questions (e.g., "What is my dog's name?") and 2 questions that asked whether they would follow the rules, and then assigned inaccurate responses to 1 of several error categories. Few children answered every question correctly, but their performance on individual questions was encouraging. As expected, there were marked differences in children's understanding across ground rules questions (especially among the younger children), with "Don't guess" and "Tell the truth" rules being the easiest to comprehend. Together with evidence that ground rules instruction takes little time to deliver (typically 2 to 4 min) and is associated with improved accuracy in previous research, these findings support the use of ground rules in investigative interviews of children 4 years and older.

  20. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  1. Point shapefile of quadrangle 6 station locations in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary offshore of Boston, Massachusetts where video, photographs and sediment samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1993-2004 - includes sediment sample analyses and interpreted geologic substrate (Geographic, NAD 83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Sanctuary Program, has conducted seabed...

  2. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  3. The functions and roles of questioning during nursing handovers in specialty settings: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixon, Sascha; Braaf, Sandra; Williams, Allison; Liew, Danny; Manias, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Nursing handovers are an important component of patient safety and quality in communicating across transitions of care. To determine the functions and roles of questions in nursing handovers, and of how questions contribute to handover quality improvement in specialty settings of an Australian tertiary hospital. An ethnographic research design was employed. Participant observations were conducted which were audiorecorded and transcribed. Question-response sequences and the roles of questions in the handovers were coded. Questions served many functions, and included: requests for information, requests for confirmation, other initiations of repair, outloud utterances, understanding checks, requests for action and agreement, and knowledge checks. Questioning was mostly used to transmit patient-related information, and nurses could use questioning to jointly construct understandings about patients. Future research should examine how questions function in diverse clinical environments, such as rural and regional hospitals, and how questioning occurs in multidisciplinary handover situations.

  4. Internet and technology transfer in acute care hospitals in the United States: survey-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides the results of the survey-2000 measuring technology transfer and, specifically, Internet usage. The purpose of the survey was to measure the levels of Internet and Intranet existence and usage in acute care hospitals. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business-to-business and customers. These results are compared with responses to the same questions in survey-1997. Changes in response are noted and discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the third of three articles based upon the results of the survey-2000. Readers are referred to prior articles by the author, which discuss the survey design and provide a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals. (1) Thefirst article based upon the survey results discusses technology transfer, system design approaches, user involvement, and decision-making purposes. (2)

  5. AAV: An Overview of Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Kenneth I; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    AAV has been studied for 55 years and has been developed as a vector for about 35 years. By now, there is a fairly good idea of the dimensions of what would be useful to know to employ AAV optimally as a vector, but there are still many unanswered questions within the system. As with all biological systems, each good experiment raises further questions to answer. This article provides an overview of those areas in which unknown information can be identified and of those questions that have not yet been recognized. Some of these are touched on in the six review articles in this issue of Human Gene Therapy.

  6. AQUA: an ontology driven question answering system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Vera, Maria; Motta, Enrico; Domingue, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes AQUA our question answering over the Web. AQUA was designed to work over heterogeneous sources. This means that AQUA is equipped to work as closed domain and in addition to open-domain question answering. As a first instance, AQUA tries to answer a question using a Knowledge base. If a query cannot be satisfied over a knowledge base/database. Then, AQUA tries to find an answer on web pages (i.e. it uses as corpus the internet as resource). Our system uses NLP (Natural Lan...

  7. Question Answering for Dutch: Simple does it

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's algorithm does not use a lot of complex NLP-techniques, but instead uses the magnitude of and redundancy on the World Wide Web to its advantage. The system has been evaluated on the DISEQuA corpus and ...

  8. Strategy-Selection in Question-Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-03

    reply "two" even though they kncov that Noah took the animals on the ark . It seems in this case that people do not bother to carefully inspect their...Wible, 1984). Erikson and Mattson asked subjects questions like "How many animals of each kir’d did Moses take on the Ark ?". Subjects almost uniformly...correct form (i.e., answer when the question uses ’ Noah ’, but say "can’t say" when the question uses ’Moses’) and told the other half of the subjects to

  9. Good Questions for Math Teaching: Why Ask Them and What To Ask. K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter; Lilburn, Pat

    This book helps teachers define good questions, offers tips on how to create their own good questions, and includes a wide variety of questions for use in the classroom. Each chapter of the book is organized by subject area and age group so that teachers can locate the topic their class is working on, then select probing, thought-provoking…

  10. The 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology series: questions 76-85 : Edited by Chinese Journal of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese Journal of Cancer has published a series of important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology to promote cancer research and accelerate collaborations. In this article, 10 questions are presented as followed. Question 76. How to develop effective therapeutics for cancer cachexia? Question 77. How can we develop preclinical animal models to recapitulate clinical situations of cancer patients for more effective anti-cancer drug development? Question 78. How can we develop novel effective therapeutics for pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma? Question 79. What are the true beneficial mechanisms of antiangiogenic therapy in cancer patients? Question 80. How to approach the complex mechanisms of interplay among various cellular and molecular components in the tumor microenvironment? Question 81. Can tissue oxygenation improve the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy on cancer? Question 82. Can tissue oxygenation improve the efficacy of radiotherapy on digestive system tumors including liver cancer? Question 83. Can we integrate metabolic priming into multimodal management of liver cancer? Question 84. Has the limit of anti-androgen strategy in prostate cancer treatment been reached by the new generation of anti-androgen drugs? Question 85. Can we identify individuals with early-stage cancers via analyzing their clinical and non-clinical information collected from social media, shopping history, and clinical, pathological, and molecular traces?

  11. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  12. Answering questions after initial study guides attention during restudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim J H; Thoma, Gun Brit; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the testing-effect can be boosted by including a restudy phase after answering test questions, we do not know precisely why it does so. One possible explanation is being tested here. The present study measured attention allocation during initial reading and rereading with a remote eye tracker

  13. Asking Better Questions: Approaching the Process of Thesis Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, Desmond

    1996-01-01

    The questions typically asked by a law student in different stages of the process of thesis supervision are re-formulated to encourage more student reflection on the experience. The stages include approaching the supervision concept, selecting an appropriate supervisor, considering rights and responsibilities of both parties in developing a…

  14. When a Problem Is More than a Teacher's Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jo Clay; Knott, Libby

    2013-01-01

    Not only are the problems teachers pose throughout their teaching of great importance but also the ways in which they use those problems make this a critical component of teaching. A problem-posing episode includes the problem setup, the statement of the problem, and the follow-up questions. Analysis of problem-posing episodes of precalculus…

  15. Ask Marilyn in the Mathematics Classroom: Probability Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1986, Marilyn Vos Savant, who is listed in the "Guinness Book of World Records Hall of Fame" for the highest IQ, has had a weekly column that is published in "Parade Magazine." In this column, she answers readers' questions on a wide variety of subjects including mathematics and particularly probability. Many of the mathematically oriented…

  16. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  17. Survey burden for family members surveyed about end-of-life care in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Erin K; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Curtis, J Randall; Engelberg, Ruth A

    2012-11-01

    Family surveys are an important source of information about quality of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU). The burden associated with completing such surveys is not well studied. 1) To assess the predictors of burden that families report with completing surveys for patients who died in the ICU and 2) to examine associations between quality-of-care ratings and survey burden. Data were collected from 14 hospitals as part of a cluster randomized trial to integrate palliative care into the ICU. Survey questions included demographics, quality of dying, satisfaction with care, and overall level of burden associated with survey completion. Patient characteristics were identified from chart abstraction and death certificates. Multivariable linear regression with robust SEs was used to examine associations between survey burden, subject characteristics, and family ratings of quality of care. Of the families surveyed, 62% rated the survey to be no or low burden. Family members of older patients reported less survey burden (P = 0.016), and those who lived with the patient reported higher survey burden (P = 0.043). Family members reporting lower ratings of satisfaction with care and quality of dying reported higher survey burden (P families reported no to low burden. Family members who live with their loved one are particularly vulnerable to survey burden and those of older patients report less burden. The association between low quality-of-care ratings and survey burden suggests that the response bias in this type of research is toward overestimating quality of care. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A two-phase sampling survey for nonresponse and its paradata to correct nonresponse bias in a health surveillance survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, G; Bénézet, L; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Bouyer, J; Guéguen, A

    2017-02-01

    The decline in participation rates in surveys, including epidemiological surveillance surveys, has become a real concern since it may increase nonresponse bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the contribution of a complementary survey among a subsample of nonrespondents, and the additional contribution of paradata in correcting for nonresponse bias in an occupational health surveillance survey. In 2010, 10,000 workers were randomly selected and sent a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic data were available for the whole sample. After data collection of the questionnaires, a complementary survey among a random subsample of 500 nonrespondents was performed using a questionnaire administered by an interviewer. Paradata were collected for the complete subsample of the complementary survey. Nonresponse bias in the initial sample and in the combined samples were assessed using variables from administrative databases available for the whole sample, not subject to differential measurement errors. Corrected prevalences by reweighting technique were estimated by first using the initial survey alone and then the initial and complementary surveys combined, under several assumptions regarding the missing data process. Results were compared by computing relative errors. The response rates of the initial and complementary surveys were 23.6% and 62.6%, respectively. For the initial and the combined surveys, the relative errors decreased after correction for nonresponse on sociodemographic variables. For the combined surveys without paradata, relative errors decreased compared with the initial survey. The contribution of the paradata was weak. When a complex descriptive survey has a low response rate, a short complementary survey among nonrespondents with a protocol which aims to maximize the response rates, is useful. The contribution of sociodemographic variables in correcting for nonresponse bias is important whereas the additional contribution of paradata in

  19. "Hot Seat" Questioning: A Technique to Promote and Evaluate Student Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Anthony

    Several approaches have been proposed to include students in classroom dialogue, including "think-pair-share" and "talk to your neighbor." I recently implemented an additional technique in which four students answer questions in a "Hot Seat" at the front of the classroom. An unforeseen by-product of this was student-initiated peer instruction outside of the classroom. A small case study (approximately 50 students) on the effect of the Hot Seat using the midterm exam showed that students were 9.5 +/- 3.2% more likely to correctly answer a question related to material covered while they occupied the Hot Seat. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test revealed that they were twice as likely to learn their Hot Seat material. A survey revealed one likely reason: Students typically spent 15-60 additional minutes preparing for class on their two assigned Hot Seat dates. Curiously, students received no significant benefit (2.2 +/- 3.6%) from their second turn in the Hot Seat, possibly reflecting student immunization to its motivational pressure.

  20. Validating a single-question depression measure among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Duk; Chun, Heeran; Kim, Il-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-09-20

    A single-item depression measure may not be adequate in capturing the complex entity of mental health, despite wide use of this indicator in community studies. This study evaluated the accuracy of a single-question depression measure in comparison to two composite indices-the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). A total of 800 elderly participants ranging from 60 to 89 years of age and residing in Seoul were recruited using a multistage sampling scheme in 2015. The survey was conducted by trained interviewers with a constructed questionnaire. Reliability and validity measures such as the Kappa index, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC were used to evaluate the accuracy of the single question measure. Socio-demographic group differences in accuracy were compared by age, sex, marital status, education, employment, and financial status. The prevalence of depression by a single-question measure was much lower than those of CESD and GDS (5.5%, 12.3%, and 12.1%, respectively). The sensitivity of the single-item measure, based on CESD and GDS, was extremely low at 30.6% and 36.1%. In the subgroup analysis, however, there was a marked educational discrepancy in all accuracy measures; in sensitivity, people with a university degree or higher showed about 2.4 times higher sensitivity than those having only a primary school education. The results show that a single-question depression measure should be used with caution. In addition, the single-question measure could substantially underestimate depression among the risk group of older adults.

  1. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  2. Head Lice: Malathion Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  3. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  4. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  5. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... it Email Print July 15, 2013 What is arsenic? Arsenic is present in the environment as a ...

  6. Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Prospective Massage Therapist Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist Searching for a massage therapist? Get the ... 1. Are you a member of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)? AMTA members commit to the ...

  7. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  8. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For more information on Suicide in America Share Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions (2015) Download PDF ... their White and AI/AN counterparts. How can suicide be prevented? Effective suicide prevention is based on ...

  9. To question of determination of the plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    Грабовська, Ганна; Зуєва, Вікторія

    2016-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the question of decision of plagiarism in the Ukrainian legislation. Authors are investigating various approaches that can expose essence of this type of copyright infringement. In the article summarized existent problem moments of decision of plagiarism, and specification of forms and methods of his exposure in the text of the scientific work. English abstract A. Grabovska, V. Zueva To question of determination of the plagiarism The article is devoted to the def...

  10. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  11. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  12. Dbpedia Based Factoid Question Answering System

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Tahri and Okba Tibermacine

    2013-01-01

    Question Answering (QA) is an area of natural language processing research aimed at providing humanusers with a convenient and natural interface for accessing information. Nowadays, the need to developaccurate systems gains more importance due to available structured knowledge-bases and the continuousdemand to access information rapidly and efficiently. In This paper we propose a new architecture todevelop a factoid question answering system based on the DBpedia ontology and the DBpedia extra...

  13. Do Questions Get Infants Talking? Infant Vocal Responses to Questions and Declaratives in Maternal Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimchen, Melissa; Soderstrom, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Maternal questions play a crucial role in early language acquisition by virtue of their special grammatical, prosodic and lexical forms, and their abundance in the input. Infants are able to discriminate questions from other sentence types and produce rising intonations in their own requests. This study examined whether caregiver questions were…

  14. The Technology of the Question: Structure and Use of Questions in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This writing looks at an elemental aspect of learning and communication, the question, and contends that questions can be viewed as a technology for education. Questions that we ask in the classroom, online, or in discussion can shape learning and develop skills in students, and they should be more systematically employed in education. This…

  15. Instructor Modeling and Online Question Prompts for Supporting Peer-Questioning During Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikseon; Land, Susan M.; Turgeon, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the combination of instructor modeling and question prompts for peer-questioning influences students' online questioning and answering activities. Fourteen students in a turfgrass management online class at a large land-grant university participated in two three-week sessions of online discussion. Two randomly selected…

  16. Creating robust vocabulary frequently asked questions and extended examples

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Isabel L

    2008-01-01

    Bringing Words to Life has enlivened the classrooms of hundreds of thousands of teachers. Responding to readers' success stories, practical questions, and requests for extended examples, this ideal volume builds on the groundbreaking work of Bringing Words to Life. The authors present additional tools, tips, and detailed explanations of such questions as which words to teach, when and how to teach them, and how to adapt instruction for English language learners. They provide specific instructional sequences, including assessments, for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12, as well as interactive less

  17. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark...... a framework for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measurable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...... activities in the product life cycle. Workers’ fundamental rights, as defined by the ILO, are used as baseline in the method, and as a consequence, some of the issues addressed by the method are: child labour, discrimination, right to organise, and forced labour....

  18. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    environmental impacts and, therefore, recommendations based on LCA fail to address both social and economic concerns. This has raised questions about LCA's ability to support sustainable development decisions. In a research project carried out at Brødrene Hartmann A/S and the Technical University of Denmark...... a frameowork for social LCA is currently being developed. The project quantifies social impacts and makes them operational in the traditional LCIA framework by developing measureable indicators. These indicators are selected to provide a meaningful and sufficient overall description of social impacts of all...... activities in the product life cycle. Workersø fundamental rights, as defined by the ILO, are used as baseline in the method, and as a consequence, some of the issues addressed by the method are: child labour, discrimination, right to organise, and forced labour....

  19. Evaluation of the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination: spine questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjoodi, Payam; Khanna, A Jay; Marker, David R; Frassica, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    The annual Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE) is an objective evaluation administered annually to all residents by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. To our knowledge, there are no guidelines for the type of material included on the examination; therefore, it is difficult for many academic centers to develop education programs directed toward improving resident performance on the OITE. Our goals were to determine the most commonly tested subjects in the spine portion of the OITE and to help direct development of an associated teaching program. We analyzed the number, type, anatomic focus, subject matter, and visual diagnostic modalities of spine questions on the OITEs from 2002 through 2007 and identified the most commonly referenced journals. The average annual number of spine questions was 23.1 (8.4% of the examination). The most common types of spine questions related to knowledge (44.5%), evaluation and decision making (29.1%), and diagnosis (26.3%); the most common subject matters were trauma (15.1%) and anatomy (13.7%). The most frequently examined anatomic locations were the cervical (30.9% of questions) and lumbar (17.4%) spines. General spine information (no anatomic focus) accounted for 31.6% of questions. The most commonly referenced journals were Spine and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume. Developing a study plan focusing on these journals and the most commonly tested topics and question types will better prepare orthopedic residents for the spine questions on the OITE. Copyright (c) 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future