Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan
Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...... for such data. It involves standardizing the units of text on which coders work and then improving the coding scheme’s discriminant capability (i.e., reducing coding errors) to an acceptable point as indicated by measures of either intercoder reliability or intercoder agreement. This approach is especially...... useful for situations where a single knowledgeable coder will code all the transcripts once the coding scheme has been established. This approach can also be used with other types of qualitative data and in other circumstances....
Adams, Anne; Cox, Anna L.
With fast changing technologies and related human interaction issues, there is an increased need for timely evaluation of systems with distributed users in varying contexts (Pace, 2004). This has led to the increased use of questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups in commercial usability and academic research contexts. Questionnaires are usually paper based or delivered online and consist of a set of questions which all participants are asked to complete. Once the questionnaire ha...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...
Ellen F. Goldman
Full Text Available Interviewing corporate elites has received limited attention in the methodological literature. Such elites are considered highly difficult to gain access to and, if involved, are believed to use their power asymmetry to dominate the interview. Understanding the context is considered essential to elite access, interview conduct, and interpretation of findings. The healthcare sector provides interesting challenges for in-depth elite interviewing, including historical norms regarding interview access, types, and duration. In this article, the authors report on the strategies used to gain access to and engage healthcare elites who participated in multiple personal interviews using the Seidman in-depth phenomenological interviewing method. Techniques for identifying and recruiting potential participants, scheduling and preparing for the interview, and establishing rapport are described. Concept mapping is presented as a way of fully engaging the elites in the tripartite interview process and facilitating trustworthiness. The lessons learned offer important strategies for those undertaking phenomenological research with elites.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care clinicians are being encouraged to undertake qualitative research, however the in-depth interviewing skills required are not as straightforward as might be first supposed. While there are benefits and certain skills that clinicians can bring to interview-based research, there are important new skills to develop. To date there has been neither discussion about these new skills, nor any preparatory guidelines for clinicians entering into interview-based research in the qualitative research literature. In the absence of formal guidelines, we suggest the use of reflexivity throughout the interview process as a means to become more accomplished in this area. We present our own experiences as a novice general practitioner (GP researcher undertaking a PhD study and her experienced supervisors. The PhD study used critical phenomenology through in-depth interviews to understand the experience of the patient-doctor relationship between same-sex attracted women and their usual GP in Australia. Results We used reflexivity to improve the rigour of the data collection. This enabled improved probing, fewer assumptions, avoidance of premature interpretation, and an accentuated sense of curiosity during interviews. We also enlisted reciprocity between interviewer and interviewee as a tool to improve engagement and trust, share interview control, and ultimately improve the depth of the interview content. Conclusion Preparatory recommendations for novice clinician research interviewers include the importance of recognising the multiple identities that they bring to the interview. In this setting in particular this involves acknowledging the clinician interviewer as a potential insider in relation to interviewees and negotiating shared understanding to avoid insider assumptions. Other essential requirements are having an experienced research supervisor, arranging pilot interviews that include active feedback on interviewing
Zhang, Jie; Dong, Nini; Delprino, Robert; Zhou, Li
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of different aspects of psychological strain in Chinese rural young suicides, so as to test the strain theory of suicide with the Chinese samples. A Psychological Autopsy (PA) was conducted on 105 suicides in rural China. The background and deep reasons for suicide were obtained from in-depth interviews with survivors and close friends. For each suicide, a story is composed out of the provided information, and the stories were content-analyzed with the SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys. Depression or other mental disorders were observed for less than half of the sampled suicides (42.9%). All suicides (100%) had experienced at least one type of the four strains: conflicting values; aspiration and reality; relative deprivation; and coping deficiency. While 24.9% of all suicides experienced only one type of strain, 36.2% experienced two types of strains, 32.4% experienced three types of strains, and only 6.7% of the suicides experienced all four types of strains. Males are more likely than females to experience aspiration and deprivation strains, and the younger suicides (15-22 years of age) were more likely than the older suicides (23-29 years of age) to experience coping strain. Psychological strains are more prevalent than mental disorders among Chinese rural young suicides. Mental illness might be a function of strain resulting from some negative life events, and future studies need to disentangle the relationship between strain and mental disorders.
Park, Jung-ran; Tosaka, Yuji
This study aims at providing in-depth perspectives on the ways in which cataloging and metadata professionals have coped with RDA training and implementation through an e-mail interview method. Results show that the performance-based, "learn-as-you-go," peer learning method is found by practitioners to be most effective in acquiring and…
Ongena, Yfke P.; Dijkstra, Wil
Interaction analysis of question–answer sequences from a telephone survey shows that so-called mismatch answers, i.e. answers that do not correspond to the required answering format, are the most frequently occurring problematic verbal behavior. They also are likely to trigger suggestive interviewer
Teeter, Benjamin S; Fox, Brent I; Garza, Kimberly B; Harris, Stanley G; Nau, David P; Owensby, Justin K; Westrick, Salisa C
The star rating system implemented by Medicare has the potential to positively affect patient health and may have financial implications for community pharmacies. Learning from owners of community pharmacies with high performance on these quality measures may help us to identify and further understand factors contributing to their success. This study described high-performing community pharmacy owners' current awareness and knowledge of star ratings, attitudes toward star ratings and performance measurement, and initiatives being offered in pharmacies that aim to improve the quality of care. Qualitative interviews with owners of independent community pharmacies were conducted in Spring 2015. Fifteen community pharmacies with high performance on the star rating measures were invited to participate. Recruitment did not end until the saturation point had been reached. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed with the use of ATLAS.ti by 2 coders trained in thematic analysis. Krippendorf's alpha was calculated to assess intercoder reliability. Ten high-performing pharmacy owners participated. Analysis identified 8 themes, which were organized into the following categories: 1) current awareness and knowledge (i.e., superficial or advanced knowledge); 2) attitudes toward star ratings (positive perceptions, skeptical of performance rewards, and lack a feeling of control); and 3) pharmacy initiatives (personal patient relationships, collaborative employee relationships, and use of technology). Intercoder reliability was good overall. Interviews with high-performing pharmacies suggested that awareness of the star rating measures, overall positive attitudes toward the star ratings, the relationships that pharmacy owners have with their patients and their employees, and the use of technology as a tool to enhance patient care may contribute to high performance on the star rating measures. Future research is needed to determine if and how these
DeCou, Christopher R; Skewes, Monica C; López, Ellen D S; Skanis, Marie L
Suicide represents a significant health disparity for communities in rural Alaska, and has implications for mental health among people who have lost loved ones from suicide. A qualitative interview study was conducted to examine the ways in which suicide has affected the lives of college students who have migrated from rural villages to an urban university (N = 25). The present research represents a secondary aim of the study-specifically, we examined the affective responses of Alaska Native college students from rural villages after completing in-depth semistructured interviews about their experiences related to suicide. Debriefing questions posed at the conclusion of the interviews revealed that the majority of participants (n 16) stated they felt "better" after completing the interview, and no participants reported feeling "worse." No participant required the use of the safety plan developed in case of severe emotional distress. All participants indicated they would be interested in participating in future research. Analysis of questions pertaining to the interview experience revealed the salience of foundation (the participant's prior experience discussing issues like suicide), process (the interview questions and questioning style), and outcomes (the challenges and benefits of participation described by the respondent). Findings provided important insights concerning the experience of discussing past trauma, perceived importance of research addressing coping with suicide, and the influence of past experiences in the process of talking about suicide.
Samra, Rajvinder; Bottle, Alex; Aylin, Paul
To explore how information and data are used to monitor patient safety and quality of primary care by professionals working in, or supporting, primary healthcare. Qualitative study of semistructured interviews with a directed content analysis of transcripts. North-West London, UK. 21 individuals from various levels of the primary healthcare system were recruited, including general practitioners, practice nurses, practice managers, members of Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) governing bodies, and senior members of regional patient safety teams. Participants described being overwhelmed with complicated data which lacked any meaningful analyses about safety and quality. There was also a lack of clarity over which patient safety events are expected to be reported or monitored. Participants also reported uncertainty on whose responsibility it was to act on patient safety information or concerns. At the practice level, there was a range of disincentives for responding to and acting on safety issues and concerns, with few reported benefits. Participants made recommendations to improve future monitoring. There is a need for clearer information in the form of specific guidelines, policies and procedures with regard to who monitors patient safety in primary care, what is monitored and how it should be monitored. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
van der Zouwen, J.; Smit, J.H.
Purpose - In survey interviews information is transferred to the researchers via a communication process between interviewers and respondents. This process is controlled directly by the interviewers, and indirectly by the researchers who constructed the questionnaire and instructed and supervised
Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich
Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ng, Felicity; Crawford, Gregory B; Chur-Hansen, Anna
Medical practitioners have different causal explanations for depression, and may have greater difficulty in explaining causality of depression in the palliative care setting. The objective of this study was to investigate and describe the causal explanations of depression in the palliative care setting, from the perspective of palliative medicine specialists. Palliative medicine specialists practising in Australia were recruited and purposively sampled. Individual semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore their explanatory models of depression, including a focus on causal explanations. Nine participants were interviewed to reach data saturation. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes. Six themes for causal explanations of depression were identified: (1) Depression is inexplicable; (2) Biological explanations-primarily neurotransmitter depletion; (3) Psychological explanations-including reaction to circumstances, inability to accept illness and dying, diminished self, and coping mechanisms; (4) Social explanations-including inadequate social support, and contribution from modern medicine and societal norms; (5) Interrelationships between causal factors-mainly multifactoriality; (6) Different explanation for de novo and pre-existing depressions. Participants also articulated a link between causal explanations and clinical interventions. Palliative medicine specialists hold causal explanations of depression that align with the biopsychosocial and vulnerability-stress models. They use multiple individual explanations with diverse theoretical underpinnings, and largely view depression as multifactorial in causality. Given that causal explanations are linked to clinical interventions, these findings have implications for clinical practice and medical education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi
In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…
Virtual intercultural communication is of great interest in intercultural research. How can a researcher gain access to this field of investigation if s/he does not or only partially speaks the languages used by the subjects? This study is an example of how categories relevant to research can be accessed through in-depth interviews. The interview…
Full Text Available While visible light communication (VLC has become the candidate for the wireless technology of the 21st century due to its inherent advantages, VLC based positioning also has a great chance of becoming the standard approach to positioning. Within the last few years, many studies on VLC based positioning have been published, but there are not many survey works in this field. In this paper, an in-depth survey of VLC based positioning systems is provided. More than 100 papers ranging from pioneering papers to the state-of-the-art in the field were collected and classified based on the positioning algorithms, the types of receivers, and the multiplexing techniques. In addition, current issues and research trends in VLC based positioning are discussed.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...
Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.
A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…
Iliana Jiménez Zaraín
Full Text Available The recent investigation of qualitative type had as a target to detect the psychological and physics necessities of the patients with some kind of terminal sickness. This took place in the I.S.S.S.T.E hospital, where through the application of an instrument proportionate by the hospital and the technical of a deep interview it was recollected some information, each interview had duration between 1 and 2 hours. There were 6 interviews with each one of the 3 patients, already interviewed and it was searched that this one was found on an isolated room to establish a confidential environment, those interviews were not realized in a continuous appropriated way to the patients disposition that in some occasions it was obstructed by their sickness or by their courage. To each patient, it was offered psychotherapy with humanistic and thanatological focus for their necessities.
Full Text Available This study investigates how an onscreen virtual agent's dialog capability and facial animation affect survey respondents' comprehension and engagement in face-to-face interviews, using questions from US government surveys whose results have far-reaching impact on national policies. In the study, 73 laboratory participants were randomly assigned to respond in one of four interviewing conditions, in which the virtual agent had either high or low dialog capability (implemented through Wizard of Oz and high or low facial animation, based on motion capture from a human interviewer. Respondents, whose faces were visible to the Wizard (and videorecorded during the interviews, answered 12 questions about housing, employment, and purchases on the basis of fictional scenarios designed to allow measurement of comprehension accuracy, defined as the fit between responses and US government definitions. Respondents answered more accurately with the high-dialog-capability agents, requesting clarification more often particularly for ambiguous scenarios; and they generally treated the high-dialog-capability interviewers more socially, looking at the interviewer more and judging high-dialog-capability agents as more personal and less distant. Greater interviewer facial animation did not affect response accuracy, but it led to more displays of engagement—acknowledgements (verbal and visual and smiles—and to the virtual interviewer's being rated as less natural. The pattern of results suggests that a virtual agent’s dialog capability and facial animation differently affect survey respondents' experience of interviews, behavioral displays, and comprehension, and thus the accuracy of their responses. The pattern of results also suggests design considerations for building survey interviewing agents, which may differ depending on the kinds of survey questions (sensitive or not that are asked.
Fottler, M D; Crawford, M A; Quintana, J B; White, J B
High turnover rates among hospital nurses demand rigorous and valid processes of research to determine the reasons motivating such attrition. In most hospitals, the exit interview often provides the only relevant data. The case study reported here examines the relative effectiveness of exit interviews and an employee attitude survey in generating data that are useful in managing nurse retention. The conclusion reached is that the attitude survey generates more data and higher-quality data. Further, the study shows that the use of open-ended questions can provide useful information and probably should be the starting point in developing or supplementing an attitude survey for nurses. Recommendations for improving the usefulness and validity of nurse attitude surveys and exit interviews in managing nurse retention are provided.
Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard
, economically and logistically, and further enables eventual reproduction of similar empirical data. The DUS research project is related to the general research focus found within the Urban Design section at Institute of Architecture, Design and Media Technology (AD:MT), Aalborg University (AAU...... with additional and more detailed qualitative data on these young people’s use of urban space in Aalborg. In the interviews the respondents are asked about their use of urban space in relation to attractiveness, gender, protection against violence and crime, the internet, atmosphere and, finally, green urban...
Full Text Available Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel diaries, brief questionnaires, and semistructured interviews were gathered from thirteen people aged from 56 to 87 years, living in low-density suburban environments in Brisbane, Australia. Results. The suburban environment influenced the choice of transportation and out-of-home mobility. Both walkability and public transportation (access and usability impact older people's transportation choices. Impracticality of active and public transportation within suburban environments creates car dependency in older age. Conclusion. Suburban environments often create barriers to mobility, which impedes older people's engagement in their wider community and ability to actively age in place. Further research is needed to develop approaches towards age-friendly suburban environments which will encourage older people to remain active and engaged in older age.
Full Text Available NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043 is a community- randomized trial to test the safety and efficacy of a community-level intervention designed to increase testing and lower HIV incidence in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Thailand. The evaluation design included a longitudinal study with community members to assess attitudinal and behavioral changes in study outcomes including HIV testing norms, HIV-related discussions, and HIV-related stigma.A cohort of 657 individuals across all sites was selected to participate in a qualitative study that involved 4 interviews during the study period. Baseline and 30-month data were summarized according to each outcome, and a qualitative assessment of changes was made at the community level over time.Members from intervention communities described fewer barriers and greater motivation for testing than those from comparison communities. HIV-related discussions in intervention communities were more grounded in personal testing experiences. A change in HIV-related stigma over time was most pronounced in Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Participants in the intervention communities from these two sites attributed community-level changes in attitudes to project specific activities.The Project Accept intervention was associated with more favorable social norms regarding HIV testing, more personal content in HIV discussions in all study sites, and qualitative changes in HIV-related stigma in two of five sites.
Leggett Laura E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Technology Reassessment (HTR is a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, social, ethical and economic effects of a technology currently used in the health care system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. Little is known about current international HTR practices. The objective of this research was to summarize experience-based information gathered from international experts on the development, initiation and implementation of a HTR program. Methods A mixed methods approach, using a survey and in-depth interviews, was adopted. The survey covered 8 concepts: prioritization/identification of potentially obsolete technologies; program development; implementation; mitigation; program championing; stakeholder engagement; monitoring; and reinvestment. Members of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA formed the sampling frame. Participation was solicited via email and the survey was administered online using SurveyMonkey. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To gather more in-depth knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted among organizations with active HTR programs. Interview questions were developed using the same 8 concepts. The hour-long interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results Ninety-five individuals responded to the survey: 49 were not discussing HTR, 21 were beginning to discuss HTR, nine were imminently developing a program, and 16 participants had programs and were completing reassessments. The survey results revealed that methods vary widely and that although HTR is a powerful tool, it is currently not being used to its full potential. Of the 16 with active programs, nine agreed to participate in follow-up interviews. Interview participants identified early and extensive stakeholder
Ainsworth, Neha Prasad; Vargo, Elisabeth Julie; Petróczi, Andrea
2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound with multiple industrial purposes. Currently unlicensed for human consumption, it is used by the gym-going population for drastic, short-term body fat loss. Nonetheless, physiological mechanisms can lead to potentially fatal hyperthermia. Reported fatal incidents have caused concern and highlighted the need for intervention. Understanding decision-making leading to 2,4-DNP use alongside the perceived outgroup attitudes is vital to forming effective harm minimisation policies targeting current and potential users. First-hand accounts from this elusive population are scarce. Fourteen novel and experienced users (13 male, 1 female) were recruited via "snowballing" techniques. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, comprising 28 questions. Thematic content analysis was conducted using 37 codes. Four characteristic themes emerged: 1. Users considered the Internet to be a crucial multifunctional resource directly impacting their 2,4-DNP use. 2. Users "respected" 2,4-DNP, proactively taking harm reduction measures. 3. Attitudinal polarisation towards 2,4-DNP within the gym-going community was consistent in all accounts. 4. Users perceived outgroup populations to have inherently negative attitudes towards their use. These themes fell under the all-encompassing theme of "being in control". For the first time, this study offers a rich detail of attitudes toward 2,4-DNP use by giving a collective voice to users. The element of control over every aspect of the users' life appears to be a significant contributor to the successful risk-management of 2,4-DNP use. In the absence of an established safe upper limit and effective regulatory control, education is critical to harm minimisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Namukwaya, Elizabeth; Grant, Liz; Downing, Julia; Leng, Mhoira; Murray, Scott A
The short prognosis of patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the associated multidimensional distress as illustrated in literature from high income countries necessitates the integration of palliative care into the care of advanced HF patients to address these needs and improve their quality of life. These needs, which are subjective, have not been described from the patients' and health care professionals'(HPs) view point in the Ugandan setting, a low income country with a different socio-cultural context. This study aimed at bridging this gap in knowledge by eliciting patients' and HPs' views of HF patients' needs over the course of their illness to enable generalists, cardiologists and palliative care clinicians to develop guidelines to provide patient-centred realistic care in Uganda. Serial qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with HF patients who were purposively sampled and recruited in Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH) until thematic saturation. In-depth interviews were conducted at three time points with intervals of 3 month between interviews over the course of their illness in the hospital and their home context. One-off interviews were conducted with HPs that manage HF in MNRH. We used a grounded theory approach in data analysis. The Uganda National Council of science and technology approved the research. Forty-eight interviews were conducted with 21 patients and their carers and eight interviews with their HPs. Multidimensional needs including physical, psychological, social, spiritual and information needs were identified. These highlighted the underpinning need to have normal functioning, control, to cope and adapt to a changed life and to find meaning. Spiritual needs were less recognised by HPs than the other multidimensional needs. Information needs were commonly unmet. Patients and HPs suggested improvements in care that were congruent with the recommendations in chronic disease care and the six pillars of the WHO
Sugarbaker, Larry; Coray, Kevin E.; Poore, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to receive customer feedback and to understand data and information requirements for The National Map. This report provides results and findings from interviews and surveys and will guide policy and operations decisions about data and information requirements leading to the development of a 5-year strategic plan for the National Geospatial Program. These findings are based on feedback from approximately 2,200 customers between February and August 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted more than 160 interviews with 200 individuals. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and the International Map Trade Association (IMTA) surveyed their memberships and received feedback from over 400 members. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) received feedback from over 1,600 of its U.S.-based software users through an online survey sent to customers attending the ESRI International User Conference in the summer of 2008. The results of these surveys were shared with the USGS and have been included in this report.
Full Text Available The professional profiles and skills related to journalism are adapting to a new paradigm as a consequence of the advent of new technologies - the web 2.0, the end of the monopoly of news production by mass media, etc. This study aims to provide a comprehensive critical mapping of new professional profiles and skills demanded in the field of journalism, based on a scoping review and in-depth interviews with professionals and academics in Spain. The results show a great variety of new profiles and nomenclatures. This is in part because of a significant overlapping in the functions emphasized by them. With regards to skills, the traditional ones are still the most valued by the market, although new competencies are becoming more and more important.
Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva
Voter assessments of party competence have become a key explanation of electoral decision-making. However, there are at least three important aspects to understanding responses to questions on issue-specific party competence: comprehension difficulties; a lack of well-formed attitudes and relevant information; and the use of response heuristics. We used 20 cognitive interviews carried out in Austria in 2011 to test competence questions. The interviews show us how respondents explain their responses. We find evidence that many people (1) may hold only weak opinions and have little information on issue-specific party competence and (2) may make use of distinct but related concepts, particularly salience and position, when answering questions about competence. We provide recommendations for researchers and survey designers based on our findings.
Dessie, Yadeta; Deresa, Merga
The rollout of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) and improved health care services contributed in recuperating the quality of life and the functional status of HIV-positive people. These clinical effects of the treatment and cares are believed to bring a change on their sexual practices. The objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices of the HIV-positive people who were getting ART in selected Addis Ababa public hospitals. A qualitative in-depth interview was conducted. The interviews were made by trained nurse counselors of the same sex and were tape recorded. Verbatim transcription was made before the analysis. Thematic categorizations were made to present the findings. Most participants expressed regained sexual desires with initiation of ART while some others didn't appreciate the regains. Not using condoms or inconsistently using them was identified risky sexual practices. Sero-discordances and sero-status non-disclosure were common issues among the partners. Sero-status non-disclosure, non-use of condom and inconsistent using them were common sexual issues. These hinder the efforts that are being made to reduce new HIV infections and re-infections. Interventions against these problems can be made when clients come for their ART treatment and clinical care follow up.
Ng, Felicity; Crawford, Gregory B; Chur-Hansen, Anna
Treatment of depression in the palliative care setting is complicated by varied treatment preferences, a small body of research, and unique challenges associated with the end-of-life. Little is known about the treatment practices of medical practitioners in this setting. This study aimed to investigate and characterise the treatment approaches of palliative medicine specialists for depression. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore explanatory models of depression from palliative medicine specialists, including a focus on treatment. Verbatim interview transcripts were analysed for themes. Palliative medicine specialists practising in Australia were recruited and purposively sampled. Nine participants were interviewed to reach data saturation. Five themes were identified in relation to treatment of depression: (1) guiding principles of treatment; (2) treatment approaches; (3) factors underpinning treatment decisions; (4) difficulties arising in treatment; and (5) interdisciplinary roles. Participants described five distinct treatment approaches, consisting of biological orientation, psychosocial orientation, combination approach, undifferentiated approach and ambivalence. Treatment decisions were contingent on patient, depression, clinician and sociocultural factors. Difficulties included discomfort with treating depression, being inadequately equipped and confronting therapeutic limitations. Treating depression was considered to require multidisciplinary team effort. Palliative medicine specialists' treatment approaches are linked to their concepts of and causal explanations for depression. Future treatment guidelines could aim to consider specific varieties of depression, be more differentiated in treatment modality and type, and consider decision-shaping factors. Continuing mental health education and the incorporation of psychiatry and psychology into palliative care services may have enduring benefits. Published by the BMJ Publishing
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia is a multicultural society, predominantly composed of a Muslim majority population, where Islam is influential. Malaysia has a concentrated HIV epidemic amongst high risk groups, such as, Intravenous Drug Users (IVDU, sex workers, transgender women and Men who have sex with Men (MSM. The objective of this study is to understand how Islam shapes HIV prevention strategies in Malaysia by interviewing the three key stakeholder groups identified as being influential, namely the Ministry of Health, Religious leaders and People living with HIV. Methods Thirty-Five in depth semi structured interviews were undertaken with religious leaders, Ministry of Health and People living with HIV in the last half of 2013 using purposive sampling. Interviews adhered to a topic guide, were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a framework analysis. Results Themes including the importance of Islam to health, stakeholder relationships and opinions on HIV prevention emerged. Islam was seen to play a pivotal role in shaping strategies relating to HIV prevention in Malaysia both directly and indirectly. Stakeholders often held different approaches to HIV prevention, which had to be sensitively considered, with some favouring promotion of Islamic principles, whilst others steering towards a more public health centred approach. Conclusions The study suggests that Islam indeed plays an important role in shaping health policies and strategies related to HIV prevention in Malaysia. Certainly, stakeholders do hold differing viewpoints, such as stances of what constitutes the right approach to HIV prevention. However there are also areas of broad consensus, such as the importance in Islamic tradition to prevent harm and disease, which can be crafted into existing and future HIV prevention strategies in Malaysia, as well as the wider Muslim world.
Hayashi, Fumi; Akamatsu, Rie; Ebina, Ryoko; Nishimura, Setsuko; Okuyama, Megumi; Matsuoka, Yukiyo; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakane, Naoki; Adachi, Yoshiko; Takemi, Yukari
A qualitative analysis was conducted to identify factors important for weight loss through a specific health guidance program and to understand the processes that were crucial in achieving success. Twenty-six male workers aged 41-59 years from five corporate health insurance societies in four prefectures who had lost > or = 4% weight by attending the six-month specific health guidance program were invited to participate in the in-depth interviews. Data were collected between October and December 2009. We audio taped the 30-minute interviews and performed qualitative analysis on the transcripts using a grounded theory. The discussion by the expert panel strengthened the validity of the analysis. The mean age was 49.9 +/- 5.6 years, and the average weight loss was 6.8 +/- 2.5%. All subjects were somewhat concerned about their health status and body shape before the first appointment, but two major prosesses, "critical feeling" and "sense of obligation," were identified after the first appointment. We also identified innovative efforts in all subjects during the process. Those who reported a "sense of obligation" at the beginning and those who had a negative perception during the program were found to have higher risks of weight rebound after the program was over. We considered personality, values, attitudes toward the program, and support from both family and workplace as the intervening conditions for behavior modification. Since everyone aged 40-74 years with a certain risk of metabolic syndromes is obligated by law to participate in the specific health guidance program, weight loss is challenging for those who are not motivated enough to change their behaviors. Therefore, the initial assessment of one's motivations, followed by interventions taken in consideration of one's lifestyle and social background, are crucial for the success of a weight loss program, as is the use of a client-centered approach.
Fritz, Hermann M.; Martinez, Claudio; Salado, Juan; Rivera, Wagner; Duarte, Leoncio
On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the north-eastern shore of Hispaniola Island resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field, tsunami waves were recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes reported in the Caribbean since colonial times. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from the eastern most tip at Punta Cana to La Isabela some 70 km from the border with Haiti. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, sea-level drawdown, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field
de Haan, Sanneke; Rietveld, Erik; Stokhof, Martin; Denys, Damiaan
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a relatively new, experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The effects of treatment are typically assessed with psychopathological scales that measure the amount of symptoms. However, clinical experience indicates that the effects of DBS are not limited to symptoms only: patients for instance report changes in perception, feeling stronger and more confident, and doing things unreflectively. Our aim is to get a better overview of the whole variety of changes that OCD patients experience during DBS treatment. For that purpose we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 18 OCD patients. In this paper, we present the results from this qualitative study. We list the changes grouped in four domains: with regard to (a) person, (b) (social) world, (c) characteristics of person-world interactions, and (d) existential stance. We subsequently provide an interpretation of these results. In particular, we suggest that many of these changes can be seen as different expressions of the same process; namely that the experience of anxiety and tension gives way to an increased basic trust and increased reliance on one’s abilities. We then discuss the clinical implications of our findings, especially with regard to properly informing patients of what they can expect from treatment, the usefulness of including CBT in treatment, and the limitations of current measures of treatment success. We end by making several concrete suggestions for further research. PMID:26312488
Sanneke de Haan
Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS is a relatively new, experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. The effects of treatment are typically assessed with psychopathological scales that measure the amount of symptoms. However, clinical experience indicates that the effects of DBS are not limited to symptoms only: patients for instance report changes in perception, feeling stronger and more confident, and doing things unreflectively. Our aim is to get a better overview of the whole variety of changes that OCD patients experience during DBS treatment. For that purpose we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 18 OCD patients. In this paper, we present the results from this qualitative study. We list the changes grouped in four domains: with regard to (a person, (b (social world, (c characteristics of person-world interactions, and (d existential stance. We subsequently provide an interpretation of these results. In particular, we suggest that many of these changes can be seen as different expressions of the same process; namely that the experience of anxiety and tension gives way to an increased basic trust and increased reliance on one's abilities. We then discuss the clinical implications of our findings, especially with regard to properly informing patients of what they can expect from treatment, the usefulness of including CBT in treatment, and the limitations of current measures of treatment success. We end by making several concrete suggestions for further research.
de Haan, Sanneke; Rietveld, Erik; Stokhof, Martin; Denys, Damiaan
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a relatively new, experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The effects of treatment are typically assessed with psychopathological scales that measure the amount of symptoms. However, clinical experience indicates that the effects of DBS are not limited to symptoms only: patients for instance report changes in perception, feeling stronger and more confident, and doing things unreflectively. Our aim is to get a better overview of the whole variety of changes that OCD patients experience during DBS treatment. For that purpose we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 18 OCD patients. In this paper, we present the results from this qualitative study. We list the changes grouped in four domains: with regard to (a) person, (b) (social) world, (c) characteristics of person-world interactions, and (d) existential stance. We subsequently provide an interpretation of these results. In particular, we suggest that many of these changes can be seen as different expressions of the same process; namely that the experience of anxiety and tension gives way to an increased basic trust and increased reliance on one's abilities. We then discuss the clinical implications of our findings, especially with regard to properly informing patients of what they can expect from treatment, the usefulness of including CBT in treatment, and the limitations of current measures of treatment success. We end by making several concrete suggestions for further research.
Nagelhout, G.E.; Willemsen, M.C.; Thompson, M.E.; Fong, G.T.; van den Putte, B.; de Vries, H.
Background: Web interviewing is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because it has several advantages over telephone interviewing such as lower costs and shorter fieldwork periods. However, there are also concerns about data quality of web surveys. The aim of this study was to compare the
Alan R. Graefe; James D. Absher; Robert C. Burns
This paper compares responses to comment cards and more detailed on-site surveys at selected Corps of Engineers lakes. The results shed light on the validity, reliability, and usefulness of these alternative methods of monitoring customer satisfaction.
Full Text Available Background: Nepal currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Earlier studies on health literacy and the behavior dimension of cardiovascular health reported a substantial gap between knowledge and practice. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to deepen understanding of the community perspective on cardiovascular health from the patients’ viewpoint. Design: We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs with 13 individuals with confirmed heart disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus. All participants provided verbal consent. We used an IDI guide to ask respondents about their perception and experiences with CVD, particularly regarding causation and preventability. We manually applied qualitative content analysis to evaluate the data and grouped similar content into categories and subcategories. Results: Respondents perceived dietary factors, particularly consumption of salty, fatty, and oily food, as the main determinants of CVD. Similarly, our respondents unanimously linked smoking, alcohol intake, and high blood pressure with cardiac ailments but reported mixed opinion regarding the causal role of body weight and physical inactivity. Although depressed and stressed at the time of diagnosis, respondents learned to handle their situation better over time. Despite good family support for health care, the financial burden of disease was a major issue. All respondents understood the importance of lifestyle modification and relied upon health professionals for information and motivation. Respondents remarked that community awareness of CVD was inadequate and that medical doctors or trained local people should help increase awareness. Conclusions: This study provided insight into the perceptions of patients regarding CVD. Respondents embraced the importance of lifestyle modification only after receiving their diagnosis. Although better health care is important in terms of aiding patients to better understand and cope with
Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel
Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: "confidentiality and information", "interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues", "psychological strain of individuals", and "scarce resources"; B) meso level: "structural issues of medical institutions", "issues with private clinics", "challenges connected to the family", and "issues of education, training and competence"; and C) macro level: "influence of society, culture, religion and superstition", "applicability of western medicine", "structural issues on the political level", and "legal issues". Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into perspective. As many participants reported a lack of awareness of ethical issues amongst other health
Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel
Introduction Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Results Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: “confidentiality and information”, “interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues”, “psychological strain of individuals”, and “scarce resources”; B) meso level: “structural issues of medical institutions”, “issues with private clinics”, “challenges connected to the family”, and “issues of education, training and competence”; and C) macro level: “influence of society, culture, religion and superstition”, “applicability of western medicine”, “structural issues on the political level”, and “legal issues”. Discussion Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into
Full Text Available Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon.In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding, giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data.Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A micro level: "confidentiality and information", "interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues", "psychological strain of individuals", and "scarce resources"; B meso level: "structural issues of medical institutions", "issues with private clinics", "challenges connected to the family", and "issues of education, training and competence"; and C macro level: "influence of society, culture, religion and superstition", "applicability of western medicine", "structural issues on the political level", and "legal issues".Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into perspective. As many participants reported a lack of awareness of ethical issues amongst
Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend
Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....
Bruno, Jeffrey J; Ellis, Jeffrey J
Use of herbal products among the elderly is an important concern for healthcare professionals. The presence of polypharmacy and multiple comorbidities places the elderly at high risk for herb-drug and herb-disease interactions. Limited data exist regarding herbal use among the US elderly population. To evaluate the incidence of and attitudes toward herbal use in a nationally representative sample of US elderly patients >/=65 years of age. We performed a descriptive analysis of public domain data collected in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Statistical analyses were conducted through use of SUDAAN software with Taylor series linearization for variance estimation. Analysis of weighted data revealed that 12.9% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SE) of US elderly people had used an herbal supplement within the past 12 months. Use was greatest among individuals 65-69 years of age, females, Hispanic and non-Hispanic ethnic minorities, and respondents with a greater income, higher education level, or more positive self-reported health status. Among elderly people purchasing over-the-counter and prescription drugs, herbal use was 13.9% +/- 0.6% and 12.8% +/- 0.6%, respectively. Glucosamine, echinacea, and garlic supplements represented the most common herbals used. Benefit from combined herbal and conventional therapy was the most common reason cited for use; however, 50.9% +/- 2.2% of users did not discuss herbal therapy with a medical professional. Several theoretical herb-disease interactions were identified. The use of herbal products among the US elderly has risen over the past 5 years, whereas discussion of such use with medical professionals remains suboptimal.
Scotté, Florian; Hervé, Christian; Leroy, Pauline; Tourani, Jean-Marc; Bensadoun, René-Jean; Bugat, Marie-Eve; Farsi, Fadila; Jovenin, Nicolas; Namer, Moïse; Tournigand, Christophe; Morin, Sophie; Brami, Cloé; Oudard, Stéphane; Saadi, Alexandre; Krakowski, Ivan
Medical doctors' (MDs), but not patients', perception of supportive care in cancer (SCC) in France has been previously assessed in a national survey. This study evaluated MDs and patients' perceptions of the SCC organization and implementation in France. The French SCC Association conducted two observational studies: study 1 (S1), containing a 30-point questionnaire sent to 2263 MDs, and study 2 (S2), containing a 40-point questionnaire sent to 2000 patients. Overall, 711 MDs completed S1 and 1562 patients completed S2. In S1, 81% of MDs reported relying on a SCC organization and 76% attended SCC multidisciplinary discussions. MDs considered palliative (98%), psychological (98%), and social care (98%) as the top 3 SCC areas of importance for patients. In contrast, patients' priorities were psychology (61%), nutrition (55%) and organization of intake consultations (55%). The concept of SCC was familiar to 34% of patients; according to MDs, this concept was introduced mainly by MDs (78%) and admission nurses (41%). Outpatients identified as professional resources for SCC information general practitioners (84%), nurses (58%), and pharmacists (52%). Patients reported supportive treatment being prescribed in 63% of cases, with 64% receiving information on the negative side-effects. Among MDs, 87% reported proposing palliative and 41% adjuvant SCC treatment. Furthermore, 72% of MDs recommended SCC treatment at the metastatic stage, and 36% immediately following diagnosis. Oncologists play a vital role in enhancing SCC efficacy. This can be increased by implementing a multidisciplinary integrated approach or by assuring the availability of patient information.
Thompson Mary E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Web interviewing is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because it has several advantages over telephone interviewing such as lower costs and shorter fieldwork periods. However, there are also concerns about data quality of web surveys. The aim of this study was to compare the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands web and telephone samples on demographic and smoking related variables to assess differences in data quality. Methods Wave 1 of the ITC Netherlands Survey was completed by 1,668 web respondents and 404 telephone respondents of 18 years and older. The two surveys were conducted in parallel among adults who reported smoking at least monthly and had smoked at least 100 cigarettes over their lifetime. Results Both the web and telephone survey had a cooperation rate of 78%. Web respondents with a fixed line telephone were significantly more often married, had a lower educational level, and were older than web respondents without a fixed line telephone. Telephone respondents with internet access were significantly more often married, had a higher educational level, and were younger than telephone respondents without internet. Web respondents were significantly less often married and lower educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Telephone respondents were significantly less often married and higher educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Web respondents used the "don't know" options more often than telephone respondents. Telephone respondents were somewhat more negative about smoking, had less intention to quit smoking, and had more self efficacy for quitting. The known association between educational level and self efficacy was present only in the web survey. Conclusions Differences between the web and telephone sample were present, but the differences were small and not consistently favourable for either web or telephone interviewing. Our study findings suggested sometimes a better data
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Access to Care Dialysis Pilot Survey and Interview); Activity... improve access to dialysis care for Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Access to Care Dialysis Pilot Survey and Interview)'' in any...
Howlett, Owen; McKinstry, Carol; Lannin, Natasha A
Allied health professionals frequently use surveys to collect data for clinical practice and service improvement projects. Careful development and piloting of purpose-designed surveys is important to ensure intended measuring (that respondents correctly interpret survey items when responding). Cognitive interviewing is a specific technique that can improve the design of self-administered surveys. The aim of this study was to describe the use of the cognitive interviewing process to improve survey design, which involved a purpose-designed, online survey evaluating staff use of functional electrical stimulation. A qualitative study involving one round of cognitive interviewing with three occupational therapists and three physiotherapists. The cognitive interviewing process identified 11 issues with the draft survey, which could potentially influence the validity and quality of responses. The raised issues included difficulties with: processing the question to be able to respond, determining a response to the question, retrieving relevant information from memory and comprehending the written question. Twelve survey amendments were made following the cognitive interviewing process, comprising four additions, seven revisions and one correction. The cognitive interviewing process applied during the development of a purpose-designed survey enabled the identification of potential problems and informed revisions to the survey prior to its use. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Cheung, Ngai Fen; Mander, Rosemary; Cheng, Linan; Chen, Vivian Yan; Yang, Xiu Qun; Qian, Hong Ping; Qian, Jie Yan
While studying caesarean decision-making in China, the increasing popularity of 'zuoyuezi' emerged. This paper addresses this development, the reasons and implications. We tape-recorded semi-structured interviews in three industrial cities in China. The three groups of informants comprised women in the first-week after caesarean, women eight months after caesarean and health-workers/others. Mandarin or local dialects were used. The data were transcribed and analysed in Chinese and then selected quotes were translated into English. We found that the re-emergence and social modification of zuoyuezi is closely associated with the rising caesarean rate. This custom has been regarded as a crucial rite-of-passage for the woman's recovery and transition to motherhood after childbirth. Its particular importance after caesarean became apparent in this study. Conclusions are drawn about the place of ritual and tradition in 21st century China.
Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I
.... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...
Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.
Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.
Kippax Susan C
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the experiences of Australian general practitioners (GPs in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth use among two groups of male patients: gay men and HIV positive men. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews with GPs with HIV medication prescribing rights were conducted in Sydney, Adelaide and a rural-coastal town in New South Wales between August and October 2006. Participants were recruited from practices with high caseloads of gay and HIV positive men. Results Sixteen GPs were recruited from seven practices to take part in interviews. Participants included 14 male GPs and two female GPs, and the number of years each had been working in HIV medicine ranged from two to 24. Eleven of the GPs who were based in Sydney raised the issue of problematic crystal meth use in these two patient populations. Five key themes were identified: an increasing problem; associations with depression; treatment challenges; health services and health care; workforce issues. Conclusion Despite study limitations, key implications can be identified. Health practitioners may benefit from broadening their understandings of how to anticipate and respond to problematic levels of crystal meth use in their patients. Early intervention can mitigate the impact of crystal meth use on co-morbid mental illness and other health issues. Management of the complex relationships between drug use, depression, sexuality and HIV can be addressed following a 'stepped care' approach. General practice guidelines for the management of crystal meth use problems should address specific issues associated with gay men and HIV positive men. GPs and other health practitioners must appreciate drug use as a social practice in order to build trust with gay men to encourage full disclosure of drug use. Education programs should train health practitioners in these issues, and increased resourcing provided to support the often difficult
Ekholm, Ola; Hesse, Ulrik; Davidsen, Michael
AIMS: The Danish National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark has carried out national representative health interview surveys among adult Danes in 1987, 1994, 2000 and 2005. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the design, including the response rate...... to the Danish population. However, these surveys are essential, as the information collected cannot be gathered by means of official statistical registers. Hence, efforts to increase the response rate will be important in the forthcoming surveys....
Morgan C. MacDonald
Full Text Available The investigation of multiple sources in household water management is considered overly complicated and time consuming using paper and pen interviewing (PAPI. We assess the advantages of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI in Pacific Island Countries (PICs. We adapted an existing PAPI survey on multiple water sources and expanded it to incorporate location of water use and the impacts of extreme weather events using SurveyCTO on Android tablets. We then compared the efficiency and accuracy of data collection using the PAPI version (n = 44 with the CAPI version (n = 291, including interview duration, error rate and trends in interview duration with enumerator experience. CAPI surveys facilitated high-quality data collection and were an average of 15.2 min faster than PAPI. CAPI survey duration decreased by 0.55% per survey delivered (p < 0.0001, whilst embedded skip patterns and answer lists lowered data entry error rates, relative to PAPI (p < 0.0001. Large-scale household surveys commonly used in global monitoring and evaluation do not differentiate multiple water sources and uses. CAPI equips water researchers with a quick and reliable tool to address these knowledge gaps and advance our understanding of development research priorities.
Abele, Misoo; Brown, Julie; Ibrahim, Hicham; Jha, Manish K
The authors report on the current status of motivational interviewing education and training director attitudes about providing it to psychiatry residents. Training directors of general, child/adolescent and addiction psychiatry training programs were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Of the 333 training directors who were invited to participate, 66 of 168 (39.3%) general, 41 of 121 (33.9%) child/adolescent, and 19 of 44 (43.2%) addiction psychiatry training directors completed the survey. The authors found that 90.9% of general, 80.5% of child/adolescent, and 100% of addiction psychiatry training programs provided motivational interviewing education. Most programs used multiple educational opportunities; the three most common opportunities were didactics, clinical practice with formal supervision, and self-directed reading. Most training directors believed that motivational interviewing was an important skill for general psychiatrists. The authors also found that 83.3% of general, 87.8% of child/adolescent, and 94.7% of addiction psychiatry training directors reported that motivational interviewing should be taught during general psychiatry residency. Motivational interviewing skills are considered important for general psychiatrists and widely offered by training programs. Competency in motivational interviewing skills should be considered as a graduation requirement in general psychiatry training programs.
..., and human papillomavirus. Additionally, CHIS is designed to be comparable to the National Health... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Module (CHIS-CCM) 2011 (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of...
..., diet, physical activity, obesity, and human papillomavirus. Additionally, CHIS is designed to be...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28648] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Module (CHIS-CCM) 2011 (NCI...
deVries, Susann; Kelly, Robert; Storm, Paula M.
A traditional mixed methods research model of citation analysis, a survey, and interviews was selected to determine if the Bruce T. Halle Library at Eastern Michigan University owned the content that faculty cited in their research, if the collection was being utilized, and what library services the faculty used. The combination of objective data…
Lee, David J; Gómez-Marín, Orlando; Lam, Byron L; Zheng, D Diane; Jané, Dulce M
To assess 10-year trends in reported visual impairment. The National Health Interview Survey is a continuous multistage area probability survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population living at addressed dwellings. Adults within randomly selected households were administered a chronic conditions list that included questions about visual impairment. Proxy information on these conditions was obtained when household members were unavailable for interview. Complete data were available on 132 860 adults 18 years or older in survey years 1986 to 1995. Prevalence rates were adjusted for age and sample survey design. Annual age-adjusted rates of some visual impairment ranged from 3.6% to 4.6%. Rates of severe bilateral visual impairment ranged from 0.2% to 0.4%. There was some evidence for increasing rates of visual impairment among younger adults 18 to 39 years of age (annual increase, 0.03%; P =.03). However, there were no significant changes in reported visual impairment rates in older adults stratified into 10-year age groups. Data from the National Health Interview Survey provide no evidence that reported visual impairment rates are declining in the US noninstitutionalized population from 1986 to 1995. Additional treatment advances, greater use of existing treatments, including correcting refractive errors, and further reductions in risk factors for disabling eye diseases may be necessary before population-level reductions in visual impairment rates can be achieved.
Snowdon, Anne; Rothman, Linda; Slater, Morgan; Kolga, Carol; Hussein, Abdul; Boase, Paul; Howard, Andrew
To compare the differences in Canadian national estimates of correct child restraint use obtained using the standard roadside observation method compared to a detailed parking lot interview. A multi-stage stratified survey design was used to conduct roadside observational and interview data collection at 182 randomly selected sites across Canada. For each site, a roadside intersection location and a parking lot location were used for the roadside observational survey and the interview respectively. Weighted estimates of correct restraint use from both locations were compared. Estimates of correct restraint use were significantly higher for all children under the age of 9 in the parking lot sample. The largest discrepancy between the two samples was in booster seat aged children (ages 4-8) where 29.1% versus 67.8% of children were observed to be correctly restrained using the roadside and the parking lot methodology respectively. There was a 67% participation refusal rate in the parking lot survey. There are specific advantages and limitations to both survey designs. The purpose of the data collection must be considered when selecting the methodology. Parking lot surveys provide richer data regarding restraint use/misuse. Estimates of correct restraint use must be approached with caution due to the effect of consent bias resulting in over inflation of estimates. Roadside observation is adequate and appropriate for providing national estimates of correct restraint use. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gans, Jeremy; Falco, Mathea; Schackman, Bruce R.; Winters, Ken C.
Aims: To examine the quality of screening and assessment practices at some of the most highly regarded adolescent substance use treatment programs in the United States. Methods: Between March and September 2005, telephone surveys were administered to directors of highly regarded programs. Several different publications and databases were then used…
Purpose — The paper is analysing the effect of adding a web survey to a traditional telephone-based national travel survey by asking the respondents to check in on the web and answer the questions there (Computer Assisted Web Interview, CAWI). If they are not participating by web they are as usual...... — The analyses show that web interviews are saving money, even though a more intensive post-processing is necessary. The analyses seem to show that the CAWI is resulting in a more careful answering which results in more trips reported. A CAWI is increasing the participation of children in the survey...... and of highly educated. And it is offering a higher flexibility to answer after a couple of days off. The CATI is on the other hand more useful for the elderly. In addition, the CATI survey proved to be more useful for busy people and people not willing to participate in a survey at all. Young people and people...
Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop
Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual user...
Guéguen, Nicolas; Martin, Angélique
Several studies have shown that people photographed wearing eyeglasses were perceived more positively as to intelligence and honesty. However, the effect of wearing glasses on behavior and in real face-to-face relationships has never been examined. In two studies, interviewers wearing or not wearing eyeglasses were instructed to ask people in the…
Dölle, R; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Stolzenberg, H
In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), comprehensive, nationwide representative data on the state of health of children and adolescents were collected for the first time. During the 3-year data collection phase of the survey, 17,641 subjects were examined and interviewed and approx. 1,500 items were recorded. Data management was not limited to survey data collection, administration and quality assurance alone, but also comprised the provision of tools for the management and control of process data, as well as for managing survey-specific business processes. In the context of the KiGGS study, numerous components for supporting the extensive and complex processes were developed for the study staff. Here the primary focus was on subject and sample point administration, scheduling, sampling, reporting, field logistics and laboratory data management. Thanks to the computer-based processing of routine tasks involved in the organisation of the field work, ease of work and project progress control were enhanced significantly. To some extent, KiGGS-specific components have already been used in other studies and only minor adaptations were needed for the transfer. The main emphasis with regards to survey data management was on the standardisation of methods for data processing, data control and data cleaning. Here, a wealth of previous experiences was available as a starting point. The established quality assurance methods were standardised to a large extent and partly automated and complemented by data base tools for the management and documentation of survey instruments and quality assurance measures. All these measures combined made it possible to provide data users with a controlled and cleaned final data set, including a detailed documentation.
Powell, John; Inglis, Nadia; Ronnie, Jennifer; Large, Shirley
Most households in the United Kingdom have Internet access, and health-related Internet use is increasing. The National Health Service (NHS) Direct website is the major UK provider of online health information. Our objective was to identify the characteristics and motivations of online health information seekers accessing the NHS Direct website, and to examine the benefits and challenges of the health Internet. We undertook an online questionnaire survey, offered to users of the NHS Direct website. A subsample of survey respondents participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews by telephone or instant messaging/email. Questionnaire results were analyzed using chi-square statistics. Thematic coding with constant comparison was used for interview transcript analysis. In total 792 respondents completed some or all of the survey: 71.2% (534/750 with data available) were aged under 45 years, 67.4% (511/758) were female, and 37.7% (286/759) had university-level qualifications. They sought information for themselves (545/781, 69.8%), someone else (172/781, 22.0%), or both (64/781, 8.2%). Women were more likely than men to seek help for someone else or both themselves and someone else (168/509 vs 61/242, χ(2) (2) = 6.35, P = .04). Prior consultation with a health professional was reported by 44.9% (346/770), although this was less common in younger age groups (anonymity. Various challenges were discussed but no prominent theme emerged. Navigating online health information and determining what to trust was regarded as a "common sense" activity, and brand recognition was important. Specific comments about NHS Direct included the perception that the online service was integrated with traditional service provision. This study supports a model of evolutionary rather than revolutionary change in online health information use. Given increasing resource constraints, the health care community needs to seek ways of promoting efficient and appropriate health
Robles, A; Goldman, N
Because hospital records rarely exist for a representative sample of the population in developing countries, researchers frequently rely on birthweight data from surveys. Yet, the quality of these data has rarely been evaluated. This study explores the accuracy of birthweight information in six demographic and health surveys in Latin America conducted in the early 1990s: two in Guatemala, and one each in Bolivia, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Peru. The quality of the birthweight reports is assessed by examining the plausibility of estimates of the proportion of newborns reported to have been weighed and estimates derived from the numerical weights, by characteristics of the delivery and maternal education. The estimates suggest that a substantial proportion of women whose newborns were probably never weighed report a birthweight. For all of the surveys, with the possible exception of Costa Rica, the average birthweights appear to be too high, and the estimates of the prevalence of low birthweight too low. In addition, the data reveal anomalous patterns, such as higher birthweights for home as compared with hospital deliveries. These findings suggest that estimates of low birthweight derived from surveys in developing countries are likely to portray an overly optimistic picture of children's and women's health status. More information about the underlying source of these data are needed not only to provide additional insight into the degree of error characterizing existing estimates, but also to improve data collection strategies in future health interview surveys.
Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Hayakawa, Akira; Terazawa, Koichi
Fostering the specialists of forensic pathology has become a worldwide problem. In Japan, factors such as government budget cuts, the introduction of initial postgraduate clinical training system, as well as national policy on increasing autopsy rates, may deter young graduates from entering this specialty. The aim of this study was to look for clues to promote the training of young forensic pathologists. We selected and interviewed five forensic pathologists, with each interview lasting approximately 60 minutes, and picked up common views among them. The interviews topic, based on a prior survey, was: "What do you believe forensic pathologists require to promote the training of their successors." We selected common views on the three themes listed below; 1) standardization of minimum requirements to be independent forensic pathologists, 2) balancing forensic pathologists' time among autopsy practice, research, and education, and 3) preparing positions for younger forensic pathologists. These opinions were the same as those of previous studies conducted overseas and must be discussed at academic conferences in the future, where both junior and senior forensic pathologists participate.
Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T
Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Lampert, T; Kroll, L; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H
Socioeconomic status (SES) constitutes a central analysis category of epidemiological research and health reporting. As part of the German cardiovascular disease prevention study 1984-1991, a multi-dimensional aggregated index was developed for the purpose of measuring SES. This index continues to be used in numerous studies to this day. For the purpose of health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the index was fundamentally revised following critical assessment. This article describes the basic concepts underlying the revision and how they were implemented in relation to the "German health interview and examination survey for adults" (DEGS1). In addition, the results of the age and sex-specific distribution of the values of the revised SES index and those relating to the connection with other measurements of socioeconomic status are reported. The results are based on the data of DEGS1 2012 and the German national health interview and examination survey 1998 (GNHIES98). An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Burger, Martina; Mensink, Gert B M
To analyse the alcohol consumption behaviour of the German adult population, with a focus on the characteristics of persons drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL) of 10-12 g day(-1) for healthy adult women and 20-24 g day(-1) for healthy adult men. For the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a representative sample of free-living adults was drawn. A total of 7124 participants were interviewed comprehensively about their sociodemographic background, lifestyle and eating habits including alcohol consumption. A sub-sample of 4030 women and men, 18-79 years old, who were involved in the integrated German Nutrition Survey. About 16% of women and 31% of men had mean alcohol consumption above the TUAL. Among other factors, the inclination to exceed the TUAL was related to middle-age, high socio-economic status, smoking and use of soft drugs. Among both women and men, a high proportion of persons drinking above the TUAL was observed among those consuming low amounts of soft drinks, fruit, poultry, milk products, bread and cake/biscuits. Women preferred to drink wine, whereas men preferred to drink beer. Many Germans have an alcohol consumption level above the TUAL and thus are supposed to be at increased risk for alcohol-associated diseases.
Data collected on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are coded as frequency and time unit - times per day, week, or month. The data contain some values that are very unlikely.
Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods.
Comparable survey data on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are highly sought after by policymakers to inform policies aimed at closing ethnic socio-economic gaps. However, collection of such data is compromised by group differences in socio-economic status and cultural norms. We use data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and multiple-membership multilevel regression models that allow for individual and interviewer effects to examine differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in approximate measures of the quality of the interview process. We find that there are both direct and indirect ethnic effects on different dimensions of interview process quality, with Indigenous Australians faring worse than non-Indigenous Australians in all outcomes ceteris paribus . This indicates that nationwide surveys must feature interview protocols that are sensitive to the needs and culture of Indigenous respondents to improve the quality of the survey information gathered from this subpopulation. PMID:26091283
Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M
We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98...
Ward, Bryan K; Agrawal, Yuri; Hoffman, Howard J; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C
Profound bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) causes disabling oscillopsia, chronic disequilibrium, and postural instability, but little is known about its epidemiology and impact. To assess prevalence and functional impact of BVH in the US adult population. National cross-sectional survey using a national database and corollary validation study. Adult respondents to the 2008 Balance and Dizziness Supplement to the US National Health Interview Survey (N = 21 782). Prevalence of BVH, socioeconomic and quality-of-life impact of BVH, and fall risk. Criteria for the survey-based diagnosis of BVH included all of the following: presence of visual blurring with head movement; unsteadiness; difficulty walking in darkness or unsteady surfaces and in a straight path; and symptoms being at least "a big problem" and present for at least 1 year, in the absence of other neurologic conditions or eye pathologic conditions affecting vision. Adjusted national estimates from this survey indicate the prevalence of BVH in 2008 was 28 per 100 000 US adults (64 046 Americans). Of the participants with BVH, 44% reported changing their driving habits because of their symptoms, 56% reported reduced participation in social activities, and 58% reported difficulties with activities of daily living. Respondents with BVH had a 31-fold increase in the odds of falling in multivariate analyses compared with all respondents, with 25% reporting a recent fall-related injury. As estimated by the presence of specific symptoms in a nationally representative survey, BVH has considerable socioeconomic and quality-of-life impacts and significantly increases fall risk. These data support the need for new therapeutic strategies for BVH, including vestibular rehabilitation and implantable vestibular prostheses.
Fritz, H. M.; Martinez, C.; Salado, J.; Rivera, W.
On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the northeastern shore of Hispaniola resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field the tsunami was recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes ever reported in the Caribbean. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from La Isabela to Punta Cana. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field data points measured in 2014 and 2016 were corrected for predicted astronomical tide levels at the time of tsunami arrival
Turnwald, G H; Spafford, M M; Bohr, J D
A study of veterinary school admission interview practices across the USA and Canada was conducted in 1999. All 31 schools responded. INTERVIEW USE: Eighty-four percent of the veterinary schools interview applicants. Veterinary schools are more likely to interview resident than non-resident applicants (62% interviewed >or=49% of their resident applicants, while 77% interviewed interview weight in the selection process (mean weight is 28%). INTERVIEW PURPOSE AND CONTENT: The most common purposes for conducting a veterinary admission interview are to gather information, to measure non-cognitive/humanistic skills, and to clarify information on the written application (>or=77%). The five most common characteristics and skills the veterinary admission interview is intended to assess are communication skills, maturity, motivation for and interest in veterinary medicine, interpersonal skills, and knowledge of the veterinary profession (>or=92%). The least common characteristic or skill the veterinary admission interview is intended to assess is academic performance (23%). INTERVIEW FORMAT: Veterinary schools are most likely to offer one interview to a candidate (83%). A panel interview with between two and three interviewers is the predominant format employed (92%). The interview is of 20-45 minutes duration (88%), most commonly 30 minutes (50%). Interview questions most often address experiences in veterinary medicine, general background, and strengths and weaknesses (>or=85%). The level of interview structure is low to moderate (73%). The cold or blind interview (where interviewers are denied access to all or part of the written application) is employed by 50% of the interviewing veterinary schools. INTERVIEWERS: Interviewing veterinary schools assign interviewing to faculty veterinarians (100%). Some level of interviewer training is usually provided (87%); the most common mode of training is distribution of printed material (86%). SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The
Mai, Phuong L; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas; Breen, Nancy; McNeel, Timothy S; Wideroff, Louise; Graubard, Barry I
Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000-2005 and 2005-2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (ptesting in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chen, Li Hui; Warner, Margaret; Fingerhut, Lois; Makuc, Diane
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) provides estimates of nonfatal, medically attended injuries and poisonings occurring in the United States. The objectives of this report are to 1) document changes in the injury and poisoning section of NHIS from 1997 through 2007; 2) provide guidance on summarizing data across the 11-year study period; and 3) present detailed national estimates of nonfatal injury and poisoning episodes for the time period. NHIS samples the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States living in households. NHIS data from the years 1997-2007 were used in this report. Some questions related to injury and poisoning episodes were modified in 2000 and 2004. During the period 1997-2004, many NHIS injury and poisoning questions were improved as a result of cognitive interviewing, data analysis, and feedback from interviewers and data users. Revisions to the NHIS injury and poisoning section pose some difficulties for trend analysis. However, some questions remained the same during the 11-year period, despite the questionnaire revisions. The injury and poisoning section has not been revised since 2004 and, where possible, analyses should be limited to 2004 and beyond. For analyses that require a longer time period, this report provides information on changes to questions and statistics that illustrate the effect of these changes on injury estimates. in 2007, the medically attended injury and poisoning episode rate among the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population was 115.7 per 1,000 population. Despite differences in some questions during the period 1997-2007, NHIS data for these years show falls as the leading cause of injury and the home as the leading place that injury occurred.
Full Text Available This paper examined the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2007 and explored acupuncture users sociodemographics characteristics, reasons and the nature of acupuncture use, and the relationship of such use with conventional medical care. All individuals who completed adults core interviews (N = 23,393 were included. Three subsets of samples (nonuser, former user, and recent user were used in the analysis performed in Stata. Our findings revealed that ever acupuncture user (including former and recent user increased from 4.2% to 6.3% of the population, representing 8.19 million and 14.01 million users in 2002 and 2007, respectively. We expected this trend to continue. People not only used acupuncture as a complementary and alternative approach to conventional treatment for a specific health condition, but also used it as a preventive means to promote general health. Effectiveness and safety appeared not to be the main predictors of acupuncture use; rather, awareness, cost, and insurance coverage played a bigger role in decision making.
Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. Methods A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. After two mail contacts, non-respondents were randomly assigned to either a reminder telephone call or a telephone interview. Average cost per completed interview and response rates were compared between the two experimental conditions. Results The response rate in the reminder group and the interview did not differ where we considered both a completed survey and a signed form a complete (24% vs. 29%, p = 0.08. However, if such a signed form was not required, there was a substantial advantage to completing the interview over the phone (24% vs. 43%, p Conclusions The additional cost of completing an interview is worth it when an additional signed form is not required of the respondent. However, when such a signed form is required, offering an interview instead of a reminder phone call as a follow up to non-respondents does not increase response rates enough to outweigh the additional costs.
Asfaw, Abay G; Chang, Chia C; Ray, Tapas K
This study examined the association between workplace mistreatment and occurrence, duration, and costs of sickness absenteeism. We used the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and considered 13,807 employed adult respondents. We used a zero-inflated negative binomial (zinb) model to examine the association between exposure to workplace mistreatment and the occurrence and number of workdays missed due to illness/injury in the preceding 12 months. In 2010, 7.6% of US workers employed at the time of the survey reported having been mistreated at their workplace. Both occurrence and duration of sickness absence were higher for mistreated than for non-mistreated workers. The zinb results showed that being mistreated was associated with a 42% increase in the number of missed workdays, controlling for covariates. The marginal effect analysis showed that lost workdays differed by 2.45 days between mistreated and non-mistreated workers. This implies that workplace mistreatment was associated with $4.1 billion, or 5.5%, of sickness absenteeism costs in 2010. Workplace mistreatment is associated with sickness absence in the United States. While a causal relationship could not be established due to the cross-sectional design of the study, this study reveals the economic importance of developing workplace mistreatment prevention strategies. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Sarwar, Evangel; Arias, Devin; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa Bhattacharya
Studies show that Asian-American subgroups do not always meet dietary recommendations and are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of our research is to illustrate the various sociodemographic correlates of dietary habits for six subgroups of Asian-Americans in California. The 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was utilized. A total of 3772 Asian-Americans were included in this study, with the largest subgroup being Chinese (n = 1280; N = 913,798). The outcome variable for this study was dietary behavior defined as consuming five or more fruits and vegetables per day (5-a-day), provided by CHIS. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted accounting for complex survey design. Being a female (Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese), not being married (Chinese), not being a college graduate (Chinese), living in poverty (South Asian), and speaking only English language at home (Chinese and Japanese) were associated with higher odds of not meeting a 5-a-day requirement. Results highlighted several sociodemographic correlates to not meeting 5-a-day requirement among six Asian-American subgroups. Targeted health promotion measures for such at-risk groups should be implemented to improve dietary practices.
Dragon, Christina N; Laffan, Alison M; Erdem, Erkan; Cahill, Sean R; Kenefick, Daniel; Ye, Jiahui; Haffer, Samuel C
Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were pooled for increased sample size, and established research methods were followed as recommended by prior NHIS sexual orientation studies. We conducted descriptive analyses on the differences between SM and heterosexual groups, aged 65 years and older, for 12 health indicators. Four out of the 12 health indicators were significantly different for sexual minorities, and three out of those four indicated positive health outcomes or behaviors when compared with heterosexuals. Sexual minorities were more than three times as likely to receive HIV testing as heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination, and much more likely to report excellent or very good health, than their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more than twice as likely to report binge drinking, which is consistent with prior research for adult sexual minorities. This analysis is the first to examine national data on health indicators for sexual minorities, aged 65 years and older, using NHIS data. As more surveys begin to collect SMdata and more years of data are collected by NHIS, a clearer picture of the health of older adult sexual minorities should emerge.
Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Papí Gálvez, Natalia; Carbrera Ruiz, Virginia; Ruiz Martínez, Ana; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos
To analyze the Spanish National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from a gender perspective, with special emphasis on gender division of labor. We analyzed the 2003 Spanish NHIS from the perspective of the levels of gender observation, with gender understood as: a) the basis of social norms (responsibilities by sex, health risks, and problems related to masculine/feminine roles); b) the organizer of the social structure: gender division of labor, work overload, vertical/horizontal segregation, time spent in activities according to social times, access to resources), and c) a component of individual identity (conflicts due to multiple roles, body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, self-perceived recognition of the work performed, assimilation of the sexual gender role, sex differences in health conditions). The Spanish NHIS is centered on the main provider, referred to in masculine grammatical form. Gender division of domestic labor is identified only by a general question. When using the concept of main activity for productive or reproductive work, the survey requires respondents to evaluate them and select only one, thus losing information and hampering analysis of the impact of an overload of work on health. Information on time used for reproductive work and leisure is not solicited. Assaults (intentional) and accidents (non-intentional) are combined in the same question, thus preventing research on gender-related violence. The Spanish NHIS includes the variable of sex, but its more descriptive than analytic focus limits gender analysis. The survey allows specific circumstances of employment-related inequalities between sexes to be measured, but does not completely allow other indicators of gender inequalities, such as the situation of housewives or work overload, to be measured.
Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren
The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.
Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y; Burmeister, Kelly R; Harris, Ann; Holubar, Stefan D; Beebe, Timothy J
Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. After two mail contacts, non-respondents were randomly assigned to either a reminder telephone call or a telephone interview. Average cost per completed interview and response rates were compared between the two experimental conditions. The response rate in the reminder group and the interview did not differ where we considered both a completed survey and a signed form a complete (24% vs. 29%, p = 0.08). However, if such a signed form was not required, there was a substantial advantage to completing the interview over the phone (24% vs. 43%, p offering an interview instead of a reminder phone call as a follow up to non-respondents does not increase response rates enough to outweigh the additional costs.
Hope Seib McMaster
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found that a “web-push” approach to data collection, which involves contacting people by mail to request an Internet survey response while withholding a paper response option until later in the contact process, consistently achieves lower response rates than a “paper-only” approach, whereby all respondents are contacted and requested to respond by mail. Method An experiment was designed, as part of the Millennium Cohort Family Study, to compare response rates, sample representativeness, and cost between a web-push and a paper-only approach; each approach comprised 3 stages of mail contacts. The invited sample (n = 4,935 consisted of spouses married to U.S. Service members, who had been serving in the military between 2 and 5 years as of October, 2011. Results The web-push methodology produced a significantly higher response rate, 32.8% compared to 27.8%. Each of the 3 stages of postal contact significantly contributed to response for both treatments with 87.1% of the web-push responses received over the Internet. The per-respondent cost of the paper-only treatment was almost 40% higher than the web-push treatment group. Analyses revealed no meaningfully significant differences between treatment groups in representation. Conclusion These results provide evidence that a web-push methodology is more effective and less expensive than a paper-only approach among young military spouses, perhaps due to their heavy reliance on the internet, and we suggest that this approach may be more effective with the general population as they become more uniformly internet savvy.
Full Text Available Azizi A Seixas,1 Joao V Nunes,2 Collins O Airhihenbuwa,3 Natasha J Williams,1 Seithikurippu Ratnas Pandi-Perumal,1 Caryl C James,4 Girardin Jean-Louis11Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, Division of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 2Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City College of New York, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA; 4Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaObjective: The objective of the study was to examine the independent association of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep duration (defined as <7 or >8 hours.Methods: Data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, a cross-sectional household survey, were analyzed to investigate the associations of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep durations, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health risks, and chronic diseases through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis.Participants: A total of 27,731 participants (age range 18–85 years from the NHIS 2009 dataset were interviewed.Measures: Unhealthy sleep duration is defined as sleep duration <7 or >8 hours, whereas healthy sleep is defined as sleep duration lasting for 7–8 hours. Emotional distress is based on the Kessler 6 Non-Specific Distress Battery, which assesses the frequency of feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, and burdened, over a 30-day period.Results: Of the sample, 51.7% were female; 83.1% were white and 16.9% were black. Eleven percent experienced emotional distress and 37.6% reported unhealthy sleep. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with emotional distress had 55% greater odds of reporting unhealthy sleep (odds ratio [OR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.42, 1.68, P<0.001.Conclusion: Emotional distress, an important proxy for
Russell, Connie Adelle
Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science
Alemu, Taddese; Umeta, Melaku
Low Birth Weight (LBW) babies account for nearly 80% of neonatal deaths globally. In Ethiopia, only 5% of them are weighed at birth. This study analyzes the prevalence and key proximate determinants of reported infant size, and its validity to use as a proxy indicator for low birth weight inthe Ethiopian context. In-depth analysis of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey dataset was conducted using representative data collected from all regions in the country. Considering reported fetal size at birth as an outcome variable, key predicting variables from socio-demographic, household, child and obstetric characteristics were employed for analyses. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to determine predictors at p value < 0.05. An average of 29.1% of Ethiopian babies were reported "small" at birth in 2011. various variables from socio-demographic, household, child and maternal reproductive characteristics were identified as key predictors. Women who develop anemia and not attending antenatal care during pregnancy had 15% and 41% more risk of giving birth to the reported "small size" babies than their counterparts (AoR = 1.15, and 1.41, 95% CI (1.02, 1.64 and 1.06, 1.88) respectively. Maternal age at delivery, maternal literacy level, paternal educational status and presence of radio or television in the household and other factors were also other key predictors identified. The prevalence of small size babies in Ethiopia is high but comparable to regional estimates of LBW. It is recommend that improving maternal nutritional and socio-economic status is a timely intervention to tackle the problem.
Walitt, Brian; Nahin, Richard L.; Katz, Robert S.; Bergman, Martin J.; Wolfe, Frederick
Background Most knowledge of fibromyalgia comes from the clinical setting, where healthcare-seeking behavior and selection issues influence study results. The characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population have not been studied in detail. Methods We developed and tested surrogate study specific criteria for fibromyalgia in rheumatology practices using variables from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the modification (for surveys) of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) preliminary fibromyalgia criteria. The surrogate criteria were applied to the 2012 NHIS and identified persons who satisfied criteria from symptom data. The NHIS weighted sample of 8446 persons represents 225.7 million US adults. Results Fibromyalgia was identified in 1.75% (95% CI 1.42, 2.07), or 3.94 million persons. However, 73% of identified cases self-reported a physician’s diagnosis other than fibromyalgia. Identified cases had high levels of self-reported pain, non-pain symptoms, comorbidity, psychological distress, medical costs, Social Security and work disability. Caseness was associated with gender, education, ethnicity, citizenship and unhealthy behaviors. Demographics, behaviors, and comorbidity were predictive of case status. Examination of the surrogate polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) of the 2010 ACR criteria found fibromyalgia symptoms extending through the full length of the scale. Conclusions Persons identified with criteria-based fibromyalgia have severe symptoms, but most (73%) have not received a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The association of fibromyalgia-like symptoms over the full length of the PSD scale with physiological as well as mental stressors suggests PSD may be a universal response variable rather than one restricted to fibromyalgia. PMID:26379048
Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R
Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities; however, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of disability among obese adults in the United States. We analyzed pooled data from sample adult modules of the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type, and obesity by using 30 questions that screened for activity limitations, vision and hearing impairment, and cognitive, movement, and emotional difficulties. We stratified disability prevalence by category of body mass index (BMI, measured as kg/m(2)): underweight, less than 18.5; normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9; overweight, 25.0 to 29.9; and obese, 30.0 or higher. Among the 25.3% of adult men and 24.6% of women in our pooled sample who were obese, 35.2% and 46.9%, respectively, reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of men and 26.8% women of normal weight reported a disability. Disability was much higher among obese women than among obese men (46.9% vs 35.2%, P body mass index. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs.
Davis, R M; Boyd, G M; Schoenborn, C A
The tobacco industry recommends "common courtesy" as the solution to potential conflicts over smoking in public places and as an alternative to policies that restrict or ban smoking. Specifically, the industry suggests that nonsmokers "mention annoyances in a pleasant and friendly manner" and that smokers ask others, "Do you mind if I smoke?" We analyzed data for 22,000 adults who responded to the 1987 National Health Interview Survey of Cancer Epidemiology and Control to determine if common courtesy is being used in passive-smoking situations. Almost half (47%) of smokers said they light up inside public places without asking if others mind. When someone lights up a cigarette inside a public place, only 4% of nonsmokers ask the person not to smoke despite the fact that most nonsmokers consider secondhand smoke harmful and annoying. We compared these data with similar data collected by the Roper Organization in the 1970s and found that smokers today are less likely to smoke inside public places. However, nonsmokers' actions in response to secondhand smoke have changed very little. These findings show that the common courtesy approach endorsed by the tobacco industry is unlikely, by itself, to eliminate exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Though no one would oppose the use of common courtesy, we conclude that legislative or administrative mechanisms are the only effective strategies to eliminate passive smoking.
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H
Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p gender and distinct health risk patterns for men and women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes.
Alves, Joana; Kunst, Anton E; Perelman, Julian
Southern European countries were traditionally characterized by a higher prevalence of smoking among high socioeconomic groups. Though, recent studies show a reversal of inequalities in Italy and Spain, for example. We investigated whether this evolution also applied to Portugal by describing the evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking between 1987 and 2006. We used data from the four Portuguese national health interview surveys (N = 120,140) carried out so far. Socioeconomic status was measured by the educational and income levels of respondents. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured through Odds Ratios (OR), Relative Inequality Indexes (RII), and Concentration Indexes (CI) on being current, ever, and former smoker, adjusting for sex and age. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, and for different birth cohorts. Among men, smoking was initially more concentrated in high-socioeconomic status individuals (RII = 0.84, 95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI] 0.76-0.93, 1987) but this pattern reversed in the last survey (RII = 1.49, 95% CI 1.34-1.65, 2005/6). Indeed, higher cessation rates were observed among high-socioeconomic groups among all respondents (RII = 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.95), coupled with higher initiation rates among the worse-off in younger cohorts (RII = 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.31, for youngest generation, 2005/6). Among women, the richer and more educated smoked more in all surveys (RII = 0.21, 95% CI 0.16-0.27, 2005/6), despite being also more likely to quit (RII = 0.41, 95% CI 0.30-0.55). The pattern among women evolved towards a reduction of inequality, which however remained favourable to the worse-off. Inequalities have been increasingly unfavourable to the worse-off in Portugal, although better-off women are still more likely to smoke. Worrisome inequality trends have been observed among the youngest generations, which call for the rapid implementation of equity-oriented tobacco control policies.
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation, conditional on contact. We take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers' behaviour and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. Previous studies of the association between doorstep behaviour and co-operation have not directly addressed the role of personality traits and inter-personal skills and most have been based on small samples of interviewers. We use a large sample of 842 face-to-face interviewers working for a major survey institute and analyse co-operation outcomes for over 100,000 cases contacted by those interviewers over a 13-month period. We find evidence of effects of experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills on co-operation rates. Several of the effects of attitudes and inter-personal skills are explained by differences in experience, though some independent effects remain. The role of attitudes, personality and skills seems to be greatest for the least experienced interviewers.
Gwenyth R Wallen
Full Text Available Establishing the validity of health behavior surveys used in community-based participatory research (CBPR in diverse populations is often overlooked. A novel, group-based cognitive interviewing method was used to obtain qualitative data for tailoring a survey instrument designed to identify barriers to improved cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, DC. A focus group–based cognitive interview was conducted to assess item comprehension, recall, and interpretation and to establish the initial content validity of the survey. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts yielded 5 main themes for which participants (n = 8 suggested survey modifications, including survey item improvements, suggestions for additional items, community-specific issues, changes in the skip logic of the survey items, and the identification of typographical errors. Population-specific modifications were made, including the development of more culturally appropriate questions relevant to the community. Group-based cognitive interviewing provided an efficient and effective method for piloting a cardiovascular health survey instrument using CBPR.
Frey, James H.; Oishi, Sabine Mertens
The nine-volume Survey Kit is designed to help readers prepare and conduct surveys and become better users of survey results. All the books in the series contain instructional objectives, exercises and answers, examples of surveys in use, illustrations of survey questions, guidelines for action, checklists of "dos and don'ts," and…
Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10, Number 249. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 2011-1577
Pleis, J. R.; Ward, B. W.; Lucas, J. W.
Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented…
Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M; Kobau, Rosemarie; Helmers, Sandra L
This study aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of selected health behavior-alcohol use, cigarette smoking, physical activity, and sufficient sleep-between people with and without a history of epilepsy in a large, nationally representative sample in the United States. We used data from the 2010 cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to compare the prevalence of each health behavior for people with and without epilepsy while adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. We also further categorized those with epilepsy into active epilepsy and inactive epilepsy and calculated their corresponding prevalences. The percentages of adults with a history of epilepsy (50.1%, 95% CI=45.1%-55.2%) and with active epilepsy (44.4%, 95% CI=37.6%-51.5%) who were current alcohol drinkers were significantly lower than that of those without epilepsy (65.1%, 95% CI=64.2%-66.0%). About 21.8% (95% CI=18.1%-25.9%) of adults with epilepsy and 19.3% (95% CI=18.7%-19.9%) of adults without epilepsy were current smokers. Adults with active epilepsy were significantly less likely than adults without epilepsy to report following recommended physical activity guidelines for Americans (35.2%, 95% CI=28.8%-42.1% vs. 46.3%, 95% CI=45.4%-47.2%) and to report walking for at least ten minutes during the seven days prior to being surveyed (39.6%, 95% CI=32.3%-47.4% vs. 50.8%, 95% CI=49.9%-51.7%). The percentage of individuals with active epilepsy (49.8%, 95% CI=42.0%-57.7%) who reported sleeping an average of 7 or 8h a day was significantly lower than that of those without epilepsy (61.9%, 95% CI=61.2%-62.7%). Because adults with epilepsy are significantly less likely than adults without epilepsy to engage in recommended levels of physical activity and to get the encouraged amount of sleep for optimal health and well-being, promoting more safe physical activity and improved sleep quality is necessary among adults with epilepsy. Ending tobacco use and maintaining low
Drieskens, Sabine; Demarest, Stefaan; D'Hoker, Nicola; Ortiz, Barbara; Tafforeau, Jean
The aim of this study is to assess if a Health Interview Survey (HIS) targeting the general population is an appropriate tool to collect valid data on domestic violence. Studying item non-response on the question on domestic violence and its association with socio-demographic and health characteristics compared with victims of domestic violence can contribute to this. Cross-sectional data from the Belgian HIS 2013 were analysed. A question whether the perpetrator of a violent event was a member of the respondents' household was embedded in a general topic on violence in the self-administered questionnaire. This study is limited to people aged 15+ that at least completed the first question of this topic. Socio-demographic characteristics of item non-respondents and of victims of domestic violence were explored and the association with health status was assessed through ORs calculated via logistic regression. The year prevalence of domestic violence is 1.1%. Although the question on domestic violence yields a high level of non-response (62%), this does not hinder the further completion of the questionnaire. When compared with victims of domestic violence, those not responding on the question on the perpetrator have better (mental) health. When compared with those not being victim of domestic violence, victims report poorer physical and mental health. An HIS can be an appropriate tool to assess domestic violence in the general population and its association with health. However, a solution should be found for the high item non-response on the question on the perpetrator of the violent event.
This paper analyze the association between height and chronic diseases in Portugal and the extent to which this relationship is mediated by education. The sample upon which the analysis is based comprised those participants in the 2005/2006 Portuguese National Health Interview Survey (n=28,433) aged 25-79. Logistic regressions measured the association of height with ten chronic diseases, adjusting for age, lifestyle, education, and other socioeconomic factors. Among women, an additional centimeter in stature significantly decreased the prevalence of asthma, chronic pain, and acute cardiac disease, by 0.057, 0.221, and 0.033 percentage points, respectively. Also, mental disorders were significantly less prevalent in the last quartile of height. Among men, an additional centimeter in height was associated with a 0.074 lower prevalence of asthma, and men in the last quartile of height were significantly less at risk of acute cardiovascular disease. There was no significant association between height and the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, and pulmonary diseases. As for the impact of education, women with a tertiary level were on average 5.3cm taller than those with no schooling; among men, the difference was almost 9cm. Adjusting for education reduced the height-related excess risk of ill health by 36% on average among men, and by 7% among women. The analysis indicates that there is a significant association of height with several chronic conditions, and that education plays a mediating role in the height-health connection. By emphasizing the role of height and education as determinants of chronic conditions, this paper also highlights the role of conditions related to childhood health and socioeconomic background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shankar, Anoop; Charumathi, Sabanayagam; Kalidindi, Sita
Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to consistently predict overall mortality and cardiovascular mortality in several population-based studies across the world. Similarly sleep duration have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. However, relatively few studies have examined the association between sleep duration and SRH, and the results have not been consistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study of n = 20,663 National Health Interview Survey 2008 participants ≥ 18 years of age (56.2% women). Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and ≥ 9 h. The main outcome interest was fair/poor SRH (n = 3043). We found both short and long sleep duration to be independently associated with fair/poor SRH, independent of age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, physical activity, depression, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and CVD. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h (referent), the multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of fair/poor SRH was 2.29 (1.86-2.83), 1.68 (1.42-2.00), 1.38 (1.18-1.61), and 1.98 (1.63-2.40) for sleep duration ≤ 5, 6, 8, and ≥ 9 h. This association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, race-ethnicity, and body mass index categories. Compared with sleep duration of 7 h, there was a positive association between both shorter and longer sleep duration and fair/poor self-rated health in a representative sample of US adults.
Isong, Inyang A; Soobader, Mah-J; Fisher-Owens, Susan A; Weintraub, Jane A; Gansky, Stuart A; Platt, Larry J; Newacheck, Paul W
Research that has repeatedly documented marked racial/ethnic disparities in US children's receipt of dental care at single time points or brief periods has lacked a historical policy perspective, which provides insight into how these disparities have evolved over time. Our objective was to examine the im-pact of national health policies on African American and white children's receipt of dental care from 1964 to 2010. We analyzed data on race and dental care utilization for children aged 2 to 17 years from the 1964, 1976, 1989, 1999, and 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Dependent variables were as follows: child's receipt of a dental visit in the previous 12 months and child's history of never having had a dental visit. Primary independent variable was race (African American/white). We calculated sample prevalences, and χ(2) tests compared African American/white prevalences by year. We age-standardized estimates to the 2000 US Census. The percentage of African American and white children in the United States without a dental visit in the previous 12 months declined significantly from 52.4% in 1964 to 21.7% in 2010, whereas the percentage of children who had never had a dental visit declined significantly (P children's dental utilization rates, whereas large and statistically significant in 1964, attenuated and became nonsignificant by 2010. We demonstrate a dramatic narrowing of African American/white disparities in 2 measures of children's receipt of dental services from 1964 to 2010. Yet, much more needs to be done before persistent racial disparities in children's oral health status are eliminated.
Akinseye, Oluwaseun A; Ojike, Nwakile I; Akinseye, Leah I; Dhandapany, Perundurai S; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R
Habitual sleep duration is increasingly being recognized as an important risk factor for stroke. We sought to describe the association between sleep duration and stroke in a cohort of individuals with diabetes. Data from the National Health Interview Survey for the years 2004-2013 were used. Only those answering "yes" to the question "Have you EVER been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have diabetes or sugar diabetes?" were included in the analysis. Sleep duration was categorized as short (≤6 hours), normal (7-8 hours), or long (≥9 hours). Self-reported diagnosis of stroke was the main outcome of interest. A total number of 26,364 self-reported diabetic individuals provided data for analysis. Stroke was reported in 9.1% of short sleepers, 16.1% of long sleepers, and 8.3% of normative sleepers (P sleep and stroke became nonsignificant after multivariate adjustment (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: .95-1.40, P = .16) except in white participants. The association between long sleep duration and stroke persisted (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.16-1.84, P = .01), especially in males (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.14-2.28) and in white participants (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.47-2.65). In diabetic patients, abnormal sleep duration was associated with increased risk of stroke, and this association varied among different sex and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact on response quantity and quality of a diary- and booklet-based survey of using different interview methods and lottery prizes. In addition to a conventional questionnaire the survey included time-diaries for household members and a expenditure booklet for recording the previous month's spending by the household. The respondents could choose to use either CATI (Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing or web-based CAPI (Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing for the different parts of the survey. Lottery prizes varied during the survey period, and the prizes were doubled if they had used only the CAPI method. The response rate was significantly affected by the size of the lottery prizes, and the doubling of these prizes for using the web had a high impact on the number of respondents choosing this method. The implication was that also the response quality increased as a result of the impact on the number of web interviews, because this method was found to yield a significantly higher quality for the diary, booklet and questionnaire information.
Mohangoo, A.D.; Linden, M.W. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Raat, H.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare prevalence estimates of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) derived from self-report in a health interview survey and from general practitioners' (GPs') medical records, and to explain any differences. METHODS: the presence of
Stefan, Jordy; Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas
Studies have shown that restaurant waitresses with hair ornamentation receive higher tips than waitresses without ornaments. However, the effect of such ornamentation on other behaviors has never been explored. In this study, the effect of a female interviewer's hair ornamentation on compliance with a survey request was examined. Male and female…
Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y; Burmeister, Kelly R; Harris, Ann; Holubar, Stefan D; Beebe, Timothy J
Abstract Background Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. Methods A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the provisions of the Health Act 2006, NHS acute Trusts had to become smoke-free by July 2007. Mental health Trusts were granted a further year before all indoor smoking areas have to be removed. This study was carried out to determine the extent of smoke-free policy implementation in English NHS acute and mental health Trusts, and to explore challenges and impacts related to policy implementation. Methods Questionnaire-based survey of all English NHS acute and mental health hospital settings, supplemented by semi-structured telephone interviews with 22 respondents and direct observation at a sample of 15 Trusts (22 different sites. Human Resources Directors of all 245 English NHS Trusts providing acute and/or mental health inpatient care were identified as potential study participants. Main outcome measures comprised the proportions of Trusts reporting smoke-free policy implementation; whether these relate to buildings only or to whole premises including grounds; most frequently reported exemptions; reported and observed frequencies of policy breaches. Results Smoke-free policies were reported to be implemented in all mental health and 98% of acute settings studied. They applied to whole premises including grounds in 84% of acute, and 64% of mental health settings. However, exemptions were granted by 50% of acute and 78% of mental health settings, typically for bereaved relatives or psychiatric patients, in sheltered outdoor areas and smoking rooms. Reported challenges included policy enforcement and related risks of abuse, and litter on premises and adjacent public grounds. Nearly two thirds of acute and over a third of mental health trusts reported that policy infringements occurred on a daily basis. Indeed, patients and visitors were observed smoking at 94% of acute sites visited and staff smoking at 35% of them. Conclusion NHS hospitals should play an exemplary role in making a smoke-free environment the
Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the effects which some factors could have on articles publication regarding survey interviewer characteristics. For this, the author studied the existing literature from the various fields in which articles on survey interviewer characteristics has been published and which can be found in online articles database. The analysis was performed on 243 articles achieved by researchers in the time period 1949-2012. Using statistical software R and applying multilevel regression model, the results showed that the time period when the studied articles are made and the interaction between the number of authors and the number of pages affect the most their publication in journals with a certain level of impact factor.
Full Text Available The article presents the essential issues and algorithm of the methodology of a four-step transportation model, which was constructed in order to carrying out a household interview survey. The results of this research are source data for determining the travel behaviour of the users of transportation systems, including intelligent transport systems (ITS. The presented issues regarding the survey methodology also concern the specifics of the study area, an urban agglomeration area. The examples particularly relate to an urban agglomeration with the nature of a conurbation, namely, the Upper Silesian Agglomeration in Poland.
Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.
Kjøller, Mette; Thoning, Henrik
admissions. RESULTS: Non-response increased from 20.0% in 1987 to 22.6% in 1994. Four combinations of background variables characterized the non-response: gender and age; gender and civil status; county of residence and age; survey year and age. Non-respondents and respondents had identical gender- and age...
Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje; Hölling, Heike; Lange, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Dahm, Stefan; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Fuchs, Judith; Hapke, Ulfert; Heidemann, Christin; Knopf, Hildtraud; Laussmann, Detlef; Mensink, Gert B M; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Richter, Almut; Sass, Anke-Christine; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria
The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18-79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18-79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008-2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18-79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes
Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1 extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.
student parents in school to discuss problems related with students and school. h. Make comparative study School principal, in order to increase ...contains information on the First and Second Malaysian Family Life Surveys conducted in 1976-1977 and in 1988-1989. Subsequent information about the...pressure ? 2. History of diabetes ? 3. History of heart disease ? 4. Any hereditary disease ? 5. Do you smoke
Conole, Grainne; de Laat, Maarten; Dillon, Teresa; Darby, Jonathan
The paper describes the findings from a study of students' use and experience of technologies. A series of in-depth case studies were carried out across four subject disciplines, with data collected via survey, audio logs and interviews. The findings suggest that students are immersed in a rich, technology-enhanced learning environment and that…
Fuller, Thomas; Pearson, Mark; Peters, Jaime; Anderson, Rob
To identify and understand, through data from multiple sources, some of the factors that affect authors' and editors' decisions to use reporting guidelines in the publication of health research. Mixed methods study comprising an online survey and semi-structured interviews with a sample of authors (online survey: n = 56; response rate = 32%; semi-structured interviews: n = 5) and journal editors (online survey: n = 43; response rate = 27%; semi-structured interviews: n = 6) involved in publishing health and medical research. Participants were recruited from an earlier study examining the effectiveness of the TREND reporting guideline. Four types of factors interacted to affect authors' and editors' likelihood of reporting guideline use; individual (e.g., having multiple reasons for use of reporting guidelines); the professional culture in which people work; environmental (e.g., policies of journals); and, practical (e.g., having time to use reporting guidelines). Having multiple reasons for using reporting guidelines was a particularly salient factor in facilitating reporting guidelines use for both groups of participants. Improving the completeness and consistency of reporting of research studies is critical to the integrity and synthesis of health research. The use of reporting guidelines offers one potentially efficient and effective means for achieving this, but decisions to use (or not use) reporting guidelines take many factors into account. These findings could be used to inform future studies that might, for example, test the factors that we have identified within a wider theoretical framework for understanding changes in professional practices. The use of reporting guidelines by senior professionals appears to shape the expectations of what constitutes best practice and can be assimilated into the culture of a field or discipline. Without evidence of effectiveness of reporting guidelines, and sustained, multifaceted efforts to improve reporting, little
Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie
Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers...... with the mandatory Danish fishing licence. The second survey was designed to identify those who fish without a licence. It was estimated that 1231 t of cod were harvested in 2009, corresponding to 4.8% of the entire Danish cod yield (recreational harvest + commercial landings). Area differences were found, and...... to 19% of the entire Danish eel yield. The inclusion of the harvest taken by fishers without a valid licence was important and added almost 20% to the estimated harvest....
Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Kim, Yeonju; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol
Since 2000, thyroid cancer has been increasing most rapidly in Korea. Although the cause of the increase is not clear, thyroid cancer screening could be identified as one of its causes. The purpose of this study was to examine the screening rate of thyroid cancer and its related factors using nationwide data. The study population was derived from the 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. A total of 2,000 Korean adults participated. The screening method of thyroid cancer was restricted to thyroid ultrasonography. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with undergoing thyroid cancer screening. Of all participants, 13.2% (8.4% men and 16.4% women) underwent thyroid ultrasonography. On multiple analyses, age, residence, belief in cancer screening, regular health check-ups, smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise were associated with thyroid cancer screening. Subjects who underwent other cancer screening, such as gastric, colorectal, breast, or cervical, were more likely to have had a thyroid ultrasonogram that those who did not get screened. We presented the number and characteristics of examinees utilized ultrasonography as a thyroid screening tool in Korea. Although these results revealed that cancer screening might play a major role in the increase of thyroid cancer incidence, further research is needed to determine causes of the rapidly increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea.
The incidence of hypertension and its risk factors in the German adult population: results from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011.
Diederichs, Claudia; Neuhauser, Hannelore
To analyze incident hypertension and its risk factors based on 11.9 years follow-up of a recent National Examination Survey cohort in Germany. Out of 7124 participants of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), 640 had died at follow-up 2008-2011 and 3045 were reexamined as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Baseline and follow-up included standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements. Hypertension was defined as BP of at least 140/90 mmHg or intake of antihypertensive medication in participants with known hypertension. Out of 2231 GNHIES98-DEGS1 participants aged 18-79 years without hypertension in 1998, 26.2% developed hypertension within a mean of 11.9 (range 10.0-14.1) years (men 29.0%, women 23.4%). In univariate analysis, hypertension incidence was positively associated with age, BMI, initial BP levels, pulse pressure, and alcohol consumption. Comorbidities such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia increased the chance to develop hypertension. In the multivariate model, initial SBP and DBP levels had the strongest influence on the development of future hypertension (7% increase in men and 5% in women per mmHg SBP). The percentage of aware, treated, and controlled hypertensive patients were 75.8, 62.1, and 50.3% in men and 83.8, 73.3, and 59.0% in women. The high 11.9-year incidence in all age groups points to the lifelong potential for prevention of hypertension.
Erens, Bob; Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J
Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web panels provided appreciably biased estimates. The
Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J
Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web
Phillips Carl V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokeless tobacco (ST use has played a major role in the low smoking prevalence among Swedish men, there is little information at the population level about ST as a smoking cessation aid in the U.S. Methods We used the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to derive population estimates for the number of smokers who had tried twelve methods in their most recent quit attempt, and for the numbers and proportions who were former or current smokers at the time of the survey. Results An estimated 359,000 men switched to smokeless tobacco in their most recent quit attempt. This method had the highest proportion of successes among those attempting it (73%, representing 261,000 successful quitters (switchers. In comparison, the nicotine patch was used by an estimated 2.9 million men in their most recent quit attempt, and almost one million (35% were former smokers at the time of the survey. Of the 964,000 men using nicotine gum, about 323,000 (34% became former smokers. Of the 98,000 men who used the nicotine inhaler, 27,000 quit successfully (28%. None of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became former smokers. Forty-two percent of switchers also reported quitting smoking all at once, which was higher than among former smokers who used medications (8–19%. Although 40% of switchers quit smoking less than 5 years before the survey, 21% quit over 20 years earlier. Forty-six percent of switchers were current ST users at the time of the survey. Conclusion Switching to ST compares very favorably with pharmaceutical nicotine as a quit-smoking aid among American men, despite the fact that few smokers know that the switch provides almost all of the health benefits of complete tobacco abstinence. The results of this study show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.
Ward, Bryan K; Agrawal, Yuri; Hoffman, Howard J.; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C.
Objective Profound bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) causes disabling oscillopsia, chronic disequilibrium and postural instability. Our aim was to assess prevalence and functional impact of BVH in the U.S. adult population. Study Design National cross-sectional survey and corollary validation study. Setting National database Patients Adult participants in the 2008 Balance and Dizziness Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), (n=21,782). Intervention Survey-based diagnosis of BVH, all of the following: presence of visual blurring with head movement, unsteadiness, difficulty walking in darkness/unsteady surfaces and in a straight path, symptoms being at least “a big problem” and present for at least 1 year, in the absence of other neurologic conditions or eye pathology affecting vision. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of BVH, socioeconomic and quality-of-life impact of BVH, and fall risk. Results Adjusted national estimates from this survey indicate the prevalence of BVH in 2008 was 28/100,000 U.S. adults (64,046 Americans). 44% of participants with BVH reported changing their driving habits because of their symptoms, 56% reported reduced participation in social activities, and 58% reported difficulties with activities of daily living. Respondents with BVH had a 31-fold increase in the odds of falling in multivariate analyses compared to all respondents, with 25% reporting a recent fall-related injury. Conclusions BVH, as estimated by the presence of specific symptoms in a nationally representative survey, has considerable socioeconomic and quality-of-life impacts and significantly increases fall risk. These data support the need for new therapeutic strategies for BVH, including vestibular rehabilitation and implantable vestibular prostheses. PMID:23949355
Smock, Carissa; Alemagno, Sonia
The purpose of this study is to understand health care provider barriers to referring patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities within an affiliated teaching hospital system using referral of diabetic services as an example. The aims of this study include: (1) to assess health care providers' awareness and use of facilities, (2) to determine barriers to referring patients to facilities, (3) identify current and needed resources and/or changes to increase referral to facilities. A 20-item electronic survey and requests for semi-structured interviews were administered to hospital system directors and managers (n = 51). Directors and managers instructed physicians and staff to complete the survey and interviews as applicable. Perceived barriers, knowledge, utilization, and referral of patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities were collected and examined. Descriptive statistics were generated regarding practice characteristics, provider characteristics, and referral. Of the health care providers surveyed and interviewed (n = 25) 40% indicated verbally suggesting use of facilities, 24% provided a flyer about the facilities. No respondents indicated that they directly referred patients to the facilities. However, 16% referred patients to other locations for physical activity - including their own department's management and prevention services. 20% do not refer to Medical Fitness Center Facilities or any other lifestyle programs/locations. Lack of time (92%) and lack of standard guidelines and operating procedures (88%) are barriers to referral. All respondents indicated a strong ability to refer patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities if given education about referral programs available as well as standard clinical guidelines and protocol for delivery. The results of this study indicate that, although few healthcare providers are currently referring patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities, health care providers with an affiliated Medical Fitness
Us Centers For Disease Control And Prevention Epilepsy Program
We estimated US national prevalences of Internet use and looking up health information online among adults with epilepsy and those without, overall (age-standardized) and by three age groups (18-44, 45-59, and ≥60years) using the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Results showed that both overall and across all age groups, a significantly lower percentage of adults with active epilepsy reported using the Internet compared with that of adults without epilepsy. However, among Internet users, the percentage of looking up health information online did not differ by epilepsy status or age. Ensuring access to the Internet and encouraging use of quality, secure, and easy-to-access resources and e-tools might help adults with epilepsy to optimize their self-management and improve their quality of life. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals--the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea.
Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J
The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.
Prokopy, L. S.; Carlton, S.; Dunn, M.
Understanding U.S. agricultural stakeholder views about the existence of climate change and what influences these views is central to developing communication in support of adaptation and mitigation. It has been postulated in the literature that extreme weather events can shape people's climate change beliefs and adaptation attitudes. In this presentation, we use data from pre- and post-extreme event surveys and interviews to examine the effects of the 2012 Midwestern US drought on agricultural advisors' climate change beliefs, adaptation attitudes, and risk perceptions. We found that neither climate change beliefs nor attitudes toward adaptation changed significantly as a result of the drought. Risk perceptions did change, however, with advisors becoming more concerned about risks from drought and pests and less concerned about risks related to flooding and ponding. Qualitative interviews revealed that while advisors readily accept the occurrence of extreme weather as a risk, the irregularity and unpredictability of extreme events for specific localities limits day-to-day consideration in respect to prescribed management advice. Instead, advisors' attention is directed towards planning for short-term changes encompassing weather, pests, and the market, as well as planning for long-term trends related to water availability. These findings provide important insights for communicating climate change in this critical sector while illustrating the importance of social science research in planning and executing communication campaigns.
Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae are major global health problems. This study was conducted to investigate the association between factors related to socioeconomic status and HBV vaccination in the general population of women in Korea. Data from annual nationwide cross-sectional interview surveys conducted between 2005 and 2008 were reviewed. These surveys included representative samples of cancer-free people and 4350 women interviewed within the study period were included in the present report. Polychotomous logistic regression was used in the analysis. The complete HBV coverage rate was 39.8%. Older age, lower household income and lower education level showed significant unfavorable influences on the completion of the HBV vaccine series (P-trend job were also associated with a lower complete vaccination rate (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84; OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.38-0.82, respectively), whereas living in an urban area was related to a higher rate (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37). Older age, lower education level, and not having private insurance were associated with incomplete vaccination compared with unvaccination (P-trend 0.001, education level, household income, and occupation. Significant disparities in vaccination status according to socioeconomic status, as indicated by the combination of household income and education level, were seen (P-trend <0.001). The most common reason for unvaccination was lack of knowledge about the necessity for HBV vaccination. Considering that vertical transmission is the most common source of HBV infection, vaccination of women is important to prevent HBV transmission to newborn infants. Therefore governmental strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities related to the completion of the HBV vaccine series among women should be implemented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, Niels K R
AIMS: To investigate the relationship between potential explanatory factors (socio-economic factors and health) and non-response in two general population health interview surveys (face-to-face and telephone), and to compare the effects of the two interview modes on non-response patterns. METHODS...... generally associated with non-response in both modes of interview. The non-response rate was high among persons with low socio-economic position. No significant associations between health and non-response were found. CONCLUSIONS: Health status does not play a systematic role for non-response rates...... in health interview surveys, but the non-response rate is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Analyses of non-response should be performed to understand the implications of survey findings....
Tsai, Kun-Wei; Lin, Shih-Chun; Koo, Malcolm
Previous studies have shown that depressive symptoms in middle-aged women were associated with a number of factors such as climacteric symptoms. Nevertheless, studies based on population-based data with a wide range of potential correlates are still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of depressive symptoms in late middle-aged Taiwanese women using data from a nationally-representative, population-based survey. Women aged 50.0-65.0 years were identified from the dataset of the 2009 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. The outcome measure was depressive symptoms in the past week, evaluated using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10) with a cut-off score of 10 or greater. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlates of depressive symptoms. The mean age of the 533 respondents was 56.7 years. Depressive symptoms were present in 53 respondents (9.9%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that an education level of elementary school or below (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.19, P = 0.003), nulliparity (AOR = 8.10, P = 0.001), living alone (AOR = 5.47, P = 0.003), never having worked (AOR = 4.14, P = 0.008), lack of regular exercise (AOR = 3.01, P = 0.003), a perceived health status of fair or bad (AOR = 4.34, P depressive symptoms in late middle-aged Taiwanese women. Findings from this secondary analysis of a population-based survey suggested independent associations of somatic climacteric symptoms, and a number of socio-demographic and health-related factors with depressive symptoms in late middle-aged Taiwanese women.
Milton, Alyssa C; Ellis, Louise A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B
Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item's susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression analysis showed respondents who were male
Lu, Peng-jun; Williams, Walter W; Li, Jun; Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Kepka, Deanna; Dunne, Eileen F
In 2009, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in men/boys aged 9-26 years. In 2009, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) provided a permissive recommendation allowing HPV vaccine administration to this group. To assess HPV vaccination initiation and coverage, evaluate awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine, and identify factors independently associated with such awareness among men aged 18-26 years. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed in 2011. In 2010, HPV vaccination initiation among men aged 18-26 years was 1.1%. Among the 1741 men interviewed in this age group, nearly half had heard of HPV (51.8%). Overall, about one third of these men had heard of the HPV vaccine (34.8%). Factors independently associated with a higher likelihood of awareness of both HPV and HPV vaccine among men aged 18-26 years included having non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity; a higher education level; a U.S. birthplace; more physician contacts; private health insurance; received other vaccines; and reported risk behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. HPV vaccination initiation among men aged 18-26 years in 2010 was low. HPV and HPV vaccine awareness were also low, and messages in this area directed to men are needed. Since ACIP published a recommendation for routine use of HPV4 among men/boys in December 2011, continued monitoring of HPV vaccination uptake among men aged 18-26 years is useful for evaluating the vaccination campaigns, and planning and implementing strategies to increase coverage. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Thurman, David J.; Kobau, Rosemarie; Luo, Yao-Hua; Helmers, Sandra L.; Zack, Matthew M.
Introduction Community-based and other epidemiologic studies within the United States have identified substantial disparities in health care among adults with epilepsy. However, few data analyses addressing their health-care access are representative of the entire United States. This study aimed to examine national survey data about adults with epilepsy and to identify barriers to their health care. Materials and methods We analyzed data from U.S. adults in the 2010 and the 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, multistage probability samples with supplemental questions on epilepsy. We defined active epilepsy as a history of physician-diagnosed epilepsy either currently under treatment or accompanied by seizures during the preceding year. We employed SAS-callable SUDAAN software to obtain weighted estimates of population proportions and rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Results Compared to adults reporting no history of epilepsy, adults reporting active epilepsy were significantly more likely to be insured under Medicaid (RR = 3.58) and less likely to have private health insurance (RR = 0.58). Adults with active epilepsy were also less likely to be employed (RR = 0.53) and much more likely to report being disabled (RR = 6.14). They experience greater barriers to health-care access including an inability to afford medication (RR = 2.40), mental health care (RR = 3.23), eyeglasses (RR = 2.36), or dental care (RR = 1.98) and are more likely to report transportation as a barrier to health care (RR = 5.28). Conclusions These reported substantial disparities in, and barriers to, access to health care for adults with active epilepsy are amenable to intervention. PMID:26627980
Gómez-Marín, O; Fleming, L E; Lee, D J; LeBlanc, W; Zheng, D; Ma, F; Jané, D; Pitman, T; Caban, A
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a multipurpose household survey of the U.S. civilian non-institutionalized population conducted annually since 1957. From 1986 to 1994, over 450,000 U.S. workers, age 18 years and older, participated in a probability sampling of the entire non-institutionalized U.S. population; variables collected included a range of measures of acute and chronic disability. The objective of the present study was to assess predictors of health status, and acute and chronic disability for farmers and pesticide applicators (pesticide-exposed workers) compared to all other U.S. workers using the 1986-1994 NHIS. After adjustment for sample weights and design effects using SUDAAN, several measures of acute and chronic disability and health status were modeled with multiple logistic regression. Farmers (n = 9576) were significantly older compared to all other U.S. workers (n = 453,219) and pesticide applicators (n = 180). Farmers and pesticide applicators had a higher proportion of males, whites, and Hispanics and were less educated. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, and education, compared to all other workers, farmers were significantly less likely to report acute and chronic disability and health conditions, while pesticide applicators were more likely to report chronic disability, health conditions, and poor health. Given the cross-sectional nature of the data and the significant job demands of farming, both leading to a relative healthy worker effect, the present results indicate that at any point in time, farmers report less acute and chronic disability, compared to other U.S. workers, whereas pesticide applicators report similar or poorer health.
Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V
We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.
Lampert, T; Kroll, L E; von der Lippe, E; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H
The analysis focuses on the connection between socioeconomic status (SES) and five health outcomes in the 18 to 79-year-old population of Germany. It uses data from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) which the Robert Koch Institute conducted in the period from 2008 to 2011 (n=8152). Socioeconomic status is recorded via a multidimensional index which includes information on education attainment, occupational status and household income. The results show that persons with a low socioeconomic status have a self-rated health status which is worse than that of persons with a medium or high socioeconomic status, and that they have diabetes more frequently. They also have a higher risk of depressive symptoms, obesity and physical inactivity. The results illustrate that health chances and the risk of illness are still very socially uneven distributed, thus emphasising the significance of political interventions to reduce health inequalities. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Borrell, Luisa N
I estimated the association between race and self-reported hypertension among Hispanics and non-Hispanics and determined whether this association was stronger among non-Hispanics. With data from the 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey, I used logistic regression to estimate the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and self-reported hypertension among US adults. The overall prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 24.5%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (16.7%) than among non-Hispanics (25.2%; P < .01). Blacks, regardless of ethnicity, had the highest prevalence. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks had 48% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 1.55) greater odds of reporting hypertension; Hispanic Whites had 23% (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.76, 0.88) lower odds. There was no difference in the strength of the association between race and self-reported hypertension observed among non-Hispanics (OR for Blacks = 1.47) and among Hispanics (OR for Blacks = 1.20; for interaction, P = 0.43). The previously reported hypertension advantage of Hispanics holds for Hispanic Whites only. As Hispanics continue their rapid growth in the United States, race may have important implications on their disease burden, because most US health disparities are driven by race and its socially patterned experiences.
Watkins, Daphne C; Johnson, Natasha C
Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites). Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14) and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97) experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05) and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95). Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.
Monideepa B. Becerra
Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans (N=665,195 were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (OR=3.05, 95% CI=1.55, 5.98 and monolingual (English only Vietnamese (OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.58, 5.70, especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only, not being current married (South Asian only, and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians. Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults.
Siantz, Elizabeth; Wu, Brian; Shiroishi, Mark; Vora, Hita; Idos, Gregory
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-specific death in the USA. Evidence suggests people with mental illness are less likely to receive preventive health services, including cancer screening. We hypothesized that mental illness is a risk factor for non-adherence to colorectal cancer-screening guidelines. We analyzed results of the 2007 California Health Interview Survey to test whether mental illness is a risk factor for non-adherence to colorectal cancer-screening recommendations among individuals age 50 or older (N = 15,535). This cross-sectional dataset is representative of California. Screening was defined as either fecal occult blood testing during the preceding year, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy during the preceding 5 years. Mental illness was identified using the Kessler K6 screening tool. Associations were evaluated using weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Mental illness was not associated with colorectal cancer-screening adherence (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.63-1.25). Risk factors for non-adherence included being female (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.09-1.44), delaying accessing health care during the previous year (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.56-2.29). Unlike previous studies, this study did not find a relationship between mental illness and colorectal cancer-screening adherence. This could be due to differences in study populations. State-specific healthcare policies involving care coordination for individuals with mental illness could also influence colorectal cancer-screening adherence in California.
Utz Rebecca L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS show a larger-than-expected increase in mean BMI between 1996 and 1997. Proxy-reports of height and weight were discontinued as part of the 1997 NHIS redesign, suggesting that the sharp increase between 1996 and 1997 may be artifactual. Methods We merged NHIS data from 1976–2002 into a single database consisting of approximately 1.7 million adults aged 18 and over. The analysis consisted of two parts: First, we estimated the magnitude of BMI differences by reporting status (i.e., self-reported versus proxy-reported height and weight. Second, we developed a procedure to correct biases in BMI introduced by reporting status. Results Our analyses confirmed that proxy-reports of weight tended to be biased downward, with the degree of bias varying by race, sex, and other characteristics. We developed a correction procedure to minimize BMI underestimation associated with proxy-reporting, substantially reducing the larger-than-expected increase found in NHIS data between 1996 and 1997. Conclusion It is imperative that researchers who use reported estimates of height and weight think carefully about flaws in their data and how existing correction procedures might fail to account for them. The development of this particular correction procedure represents an important step toward improving the quality of BMI estimates in a widely used source of epidemiologic data.
McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Davis, Shane P.; Dube, Shanta R.
Objectives. We estimated smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts among US adults with selected diagnosed lifetime mental illnesses. Methods. We used data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey on 23 393 noninstitutionalized US adults to obtain age-adjusted estimates of smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts for adults screened as having serious psychological distress and persons self-reporting bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity, dementia, or phobias or fears. Results. The age-adjusted smoking prevalence of adults with mental illness or serious psychological distress ranged from 34.3% (phobias or fears) to 59.1% (schizophrenia) compared with 18.3% of adults with no such illness. Smoking prevalence increased with the number of comorbid mental illnesses. Cessation attempts among persons with diagnosed mental illness or serious psychological distress were comparable to attempts among adults without mental illnesses or distress; however, lower quit ratios were observed among adults with these diagnoses, indicating lower success in quitting. Conclusions. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among persons with mental illnesses than among adults without mental illnesses. Our findings stress the need for prevention and cessation efforts targeting adults with mental illnesses. PMID:20966369
Sala, Emanuela; Uhrig, S.C. Noah; Lynn, Peter
The study of interviewer-respondent interaction that occurs during an interview can give very useful insights into the cognitive process of answering questions, the social dynamics that develop in an interview context and the way these dynamics ultimately impact data quality. Behaviour coding is a technique used to code such interactions. Despite its long-standing use, little is written about the procedures to be followed while developing a coding scheme. This paper provides a practical backg...
Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid
The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...... of a time line for making life story interviews. I decided that the lack of authoritative literature should not omit me from teaching my students how to make a time line interview. After an introduction, they had to use the tool for making an interview each other concerning their learning journey to DPU...
Finger, Jonas D; Tafforeau, Jean; Gisle, Lydia; Oja, Leila; Ziese, Thomas; Thelen, Juergen; Mensink, Gert B M; Lange, Cornelia
A domain-specific physical activity questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) was developed in the framework of the second wave of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS). This article presents the EHIS-PAQ and describes its development and evaluation processes. Research institutes from Belgium, Estonia and Germany participated in the Improvement of the EHIS (ImpEHIS) Grant project issued by Eurostat. The instrument development process comprised a non-systematic literature review and a systematic HIS/HES database search for physical activity survey questions. The developed EHIS-PAQ proposal was reviewed by survey experts. Cognitive testing of the EHIS-PAQ was conducted in Estonia and Germany. The EHIS-PAQ was further tested in a pilot survey in Belgium, Estonia and Germany in different modes of data collection, face-to-face paper and pencil interview (PAPI) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The EHIS-PAQ is a rather pragmatic tool aiming to evaluate how far the population is physically active in specific public health relevant settings. It assesses work-related, transport-related and leisure-time physical activity in a typical week. Cognitive testing revealed that the EHIS-PAQ worked as intended. The pilot testing showed the feasibility of using the EHIS-PAQ in an international health interview survey setting in Europe. It will be implemented in all 28 European Union Member States via European Union implementing regulation in the period between 2013 and 2015. This will be a first opportunity to get comparable data on domain-specific physical activity in all 28 EU MS and to publish indicators at the EU level. The EHIS-PAQ is a short, domain-specific PA questionnaire based on PA questions which have been used in large-scale health interview surveys before. It was designed by considering the respondents' perspective in answering PA questions.
Giduthuri, Joseph G.; Maire, Nicolas; Joseph, Saju; Kudale, Abhay; Schaetti, Christian; Sundaram, Neisha; Schindler, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.
Background Mobile electronic devices are replacing paper-based instruments and questionnaires for epidemiological and public health research. The elimination of a data-entry step after an interview is a notable advantage over paper, saving investigator time, decreasing the time lags in managing and analyzing data, and potentially improving the data quality by removing the error-prone data-entry step. Research has not yet provided adequate evidence, however, to substantiate the claim of fewer errors for computerized interviews. Methodology We developed an Android-based illness explanatory interview for influenza vaccine acceptance and tested the instrument in a field study in Pune, India, for feasibility and acceptability. Error rates for tablet and paper were compared with reference to the voice recording of the interview as gold standard to assess discrepancies. We also examined the preference of interviewers for the classical paper-based or the electronic version of the interview and compared the costs of research with both data collection devices. Results In 95 interviews with household respondents, total error rates with paper and tablet devices were nearly the same (2.01% and 1.99% respectively). Most interviewers indicated no preference for a particular device; but those with a preference opted for tablets. The initial investment in tablet-based interviews was higher compared to paper, while the recurring costs per interview were lower with the use of tablets. Conclusion An Android-based tablet version of a complex interview was developed and successfully validated. Advantages were not compromised by increased errors, and field research assistants with a preference preferred the Android device. Use of tablets may be more costly than paper for small samples and less costly for large studies. PMID:25233212
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most effective survey interview method for measuring risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic. Methods: 1200 young adults were randomized to one of four different survey interview methods: two interviewer-assisted methods [face-to-face interview (FTFI, and computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI], and two self-administered methods [self-administered interview (SAI, and audio computer-assisted, self-administered interview (ACASI]. Youth were asked about a wide range of youth-specific risk behaviors, including violence, substance use, as well as sexual and reproductive health. Quality of data collected was examined by looking at how the survey was administered, including identifying two sources of errors that typically threaten data quality11 This study assumes that bias does not change with sample size. In order to increase the sample size, the data collection period was extended, leaving everything else unchanged. It is, therefore, assumed that the decreasing effects of the learning curve are negligible.: (i errors at the individual level with regards to survey methodology performance and cognitive difficulties [measured with the Response Consistency Index (RCI]; and (ii errors at the aggregate level (how desirability bias, interviewer gender, and interview privacy settings affect responses. Results: No statistically significant differences in participant non-response rates were found at the individual level across all survey interview methods. At the individual question level, self-completion methods generated higher non-response and error rates than assisted methods. The SAI method showed the poorest performance of all four methods in terms of non-response rate (1.6%22 Percentage of data with non-response values at the question level. and RCI (83.0%.At the aggregate level, the prevalence of several key risk indicators was statistically significant between methods. Using means-adjustment for
Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M
We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity - with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively
Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou
Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in
C Pusineri; J Kiszka; M Quillard; S Caceres
The status of dugongs Dugong dugon around Mayotte in the Mozambique Channel was assessed from interviews with artisanal fishers conducted in 2007, along with the collation of opportunistic sighting...
Commodore?Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Okosun, Ike S.
Background Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Methods and Results Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010?2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length o...
Ye Chun-Yuan; Hwang Tsorng-Chyi; Lee Jie-Min; Chen Sheng-Hong
Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of ciga...
Mahfoud, Ziyad; Ghandour, Lilian; Ghandour, Blanche; Mokdad, Ali H.; Sibai, Abla M.
Findings on the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the use of cellular phones vis-à-vis face-to-face interviews in investigating health behaviors and conditions are presented for a national epidemiological sample from Lebanon. Using self-reported responses on identical questions, percentage agreement, ? statistics, and McNemar's test were used…
Pieters, J.J.P.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Smits, A.P.T.
OBJECTIVE: Incidental findings in prenatal diagnostic testing may or may not have clear prognostic significance for the phenotype. We studied experts' opinions of the benefit and disadvantage of an incidental prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SCA). METHODS: We interviewed 16
Seebregts, Christopher J; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Mathews, Catherine; Fairall, Lara; Flisher, Alan J; Seebregts, Clive; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Klepp, Knut-Inge
Handheld computers (personal digital assistant, PDA) have the potential to reduce the logistic burden, cost, and error rate of paper-based health research data collection, but there is a lack of appropriate software. The present work describes the development and evaluation of PDACT, a Personal Data Collection Toolset (www.healthware.org/pdact/index.htm) for the Palm Pilot handheld computer for interviewer-administered and respondent-administered data collection. We developed Personal Data Collection Toolkit (PDACT) software to enable questionnaires developed in QDS Design Studio, a Windows application, to be compiled and completed on Palm Pilot devices and evaluated in several representative field survey settings. The software has been used in seven separate studies and in over 90,000 interviews. Five interviewer-administered studies were completed in rural settings with poor communications infrastructure, following one day of interviewer training. Two respondent-administered questionnaire studies were completed by learners, in urban secondary schools, after 15min training. Questionnaires were available on each handheld in up to 11 languages, ranged from 20 to 580 questions, and took between 15 and 90min to complete. Up to 200 Palm Pilot devices were in use on a single day and, in about 50 device-years of use, very few technical problems were found. Compared with paper-based collection, data validation and cleaning times were reduced, and fewer errors were found. PDA data collection is easy to use and preferred by interviewers and respondents (both respondent-administered and interviewer-administered) over paper. Data are compiled and available within hours of collection facilitating data quality assurance. Although hardware increases the setup cost of the first study, the cumulative cost falls thereafter, and converges on the cumulative cost of paper-based studies (four, in the case of our interviewer-administered studies). Handheld data collection is an
Ward, Brian W; Nugent, Colleen N; Blumberg, Stephen J; Vahratian, Anjel
This study, measuring the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), examined (1) whether a single survey question asking explicitly about diagnosed COPD is sufficient to identify US adults with COPD and (2) how this measure compares with estimating COPD prevalence using survey questions on diagnosed emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis and all 3 survey questions together. We used data from the 2012-2014 National Health Interview Survey to examine different measures of prevalence among 7211 US adults who reported a diagnosed respiratory condition (ie, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD). We estimated a significantly higher prevalence of COPD by using a measure accounting for all 3 diagnoses (6.1%; 95% CI, 5.9%-6.3%) than by using a measure of COPD diagnosis only (3.0%; 95% CI, 2.8%-3.1%) or a measure of emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis diagnoses (4.7%; 95% CI, 4.6%-4.9%). This pattern was significant among all subgroups examined except for non-Hispanic Asian adults. The percentage difference between measures of COPD was larger among certain subgroups (adults aged 18-39, Hispanic adults, and never smokers); additional analyses showed that this difference resulted from a large proportion of adults in these subgroups reporting a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis only. With the use of self- or patient-reported health survey data such as the National Health Interview Survey, it is recommended that a measure asking respondents only about COPD diagnosis is not adequate for estimating the prevalence of COPD. Instead, a measure accounting for diagnoses of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD may be a better measure. Additional analyses should explore the reliability and validation of survey questions related to COPD, with special attention toward questions on chronic bronchitis.
IKEDA, Hiroki; KAYASHIMA, Kotaro; Sasaki, Takeshi; KASHIMA, Sachiko; KOYAMA, Fumihiko
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between sleep disturbances and depression in daytime workers using a structured interview. A total of 1,184 daytime workers were enrolled. We evaluated difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and global insomnia scores (ISs) in all participants. As a result, the prevalences of DIS, DMS, and EMA were 16%, 46%, and 22%, respectively. IS was significantly correlated with depression...
Mauz, Elvira; von der Lippe, Elena; Allen, Jennifer; Schilling, Ralph; Müters, Stephan; Hoebel, Jens; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Lange, Cornelia
Population-based surveys currently face the problem of decreasing response rates. Mixed-mode designs are now being implemented more often to account for this, to improve sample composition and to reduce overall costs. This study examines whether a concurrent or sequential mixed-mode design achieves better results on a number of indicators of survey quality. Data were obtained from a population-based health interview survey of adults in Germany that was conducted as a methodological pilot study as part of the German Health Update (GEDA). Participants were randomly allocated to one of two surveys; each of the surveys had a different design. In the concurrent mixed-mode design ( n = 617) two types of self-administered questionnaires (SAQ-Web and SAQ-Paper) and computer-assisted telephone interviewing were offered simultaneously to the respondents along with the invitation to participate. In the sequential mixed-mode design ( n = 561), SAQ-Web was initially provided, followed by SAQ-Paper, with an option for a telephone interview being sent out together with the reminders at a later date. Finally, this study compared the response rates, sample composition, health indicators, item non-response, the scope of fieldwork and the costs of both designs. No systematic differences were identified between the two mixed-mode designs in terms of response rates, the socio-demographic characteristics of the achieved samples, or the prevalence rates of the health indicators under study. The sequential design gained a higher rate of online respondents. Very few telephone interviews were conducted for either design. With regard to data quality, the sequential design (which had more online respondents) showed less item non-response. There were minor differences between the designs in terms of their costs. Postage and printing costs were lower in the concurrent design, but labour costs were lower in the sequential design. No differences in health indicators were found between
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...... of the timeline should not lead the nterviewer or the interviewee to assume linearity and coherence; it is an rganising principle for the events. It provides an opportunity for linking the story with the wider social, political and environmental context during the interview. hile the method is very suitable...
In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 1: survey on the situation of the European textile and clothing sector and prospects for its future development
Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)
The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Schober, Michael F; Conrad, Frederick G; Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H Yanna; Zhang, Chan
..., administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews...
Weiss, Carol H.
Researchers who conducted 194 interviews surveys of low income populations returned mail questionnaires about their experiences; the results are interpreted as bearing upon both the ease or difficulty of interviewing poor people and how advisable it may be to employ interviewers matched to respondents by class and race/ethnicity in surveys of the…
Shoemaker, Meredith L; White, Mary C; Hawkins, Nikki A; Hayes, Nikki S
To describe smoking and obesity prevalence among male and female cancer survivors in the United States. . Cross-sectional survey. . Household interviews. . 9,753 survey respondents who reported ever having a malignancy, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers. . Data from the National Health Interview Survey (2008-2012) were used to calculate weighted smoking status prevalence estimates. Cross-tabulations of smoking and weight status were produced, along with Wald chi-square tests and linear contrasts. . Cancer history, smoking status, obesity status, gender, age, and age at diagnosis. . Seventeen percent of cancer survivors reported current smoking. Female survivors had higher rates of current smoking than males, particularly in the youngest age category. Male survivors who currently smoked had lower obesity prevalence rates than males who previously smoked or never smoked. Among female survivors, 31% were obese and no significant differences were seen in obesity prevalence by smoking status for all ages combined. . The findings highlight the variation in smoking status and weight by age and gender. Smoking interventions may need to be targeted to address barriers specific to subgroups of cancer survivors. . Nurses can be instrumental in ensuring that survivors receive comprehensive approaches to address both weight and tobacco use to avoid trading one risk for another.
Byrne, Ben E; Pinto, Anna; Aylin, Paul; Bottle, Alex; Faiz, Omar D; Vincent, Charles A
Wide variation in the outcomes of colorectal surgery persists, despite a well-established evidence-base to inform clinical practice. This variation may be attributed to differences in quality of care, but we do not know what this means in practical terms of care delivery. This telephone interview study aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics in the organisation of care among colorectal units with the best length of stay results in England. Ten English National Health Service hospitals were identified with the shortest length of stay after elective colonic surgery between January 2011 and December 2012. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a senior colorectal surgeon and ward nurse, who were not informed of their performance, at each site. Audio recordings were professionally transcribed and thematically analysed for similarities and differences in practice between units. All ten short length of stay units approached agreed to participate, and 19 of 20 interviews were recorded. These units standardised clinical care based upon an Enhanced Recovery Program. Beyond this, they organised the clinical team to efficiently and reliably deliver this package of care, with the majority of day-to-day care delivered by consultants and nurses. Patients were closely monitored for postoperative deterioration, using a combination of early warning scores, nurses' clinical judgement and regular senior medical review. Of note, operative volume and laparoscopy rates in these units were not statistically significantly different from the national average (p = 0.509 and p = 0.131, respectively). The postoperative analgesic strategy varied widely between units, from routine epidural use to local anaesthetic infiltration or patient-controlled analgesia. The Enhanced Recovery Program may be seen as necessary but not sufficient to achieve the best length of stay results. In the study units, consultants and nurses led and delivered the majority of patient
Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria
The BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents is the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The cross-sectional KiGGS survey collected comprehensive data on the health status of 17,641 children and adolescents, aged 0-17 years, living in Germany. The survey included physical examinations and tests, questionnaires filled in by parents and equivalent questionnaires for children aged 11 years or older. A computer-assisted personal interview was conducted by study physicians, and various laboratory tests, e.g. on blood and urine samples, were performed. The longitudinal BELLA study collected initial cross-sectional data from a representative KiGGS sub-sample of families with children aged 7-17 years. Of the 4,199 randomly selected families invited to participate in the BELLA study, 2,863 took part. A total of 48.5% of the participating children and adolescents were girls, 51.5% were boys. Within the BELLA study, trained interviewers conducted standardised telephone interviews with one parent and also the child, if it was at least 11 years old. Afterwards the families received additional questionnaires. The interviews and questionnaires included various standardised and ICD-10-oriented instruments examining overall mental health problems and associated burden, depression, anxiety, attention deficit-/hyperactivity and conduct disorders. Furthermore they covered a broad spectrum of aspects related to mental health and well-being, such as risk and protective factors and health-related quality of life. An analysis of the non-responders showed that the families who agreed to participate form a representative sample with respect to the German population. The sample deviated only slightly from the KiGGS sample structure regarding socioeconomic status and regarding parent-reported mental health problems. No such difference was observed for the children's self-reported mental
Heidemann, C; Du, Y; Schubert, I; Rathmann, W; Scheidt-Nave, C
The first wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1, 2008-2011) allows for up-to-date, representative prevalence estimates of known diabetes amongst the 18- to 79-year-old resident population of Germany. Temporal trends can be shown by comparing the survey findings with those of the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98). The definition of known diabetes was based on self-reports in physician-administered interviews that asked respondents if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes by a doctor or were on anti-diabetic medication. Overall, diabetes had been diagnosed in 7.2 % of the adults (7.4 % of the women; 7.0 % of the men). The prevalence increased substantially with advancing age and was higher in persons of low than of high socioeconomic status. Prevalence varied depending on the type of health insurance held and was highest amongst those insured with AOK health insurance funds. In comparison with GNHIES98, there was a 38 % increase in prevalence, of which approximately one third is to be attributed to demographic ageing. In the context of other nationwide studies, the results indicate a figure of at least 4.6 million 18- to 79-year-olds having been diagnosed with diabetes at some point. Planned analyses of undiagnosed diabetes will contribute to the interpretation of the observed increase in the prevalence of known diabetes. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the psychological, socio-cultural and economic consequences of infertility on couples' life. The purpose of this research is to improve knowledge about the potentially serious implications of infertility in the South of Vietnam. Methods This study included 118 infertile couples who filled in questionnaires and 28 men and women who were interviewed. Results Data of the questionnaire show men and women do not differ in their responses and attitudes towards infertility. Almost one-third of the participants require psychological support. Interviewees experience secrecy, social pressure and economic hardship. Conclusion Offspring are very important to Vietnamese couples. Their future depends on children. Family plays an important role in the experiences of the infertile couple. Economic consequences are a particular distressing factor. There is a need for psychological counselling in the treatment of infertile couples in the South of Vietnam. It should be realised that in developing countries, despite overpopulation, unwanted childlessness is an important social and economical burden that needs attention.
Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert
Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lamichhane, Babu Ram; Subedi, Naresh; Pokheral, Chiranjibi Prasad; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Pradhan, Narendra Man Babu; Smith, James L. David; Malla, Sabita; Thakuri, Bishnu Singh; Yackulic, Charles B.
Understanding how wide-ranging animals use landscapes in which human use is highly heterogeneous is important for determining patterns of human–wildlife conflict and designing mitigation strategies. Here, we show how biological sign surveys in forested components of a human-dominated landscape can be combined with human interviews in agricultural portions of a landscape to provide a full picture of seasonal use of different landscape components by wide-ranging animals and resulting human–wildlife conflict. We selected Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nepal to illustrate this approach. Asian elephants are threatened throughout their geographic range, and there are large gaps in our understanding of their landscape-scale habitat use. We identified all potential elephant habitat in Nepal and divided the potential habitat into sampling units based on a 10 km by 10 km grid. Forested areas within grids were surveyed for signs of elephant use, and local villagers were interviewed regarding elephant use of agricultural areas and instances of conflict. Data were analyzed using single-season and multi-season (dynamic) occupancy models. A single-season occupancy model applied to data from 139 partially or wholly forested grid cells estimated that 0.57 of grid cells were used by elephants. Dynamic occupancy models fit to data from interviews across 158 grid cells estimated that monthly use of non-forested, human-dominated areas over the preceding year varied between 0.43 and 0.82 with a minimum in February and maximum in October. Seasonal patterns of crop raiding by elephants coincided with monthly elephant use of human-dominated areas, and serious instances of human–wildlife conflict were common. Efforts to mitigate human–elephant conflict in Nepal are likely to be most effective if they are concentrated during August through December when elephant use of human-dominated landscapes and human–elephant conflict are most common.
Bygren, L. O.; Konlaan, B. B.; Johansson, S. E.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. DESIGN: A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. SETTING: Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. SUBJECTS: 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. RESULTS: 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). CONCLUSION: Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start. PMID:8990990
Andrykowski, Michael A
Little research has identified the physical and mental health status of survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses. By using data from the population-based 2009 National Health Information Survey, 154 survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses, 1427 survivors of a single cancer diagnosis, and 25,004 individuals without a history of cancer diagnosis were identified. The multiple cancer group was compared with the single cancer and no cancer groups with regard to physical and mental health status using analysis of covariance and binary logistic regression. Relative to the no cancer group, the multiple cancer group reported significantly poorer mental health status, greater lifetime, recent, and current prevalence of a variety of medical conditions and comorbidities, and more health-related disability. Although observed group differences between the multiple cancer and single cancer groups were less pronounced than those between the multiple cancer and no cancer groups, a consistent pattern was also evident; the multiple cancer group reported significantly poorer status relative to the single cancer group across a range of mental and physical health and illness-related disability indices. Diagnosis of 2 or more primary cancers (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) is associated with increased risk for poorer physical and mental health status over and above that associated with diagnosis of a single primary cancer. Survivors of multiple and single primary cancer diagnoses should be considered as distinct subgroups, and increased attention should be devoted to the unique status and needs of survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
BÉHANZIN, Luc; DIABATÉ, Souleymane; MINANI, Isaac; LOWNDES, Catherine M.; BOILY, Marie-Claude; LABBÉ, Annie-Claude; ANAGONOU, Séverin; ZANNOU, Djimon Marcel; BUVÉ, Anne; ALARY, Michel
Objectives During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. Methods In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during the PBS.. Pearson chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Results Overall, respondents reported more stigmatized behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of both married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. Conclusion Polling booth surveys are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance. PMID:23723251
This unique collection contains extensive and in-depth interviews with mathematicians who have shaped the field of mathematics in the twentieth century. Collected by two mathematicians respected in the community for their skill in communicating mathematical topics to a broader audience, the book is also rich with photographs and includes an introduction by Philip J. Davis.
Hawk, Cheryl; Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard
To make a preliminary assessment of the potential role of the most frequently used licensed or certified United States complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers in chronic disease prevention and health promotion. This was a secondary analysis of the 2007 United States National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the most recent to include CAM use. The Adult Core Sample, Person and Adult Complementary and Alternative Medicine data files were included. NHIS's complete survey design structure (strata, cluster and survey weights) was applied in generating national population estimates for CAM usage. Chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (8.4%) and massage (8.1%) were most commonly used; acupuncture was used by 1.4% and naturopathy by 0.3% of respondents. Substantial proportions of respondents reported using CAM for wellness and disease prevention, and informed their medical physician of use. Fifty-four percent were overweight or obese, 22.0% physically inactive, and 17.4% smokers; 18.0% reported hypertension, 19.6% high cholesterol, and 9.1% prediabetes or diabetes. CAM users present with risk factors which are priority public health issues. This implies a need to train CAM providers in evidence-based health promotion counseling. CAM encounters may provide opportunities to coordinate health promotion and prevention messages with patients' primary care providers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Mercader, Hannah Faye G; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Katuruba, David Tumusiime; Hobbs, Amy J; Brenner, Jennifer L
High maternal and child mortality continues in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Measurement of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) coverage indicators often involves an expensive, complex, and lengthy household data collection process that is especially difficult in less-resourced settings. Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) has been proposed as a cost-effective and efficient alternative to traditional paper-and-pencil interviewing (PAPI). However, the literature on respondent-level acceptance of CAPI in LMIC has reported mixed outcomes. This is the first study to prospectively examine female respondent acceptance of CAPI and its influencing factors for MNCH data collection in rural Southwest Uganda. Eighteen women aged 15-49 years were randomly selected from 3 rural villages to participate. Each respondent was administered a Women's Questionnaire with half of the survey questions asked using PAPI techniques and the other half using CAPI. Following this PAPI/CAPI exposure, semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) assessed respondent attitudes towards PAPI versus CAPI. FGD data analysis involved an immersion/crystallization method (thematic narrative analysis). The sixteen FGD respondents had a median age of 27 (interquartile range: 24.8, 32.3) years old. The majority (62.5%) had only primary level education. Most respondents (68.8%) owned or regularly used a mobile phone or computer. Few respondents (31.3%) had previously seen but not used a tablet computer. Overall, FGDs revealed CAPI acceptance and the factors influencing CAPI acceptability were 'familiarity', 'data confidentiality and security', 'data accuracy', and 'modernization and development'. Female survey respondents in our rural Southwest Ugandan setting found CAPI to be acceptable. Global health planners and implementers considering CAPI for health coverage survey data collection should accommodate influencing factors during survey planning in order to maximize and
Rocheleau Carissa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%. The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6, though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%. Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%. Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders. Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies.
Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hendricks, Scott A.; Jamal, Ahmed
Objective To examine trends in age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults by industry and occupation during 2004–2012, and to project those prevalences and compare them to the 2020 Healthy People objective (TU-1) to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence to ≤12%. Methods We analyzed the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Respondents were aged ≥18 years working in the week prior to the interview. Temporal changes in cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression. We used the regression model to extrapolate to the period 2013–2020. Results Overall, an estimated 19.0% of working adults smoked cigarettes: 22.4% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2012. The largest declines were among workers in the education services (6.5%) industry and in the life, physical, and social science (9.7%) occupations. The smallest declines were among workers in the real estate and rental and leasing (0.9%) industry and the legal (0.4%) occupations. The 2020 projected smoking prevalences in 15 of 21 industry groups and 13 of the 23 occupation groups were greater than the 2020 Healthy People goal. Conclusions During 2004–2012, smoking prevalence declined in the majority of industry and occupation groups. The decline rate varied by industry and occupation groups. Projections suggest that certain groups may not reach the 2020 Healthy People goal. Consequently, smoking cessation, prevention, and intervention efforts may need to be revised and strengthened, particularly in specific occupational groups. PMID:25239956
Béhanzin, Luc; Diabaté, Souleymane; Minani, Isaac; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Anagonou, Séverin; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Buvé, Anne; Alary, Michel
During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during PBS. Pearson χ2 or Fisher's exact test was used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Overall, respondents reported more stigmatised behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. PBS are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance.
Human Resources Department
Annex II, page 1, Section 3 of the Administrative Circular no. 26 (Rev. 5) states that "The annual interview shall usually take place between 15 November of the reference year and 15 February of the following year." Following the meeting of the Executive Board on 7 December 2004 and the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 19 January 2005, it has been decided, for the advancement exercise of 2005, to extend this period until 15 March 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
Shin, Jinah K; Poltavskiy, Eduard; Kim, Tae Nyun; Hasan, Abdullah; Bang, Heejung
To investigate patterns of and factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or serious psychological distress (SPD). The analysis was conducted with the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012 of 40,803 adults. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between the multiple facilitating/preventing factors and outcome, guided by the Andersen's Health Care Utilization Model. The prevalence of DM and SPD were 10.9% and 3.4%, respectively, among participants in the survey. The participants with DM were more likely to experience SPD than those without DM (OR 1.46, 95% CI=1.11-1.91, p=0.006). Participants with combined DM and SPD, the most underserved, were less likely to perceive the need for mental health services and less likely to seek help, compared to those with only SPD. Need factors (SPD status and perceived need) were significantly associated with help-seeking behaviors for mental health, along with predisposing factors (age, gender, obesity, race, and employment), and enabling factors (insurance, English proficiency). Perceptions about need for seeking help seem to play an important role in receiving mental health services in addition to other predisposing or enabling factors. Identification of these factors may improve clinical outcomes related to DM and SPD. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John; Maloney, Stephen
Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. The aim of this study was to explore health researchers' and clinicians' current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the participants (449/842, 53.3%) felt they had a
Wagenaar, Theodore C.
Reports on a study of student perceptions concerning in-depth study of sociology compared with other disciplines in the social sciences and other liberal arts. Finds that sociology majors experience less study in depth than do other majors. Discusses the implications of the findings. (CFR)
Gomes, Barbara; McCrone, Paul; Hall, Sue; Riley, Julia; Koffman, Jonathan; Higginson, Irene J
The evaluation of end of life care via bereaved relatives is increasingly common. We aimed to improve the measurement of health outcomes and care utilisation at the end of life with this population. A cross-sectional study of 20 bereaved relatives of cancer patients was conducted. In phase I, nine underwent a cognitive interview for 65-150 min using five measures: Client Service Receipt Inventory, Life Before Death survey care satisfaction items, Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS), EQ-5D and Core Bereavement Items (CBI). In phase II, items/scales were revised and tested with a further 11 participants. Content analysis explored information processing and errors. All 20 participants understood most questions despite finding them demanding and intense. Judging the accuracy of information and formulating final answers posed more difficulties than recalling facts. Uncertainty and missing data on care utilisation were often due to estimating averages; consequently categories were introduced. Participants perceived the care satisfaction rating scale to be positively biased; a very poor category was added. POS was seen to ask relevant but sometimes difficult questions, whilst the EQ-5D produced fewer missing data but lacked intermediate categories. CBI had terms that participants felt were unfamiliar, unrealistic, unclear or too strong; hence, we changed to the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (with no problems identified). Cognitive interviewing helped select measures and make changes that improved the measurement of health outcomes and care utilisation at the end of life with bereaved relatives. The use of both generic and specific health measures and cost measurement in bereavement is encouraged.
Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos
Longitudinally following patients requires a full-time employee (FTE)-dependent data inflow infrastructure. There are efforts to capture patient-reported outcomes (PROs) by the use of non-FTE-dependent methodologies. In this study, we set out to assess the reliability of PRO data captured via FTE-dependent compared with non-FTE-dependent methodologies. A total of 119 adult patients (65 men) who underwent 1-and 2-level lumbar fusions at Duke University Medical Center were enrolled in this prospective study. Enrollment criteria included available demographic, clinical, and PRO data. All patients completed 2 sets of questionnaires--the first a phone interviews and the second a self-survey. There was at least a 2-week period between the phone interviews and self-survey. Questionnaires included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the visual analog scale for back pain (VAS-BP), and the visual analog scale for leg pain (VAS-LP). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the reliability of baseline PRO data captured. A total of 39.49% of patients were smokers, 21.00% had diabetes, and 11.76% had coronary artery disease; 26.89% reported history of anxiety disorder, and 28.57% reported history of depression. A total of 97.47% of patients had a high-school diploma or General Education Development, and 49.57% attained a 4-year college degree or postgraduate degree. We observed a high correlation between baseline PRO data captured between FTE-dependent versus non-FTE dependent methodologies (ODI: r = -0.89, VAS-BP: r = 0.74, VAS-LP: r = 0.70). There was no difference in PROs of baseline pain and functional disability between FTE-dependent and non-FTE-dependent methodologies: baseline ODI (FTE-dependent: 47.73 ± 16.77 [mean ± SD] vs. non-FTE-dependent: 45.81 ± 12.11, P = 0.39), VAS-LP (FTE-dependent: 6.13 ± 2.78 vs. non-FTE-dependent: 6.46 ± 2.79, P = 0.36) and VAS-BP (FTE-dependent: 6.33 ± 2.90 vs. non-FTE-dependent: 6.53 ± 2.48, P = 0.57). Our study
Walitt, Brian; Katz, Robert S; Bergman, Martin J; Wolfe, Frederick
Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia) to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD) as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR) for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2) and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81), married (OR 3.27), and white (OR 1.96). In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive) fibromyalgia (OR 2.1). The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia cases in the US do not reach levels of
Eliason, Michele J; Radix, Asa; McElroy, Jane A; Garbers, Samantha; Haynes, Suzanne G
Terminology related to sexuality and gender is constantly evolving, and multiple factors are at play when individuals answer questions on surveys. We examined patterns of responding to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) sexual identity questions in a multisite health intervention study for lesbian and bisexual women aged 40 to 84 years. Of 376 participants, 80% (n = 301) chose "lesbian or gay," 13% (n = 49) selected "bisexual," 7% (n = 25) indicated "something else," and 1 participant chose "don't know the answer." In response to the follow-up question for women who said "something else" or "don't know," most (n = 17) indicated that they were "not straight, but identify with another label." One participant chose "transgender, transsexual, or gender variant," five chose "You do not use labels to identify yourself," and three chose "you mean something else." Lesbian, bisexual, and "something else" groups were compared across demographic and health-related measures. Women who reported their sexual identity as "something else" were younger, more likely to have a disability, more likely to be in a relationship with a male partner, and had lower mental health quality of life than women who reported their sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Respondents who answer "something else" pose challenges to analysis and interpretation of data, but should not be discarded from samples. Instead, they may represent a subset of the community that views sexuality and gender as fluid and dynamic concepts, not to be defined by a single label. Further study of the various subsets of "something else" is warranted, along with reconsideration of the NHIS question options. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Yu, Sheng-Tsung; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yao, Kai-Ping; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Hurng, Baai-Shyun
The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) using a nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) through comparison with short-form 36 (SF-36). Data for this study came from the 2009 NHIS in Taiwan. The study sample was the 4007 participants aged 20-64 years who completed the survey. We used SUDAAN 10.0 (SAS-Callable) to carry out weighed estimation and statistical inference. The EQ index was estimated using norm values from a Taiwanese study as well as from Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). The SF-36 score was standardized using American norm values. In terms of concurrent validity, the EQ-5D met the five hypotheses. The results did not fulfill hypothesis that women would have lower visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) scores. In terms of discriminant validity, the EQ-5D fulfilled two hypotheses. Our results approached but did not fulfill hypothesis that there would be a weak association between the physical and psychological dimensions of the EQ-5D and the mental component summary score of the SF-36. Results were comparable regardless of whether the Japanese or UK norm value sets were used. We were able to fulfill many, not all of our validity hypotheses regardless of whether the established Japanese or UK norm value sets or the Taiwanese norm values were used. The EQ-5D is an effective and simple instrument for assessing health-related quality of life of general population in Taiwan.
Koo, Malcolm; Lu, Ming-Chi; Lin, Shih-Chun
The Internet is an increasingly important source of health information for the general population. Both preventive health behavior and Internet use are known to be different between men and women. However, few studies have compared predictors of Internet use for health information between the sexes. To investigate the prevalence and predictors of Internet use for health information among male and female adult Internet users using data from a population-based survey in Taiwan. Respondents between the ages of 20-65 years were identified from the dataset of the 2009 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. The outcome variable of the study, the utilization of the Internet for health information, was ascertained by asking whether the respondent had ever used the Internet to search for health information or obtain health services. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for men and women to evaluate factors associated with the use of Internet for health information. Of the 2741 adults aged 20-65 years who had ever used the Internet, 1766 (64.4%) of them had used it for health information or services. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that a higher educational level (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.60, Phealth status of extremely good, very good, or good (AOR=1.34, P=0.022), and had used Western medicine services in the past month (AOR=1.51, P=0.005) were significantly associated with health information use in male Internet users. On the other hand, age between 20-44.9 years (AOR=1.87, PInternet users. This secondary data analysis of a representative sample of Taiwan population revealed that a similar but not identical set of independent factors was associated with the use of Internet for health information between male and female Internet users. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Muntaner, Carles; Hadden, Wilbur C; Kravets, Nataliya
Occupational social class has become a leading indicator of social inequalities in health. In the US, economic sectors are distinct with respect to wages, benefits, job security, promotion ladders and working conditions. The growing economic sector of self-employed workers is characterized by lower wages and benefits, and greater job insecurity. Little attention has been given to the association between economic sector measures of social class and all-cause mortality, and there have been no studies of mortality among the self-employed. To determine risk of death associated with economic sector social class, this study entails a longitudinal analysis of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual household survey representative of the US population for the period 1986-1994 (n = 377,129). The sample includes 201,566 men and 175,563 women, aged 24-65 years of age, in the civilian labor force. Non- professionals are at higher risk of death than professionals across all sectors and self-employed professionals are at higher risk of death than professionals employed in government and production. Additional social class differences are accounted for by age, race, gender and marital status. Results are also partially explained by income. After controlling for income, Black professionals did not show a lower risk of death than Black non-professionals and self-employed Hispanic professionals had a higher risk of death than Hispanic professionals employed in the private sector. Given the growth of self-employment in the US, the noted increased risk of death among self-employed professionals merits further investigation and monitoring.
Stolzenberg, H; Kahl, H; Bergmann, K E
In the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a number of anthropometric parameters were assessed in a standardised way in 17,641 boys and girls. To this end, body weight and height, head circumference and upper arm length, as well as two skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular) were measured for the entire age range (0-12 years); starting from 6 years of age, elbow breadth and from 11 years of age waist and hip circumference were measured in addition. For all parameters, means with confidence intervals are reported per age (in years) and gender. Median graphs depict the changes with increasing age according to gender for each body measurement. The complex age-related anthropometric developments along with significant gender specificity show the full range of the dynamic physical development in boys and girls. Based on skinfold measurement data, the body fat percentage was estimated. Thickness and location of the skinfolds, as well as the calculated waist-to-hip ratio is used as an indicator for gender-specific fat distribution. Using the frame index, it is attempted to estimate skeletal robustness. For the anthropometric parameters studied, hardly any regional differences were found. However, head circumference, frame index and all parameters strongly associated with body fat show a significant social status gradient. Children and adolescents with migration background have on average a lower height, larger waist circumference and higher percentage of body fat.
Hassoun, Lina; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Hapke, Ulfert; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Meyer, Thomas
The magnitude of the contribution of psychosocial stressors to the development of hypertension remains controversial. Using data from the population-based, nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, we investigated the relationship between objectively measured and subjectively perceived stressors and blood pressure (BP). The study sample comprised 3352 participants not taking antihypertensive medication, for whom data on stress exposure and resting BP measurements were available. The Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress screening scale (TICS-SSCS) was used as a measurement of self-perceived chronic stress, and work-related stress was assessed using the recently developed occupational Overall Job Index. On the basis of bivariate tests, TICS-SSCS was negatively associated with both systolic (β-coefficient [B] = -0.16, standard error = 0.03, p stress is associated with higher BP levels, whereas the exposure to objective stressors was unrelated to BP. These findings suggest that stress perception and objective stressors influence BP regulation via different biobehavioral pathways.
Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram; Keppens, Gil
To investigate how social support relates to mental health problems for Belgian late adolescents and young adults 15-25 years of age. Additionally, we examine changes in mental health problems between 2008 and 2013 and investigate gender differences. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate (1) psychological distress, (2) anxiety and (3) depression among 713 boys and 720 girls taken from two successive waves (2008 and 2013) of a representative sample of the Belgian population (Belgian Health Interview survey). Psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, anxiety and depression by the Symptom Check-List-90-Revised. Gender differences were found for psychological distress, anxiety and depression with girls reporting significantly higher scores than boys. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that adolescents who are dissatisfied with their social contacts and experience poor social support reported more psychological distress, anxiety and depression. In addition, young adult boys (20-25 years of age) were more likely to experience psychological distress when compared to late adolescent boys (15-19 years of age). Finally, the prevalence of anxiety and depression increased substantially between 2008 and 2013 for girls and to a lesser extent for boys. Especially girls and young people with poor social support experience mental health problems more frequently than boys and those with strong social support. Improving social support among young people may serve as a protective buffer to mental health problems.
Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S
Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Guerrero, Alma D; Ponce, Ninez A; Chung, Paul J
We examined obesogenic dietary practices among Latino and Asian subgroups of children living in California. We analyzed 2007, 2009, and 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data to examine the differences in dietary practices among Mexican and non-Mexican Latino children and 7 ethnic subgroups of Asian children. We used multivariable regression to examine the sociodemographic factors associated with specific dietary practices. Latino subgroups of children had few differences in obesogenic dietary practices, whereas Asian subgroups of children exhibited significant differences in several obesogenic dietary practices. Korean and Filipino children were more likely than Chinese children to consume fast food and have low vegetable intake. Filipino children, followed by Japanese children, had the most obesogenic dietary practices compared with Chinese children, who along with South Asian children appeared to have the least obesogenic dietary practices. In general, income, education, and acculturation did not explain the dietary differences among Asian groups. Our findings suggest the need to disaggregate dietary profiles of Asian and Latino children and to consider nontraditional sociodemographic factors for messaging and counseling on healthy dietary practices among Asian populations.
McGruder, Henraya E; Greenlund, Kurt J; Malarcher, Ann M; Antoine, Theresa L; Croft, Janet B; Zheng, Zhi-Jie
Heart attacks are more prevalent among Hispanics and Blacks than among Whites. Bystanders must be able to recognize heart attack symptoms and activate the emergency response system in order to receive time-dependent therapies that increase survival. This study estimated racial/ethnic disparities in awareness of heart attack symptoms in a sample of the US population. We evaluated data from 33,059 adult participants in the 2001 National Health Interview Survey. Respondents indicated their awareness of five heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911 in the presence of such symptoms. Hispanics and Blacks were less likely to recognize each heart attack symptom than were Whites (Pheart attack symptoms and report that they would call 911 than were Whites (45.8%), Blacks (36.1%), respondents aged 45-64 years (47.7%) and >65 years (43.9%), and those with a high school education (41.0%) or more (45.6%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, Blacks (OR .73, 95% CI .66-.80) and Hispanics (OR .49, 95% CI .45-.54) were less likely than were Whites to recognize all five heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911 if someone had these symptoms. One Healthy People 2010 goal is to eliminate health disparities. Racial/ethnic disparities exist in knowledge of heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911. Special educational efforts should focus on Black and Hispanic populations and highlight the importance of symptoms and time-dependent therapies.
Research evaluating the relation of workplace psychosocial factors to mental health among U.S. women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds is limited. This study investigated the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and mental health among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Independent variables of interest included job insecurity, workplace harassment, and work-family conflict (WFC). Multiple Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between the outcome and independent variables. The prevalence of unfavorable mental health was highest among non-Hispanic Black women (36%) compared to Hispanic (34%) and non-Hispanic White (30%) women. A higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black women reported WFC compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (χ(2) = 15.50, p workplace harassment did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. Odds of unfavorable mental health were significantly higher for women reporting psychosocial work factors. Unexpectedly, a greater association between psychosocial work factors and unfavorable mental health was observed among non-Hispanic White women compared to non-White women; however, caution should be taken in interpreting these cross-sectional results. Future studies should investigate temporal associations and additional psychosocial variables that were not available for use in the current study.
Falci, Laura; Shi, Zaixing; Greenlee, Heather
More than 25% of American adults report having 2 or more chronic conditions. People with chronic conditions often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for self-care and disease management, despite a limited evidence base. Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 33,557) were analyzed to assess associations between presence of multiple chronic conditions (n = 13) and CAM use, using multivariable relative risk and linear regressions weighted for complex NHIS sampling. CAM use was defined as self-reported use of one or more of 16 therapies in the previous 12 months. Chronic conditions were common. US adults reported one (22.3%) or 2 or more (33.8%) conditions. Many used at least one form of CAM. Multivitamins, multiminerals, or both (52.7%); vitamins (34.8%); and minerals (28.4%) were the most common. Compared with adults with no conditions, adults with 2 or more conditions were more likely to use multivitamins or multiminerals or both, vitamins, minerals, nonvitamins or herbs, mind-body therapies, chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, massage, movement therapies, special diets, acupuncture, naturopathy, or some combination of these therapies (P <.003). People with multiple chronic conditions have a high prevalence of CAM use. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the association between CAM use and chronic disease prevention and treatment.
Bax, C.A. Petegem, J.W.H. van & Giesen, M.
Use of the Design Guide for Bicycle Traffic : familiarity with and application of the guidelines for bicycle infrastructure investigated by means of surveys, in-depth interviews, and field observations. Cyclists have a considerable risk in traffic, especially of sustaining serious injury. There are
Gonzales, Gilbert; Przedworski, Julia; Henning-Smith, Carrie
Previous studies identified disparities in health and health risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults, but prior investigations have been confined to samples not representative of the US adult population or have been limited in size or geographic scope. For the first time in its long history, the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey included a question on sexual orientation, providing health information on sexual minorities from one of the nation's leading health surveys. To compare health and health risk factors between LGB adults and heterosexual adults in the United States. Data from the nationally representative 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey were used to compare health outcomes among lesbian (n = 525), gay (n = 624), and bisexual (n = 515) adults who were 18 years or older and their heterosexual peers (n = 67 150) using logistic regression. Self-rated health, functional status, chronic conditions, psychological distress, alcohol consumption, and cigarette use. The study cohort comprised 68 814 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 46.8 (11.8) years, and 51.8% (38 063 of 68 814) were female. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, gay men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% CI, 1.55-5.14), heavy drinking (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.08-3.58), and moderate smoking (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.39-2.81) than heterosexual men; bisexual men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.77-12.52), heavy drinking (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.22-8.16), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.08-4.10) than heterosexual men; lesbian women were more likely to report moderate psychological distress (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76), poor or fair health (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.24-2.95), multiple chronic conditions (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.22), heavy drinking (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.54-4.50), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36-3.88) than
Schlack, R; Rüdel, J; Karger, A; Hölling, H
Violence is of considerable relevance to Public Health. It was the aim of the violence screening implemented as part of the"German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) to assess data on physical and psychological violence in various social environments (partnership, family, workplace, public space). For the first time as part of a nationally representative health survey, the data was collected from the perspective of victim and perpetrator both among women and men. The study population was comprised of 5939 participants aged between 18 and 64 years. Approximately every 20th participant reported being the victim of physical violence in the preceding 12 months, men significantly more frequently than women. With regard to the frequency of being the perpetrator of physical violence (overall prevalence 3.7 %) there were no significant differences between the sexes. Psychological victimisation was reported by every fifth participant and overall perpetrating psychological violence was reported by every tenth. Women tended to be more frequent the victims but they were also significantly more frequently the perpetrators of both physical and psychological violence in the domestic area (partnership, family). In contrast, men more frequently report being both the perpetrator and the victim of violence in the workplace and in the public space. Young adults between 18 and 29 years as well as persons of low socioeconomic status were consistently more frequently affected by violence although there were exceptions with regard to psychological violent victimisation. More than three-quarters of the victims of physical violence reported being greatly or extremely affected in their well-being by the violence and in the case of psychological violence the rate was about approximately 60%. Overall, the traumatic experience as a consequence of experiencing physical and psychological violence was considerably higher, especially in the case of domestic violence
Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to provide new evidence of health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, and to examine their associations with lifestyle-related risk factors across the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic groups. Methods: The analysis included a randomized population sample of 68,321 subjects aged ≥18 years old who participated in the U.S. 2012 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys. Hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and DM were classified according to participants’ self-report of physician diagnosis. Assessments of risk factors were measured using standard survey instruments. Associations of risk factors with hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM were analyzed using univariable and multivariable analysis methods. Results: Non-Hispanic (NH-Blacks had significantly higher odds of hypertension, stroke and DM, while NH-Asians and Hispanics had significantly lower odds of stroke and higher odds of stroke and higher odds of DM than NH-Whites (p<0.001. NH-Whites had higher odds of CHD than NH-Black, NH-Asians and Hispanics (p<0.001. Increased body weight, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity were significantly associated with increased odds of hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM (p<0.001. However, the strengths of associations between lifestyle-related factors and the study outcomes were different across racial and ethnic groups. NH-Asians with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had the highest odds ratios (OR, 95%CI for hypertension (5.37, 4.01-7.18, CHD (2.93, 1.90-4.52 and stroke (2.23, 1.08-4.61, and had the second highest odd ratios for DM (3.78, 2.68-5.35 than NH-Whites, NH-Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion: CVD and DM disproportionately affect the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic population. Although lifestyle-related risk factors are significantly associated with increased odds of CVD and DM, the impacts of risk factors on the study outcomes are different by race and ethnicity.
Willinsky, John; Maggio, Lauren
Background In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandated open access for publications resulting from NIH funding (following a 12-month embargo). The large increase in access to research that will take place in the years to come has potential implications for evidence-based practice (EBP) and lifelong learning for health personnel. Objective This study assesses health personnel’s current use of research to establish whether grounds exist for expecting, preparing for, and further measuring the impact of the NIH Public Access Policy on health care quality and outcomes in light of time constraints and existing information resources. Methods In all, 14 interviews and 90 surveys of health personnel were conducted at a community-based clinic and an independent teaching hospital in 2010. Health personnel were asked about the research sources they consulted and the frequency with which they consulted these sources, as well as motivation and search strategies used to locate articles, perceived level of access to research, and knowledge of the NIH Public Access Policy. Results In terms of current access to health information, 65% (57/88) of the health personnel reported being satisfied, while 32% (28/88) reported feeling underserved. Among the sources health personnel reported that they relied upon and consulted weekly, 83% (73/88) reported turning to colleagues, 77% (67/87) reported using synthesized information resources (eg, UpToDate and Cochrane Systematic Reviews), while 32% (28/88) reported that they consulted primary research literature. The dominant resources health personnel consulted when actively searching for health information were Google and Wikipedia, while 27% (24/89) reported using PubMed weekly. The most prevalent reason given for accessing research on a weekly basis, reported by 35% (31/88) of survey respondents, was to help a specific patient, while 31% (26/84) were motivated by general interest in research. Conclusions
Greenlee, Heather; Shi, Zaixing; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Rundle, Andrew; Tsai, Wei Yann
Obesity after a diagnosis of specific cancers has been associated with worse prognosis. We examined the trend in obesity prevalence among cancer survivors in the United States in the past two decades and compared trends with those of adults without a history of cancer. This was a population-based nationally representative sample of 538,969 noninstitutionalized US adults 18 to 85 years old with and without a history of cancer who participated in annual cross-sectional National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2014. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) for non-Asians and body mass index ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2) for Asians. Among 32,447 cancer survivors identified, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (n = 6,948), prostate (n = 3,984), and colorectal (n = 2,546). From 1997 to 2014, the prevalence of obesity increased from 22.4% to 31.7% in cancer survivors and from 20.9% to 29.5% in adults without a history of cancer (P for trend obesity prevalence was higher in women and men with a history of cancer compared with those without a history of cancer (all P for interaction obesity prevalence was 3.1% in female and 3.7% in male colorectal cancer survivors, 3.0% in breast cancer survivors, and 2.1% in prostate cancer survivors (all P obesity burden were colorectal cancer survivors, breast cancer survivors, and non-Hispanic blacks. From 1997 to 2014, obesity increased more rapidly among adult cancer survivors compared with the general population. Colorectal and breast cancer survivors and non-Hispanic blacks were identified as being at the highest risk for obesity. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K
Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS. Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%. Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78. The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56. No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75. BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.
Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R
The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents.
Kaul, Sapna; Avila, Jaqueline C; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Russell, Heidi; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Schwartz, Cindy L
The current study was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental distress among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer and a comparison group. A total of 875 AYA cancer survivors who were diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years and who were at least 5 years from their initial diagnosis were identified from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys. A comparison group was created. The Kessler nonspecific mental/psychological distress scale was used to examine none/low, moderate, and severe distress. The issues of whether individuals talked to mental health professionals within the previous year and if they could afford mental health care also were examined. Variables (ie, demographics, behavioral [eg, smoking status], comorbidity, and mental health visits) associated with distress among the 2 groups were identified using multinomial logistic regressions. Survivors reported mental distress more often than the comparison group (moderate: 23.2% vs 16.9%; and severe: 8.4% vs 3.0% [Pmental health care more often (6.4% vs 2.3%; P = .002). Moreover, 74.7% and 52.2% of survivors, respectively, with moderate and severe distress had not talked to a mental health professional. Contrary to the comparison group, survivors who were current smokers reported severe distress more often compared with nonsmokers (relative risk, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-8.84 [P = .01]). Having public and no insurance versus private insurance and report of sleep-related trouble within the previous week were found to be associated with greater distress among survivors. AYA cancer survivors are more likely to demonstrate mental distress than individuals without cancer. Nevertheless, few survivors may be receiving professional mental health services. Survivors need greater access to mental health screening and counseling to address the current gaps in care delivery. Cancer 2017;123:869-78. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American
Pabon-Nau, Lina P; Cohen, Amy; Meigs, James B; Grant, Richard W
Despite their diverse cultural origins, Hispanics in the US are generally studied as a single ethnic group. 1) Assess demographic and disease-related differences among U.S. Hispanics by country of origin, and 2) Examine the mediating roles of socioeconomic status and acculturation on disease prevalence in these subgroups. Using data from the 2000-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we compared characteristics of Mexican-Americans with Hispanics originally from: Mexico, Puerto Rico, Central/South America, Cuba, and Dominican Republic (n = 31,240). We stratified the analysis by foreign versus US-born Hispanic subgroups and modeled hypertension and diabetes prevalence, adjusting for demographic and acculturation differences. The six Hispanic subgroups were significantly diverse in all measured variables. Prevalence of hypertension (32%) and diabetes (15%) was highest in foreign-born Puerto Ricans. After adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, socioeconomic status and acculturation in foreign-born Hispanics, Puerto Ricans (OR = 1.76 [95% CI: 1.23, 2.50], p = 0.002) and Dominicans (OR = 1.93 [1.24, 3.00], p = 0.004), had higher prevalence of hypertension relative to Mexican-Americans. Adjusted diabetes prevalence among foreign-born Hispanics was half or less in Cubans (OR = 0.42 [0.25, 0.68] p diabetes prevalence compared to Mexican-Americans in adjusted models. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes varies significantly among Hispanics by country of origin. Health disparities research should include representation from all Hispanic subgroups.
Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha J; Sarpong, Daniel; Pandey, Abhishek; Youngstedt, Shawn; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Epidemiologic studies show a curvilinear relationship between inadequate sleep ( 8 hours) and obesity (Body Mass Index > 30 kg/m2), which have enormous public health impact. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, an ongoing nationally representative cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults (≥18 years) (1977 through 2009), we examined the hypothesis that inadequate sleep is independently related to overweight/obesity, with adjustment for socio-demographic, health risk, and medical factors. Self- reported data on health risks, physician-diagnosed medical conditions, sleep duration, and body weight and height were used. Prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 31.2% to 36.9% and 10.2% to 27.7%, respectively. Whereas prevalence of very short sleep (sleep (5-6 hours) has increased from 1.7% to 2.4% and from 19.7% to 26.7%, it decreased from 11.6% to 7.8% for long sleep. According to multivariate-adjusted multinomial regression analyses, odds of overweight and obesity associated with very short sleep and short sleep increased significantly from 1977 to 2009. Odds of overweight and obesity conferred by long sleep did not show consistent and significant increases over the years. Analyses based on aggregated data showed very short sleepers had 30% greater odds of being overweight or were twice as likely to be obese, relative to 7-8 hour sleepers. Likewise, short sleepers had 20% greater odds of being overweight or 57% greater odds of being obese. Long sleepers had 20% greater odds of being obese, but no greater odds of being overweight. Our findings support the hypothesis that prevalence of very short and short sleep has gradually increased over the last 32 years. Inadequate sleep was associated with overweight and obesity for each available year.
Mincey, Krista D.; Ackermann, Nicole; Milam, Laurel; Goodman, Melody S.; Colditz, Graham A.
Introduction We examined racial/ethnic heterogeneity in self-reported diabetes prevalence over 15 years. Methods We used National Health Interview Survey data for 1997 through 2012 on 452,845 adults aged 18 years or older. Annual self-reported diabetes prevalence was estimated by race/ethnicity and education. We tested for trends over time by education and race/ethnicity. We also analyzed racial/ethnic and education trends in average annual prevalence. Results During the 15 years studied, diabetes prevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity (P < .001) and by Hispanic subgroup (P < .001). Among participants with less than a high school education, the 5-year trend in diabetes prevalence was highest among Cubans and Cuban Americans (β5YR = 4.8, P = .002), Puerto Ricans (β5YR = 2.2, P = .06), non-Hispanic blacks (β5YR = 2.2, P < .001), and non-Hispanic whites (β5YR = 2.1, P < .001). Among participants with more than a high school education, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest average annual prevalence (5.5%) and Puerto Ricans had the highest 5-year trend in annual diabetes prevalence (β5YR = 2.6, P = .001). Conclusions In this representative sample of US adults, results show ethnic variations in diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes is higher among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic whites, unevenly distributed across Hispanic subgroups, and more pronounced over time and by education. Findings support disaggregation of data for racial/ethnic populations in the United States to monitor trends in diabetes disparities and the use of targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to prevent diabetes. PMID:26796518
Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard; Hawk, Cheryl; Walker, Clark
The aim of this study was to describe use of chiropractic and/or osteopathic manipulation by children in the United States along with the specific health conditions for which they sought care. The study was a secondary data analysis of the National Health Interview Survey 2007, Child Alternative Medicine file as well as the Child Core Sample. National population estimates were generated for reported use of chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (C/OM) by children for specific health conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated from binary logistic regression models that assessed the likelihood that children of specific characteristics would use this therapy. National estimates indicated that 2.3 million children (2.3%) in the United States had used C/OM in 2007. C/OM was the most common complementary and alternative medicine procedure. Children aged 12-18 years were more likely to have seen these providers than were younger age groups (OR=3.4 [95% CI, 2.1-5.5]). Homeopathy (1.2%), massage (1.0), and naturopathy (0.3%) were the next most common procedures. The most common complaints were back and neck pain. Other conditions for which children were seen included other musculoskeletal conditions, sinusitis, allergies, and nonmigraine headaches. Racial categories did not differ significantly regarding use of manipulation, but those children with both mother and father in the household were more likely to have used this form of care (OR=1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.6]). C/OM is primarily used for back and neck pain, which is increasing in prevalence in children. Teens are more likely to use it than are younger children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.
Bardenheier Barbara H
Full Text Available Abstract Background While many Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM practitioners do not object to immunization, some discourage or even actively oppose vaccination among their patients. However, previous studies in this area have focused on childhood immunizations, and it is unknown whether and to what extent CAM practitioners may influence the vaccination behavior of their adult patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vaccination coverage levels of adults aged ≥ 18 years according to their CAM use status and determine if there is an association between CAM use and adult vaccination coverage. Methods Data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, limited to 30,617 adults that provided at least one valid answer to the CAM supplement, were analyzed. Receipt of influenza vaccine during the past 12 months, pneumococcal vaccine (ever, and ≥ 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine was self-reported. Coverage levels for each vaccine by CAM use status were determined for adults who were considered high priority for vaccination because of the presence of a high risk condition and for non-priority adults. Multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between CAM users and vaccination status, adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization characteristics. Results Overall, 36% were recent CAM users. Among priority adults, adjusted vaccination coverage levels were significantly different between recent and non-CAM users for influenza (44% vs 38%; p-value Conclusion Vaccination coverage levels among recent CAM users were found to be higher than non-CAM users. Because CAM use has been increasing over time in the U.S., it is important to continue monitoring CAM use and its possible influence on receipt of immunizations among adults. Since adult vaccination coverage levels remain below Healthy People 2010 goals, it may be beneficial to work with CAM practitioners to promote adult vaccines as preventive services in
Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L
An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.
HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the
María Teresa Ruiz Cantero
Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS desde la perspectiva de géneros, con especial énfasis en la división sexual del trabajo. Métodos: Análisis del contenido de la ENS-2003 desde la perspectiva del género, entendiéndolo como: a base de normas sociales: responsabilidades por sexo, riesgos y problemas de salud según los roles masculinos/femeninos; b organizador de la estructura social: división sexual del trabajo, doble carga, segregación horizontal/vertical, dedicación (horas a tareas según tiempos sociales, acceso a recursos, y c componente de la identidad individual: conflictos por múltiples roles, insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, autoestima, autopercepción, reconocimiento del trabajo, asimilación sexual de género, problemas de salud por diferencias sexuales. Resultados: La ENS gira alrededor del sustentador principal, en masculino. La división sexual del trabajo doméstico se identifica con sólo una pregunta general. Al utilizar el concepto «actividad principal para empleo o trabajo reproductivo», la encuesta induce a valorarla, jerarquizarla y seleccionar una; en consecuencia, se pierde información, lo que dificulta el análisis del impacto de la doble carga en la salud. No se pregunta por horas de trabajo reproductivo y ocio. En una misma pregunta se mezclan agresiones (intencionales y accidentes (no intencionales lo que imposibilita el estudio de la violencia de género. Conclusiones: La ENS recoge la variable sexo, pero su enfoque, más descriptivo que explicativo, limita su perspectiva de género. Se pueden medir situaciones concretas de desigualdad entre hombres y mujeres relativas al trabajo remunerado, pero no es posible determinar completamente otros indicadores de desigualdad social entre ambos sexos, como la situación de las amas de casa y de doble jornada.Objective: To analyze the Spanish National Health Interview Survey (NHIS from a gender perspective, with special emphasis on gender
Amante, Daniel J; Hogan, Timothy P; Pagoto, Sherry L; English, Thomas M; Lapane, Kate L
The insurance mandate of the Affordable Care Act has increased the number of people with health coverage in the United States. There is speculation that this increase in the number of insured could make accessing health care services more difficult. Those who are unable to access care in a timely manner may use the Internet to search for information needed to answer their health questions. The aim was to determine whether difficulty accessing health care services for reasons unrelated to insurance coverage is associated with increased use of the Internet to obtain health information. Survey data from 32,139 adults in the 2011 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) were used in this study. The exposure for this analysis was reporting difficulty accessing health care services or delaying getting care for a reason unrelated to insurance status. To define this exposure, we examined 8 questions that asked whether different access problems occurred during the previous 12 months. The outcome for this analysis, health information technology (HIT) use, was captured by examining 2 questions that asked survey respondents if they used an online health chat room or searched the Internet to obtain health information in the previous 12 months. Several multinomial logistic regressions estimating the odds of using HIT for each reported access difficulty were conducted to accomplish the study objective. Of a survey population of 32,139 adults, more than 15.90% (n=5109) reported experiencing at least one access to care barrier, whereas 3.63% (1168/32,139) reported using online health chat rooms and 43.55% (13,997/32,139) reported searching the Internet for health information. Adults who reported difficulty accessing health care services for reasons unrelated to their health insurance coverage had greater odds of using the Internet to obtain health information. Those who reported delaying getting care because they could not get an appointment soon enough (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.5), were
Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Michael F Schober; Frederick G Conrad; Christopher Antoun; Patrick Ehlen; Stefanie Fail; Andrew L Hupp; Michael Johnston; Lucas Vickers; H Yanna Yan; Chan Zhang
..., administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews...
Do differentials in the support and advice available at UK schools and colleges influence candidate performance in the medical school admissions interview? A survey of direct school leaver applicants to a UK medical school.
Lambe, Paul; Waters, Catherine; Bristow, David
To our knowledge, nothing is known about whether differentials in support and advice during preparation for the interview influence candidate performance and thereby contribute to bias in selection for medical school. To assess if differences in advice and support with preparation for the medical school admissions interview given type of school last attended influence interview score achieved by direct school leaver applicants to study on an undergraduate UK medical degree course. Confidential self-completed on-line questionnaire survey. Interview performance was positively related to whether a teacher, tutor or career advisors at the School or College last attended had advised a respondent to prepare for the interview, had advised about the various styles of medical interview used and the types of questions asked, and what resources were available to help in preparation. Respondents from Private/Independent schools were more likely than those from State schools to have received such advice and support. Differentials in access to advice on and support with preparation for the medical school interview may advantage some candidates over others. This inequity would likely be ameliorated by the provision of an authoritative and comprehensive guide to applying to medical school outlining admission requirements and the preparation strategy applicants should use in order to best meet those requirements. The guide could be disseminated to the Principals of all UK schools and colleges and freely available electronic versions signposted in medical school prospectuses and the course descriptor on the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service.
Nahin Richard L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall prevalence of complementary medicine (CM use among adults in the United States with diabetes has been examined both in representative national samples and in more restricted populations. However, none of these earlier studies attempted to identify predictors of CM use to treat diabetes among the populations sampled, nor looked for a relationship between CM use and diabetes severity. Methods Combining data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, we constructed a nationally representative sample of 3,978 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years with self-reported diabetes. Both the 2002 and 2007 NHIS contained extensive questions on the use of CM. We used logistic regression to examine the association between diabetes severity and overall CM use, as well as the use of specific categories of CM. Results In adults with type-2 diabetes, 30.9% used CM for any reason, but only 3.4% used CM to treat or manage their type-2 diabetes versus 7.1% of those with type-1 diabetes. Among those using CM to treat/manage their type-2 diabetes, 77% used both CM and conventional prescription medicine for their diabetes. The most prevalent types of CM therapies used were diet-based interventions (35.19%, S.E. 5.11 and non-vitamin/non-mineral dietary supplements (33.74%, S.E. 5.07. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we found that, based on a count of measures of diabetes severity, persons with the most severe diabetes had nearly twice the odds of using CM as those with less severe disease (OR=1.9, 95%CI 1.2-3.01. Persons who had diabetes 10 years or more (OR=1.66, 95%CI 1.04-3.66 and those that had a functional limitation resulting from their diabetes (OR=1.74, 95%CI 1.09-2.8 had greater odds of using CM than those not reporting these measures. No significant associations were observed between overall CM use and other individual measures of diabetes severity: use of diabetic medications, weak or failing kidneys
Yang, Haiou; Haldeman, Scott; Lu, Ming-Lun; Baker, Dean
Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence of low back pain, to investigate associations between low back pain and a set of emerging workplace risk factors and to identify worker groups with an increased vulnerability for low back pain in the US. Methods The data used for this study came from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was designed to collect data on health conditions and related risk factors obtained from the US civilian population. The variance estimation method was used to compute weighted data for prevalence of low back pain. Multivariable logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and age were performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for low back pain. The examined work-related psychosocial risk factors included work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity. Work hours, occupation and other work organizational factors (non-standard work arrangements and alternative shifts) were also examined. Results The prevalence rate of self-reported low back pain in previous three months among workers in the U.S. was 25.7% in 2010. Female or older workers were at increased risk of experiencing low back pain. We found significant associations between low back pain and a set of psychosocial factors, including work-family imbalance (OR 1.27, CI 1.15–1.41), exposure to hostile work (OR 1.39, CI 1.25–1.55), and job insecurity (OR 1.44, CI 1.24–1.67), while controlling for demographic characteristics and other health related factors. Older workers who had non-standard work arrangements were more likely to report low back pain. Females who worked 41–45 hours per week and younger workers who worked over 60 hours per week had an increased risk for low back pain. Workers from several occupation groups, including, male healthcare practitioners, female and younger healthcare support workers, and female farming, fishing and forestry workers had
Bennett, Linda Rae; Wiweko, Budi; Hinting, Aucky; Adnyana, I B Putra; Pangestu, Mulyoto
Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Indonesia is imperative. The principle objectives of this article are to improve our understanding of infertility patients' patterns of health seeking behaviour and their patterns of access to infertility treatment in Indonesia, in order to highlight the possibilities for improving access. An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 212 female infertility patients recruited through three Indonesian infertility clinics between July and September 2011. Participants were self-selected and data was subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Patients identified a number of barriers to access, including: low confidence in infertility treatment and high rates of switching between providers due to perceived treatment failure; the number and location of clinics; the lack of a well established referral system; the cost of treatment; and patients also experienced fear of receiving a diagnosis of sterility, of vaginal examinations and of embarrassment. Women's age of marriage and the timing of their initial presentation to gynaecologists were not found to be barriers to timely access to infertility care. The findings based on the responses of 212 female infertility patients indicated four key areas of opportunity for improving access to infertility care. Firstly, greater patient education about the nature and progression of infertility care was required among this group of women. Secondly, increased resources in terms of the number and distribution of infertility clinics would
Background Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Indonesia is imperative. The principle objectives of this article are to improve our understanding of infertility patients’ patterns of health seeking behaviour and their patterns of access to infertility treatment in Indonesia, in order to highlight the possibilities for improving access. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 212 female infertility patients recruited through three Indonesian infertility clinics between July and September 2011. Participants were self-selected and data was subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Results Patients identified a number of barriers to access, including: low confidence in infertility treatment and high rates of switching between providers due to perceived treatment failure; the number and location of clinics; the lack of a well established referral system; the cost of treatment; and patients also experienced fear of receiving a diagnosis of sterility, of vaginal examinations and of embarrassment. Women’s age of marriage and the timing of their initial presentation to gynaecologists were not found to be barriers to timely access to infertility care. Conclusions The findings based on the responses of 212 female infertility patients indicated four key areas of opportunity for improving access to infertility care. Firstly, greater patient education about the nature and progression of infertility care was required among this group of women. Secondly, increased resources in terms of the number and
Zhang, Yan; Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Olaniran, Bolanle; Cook, Ronald; Adams, Jon
Health information technology (HIT) is utilized by people with different chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, there has been no comparison of HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs). The aim of the study was to assess the difference in HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and with MCCs, to describe the characteristics of HIT use among those with chronic conditions and to identify the predictors of HIT use of the persons with one chronic condition and MCCs. A secondary data analysis was conducted in spring 2017 using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2012 Family Core and Sample Adult Core datasets that yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included overall HIT use (ie, any use of the following five HIT on the Internet: seeking health information, ordering prescription, making appointment, emailing health provider, and using health chat groups), as well as sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Sociodemographic and health characteristics were compared between HIT users and nonusers among those who reported having at least one chronic condition using chi-square tests. Independent predictors of HIT use were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses for those with one chronic condition, with MCCs, and without a chronic condition. Analyses were weighted and performed at significance level of .005. In 2012, adults with one health chronic condition (raw count 4147/8551, weighted percentage 48.54%) was significantly higher than among those with MCCs (3816/9637, 39.55%) and those with none of chronic condition (7254/16,337, 44.40%, P<.001). Seeking health information was the most prevalent HIT use. Chi-square tests revealed that among adults with chronic conditions, those who used HIT were significantly different from their counterpart peers who did not use HIT
Crismond, Linda F.; Leisner, Anthony B.
In-depth interviews with nine individuals identified by a survey of American Library Association members as leaders in the public library field indicated that six traits are important in making a library leader: vision; a commitment to public libraries; courage and risk taking; openness to others; political savvy; and professional involvement.…
Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with…
S.D. Aupers (Stef); J.C.F. Schaap (Julian); L. de Wildt (Lars)
markdownabstractIn this chapter, Stef Aupers, Julian Schaap, and Lars de Wildt argue that a “game-centered” orientation in the study of religion and video games (studying in-game religious narratives, discourses, and game rules) should be complemented with a “player-centered” perspective. They call
Strang, Susann; Ekberg-Jansson, Ann; Henoch, Ingela
Objectives: Anxiety often arises in conjunction with dyspnoea in patients with severe COPD. Considering the provoking symptomatology and the high mortality rate for COPD, it is reasonable to believe that these conditions trigger death-related and existential anxiety. Although anxiety causes considerable distress and reduces quality of life, people's experience of anxiety has been studied relatively little. The aim of this study was to explore severely ill COPD patients? experience of anxiety ...
Spijkerman, R.; Knibbe, R.A.; Knoops, K.; Mheen, H. van de; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den
Aims Rather than using the traditional, costly method of personal interviews in a general population sample, substance-use prevalence rates can be derived more conveniently from data collected among members of an online access panel. To examine the utility of this method, we compared the outcomes of
Evaluating measurement invariance across assessment modes of phone interview and computer self-administered survey for the PROMIS measures in a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors.
Wang, Mian; Chen, Ronald C; Usinger, Deborah S; Reeve, Bryce B
To evaluate measurement invariance (phone interview vs computer self-administered survey) of 15 PROMIS measures responded by a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors. Participants were part of the North Carolina Prostate Cancer Comparative Effectiveness and Survivorship Study. Out of the 952 men who took the phone interview at 24 months post-treatment, 401 of them also completed the same survey online using a home computer. Unidimensionality of the PROMIS measures was examined using single-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models. Measurement invariance testing was conducted using longitudinal CFA via a model comparison approach. For strongly or partially strongly invariant measures, changes in the latent factors and factor autocorrelations were also estimated and tested. Six measures (sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, diarrhea, illness impact-negative, illness impact-positive, and global satisfaction with sex life) had locally dependent items, and therefore model modifications had to be made on these domains prior to measurement invariance testing. Overall, seven measures achieved strong invariance (all items had equal loadings and thresholds), and four measures achieved partial strong invariance (each measure had one item with unequal loadings and thresholds). Three measures (pain interference, interest in sexual activity, and global satisfaction with sex life) failed to establish configural invariance due to between-mode differences in factor patterns. This study supports the use of phone-based live interviewers in lieu of PC-based assessment (when needed) for many of the PROMIS measures.
Fisher, Amy K; Mackey, Tomiko D; Langendoen, Carol; Barnard, Marie
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of child race and interviewer race on forensic interviewing outcomes. The results of the regression analysis indicated that child race and interviewer race had a significant effect on interview outcome category (no findings, inconclusive, or findings consistent with sexual abuse). Furthermore, the results indicate that the interaction of child and interviewer race had predictive value for rates of findings consistent with sexual abuse but not in the direction predicted. Cross-race dyads had significantly higher rates of interview outcomes consistent with sexual abuse. These findings suggest that more research into the effect of race on disclosure of child sexual abuse is needed.
Arving, Cecilia; Wadensten, Barbro; Johansson, Birgitta
Purpose of the research was to describe registered nurses' (RNs) (n = 53) thoughts on the blended learning format in a 'specialist nursing programme in cancer care'. The study was conducted in autumn 2007 and 2008. A content analysis of answers to open-ended questions in a web-based questionnaire and a focus group interview were carried out. The analysis revealed that the RNs appreciated blended learning. The web lectures facilitated learning and gave RNs access to the education at any time. However, according to the RNs, knowledge is gained through interaction between RNs and teachers, and this aspect needed to be improved. The RNs also thought that the content of the seminars on campus should focus on evidence-based nursing knowledge and practical skills, not just taught as stable facts and procedures. The result from the present study could help to improve the design and content of advanced nursing courses using a blended learning format.
Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen
Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is
Full Text Available I decided to undertake this interview with Professor Ellen, simply because I thought such a distinguished career deserved to be marked as he was retiring. Roy was happy to make time for our interviews, in the form of loosely structured conversation which, like the Arabian Nights, Roy pointed out, could have gone on forever, but I decided to draw the line at three sessions. Perhaps it could, and will go on to form part of a more in-depth biography, as I continued to discover other aspects and adventures of Roy’s interesting life in the course of other contexts, much as one does in the field. Much is known about what ethnobiologists and anthropologists say about another people’s lives; less is known about their own, apart from rare reflections, diaries and memoires. I found Roy’s reflections a source of comfort as I embarked on my own PhD fieldwork, reassuring me as I fumbled around, making my own unique but comparable mistakes among the insights I gleaned. The following is an edited version of the original interview. I hope it will be as enjoyable to the reader as it was to me working on it.
MacLennan, Steven; Bekema, Hendrika J; Williamson, Paula R; Campbell, Marion K; Stewart, Fiona; MacLennan, Sara J; N'Dow, James M O; Lam, Thomas B L
Prostate cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. The management of localised prostate cancer is controversial. It is unclear which of several surgical, radiotherapeutic, ablative, and surveillance treatments is the most effective. All have cost, process and recovery, and morbidity implications which add to treatment decision-making complexity for patients and healthcare professionals. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal because of uncertainty as to what constitutes important outcomes. Another issue hampering evidence synthesis is heterogeneity of outcome definition, measurement, and reporting. This project aims to determine which outcomes are the most important to patients and healthcare professionals, and use these findings to recommend a standardised core outcome set for comparative effectiveness trials of treatments for localised prostate cancer, to optimise decision-making. The range of potentially important outcomes and measures will be identified through systematic reviews of the literature and semi-structured interviews with patients. A consultation exercise involving representatives from two key stakeholder groups (patients and healthcare professionals) will ratify the list of outcomes to be entered into a three round Delphi study. The Delphi process will refine and prioritise the list of identified outcomes. A methodological substudy (nested RCT design) will also be undertaken. Participants will be randomised after round one of the Delphi study to one of three feedback groups, based on different feedback strategies, in order to explore the potential impact of feedback strategies on participant responses. This may assist the design of a future core outcome set and Delphi studies. Following the Delphi study, a final consensus meeting attended by representatives from both stakeholder groups will determine the final recommended core outcome set. This study will inform clinical practice and future trials of interventions of
Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K
Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.
Wismeijer, D. A.
We perceive the three-dimensional (3D) environment that surrounds us with deceptive effortlessness. In fact, we are far from comprehending how the visual system provides us with this stable perception of the (3D) world around us. This thesis will focus on the interplay between visual perception of depth and its closely related action system, eye movements in depth. The human visual system is comprised of a sensory (input) and an output (motor) system. Processed information from the sensory system can result in two explicit measurable response types: conscious visual perception and ocular motor behavior. It is still a matter of debate whether conscious visual perception and action (including hand- and arm-movements) use the same information or whether the visual system has separate channels processing information for perception and action. In this thesis, we study (1) if separate channels, one for eye movements and one for conscious visual perception, indeed exist, and (2) if so, if there is a direct input from the perceptual pathway to the motor pathway. Assuming that either eye movements and conscious visual perception are based on information from a common source (a negative answer to issue 1) or perception can directly influence, or guide, eye movements (an affirmative answer to research question 2), (eye) movements reflect our conscious visual perception. If so, eye movements could provide us with an alternative method to probe our conscious visual perception, making explicit perceptual reports superfluous. In this thesis we focus on depth perception and the two types of eye movements that are closest related to depth perception, namely vergence (an eye movement that gets a certain depth plane into focus) and saccades (a rapid eye movement to change gaze direction). Over the last 20 years it has been shown that depth perception is based on a weighted combination of depth cues available such as linear perspective, occlusion and binocular disparity. How eye
Petersen, Kit Stender
do not merely refer to passive entities but must be understood as matter that matters. To illustrate my points I will analyse how bringing a puppet with me to interviews with 4-6 year old children seemed to interfere with the interview situation creating unforeseen diversions in ways that influenced......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...
Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people
[Relationship between physical activity and health in children and adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo)].
Krug, S; Jekauc, D; Poethko-Müller, C; Woll, A; Schlaud, M
The question of whether physical activity is associated with positive aspects of health becomes increasingly more important in the light of the health status in today's children and adolescents and due to the changing lifestyle with respect to everyday activity. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) collected the first set of nationwide representative cross-sectional data to examine the relationship between health and physical activity. Taking sociodemographic parameters into consideration, the results suggest a positive association between self-estimated general health and several types of physical activity. The results vary with respect to gender and type of physical activity. For methodological reasons, causal conclusions can only be drawn after longitudinal data of the second wave of KiGGS are available.
Patients’ values and preferences of the expected efficacy of hip arthroscopy for osteoarthritis: a protocol for a multinational structured interview-based study combined with a randomised survey on the optimal amount of information to elicit preferences
Zhang, Yuqing; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Agoritsas, Thomas; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Alexander, Paul; Imam, Maha; Yoo, Daniel; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Thabane, Lehana; Schünemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H
Introduction Symptomatic hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling condition with up to a 25% cumulative lifetime risk. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is effective in relieving patients’ symptoms and improving function. It is, however, associated with substantial risk of complications, pain and major functional limitation before patients can return to full function. In contrast, hip arthroscopy (HA) is less invasive and can postpone THA. However, there is no evidence regarding the delay in the need for THA that patients would find acceptable to undergoing HA. Knowing patients’ values and preferences (VP) on this expected delay is critical when making recommendations regarding the advisability of HA. Furthermore, little is known on the optimal amount of information regarding interventions and outcomes needed to present in order to optimally elicit patients’ VP. Methods and analysis We will perform a multinational, structured interview-based survey of preference in delay time for THA among patients with non-advanced OA who failed to respond to conservative therapy. We will combine these interviews with a randomised trial addressing the optimal amount of information regarding the interventions and outcomes required to elicit preferences. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either a short or a long format of health scenarios of THA and HA. We will determine each patient's VP using a trade-off and anticipated regret exercises. Our primary outcomes for the combined surveys will be: (1) the minimal delay time in the need for THA surgery that patients would find acceptable to undertaking HA, (2) patients’ satisfaction with the amount of information provided in the health scenarios used to elicit their VPs. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HIREB13-506). We will disseminate our study findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and make them
Kampen, L.T.B. van & Harris, S.
This study examined the possible added value of conducting accident investigation by means of the in-depth method, compared to other research methods. The in-depth method is an approach in which sufficient data concerning road traffic accidents is collected so as to enable complete reconstructions. The study was based on international literature about accident investigation, supplemented by specific information known to the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research in regard to in-depth investi...
Watson, Nicole; Wilkins, Roger
Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) offers many attractive benefits over paper-and-pencil interviewing. There is, however, mixed evidence on the impact of CAPI on interview "length," an important survey outcome in the context of length limits imposed by survey budgets and concerns over respondent burden. In this article,…
CERN Video productions
An Interview with Terry Doyle, Director of Corporate Development, Nokia. This is part of a series of interviews organized by the SMS Interest Group of Strategy Practice, as part of the preparation for the 2013 SMS Special conference at Lake Geneva which is co-sponsored by ATLAS/CERN. For more information: http://geneva.strategicmanagement.net The purpose of the interviews is to provide input for academics, business practitioners and consultants about fundamental questions of strategy in enterprises.
Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....
Zhang, Xiaofei; Yu, Songlin; Wheeler, Krista; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun
Millions of foreign-born workers are employed in the US. Population-based surveys have value in describing the non-fatal work-related injuries that these workers suffer. Using data from the 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey, we compared the rates of non-fatal work-related injuries among foreign-born and US-born adult workers. Logistic regression was used to produce work-related injury odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) by nativity and years of residence while controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, family size, insurance status, delayed medical care, and alcohol use. Industry-specific rates were also compared. Foreign-born workers reported a lower rate of work-related injuries than US-born workers, 50 per 10,000 foreign-born workers versus 89 per 10,000 US-born workers (P foreign-born workers as compared to US-born workers was 0.50 (95% CI = 0.38-0.66). The construction, agriculture/forestry and fisheries, and manufacturing industries had the highest work-related injury rates for both groups of workers. Foreign-born workers had a lower overall rate of work-related injury when compared to US-born workers. Both US-born and foreign-born workers face significant injury risks, especially in certain industries. Interventions tailored with ethnic and cultural differences in mind are still warranted. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kampen, L.T.B. van & Harris, S.
This study examined the possible added value of conducting accident investigation by means of the in-depth method, compared to other research methods. The in-depth method is an approach in which sufficient data concerning road traffic accidents is collected so as to enable complete reconstructions.
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning...
White, Marilyn Domas
Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…
Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos
Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer.......Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer....
Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny
Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…
Informational interviews are valuable tools for improving writing, editing, and interviewing skills, and they are also extremely valuable in improving the soft skills that are valued by employers, such as confidence, adaptability, the ability to set and keep deadlines, the ability to manage risk, and so on. These soft skills, this article argues,…
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Brewer-Lowry, A. Nichol; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Objective: Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. Method: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. Results: Both older women and men rely heavily on…
Rivard, Jillian Rowback; Schreiber Compo, Nadja
In child sexual abuse investigations, forensic interviewers within the Child Advocacy Center (CAC) model serve as neutral fact-finders for a team of professionals tasked with investigating and intervening in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Although empirical evidence has led to the development of best-practice techniques and protocols, there is currently no universally adopted protocol in the field. The present research gathered detailed information from a national sample of real-world child forensic interviewers about their training and current practices, with a specific focus on assessing the information interviewers typically review prior to conducting child forensic interviews. Most notably, the survey revealed a lack of uniformity in interviewing protocols adopted and pre-interview preparation practices. Although rare, some interviewers reported using an allegation-blind interviewing approach, highlighting the need for future research on this and other under-studied techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Patients' values and preferences of the expected efficacy of hip arthroscopy for osteoarthritis: a protocol for a multinational structured interview-based study combined with a randomised survey on the optimal amount of information to elicit preferences.
Zhang, Yuqing; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Agoritsas, Thomas; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Alexander, Paul; Imam, Maha; Yoo, Daniel; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Thabane, Lehana; Schünemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H
Symptomatic hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling condition with up to a 25% cumulative lifetime risk. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is effective in relieving patients' symptoms and improving function. It is, however, associated with substantial risk of complications, pain and major functional limitation before patients can return to full function. In contrast, hip arthroscopy (HA) is less invasive and can postpone THA. However, there is no evidence regarding the delay in the need for THA that patients would find acceptable to undergoing HA. Knowing patients' values and preferences (VP) on this expected delay is critical when making recommendations regarding the advisability of HA. Furthermore, little is known on the optimal amount of information regarding interventions and outcomes needed to present in order to optimally elicit patients' VP. We will perform a multinational, structured interview-based survey of preference in delay time for THA among patients with non-advanced OA who failed to respond to conservative therapy. We will combine these interviews with a randomised trial addressing the optimal amount of information regarding the interventions and outcomes required to elicit preferences. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either a short or a long format of health scenarios of THA and HA. We will determine each patient's VP using a trade-off and anticipated regret exercises. Our primary outcomes for the combined surveys will be: (1) the minimal delay time in the need for THA surgery that patients would find acceptable to undertaking HA, (2) patients' satisfaction with the amount of information provided in the health scenarios used to elicit their VPs. The protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HIREB13-506). We will disseminate our study findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and make them available to guideline makers issuing recommendations addressing HA and
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
Barr, Anna Louise; Knight, Louise; Franҫa-Junior, Ivan; Allen, Elizabeth; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
Underreporting of childhood sexual abuse is a major barrier to obtaining reliable prevalence estimates. We tested the sensitivity and specificity of the face-to-face-interview (FTFI) method by comparing the number of disclosures of forced sex against a more confidential mode of data collection, the sealed-envelope method (SEM). We also report on characteristics of individuals associated with non-disclosure in FTFIs. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014, with n = 3843 children attending primary school in Luwero District, Uganda. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and mixed effects logistic regression models tested factors associated with disclosure in one or both modes. In the FTFI, 1.1% (n = 42) of children reported ever experiencing forced sex, compared to 7.0% (n = 268) in the SEM. The FTFI method demonstrated low sensitivity (13.1%, 95%CI 9.3-17.7%) and high specificity (99.8%, 95%CI 99.6-99.9%) in detecting cases of forced sex, when compared to the SEM. Boys were less likely than girls to disclose in the FTFI, however there was no difference in prevalence by sex using the SEM (aOR = 0.91, 95%CI 0.7-1.2; P = 0.532). Disclosing experience of other forms of sexual violence was associated with experience of forced sex for both modes of disclosure. The SEM method was superior to FTFIs in identifying cases of forced sex amongst primary school children, particularly for boys. Reporting of other forms of sexual violence in FTFIs may indicate experience of forced sex. Future survey research, and efforts to estimate prevalence of sexual violence, should make use of more confidential disclosure methods to detect childhood sexual abuse.
Guglielmotti, Paola; Isabella, Giovanni; Tiziana LAZZARI; Varanini, Gian Maria
The first part of this interview addresses the cultural, social and political milieu that shaped Hagen Keller’s education in Germany, the relations with both his mentor Gerd Tellenbach and the other scholars; the approach to prosopography to understand the power structures. Then the interview examines the Roman experience in the Sixties (a scientific and also human one); the book Adelsherrschaft und ständische Gesellschaft and the debate that has attracted; the relationship between local hist...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Yakov Sinai is the recipient of the 2014 Abel Prize of the Norvegian Academy of Science and Letters. The interview was originally published in the September 2014 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society.......Yakov Sinai is the recipient of the 2014 Abel Prize of the Norvegian Academy of Science and Letters. The interview was originally published in the September 2014 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society....
Determinants of agreement between self-reported and parent-assessed quality of life for children in Germany-results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to quantify the level of agreement between self-reporting and proxy-assessment of children's health-related quality of life using KINDL-R in a large population based study in Germany and to identify factors which are associated with agreement. Methods The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents included the KINDL-R questionnaire on health-related quality of life. 6388 children and adolescents filled in the questionnaire while their parents answered the proxy version. Means and standard deviation for the self- and proxy ratings, and also the Pearson und Intra-Class correlation coefficients for the absolute agreement were calculated. The relationship between other variables and parent-child agreement were determined by means of logistic regression. Results In the 'Physical', 'Self-esteem' and 'School' dimension and for the 'Total' score, the parents significantly overestimated the quality of life of their child. In contrast, the quality of life of the children in the dimensions 'Psychological well-being' and 'Family' were considerably underestimated by the parents. The proportion of parent-child ratings in agreement (difference Conclusions Our study shows that parental reports cannot adequately replace self-assessment for 11-17 year olds. In view of the different underlying perspectives, the parental assessments should where possible only be regarded as providing supplementary information.
[Sociodemographic characteristics in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) - operationalisation and public health significance, taking as an example the assessment of general state of health].
Lange, M; Kamtsiuris, P; Lange, C; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Stolzenberg, H; Lampert, T
The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) was conducted from May 2003 to May 2006 by the Robert Koch Institute in 167 communities representative of Germany. By collecting comprehensive and nationally representative data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years, the study aimed to fill a longstanding evidence gap. Data from 17,641 study participants will be analysed in a timely and systematic manner by the Robert Koch Institute. Initially mainly descriptive analyses as presented in the current special issue on the KiGGS study, provide information on the distribution of main health characteristics according to sociodemographic key variables, including age, sex, region of residence (former East/West Germany), social status, and migrant background. We report here the rationale for a standard set of stratifying variables and the operationalisation of composite variables. Furthermore, we illustrate the public health relevance of the observed group differences using the example of an important health indicator: parents' evaluation of their children's general state of health.
[Suspected adverse reactions after vaccination. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents. Part 2: predictors of parental reporting of suspected adverse reactions after vaccinations].
Poethko-Müller, C; Atzpodien, K; Schmitz, R; Schlaud, M
Each method to monitor vaccine safety has strengths and limitations. Therefore, vaccine safety monitoring should rely on different types of data sources. Methods commonly rely on patient-reported adverse reactions. Little is, however, known about factors that may affect the probability with which patients report adverse reactions to vaccines. From 2003-2006, the representative National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents ("Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey", KiGGS) retrospectively collected information about vaccines, vaccination dates, and suspected vaccine related adverse reactions from a total of 17,641 participants (vaccinations were more likely reported from parents living in former West Germany compared to former East Germany (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.08-2.39), parents of children with special health care needs (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.08-2.04), and from parents reporting reservations against vaccinations (OR 3.29; 95% CI 2.28-4.75). Parental reporting of adverse vaccine reactions appears to be associated with parental perception and assessment of possible adverse vaccine reactions, as well as with the parents' attitude towards immunization in general.
Wu, Peili; Zhou, Chu; Zhou, Yang; Ren, Xianlong; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Junshi; Deng, Xiaojun; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou
Face-to-face interview (FTFI) and polling booth survey (PBS) were applied to compare the high risk behavior among HIV-positive clients of female sex workers (CFSWs). This study was conducted in antiretroviral therapy (ART) out-patients centers in Hengyang city, where clients who had been informed on their HIV-positive status for 6 months or longer were recruited. FTFI was first used to tackle on 8 sensitive questions related to sexual behavior, followed by PBS to poke on the same questions. Results from FTFI and PBS were then compared. Compared with FIFI, results in the PBS showed higher proportion of participants who reported "having had history of sexually transmitted diseases before knowing that they were infected with HIV" (40.6% vs. 24.2%) but lower proportions on "frequency of having sex with regular sexual partner less than 4 times per month" and "using condoms consistently with regular sexual partners in past 6 months (44.4% vs. 63.0%)". There were no significant differences in the remaining 5 questions shown in the results from the two methods. HIV-positive CFSWs continued to practice unsafe sexual behaviors after knowing their HIV related status. Compared with FTFI, PBS seemed to have revealed higher proportion of unsafe sex behaviors, so as to generated more reliable data. While comparing with PBS, the traditional FTFI might have underestimated the risk behaviors among those HIV-positive CFSWs.
Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns
The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.
Lombardi, David A; Wirtz, Anna; Willetts, Joanna L; Folkard, Simon
Fatigue has been linked to adverse safety outcomes, and poor quality or decreased sleep has been associated with obesity (higher body mass index, BMI). Additionally, higher BMI is related to an increased risk for injury; however, it is unclear whether BMI modifies the effect of short sleep or has an independent effect on work-related injury risk. To answer this question, the authors examined the risk of a work-related injury as a function of total daily sleep time and BMI using the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is an in-person household survey using a multistage, stratified, clustered sample design representing the US civilian population. Data were pooled for the 7-yr survey period from 2004 to 2010 for 101 891 "employed" adult subjects (51.7%; 41.1 ± yrs of age [mean ± SEM]) with data on both sleep and BMI. Weighted annualized work-related injury rates were estimated across a priori defined categories of BMI: healthy weight (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99), and obese (BMI: ≥30) and also categories of usual daily sleep duration: sleep duration and BMI, controlling for weekly working hours, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, type of pay, industry, and occupation. No significant interaction was found between usual daily sleep duration and BMI (p = .72); thus, the interaction term of the final logistic model included these two variables as independent predictors of injury, along with the aforementioned covariates. Statistically significant covariates (p ≤ .05) included age, sex, weekly work hours, occupation, and if the worker was paid hourly. The lowest categories of usual sleep duration (sleep), whereas sleeping >7-8 h did not significantly elevate risk. The adjusted injury risk odds ratio (OR) for a worker with a usual daily sleep of BMI, the adjusted injury risk OR comparing workers who were obese (BMI: ≥30) to healthy weight workers (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99) to healthy weight risk was elevated, but not statistically significant (OR = 1
Harris, Julie; German, KJ
Induced motion, the apparent motion of an object when a nearby object moves, has been shown to occur in a variety of different conditions, including motion in depth. Here we explore whether similar patterns of induced motion result from induction in a lateral direction (frontoparallel motion) or induction in depth. We measured the magnitude of induced motion in a stationary target for: (a) binocularly viewed lateral motion of a pair of inducers, where the angular motion is in the same directi...
SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...
Pasman, H.R.W.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.
Objective: Obtaining in-depth information from both patient and physician perspectives about what happens after a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) is refused. Methods: In-depth interviews with nine patients whose EAS request was refused and seven physicians of these
Rainer Schnell; Frauke Kreuter
"Data used in nationwide face-to-face surveys are almost always collected in multistage cluster samples. The relative homogeneity of the clusters selected in this way can lead to design effects at the sampling stage. Interviewers can further homogenize answers within the small geographic clusters that form the sampling points. The study presented here was designed to distinguish between interviewer effects and sampling-point effects using interpenetrated samples for conducting ...
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson
We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn
There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...
for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan. S Varadhan R Sujatha. Face to Face Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 903-912. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0903-0912 ...
King, Geraldine B.
Good reference librarians need to be good interviewers. Unfortunately most librarians have not learned to use the technique of open questions to obtain information about the user and what he is looking for. Examples of open and closed questions with typical responses are given. (4 references) (DH)
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...
Albers, Peggy; Koshewa, Allen
Interviews Shelley Harwayne, founder of the Manhattan New School, who has been named one of 10 new regional superintendents for New York City's public school system. Explains that Shelley's work is renowned in literacy. Discusses leadership, diversity, teaching, and professional development. (PM)
This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…
Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis
Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…
Martine Lammertink; prof Berno van Meijel
In Nurse Academy verscheen het volgende artikel met Martine Lammertink van PsyQ / Parnassia Groep als eerste auteur:Lammertink, M. & van Meijel, B. (2014). Het cultureel interview. Nurse Academy GGZ, 3, 32 - 35. Ook Robert Meijburg, opleider Parnassia Groep, en Diana Polhuis, Hoofdopleider GGZ-VS,
Lange, Cornelia; Starker, Anne; von der Lippe, Elena; Hölling, Heike
Experiences of violence may have considerable psychosocial and health implications. A violence screening tool was implemented in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to depict the perpetrators' and victims' point of view. The study participants were between 18 and 64 years old (n = 5939). The aim of this article is to assess the percentage of people who experienced physical and psychological violence in the last 12 months or who suffered negative effects on their quality of life as a consequence or who were perpetrators of multiple acts of violence. The characteristics of victims, offenders, and their conflict partners are described. Furthermore, specific constellations of violence experience with regard to health-related quality of life are described. Finally, the association between being a victim of violence and different factors is estimated. In total, 2.7% of women and 4.3% of men reported multiple experiences of physical violence in the last 12 months or having their lives negatively impacted as a consequence of violence. Experience of psychological violence was reported by 18.9% of women and 15.4% of men. Women are more likely than men to be both perpetrator and victim within the family. Men are more likely than women to be both the perpetrator and victim outside of the family environment. Regardless of whether they are the victim or perpetrator of violence, the psychological well-being is significantly worse than those of people who did not experience violence. Experience of violence in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of becoming victim or perpetrator of violence later on in life. The findings presented here describe the psychological and physical experience of violence as one part of violence committed in the whole population. Some prevention advice is also presented.
Determinants of agreement between self-reported and parent-assessed quality of life for children in Germany-results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).
Ellert, Ute; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Erhart, Michael; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria
The aim of this study is to quantify the level of agreement between self-reporting and proxy-assessment of children's health-related quality of life using KINDL-R in a large population based study in Germany and to identify factors which are associated with agreement. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents included the KINDL-R questionnaire on health-related quality of life. 6388 children and adolescents filled in the questionnaire while their parents answered the proxy version. Means and standard deviation for the self- and proxy ratings, and also the Pearson und Intra-Class correlation coefficients for the absolute agreement were calculated. The relationship between other variables and parent-child agreement were determined by means of logistic regression. In the 'Physical', 'Self-esteem' and 'School' dimension and for the 'Total' score, the parents significantly overestimated the quality of life of their child. In contrast, the quality of life of the children in the dimensions 'Psychological well-being' and 'Family' were considerably underestimated by the parents. The proportion of parent-child ratings in agreement (difference scale to 51.9% in the 'Psychological' scale. The most important factor explaining parents rating was the level of the child's self-assessment followed by the parent's assessment of the subjective health, or reported emotional abnormalities. Our study shows that parental reports cannot adequately replace self-assessment for 11-17 year olds. In view of the different underlying perspectives, the parental assessments should where possible only be regarded as providing supplementary information. © 2011 Ellert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ethics of justice and ethics of care. Values and attitudes among midwifery students on adolescent sexuality and abortion in Vietnam and their implications for midwifery education: a survey by questionnaire and interview.
Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Van Tam, Vu; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Ransjo-Arvidson, Anna-Berit; Johansson, Annika
Adolescent's sexuality and related reproductive health and rights problems are sensitive issues in Vietnam. Globalisation has had an impact on the lifestyles of young people, and rising numbers of abortion and STI/HIV risks among youth are posing major health concerns in the country. These problems need to be addressed. Midwives belong to a key category of health personnel in Vietnam, whose task it is to promote adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and prevent reproductive ill health. It is important to understand future midwives' perceptions and attitudes in order to improve their education and training programmes. The aim of this study was to investigate Vietnamese midwifery students' values and attitudes towards adolescent sexuality, abortion and contraception and their views on professional preparation. A quantitative survey including 235 midwifery students from four different secondary medical colleges in northern Vietnam was carried out in 2003. A qualitative study addressing similar questions was performed and 18 midwifery students were individually interviewed. Findings revealed a general disapproval of adolescent pre-marital sexual relations and abortion-'an ethics of justice'-but also an empathic attitude and willingness to support young women, who bear the consequences of unwanted pregnancies and social condemnation-'an ethics of care'. Gender-based imbalance in sexual relationships, limited knowledge about reproductive health issues among youth, and negative societal attitudes were concerns expressed by the students. The students saw their future tasks mainly related to childbearing and less to other reproductive health issues, such as abortion and prevention of STI/HIV. Midwifery education in Vietnam should encourage value-reflective thinking around gender inequality and ethical dilemmas, in order to prepare midwives to address adolescents' reproductive health needs.
Adults with an epilepsy history fare significantly worse on positive mental and physical health than adults with other common chronic conditions-Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale.
Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M
Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Emory, Jason
Health information is increasingly being disseminated online, but there is a knowledge gap between Latinos and non-Hispanic whites, particularly those whose English language proficiency is poor, in terms both of online health information-seeking behavior and computer literacy skills. This knowledge gap may also exist between US- and foreign-born Latinos. The specific aim of this study was to examine Internet use, online health information-seeking behavior, and confidence in filling out online forms among Latinos, particularly as it relates to health-risk behaviors. We then stratified our sample by nativity. We used the adult population file of the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, analyzing Internet use, online health information-seeking behavior, and confidence in filling out online forms using binary logistic regression among Latinos and whites (N=27,289), Latinos (n=9506), and Latinos who use the Internet (n=6037). Foreign-born Latinos (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.88, P=.002) have lower odds of engaging in online health information-seeking behavior, and higher odds (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.07-4.06, Ponline forms compared to US-born Latinos. Correlates of online health information-seeking behavior and form confidence varied by nativity. Latinos, particularly foreign-born individuals, are at an increased risk of being left behind as the move to increase online content delivery and care expands. As online health information dissemination and online health portals become more popular, the impact of these sites on Latino gaps in coverage and care should be considered.
Patterns of Health Information Technology Use according to Sexual Orientation among US Adults Aged 50 and Older: Findings from a National Representative Sample-National Health Interview Survey 2013-2014.
Lee, Ji Hyun; Giovenco, Danielle; Operario, Don
Health disparities among sexual minority adults ages 50 and older have been documented. Factors such as lifetime discrimination and internalized stigma may deter sexual minority individuals from seeking health services. Several studies suggest that health information technology may facilitate health education and outreach to populations whose health behaviors are affected by stigma such as older sexual minority people. This study examined the role of sexual minority identity as a factor that is associated with health information technology use. Data from the 2013-2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to compare the odds of using technology as a resource for health information between sexual minority versus heterosexual US adults aged 50 and older. Adjusting for sociodemographic variables and health variables, sexual minority participants had increased odds of using computers to look up health information on the Internet (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.53-2.64), using computers to fill a prescription (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.36-2.85), and using computers to communicate with health-care provider by e-mail (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.55-2.92), compared with heterosexuals. Findings reveal greater use of health information technology among older sexual minority adults when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. While sensitive, competent providers and culturally appropriate prevention services are essential to meeting the needs of aging sexual minority populations, health information technology use may be an innovative means of reducing disparities in information access as structural changes are implemented.
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is associated with reduced blood pressure and serum vitamin D levels: results from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).
Meyer, Thomas; Becker, Andreas; Sundermann, Jessika; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph
Alterations in blood pressure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specifically during dopaminergic stimulant intake, are not fully understood. It has been reported that vitamin D deficiency might modify dopaminergic pathways and thus influence ADHD symptoms. Using data from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study, we compared blood pressure and vitamin D levels in healthy controls to both diagnosed ADHD patients and suspected ADHD subjects, as defined by a value of ≥7 on the hyperactivity-inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In a total cohort of n = 6922 study participants aged 11-17 years, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in controls (86.7 ± 8.2 mmHg) than in the two groups of confirmed (85.5 ± 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.004, n = 430) and suspected ADHD patients (84.6 ± 8.2, p ADHD groups (p ADHD. Furthermore, we observed that vitamin D mediated the effect of systolic blood pressure on ADHD diagnosis (b = 0.007, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.001-0.013, p = 0.021, R (2) = 0.050). In a large and representative national sample of German adolescents, we found a significant association between low blood pressure and ADHD symptoms. In addition, we observed that circulating vitamin D mediated the inverse relation between blood pressure and ADHD, although the effect size was very low. These findings highlight the role of dysregulated pathways of the autonomic nervous system in ADHD.
Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder
Background: Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. Aims and Objectives: The objecti...
Norizah Aripin; Hasrina Mustafa; Adnan Hussein
This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members). The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic ana...
Haislup, Brett D; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Baweja, Rishi; McCarty, Eric C; Mulcahey, Mary K
Over the past few decades, there has been a trend toward an increasing subspecialization in orthopaedic surgery, with orthopaedic sports medicine being one of the most competitive subspecialties. Information regarding the application and interview process for sports medicine fellowships is currently lacking. To survey orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship program directors (PDs) to better define the structure of the sports medicine fellowship interview and to highlight important factors that PDs consider in selecting fellows. Cross-sectional study. A complete list of accredited programs was obtained from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website. An anonymous survey was distributed to fellowship PDs of all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited orthopaedic sports medicine fellowships in the United States. The survey included 12 questions about the fellowship interview and selection process. Of the 95 orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship PDs surveyed, 38 (40%) responded. Of these, 16 (42.1%) indicated that they interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year. Eleven of the 38 fellowship programs (28.9%) have only 1 fellow per year at their respective program. Most programs (27/37, 73%) reported that between 0 and 5 faculty members interview applicants, and 29 of the 38 programs (76.3%) arrange for applicants to have ≥4 interviews during their interview day. Large group interviews are conducted at 36 of 38 (94.7%) sports medicine fellowship programs, and most programs (24/38, 63.2%) hold individual interviews that last between 5 and 15 minutes. The most important applicant criterion taken into account by PDs was the quality of the interview, with an average score of 8.68 of 10. The most significant factor taken into account by PDs when deciding how to rank applicants was the quality of the interview. Many orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year
Interview to Amalia Ballarino (CERN, TE) on the development of new electric power cables based on the superconducting material magnesium diboride (MgB2) for the Hi-Lumi LHC and for the transport of electricity from clean power plants . The development was carried out in collaboration with a team led by prof. Carlo Rubbia at the IASS (Institute for Advanced Sustainable Studies), Potsdam, Germany.
Dobson, Conducted by Ken; Membrey, Jill
Dr Steven H Mellema is Associate Professor and Chair of Physics at Gustavus Adolphus College in Saint Peter, Minnesota, USA. He has been on the International Advisory Panel for Physics Education since 1997 and earlier this year he joined the journal's Editorial Board for its Spring meeting in London. He subsequently agreed to undergo a `People in physics' interview and the result of this is set out below.
White, Marilyn Domas
This paper discusses the applicability and adaptability for evaluating reference interviews in library science of the Arizona Clinical Interview Rating Scale (ACIRS), a process-oriented scale originally developed in 1976 at the Arizona College of Medicine to evaluate the interview performance of medical students. The analysis surveys the content…
Human Resources Division
The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...
Full Text Available This study examined item nonresponse and its respondent and interviewer correlates by means of a population-based, panel survey of children aged 8 to 11 who were surveyed using standardised, face-to-face interviews. Using multilevel, logistic analyses with cross-level interactions, this article aims to examine which effects of item nonresponse are subject to children as respondents or to the interviewers and the interview setting. Depending on the type of question, we found different effects for respondent and interviewer variables, as well as interaction effects between child age/interviewer age as well as child gender/interviewer gender. However, interviewer variance is for the most part not significant.
[Injuries among children and adolescents (1-17 years) and implementation of safety measures. Results of the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].
Kahl, H; Dortschy, R; Ellsässer, G
Parent interviews with regard to their children's accidents and to accident protective measures in the Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) aimed at extending our knowledge of age- and gender-specific injuries and to identify risk groups and risk factors for injury prevention. The parents of 16,706 children (aged 1-17 years) were asked about their children's injuries within the last 12 months which were medically treated, and about accident mechanisms, consequences of injuries, and ambulatory and hospital treatment. In addition, parents and children aged 11 to 17 years (n = 6813) were asked to give information on protective measures. According to the parents 15.9 % of the children had at least one injury within the last 12 months, 15.2 % because of an accident and 0.8 % because of assault. In the age group 1-17 boys have been injured significantly more often than girls (17.9 % vs. 14,0 %). Overall, 13.3 % of 2,410 injured children and adolescents were hospitalized. Two thirds of the accidents among toddlers were domestic accidents (60 %) whereas leisure and sport accidents were most prevalent in children and adolescents aged 5-14 years and 15-17 years (32.1 % and 38.9 %). The proportion of accidents in child care facilities and educational institutions tripled from infancy to school age (age 5-14 years) (10.9-28.7 %), as did traffic accidents (5.6-16.7 %). The three most frequent injury mechanisms in the age range 1-17 years were falls on level ground (35.2 %), falls from heights (25.2 %) and collisions with objects or persons (20.6 %). Falls from heights showed the highest risk in toddlers (35.8 %). Contusions, sprains and strains increased to a highest level of 50.9 % in adolescents; likewise, bone fractures increased from 10.7 % in toddlers to 21.8 % in adolescents aged 15-17 years. An influence of socioeconomic status on injuries overall and on consequences of injuries was not seen. For traffic accidents in children aged
Byrne, Elaine; Brugha, Ruairi; Clarke, Eric; Lavelle, Aisling; McGarvey, Alice
Interviewing is one of the main methods used for data collection in qualitative research. This paper explores the use of semi-structured interviews that were conducted by students with other students in a research study looking at cultural diversity in an international medical school. Specifically this paper documents and gives 'voice' to the opinions and experiences of interviewees and interviewers (the peers and the communities) on the value of peer interviewing in the study and outlines (1) the preparation made to address some of the foreseen challenges, (2) the challenges still faced, and (3) the benefits of using peer interviews with respect to the research study, the individual and the institution. Peer interviewing was used as part of a two-year phased-study, 2012-2013, which explored and then measured the impact of cultural diversity on undergraduate students in a medical higher education institution in Ireland. In phase one 16 peer interviewers were recruited to conduct 29 semi-structured interviews with fellow students. In order to evaluate the peer interviewing process two focus group discussions were he ld and an online survey conducted. Key findings were that substantial preparations in relation to training, informed consent processes and addressing positionality are needed if peer-interviewing is to be used. Challenges still faced included were related to power, familiarity, trust and practical problems. However many benefits accrued to the research, the individual interviewer and to the university. A more nuanced approach to peer interviewing, that recognises commonalities and differences across a range of attributes, is needed. While peer interviewing has many benefits and can help reduce power differentials it does not eliminate all challenges. As part of a larger research project and as a way in which to get 'buy-in' from the student body and improve a collaborative research partnership peer interviewing was extremely useful.
Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L.; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H. Yanna; Zhang, Chan
As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS), longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded), variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation), and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data—fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information—than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey. PMID:26060991
Michael F Schober
Full Text Available As people increasingly communicate via asynchronous non-spoken modes on mobile devices, particularly text messaging (e.g., SMS, longstanding assumptions and practices of social measurement via telephone survey interviewing are being challenged. In the study reported here, 634 people who had agreed to participate in an interview on their iPhone were randomly assigned to answer 32 questions from US social surveys via text messaging or speech, administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews; automated systems launched parallel text and voice interviews at the same time as the human interviews were launched. The key question was how the interview mode affected the quality of the response data, in particular the precision of numerical answers (how many were not rounded, variation in answers to multiple questions with the same response scale (differentiation, and disclosure of socially undesirable information. Texting led to higher quality data-fewer rounded numerical answers, more differentiated answers to a battery of questions, and more disclosure of sensitive information-than voice interviews, both with human and automated interviewers. Text respondents also reported a strong preference for future interviews by text. The findings suggest that people interviewed on mobile devices at a time and place that is convenient for them, even when they are multitasking, can give more trustworthy and accurate answers than those in more traditional spoken interviews. The findings also suggest that answers from text interviews, when aggregated across a sample, can tell a different story about a population than answers from voice interviews, potentially altering the policy implications from a survey.
Finger, Jonas D; Mensink, Gert B M; Banzer, Winfried; Lampert, Thomas; Tylleskär, Thorkild
The positive association between parental socio-economic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by physical activity behaviour. We investigated the associations between physical activity, aerobic fitness and PSEP in a population based sample of German adolescents. 5,251 participants, aged 11-17 years, in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS) underwent a sub-maximal cycle ergometer test and completed a questionnaire obtaining information on physical activity and media use. The associations between physical activity, media use, aerobic fitness and PSEP were analysed with multivariate logistic regression models for boys and girls separately. Odds ratios (ORs) of PSEP (education, occupation and income) on the outcomes were calculated adjusted for age, region, and other influencing factors. Parental education was more strongly associated with the outcome variables than parental occupation and income. After adjusting for age and region, a higher parental education level was associated with better aerobic fitness - with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for girls whose parents had tertiary education compared to girls whose parents had primary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.3 (1.0-1.6) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with lower media use: an OR of 2.1 (1.5-3.0) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 2.7 (1.8-4.1) for girls whose parents had primary education compared to girls whose parents had tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.5 (1.2-1.9) and 1.9 (1.5-2.5), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with a higher physical activity level only among girls: an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.6) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.2 (0.9-1.5) for girls whose parents had tertiary education compared to girls
Background The positive association between parental socio-economic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by physical activity behaviour. We investigated the associations between physical activity, aerobic fitness and PSEP in a population based sample of German adolescents. Methods 5,251 participants, aged 11–17 years, in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS) underwent a sub-maximal cycle ergometer test and completed a questionnaire obtaining information on physical activity and media use. The associations between physical activity, media use, aerobic fitness and PSEP were analysed with multivariate logistic regression models for boys and girls separately. Odds ratios (ORs) of PSEP (education, occupation and income) on the outcomes were calculated adjusted for age, region, and other influencing factors. Results Parental education was more strongly associated with the outcome variables than parental occupation and income. After adjusting for age and region, a higher parental education level was associated with better aerobic fitness – with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for girls whose parents had tertiary education compared to girls whose parents had primary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.3 (1.0-1.6) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with lower media use: an OR of 2.1 (1.5-3.0) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 2.7 (1.8-4.1) for girls whose parents had primary education compared to girls whose parents had tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for boys were 1.5 (1.2-1.9) and 1.9 (1.5-2.5), respectively. Higher parental education level was associated with a higher physical activity level only among girls: an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.6) for girls whose parents had secondary education and 1.2 (0.9-1.5) for girls whose parents had
Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.
For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...
Kim, Duk-Su; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey
The purpose of this project was to understand the nature of an architect's professional power. The central questions were: (1) What is the impact of specialized knowledge on the professional autonomy of architects in general? and (2) What are the relationships between task complexity, specialized knowledge, and the professional autonomy of healthcare architects in particular? To answer these questions, this research utilized interviews and focus groups. Focus groups provided in-depth knowledge on a sub-question: How do real-world situations restrict or reinforce the professional autonomy of healthcare architects? The interviews on this sub-question were project-specific to help gain an understanding of the impact that healthcare design complexity and research utilization have on practice and professional autonomy. Two main relationships were discovered from the interviews and focus groups. One was the relationship between the context of healthcare design complexity and the culture of healthcare design practice. The other was the relationship between changing professional attitudes and the consequences of changes in the profession.
Paul J. Sliker
Full Text Available An interview with Andrew J. (Drew Feustel, Purdue alum, geophysicist and NASA astronaut. Dr. Feustel's first spaceflight in May 2009 (STS-125 repaired the Hubble Space Telescope. His second spaceflight in May 2011 (STS-134 was the penultimate journey of the Space Shuttle program. At Purdue University, Feustel served as a Residence Hall Counselor for two years at Cary Quadrangle and he was a Research Assistant and Teaching Assistant in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. His MS thesis investigated physical property measurements of rock specimens under elevated hydrostatic pressures simulating Earth’s deep crustal environments. While at Purdue, Feustel served for three years as Grand Prix Chairman and team Kart driver for Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity.
Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef
that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...
Rivard, Jillian R; Pena, Michelle M; Schreiber Compo, Nadja
Current investigative interviewing guidelines [e.g., Technical Working Group: Eyewitness evidence. (1999). Eyewitness evidence: A guide for law enforcement. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/178240.pdf ] suggest that interviewers review available case information prior to conducting a witness interview. The present study investigated the effect of interviewers' pre-interview awareness of crime details on eyewitnesses' memory and interviewer behaviour shortly after a mock crime or a week later. Results indicate that blind interviewers with no knowledge about the crime elicited more correct information than those who were correctly informed about the crime. Differences in interviewer behaviour emerged only in the very first question of the interview: Blind interviewers were more likely to begin the interview with a non-suggestive question than the informed interviewers. Blind interviewers also recalled more details than the informed interviewers when asked to generate a report after the witness interview documenting the witness' account.
Usami, Davide Shingo; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca; Gigli, Roberto
Data collected from in-depth road accident investigations are very informative and may contain more than 500 accident-related variables for a single investigated case. These data may be used to get a more detailed knowledge on accident and injury causation associated with a specific accident scenario. However, due to their complexity, studies using in-depth data at aggregated levels are not common. The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyse aggregated accident causation charts in order to highlight strong and weak relationships between crash causes and pre-crash scenarios. These relationships can be taken into account when developing or assessing new road safety measures (e.g. in-vehicle systems). The methodology has been applied to an in-depth accident dataset derived from the European project SafetyNet. Four different pre-crash scenarios associated with the accident scenario 'vehicles encountering something while remaining in their lane' have been investigated. Even if generalization of these results should be done with care because of database representativeness issues, the methodology is promising, highlighting, for example, a well-defined causation pattern related to vehicles striking a vehicle in rear-end accidents.
Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.
Full Text Available There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey “Panel Study ‘Labour Market and Social Security’” (PASS, where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.
Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.
Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter. Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...
Bunning, Karen; Alder, Ruth; Proudman, Lydia; Wyborn, Harriet
Background: Capturing the views of people with learning disabilities is not straightforward. Talking Mats® has been used successfully to solicit the views of such individuals. The aim was to co-produce an interview schedule using Talking Mats® on the subject of television-viewing habits and preferences of adults and young people with learning…
Cadi Y. Fung
Full Text Available Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely focused on older adults. In this study, we extend the state of knowledge on environmental activism further by focusing on college students. We use qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and observations to examine the motivations behind student involvement in environmental activism on a state university campus. Our findings underscore that young people’s activist motivations are not stand-alone phenomena; they work in tandem with other processes and factors in a dynamic way and are influenced by an individual’s history, previous experiences and passion, a sense of community, existing incentives, and self-satisfaction derived from activist behavior.
This paper describes and compares individual students' understanding of a range of concepts associated with electric and magnetic fields. Data are drawn from written tests and detailed interviews of students from a first-year university physics class. The case study approach makes it possible to examine in depth the interaction between conceptions of various related topics in the students' minds. The theoretical framework of the SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) Taxonomy, as elaborated in a previous paper on this topic area by the author, is further advanced here. Using this framework, the paper provides insight into a more detailed view of students' understanding of fields, which in turn casts light on possible teaching strategies for fields and related topics.
Plonka, Laura; Sharp, Helen; van der Linden, Janet
constellations. We ask “what does it take to be a good “expert” and how can a “novice” best learn from a more experienced developer?”. An in-depth investigation of video and audio excerpts of professional pair programming sessions using Interaction Analysis reveals: six teaching strategies, ranging from “giving...... influences the strategies, challenges and benefits, in particular the roles of driver and navigator and agile prioritisation which considers business value rather than educational progression. Utilising these strategies more widely and recognizing the challenges and benefits for both partners will help...
Nowakowski, Jeri Ridings
This article presents an interview with Ralph Tyler. This interview will be of interest to those entering the field of education as well as for those who have made their home within the field for some time now. In the interview, Dr. Tyler discusses work in education and educational evaluation that spans over a half a century. He describes issues…
Ongena, Yfke; Haan, Marieke
Various studies have shown that social desirability bias and satisficing are more prevalent in CATI than in CAPI surveys. Although this difference has theoretically been explained in terms of rapport (Holbrook et al 2003), it has not systematically been studied whether interviewer-respondent
Dwi Astuti, Novi; Anta Alvita, Meli; Sangadji, Senot; Rahmadi, AP; Purwanto, Edy
The high public demand on housing in urban areas requires the government of Indonesia to adopt a policy of encouraging the development of vertical housing. Cilacap has been allocated Rusunawa (low-income apartment) development in 2006. Evident from some earthquakes occurrence in recent years, however, Cilacap may be seen as an earthquake prone region which posing some risk to this type of vertical structures. The Appropriate strategy should be performed to evaluate the seismic risks of this local government owned four stories low-income apartment. This paper demonstrates two tier evaluation strategy; rapid evaluation and in-depth analysis and compares both results. First evaluation was conducted by means of Building Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) of FEMA 154 of the Rusunawa block A and B. The result was used further to calculate seismic risk score (SR) which exhibit the probability of the building damage given the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) that will occur during the Rusunawa service life. The in-depth analysis was conducted by developing fragility function expressed in the form of fragility curves for the Rusunawa. The fragility shows the probability that certain damage states will be exceeded given the intensity of earthquakes which will occur during building service life. The fragility was developed as lognormal curves in which the building response to earthquake input was analyzed by means of pushover.
Camp, Christopher L; Sousa, Paul L; Hanssen, Arlen D; Karam, Matthew D; Haidukewych, George J; Oakes, Daniel A; Turner, Norman S
Common strategies for orthopedic residency programs to attract competitive applicants include optimizing the interview day and contacting favorably ranked applicants postinterview. The purpose of this work was to determine (1) applicants' perspectives on the ideal interview day, (2) how frequently applicants are contacted postinterview, and (3) the influence of this contact on rank order lists (ROL). Prospective Comparative Survey Mayo Clinic Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN, USA PARTICIPANTS: A survey was completed by 312 successfully matched orthopedic surgery residency applicants following the 2015 match regarding their views of the ideal interview day, components they valued most, post-interview contact, and how that contact influenced their ROL. Applicants stated they preferred interviews that lasted 15 (55%) minutes, a mean of 1.7 (range: 1-5) interviewers present per interview, 5 total interviews (range: 1-10) in a day, an interview with residents (96%), and interviews days lasting only a half day (88%). The majority (94%) desire a social event attended by only residents (54%) or staff and residents (46%). Few wanted an assessment of surgical skills (36%) or orthopedic knowledge (23%). The interview day was rated very valuable in determining their ROL (4.4 out of 5.0). Applicants told a mean of 1.7 (range: 0-11) programs they were "ranking the program highly" and 0.8 (range: 0-5) programs they were "going to rank them #1." Of the 116 (40%) applicants contacted by programs following interviews, 24 (21%) moved programs higher and 3 (3%) moved programs lower on their ROL. Orthopedic Surgery applicants have clear preferences for what they consider to be the ideal interview day and many alter their ROL following post-interview contact. These data may be beneficial to programs looking to optimize the interview experience for applicants. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of comorbid personality disorders (PDs in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs is challenging due to symptom overlap, additional mental and physical disorders, and limitations of the assessment methods. Our in-depth study applied methods to overcome these difficulties. Method A complete catchment area sample of 61 consecutively admitted patients with SUDs, with no previous history of specialized treatment (addiction clinics, psychiatry were studied, addressing PDs and associated clinical and demographic variables. The thorough assessments included the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Results Forty-six percent of the SUD patients had at least one PD (16% antisocial [males only]; 13% borderline; and 8% paranoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive, respectively. Cluster C disorders were as prevalent as Cluster B disorders. SUD patients with PDs were younger at the onset of their first SUD and at admission; used more illicit drugs; had more anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia; had more severe depressive symptoms; were more distressed; and less often attended work or school. Conclusion The psychiatric comorbidity and symptom load of SUD patients with PDs differed from those of SUD patients without PDs, suggesting different treatment needs, and stressing the value of the assessment of PDs in SUD patients.
Ganju, Deepika; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan
Male migrants in India are at disproportionately high risk for HIV, not only because of their sexual behaviours in destination areas but also due to their risk behaviours in their place of origin. While studies have documented male migrants' risky behaviours in the home setting, few have attempted to understand the underlying socio-cultural context in which they engage in such behaviours. This paper examines the patterns and context of male migrants' non-spousal sexual partnerships in two high-out-migration districts of India. Data, drawn from a cross-sectional behavioural mixed-methods study conducted in 2008, included a structured survey with 1272 migrants, followed by in-depth interviews with 33 male migrants. Results suggest that sexual activity was common in the place of origin: around 50% of migrants had sex with a non-spousal female partner and two-fifths had initiated sex in this setting. Migrants' non-spousal sexual behaviours in the home village were influenced by the prevailing socio-cultural context, including migrants' enhanced socio-economic status, attitudes to non-spousal sex and accessibility of sexual partners. Male migrants' non-spousal sexual partnerships in source areas are influenced by socio-cultural factors, which must be considered when designing HIV programmes in India and elsewhere.
Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.
Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Chang, C W David; Puscas, Liana
Objectives To identify how applicants to otolaryngology residency determine how to apply to, interview with, and rank programs on the interview trail and to determine the extent of the financial burden of the otolaryngology interview trail. Study Design Web-based survey distributed in March and April 2016. Setting Otolaryngology residency applicants throughout the United States. Subjects and Methods Applicants to otolaryngology residency during the 2016 match cycle and current otolaryngology residents were surveyed. Results Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked was not different during the 2016 match and the previous 5 match years. The most important factor affecting the number of applications was the need to apply widely to ensure sufficient interview offers. The most common reason for declining an interview offer was scheduling conflict. Applicants during the 2016 match spent a median of $5400 applying and interviewing for otolaryngology residency. Conclusions Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked has not changed. The most cited reason for applying to many programs was to increase the chances of matching, but this is not statistically likely to increase match success. We advocate for continued attempts to make the otolaryngology match process more transparent for both applicants and resident selection committees, but recognize that applicants are likely to continue to overapply for otolaryngology residency positions.
Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
and children of different ages. When used for child obesity prevention, motivational interviewing was connected with dilemmas which should not be left to the individual nurse but be handled in practice by the school health service management. It is suggested to distinguish carefully between obesity prevention...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... for what data told about motivational interviewing. Next, specifically according to the keywords of the motivational interviewing spirit and techniques. Key results : The study showed that the motivational interviewing spirit and techniques are integrated, inseparable, and adapted by the school nurses...
Campion, Michael A.; And Others
Proposes a highly structured six-step employment interviewing technique which includes asking the same questions, consistently administering the process to all candidates, and having an interview panel. Results of a field study of 243 job applicants using this technique demonstrated interrater reliability, predictive validity, test fairness for…
In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...
Salvo, Marissa C; Cannon-Breland, Michelle L
To familiarize pharmacists with motivational interviewing as a way to engage patients in discussions about medication adherence. Motivational interviewing is a collaborative, patient-centered communications skill set that can increase behavior change by stimulating a patient's own internal motivation for change. Pharmacists using motivational interviewing can explore factors associated with medication nonadherence, assess patient ambivalence and/or resistance, and educate a patient to promote medication-adherent behaviors. Pharmacists can use motivational interviewing to effectively engage patients in a conversation that addresses medication adherence.
Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff
Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.
Desselle, Shane P
Pharmacy technicians are a vital part of the health care workforce. Little is known about perceptions of their own work environment that would engender more effective recruitment, retention, and management strategies by pharmacists and employers. The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of certified pharmacy technician worklife. Specific objectives included the identification of themes of worklife phenomena to assist with the development of appropriate responses by other pharmacy stakeholders and to ascertain the contribution of various factors engendering or discouraging career commitment of pharmacy technicians. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with a convenience sample of pharmacy technicians in one U.S. state, who varied by their work settings and level of experience. The interview guide and corresponding participant responses were framed from around an organizational cultural basis rooted in organizational behavior theory. Notes from the interviews were analyzed thematically using directed content analysis. Four primary themes emerged, including: career impetus, job responsibilities, quality of work life, and equitable partnership. The data revealed pharmacy technicians' need for self-actualization and recognition of the value they bring to the organization. The participants identified primary responsibilities that contribute to their sense of worth and those that if not managed adequately potentially detract from their well-being and effectiveness. Findings in regard to rate of pay corroborate previous work on wages as both an intrinsic and extrinsic motivator. Pharmacy technicians seek equity among each other (their peers) and in a mutually beneficial relationship with their employing organization. This study provides the impetus for interventions and further study that should serve to enhance pharmacy technician effectiveness, quality of work life, and longevity in an emerging profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Interviews Robert Torres, a Nuyorican who excelled at school and escaped the ghetto while his family remained, then made a documentary about the situation. This interview examines how poverty affects children; how teachers can help impoverished Hispanic students; how teachers helped him; how educators should be compensated; what making the…
Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian
Analyzes how less powerful subjects in an unequal encounter, an admission interview in an educational institution, were able to counter the power directed at them by the more powerful subject through "aikido" strategies. In the context of the interview, harmonizing with the ideological discursive formation of the institution in question…
This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…
Farley, Roy C.; Rubin, Stanford E.
Part of a five-part package (see note) of training materials to teach interviewing skills to human services personnel, this typescript manual is intended for use as a visual reference to aid in understanding the taped dialogues of the packages tape/slide demonstrations of interview interaction, and for referral in class discussions. The typescript…
AGEEVA JULIA VICTOROVNA
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of job interview transcripts from the perspective of dominant communicant’s (HR manager communicative behavior. The interviewer uses various etiquette forms that facilitate a more productive dialogue and stipulate cooperative strategies and tactics in order to achieve the main goal - to determine whether the job applicant meets the requirements of the employer.
Describes how an interview project used in conjunction with a primary sources based curriculum enhanced history learning. Students were involved in gaining information from community citizens. Outlines the procedures involved in the interviewing process and discusses the benefits to students including increased content acquisition, skills, and…
Ernest Osas Ugiagbe
The study examines the perceptions of the services of the micro finance Institutions by the women service users, and how the services of micro Institutions affect businesses of the beneficiaries of the micro credit loans. The research design for the study was the survey method. The instruments of data collection were structured questionnaires and in-depth interview. A total of 450 questionnaires were administered to the female participants, and senior management personnel of the micro credit...
Boyer, Lori; Carden, Lila; Johnson, Lars; Boyd, Raphael
This research includes survey data about the types of anxiety levels that college students experience while preparing for job interviews. Survey findings included female students reporting higher levels of anxiety than their male counterparts on four of the five scales. Results suggest that additional training for female applicants could reduce…
Full Text Available Since the feed cost is a major determinant of profitability in poultry industry, how to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection is an intriguing subject for breeders and producers. As a more suitable indicator assessing feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on maintenance and growth. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for RFI in chickens are still less well appreciated. In this study, we investigated the duodenal transcriptome architecture of extreme RFI phenotypes in the six brown-egg dwarf hens (three per group using RNA sequencing technology. Among all mapped reads, an average of 75.62% fell into annotated exons, 5.50% were located in introns, and the remaining 18.88% were assigned to intergenic regions. In total, we identified 41 promising candidate genes by differential expression analysis between the low and high RFI groups. Furthermore, qRT-PCR assays were designed for 10 randomly chosen genes, and nine (90.00% were successfully validated. Functional annotation analyses revealed that these significant genes belong to several specific biological functions related to digestibility, metabolism and biosynthesis processes as well as energy homeostasis. We also predicted 253 intergenic coding transcripts, and these transcripts were mainly involved in fundamental biological regulation and metabolism processes. Our findings provided a pioneering exploration of biological basis underlying divergent RFI using RNA-Seq, which pinpoints promising candidate genes of functional relevance, is helpful to guide future breeding strategies to optimize feed efficiency and assists in improving the current gene annotation in chickens.
Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Bi, Huijuan; Yan, Wei; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang
Since the feed cost is a major determinant of profitability in poultry industry, how to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection is an intriguing subject for breeders and producers. As a more suitable indicator assessing feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on maintenance and growth. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for RFI in chickens are still less well appreciated. In this study, we investigated the duodenal transcriptome architecture of extreme RFI phenotypes in the six brown-egg dwarf hens (three per group) using RNA sequencing technology. Among all mapped reads, an average of 75.62% fell into annotated exons, 5.50% were located in introns, and the remaining 18.88% were assigned to intergenic regions. In total, we identified 41 promising candidate genes by differential expression analysis between the low and high RFI groups. Furthermore, qRT-PCR assays were designed for 10 randomly chosen genes, and nine (90.00%) were successfully validated. Functional annotation analyses revealed that these significant genes belong to several specific biological functions related to digestibility, metabolism and biosynthesis processes as well as energy homeostasis. We also predicted 253 intergenic coding transcripts, and these transcripts were mainly involved in fundamental biological regulation and metabolism processes. Our findings provided a pioneering exploration of biological basis underlying divergent RFI using RNA-Seq, which pinpoints promising candidate genes of functional relevance, is helpful to guide future breeding strategies to optimize feed efficiency and assists in improving the current gene annotation in chickens.
Montmessin, F.; Korablev, O.; Lefèvre, F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Fedorova, A.; Trokhimovskiy, A.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Lacombe, G.; Reberac, A.; Maltagliati, L.; Willame, Y.; Guslyakova, S.; Gérard, J.-C.; Stiepen, A.; Fussen, D.; Mateshvili, N.; Määttänen, A.; Forget, F.; Witasse, O.; Leblanc, F.; Vandaele, A. C.; Marcq, E.; Sandel, B.; Gondet, B.; Schneider, N.; Chaffin, M.; Chapron, N.
The SPICAM experiment onboard Mars Express has accumulated during the last decade a wealth of observations that has permitted a detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition and activity from the near-surface up to above the exosphere. The SPICAM climatology is one of the longest assembled to date by an instrument in orbit around Mars, offering the opportunity to study the fate of major volatile species in the Martian atmosphere over a multi-(Mars)year timeframe. With his dual ultraviolet (UV)-near Infrared channels, SPICAM observes spectral ranges encompassing signatures created by a variety atmospheric gases, from major (CO2) to trace species (H2O, O3). Here, we present a synthesis of the observations collected for water vapor, ozone, clouds and dust, carbon dioxide, exospheric hydrogen and airglows. The assembled climatology covers the MY 27-MY 31 period. However, the monitoring of UV-derived species was interrupted at the end of 2014 (MY30) due to failure of the UV channel. A SO2 detection attempt was undertaken, but proved unsuccessful from regional to global scales (with upper limit greater than already published ones). One particular conclusion that stands out from this overview work concerns the way the Martian atmosphere organizes an efficient mass transfer between the lower and the upper atmospheric reservoirs. This highway to space, as we name it, is best illustrated by water and hydrogen, both species having been monitored by SPICAM in their respective atmospheric reservoir. Coupling between the two appear to occur on seasonal timescales, much shorter than theoretical predictions.
Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.
Ozkan, Kerem; Braunstein, Myron L
Change detection for objects associated with a surface extended in depth might be more difficult than for a frontal surface if it is easier to shift attention within a frontal surface. On the other hand, previous research has shown that ground surfaces have a special role in organizing the 3-D layout of objects shown against scene backgrounds. In the current study, we examined whether a frontal background or a ground surface background would result in superior change detection performance using a change detection flicker paradigm. In the first experiment, we considered whether background slant affects change detection performance. In Experiment 2, we examined the effect of height in the image on change detection performance. In Experiment 3, we examined change detection performance on slanted ceiling surfaces. The results of these experiments indicate that change detection is more efficient on near-ground planes than on surfaces at intermediate slants or ceiling surfaces. This suggests that any superiority of frontal plane backgrounds in a change detection task may be equivalent to the superiority of a near-ground plane in organizing a scene, with the lowest level of performance occurring for surfaces that are not frontal but further from a ground surface orientation.
Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study investigated whether a time-frequency EEG approach could be used to examine vection (i.e., illusions of self-motion. In the main experiment, we compared the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP data of 10 observers during and directly after repeated exposures to two different types of optic flow display (each was 35° wide by 29° high and provided 20 s of motion stimulation. Displays consisted of either a vection display (which simulated constant velocity forward self-motion in depth or a control display (a spatially scrambled version of the vection display. ERSP data were decomposed using time-frequency Principal Components Analysis (t-f PCA. We found an increase in 10 Hz alpha activity, peaking some 14 s after display motion commenced, which was positively associated with stronger vection ratings. This followed decreases in beta activity, and was also followed by a decrease in delta activity; these decreases in EEG amplitudes were negatively related to the intensity of the vection experience. After display motion ceased, a series of increases in the alpha band also correlated with vection intensity, and appear to reflect vection- and/or motion-aftereffects, as well as later cognitive preparation for reporting the strength of the vection experience. Overall, these findings provide support for the notion that EEG can be used to provide objective markers of changes in both vection status (i.e., vection/no vection and vection strength.
This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.
Sheila M F Torres
Full Text Available To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups.36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups. Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins.2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups.Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.
Sherin, Bruce; Lee, Victor R.; Krakowski, Moshe
One of the main tools that we have for the study of student science conceptions is the clinical interview. Research on student understanding of natural phenomena has tended to understand interviews as tools for reading out a student's knowledge. In this paper, we argue for a shift in how we think about and analyze interview data. In particular, we argue that we must be aware that the interview itself is a dynamic process during which a sort of conceptual change occurs. We refer to these short time-scale changes that occur over a few minutes in an interview as conceptual dynamics. Our goal is to devise new frameworks and techniques for capturing the conceptual dynamics. To this end, we have devised a simple and neutral cognitive framework. In this paper, we describe this framework, and we show how it can be applied to understand interview data. We hope to show that the conceptual dynamics of interviews are complex, but that it nonetheless feasible to make them a focus of study.
[Sensitivity and specificity between the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (World Mental Health, CIDI) and the Standardised Clinical Evaluation version I (SCID-I) in a mental health survey of the city of Medellin, 2012].
Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Restrepo Bernal, Diana Patricia; Mejía-Montoya, Roberto; Bareño-Silva, José; Sierra-Hincapié, Gloria; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Marulanda-Restrepo, Daniel; Gómez-Sierra, Natalia; Gaviria-Arbeláez, Silvia
In order to address the mental health problems of the Colombian population it is necessary to have diagnostic tools (local and international) that are valid, easy to apply, and comparable. To compare the sensitivity and specificity between the CIDI 3.0 and the SCID-I for major depressive disorder, bipolar I and II disorder, and substance dependence disorder. Cross-sectional study comparing the life prevalence of three mental disorders in 100 subjects using the CIDI 3.0 and the SCID-I. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. The two diagnostic interviews were performed that measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value with confidence intervals of 95%. The SPSS version 21.0 software was used for data analysis. The median age was 43.5 years, with an interquartile interval of 30 years. The highest sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) was observed for drug dependence diagnosis - with 80%, (95%CI, 34.94-100), and 98.46 (95%CI, 94.7-100), respectively. SCID-I and CIDI 3.0 showed different levels of sensitivity and specificity for the three disorders studied with: high for substance dependence disorder, moderate for bipolar disorder I and II, and low for major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. All rights reserved.
Canel, Azize Nilgün
In this study, the Adlerian Interview Form has been used as a semi-structured, in-depth interview method to identify the experiences of six participants regarding Adler's concepts of early recollections and life style. Subsequent to transcribing the obtained information, recollections to be included in the analysis were subjected to the criterion…
Bevan, Mark T
In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.
Callaway, Paul; Melhado, Trisha; Walling, Anne; Groskurth, Jordan
Interviewing for residency positions is increasingly stressful for students and challenging for programs. Little information is available about the costs and time invested by students in interviewing or about the key factors in decisions to accept interview offers. Our objective was to assess the time and financial costs of residency interviewing for an entire class at a regional campus and explore factors influencing student decisions to accept interviews. We used a 14-item survey administered electronically immediately following National Resident Matching Program results. The response rate was 75% (49 of 65 students). About half interviewed in primary care specialties. Thirty students (63%) applied to 20 or more programs, and 91% were offered multiple interviews out of state. Seventy percent limited interviews by time and cost. Other important factors included personal "fit," program reputation, and the quality of residents. About 50% of the students spent more than 20 days and $1,000-$5,000 interviewing; 29% reported spending over $5,000. Students used multiple funding sources, predominantly loans and savings. Primary care applicants applied to fewer out-of-state programs, reported fewer interview days and lower expenses, but received more financial support from programs. Students invested considerable time and resources in interviewing, and these factors significantly influenced their decisions about accepting interviews. The other major factors in interview decisions concerned personal comfort with the program, especially the residents. The costs and time reported in this study could be greater than other schools due to the regional campus location or lower due to the high proportion of students interviewing in primary care.
Full Text Available Here's the interview granted by Martha Nussbaum to Fabrizia Abbate about the role of preference in social dynamics. How important are aesthetic preferences in the development of moral attitudes and choices ?
Mather, John C.
John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.
Filmed on 8th December 2009 by Alan Macfarlane and edited by Sarah Harrison Interview of the scientist and sometime Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, Haroon Ahmed. A discussion of his life and work.
Black Books Bulletin, 1979
In this interview, subjects covered include: changes in Islam, the spiritual greatness of America, Muslim businesses, interracial marriage, the World Community of Islam, and opening the doors of Islam to Caucasians. (WI)
Wibberley, Christopher; Kenny, Christine
It is reported in the Penguin Book of Interviews ( 1 ) that Marlon Brando recalled an interview with Truman Capote as follows: 'The little bastard spent half the night telling me all his problems, I figured the least I could do was tell him a few of mine.' In sharing experiences with his interviewee, Capote had managed to extract information he would otherwise not have gained.
Callen, E; Scadron, M
The Physics Interviewing Project assists graduate physics departments in evaluating foreign applicants. Supported by some 20 universities, two interviewers, both working scientists, travel abroad and interview students individually for about 1 hour each. Prospective teaching assistants are rated on physics knowledge, problem-solving ability, and English language proficiency. Ratings on all interviewees are sent to all supporting schools and other schools as requested. The Project aids able students from countries that have no physics Ph.D. programs (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) to obtain assistantships and Ph.D.'s abroad, assists in the technological development of those countries, and helps U.S. schools in selecting the most promising foreign candidates. A similar program should be beneficial in other sciences.
A multidisciplinary Road Accident Analysis Group with the objective of conducting in-depth investigations of specific types of accidents has existed in Denmark for some years. The group has analysed head-on collisions, left-turn accidents, truck accidents and single vehicle accidents. The data collection included police reports, the group's investigation of accident sites and vehicles involved, and interviews with the involved road users and witnesses. The main accident factors in the head-on collisions and in the single vehicle accidents were excessive speed, drunk driving and driving under the influence of illegal drugs. The primary accident factors in left-turn accidents were attention errors or misjudging the amount of time available to complete the left turn. In the truck accidents insufficient searching for visual information as well as speeding were major factors. For all the accident themes the primary injury factor was failure to wear seat- belts. The multidisciplinary approach has provided a rather precise knowledge of the contributing factors leading up to the accident. The method requires a lot of resources, which is a limiting factor for the number of accidents to be analysed in this way. However, the method is suitable for analysis of common occurring or very serious types of accidents.
Magrini, Andrea; Pelagalli, Maria Felicia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Livigni, Lucilla; Guidi, Stefano; Moscatelli, Maurizia; Mascioli, Marco; D'Orsi, Fulvio; Zolla, Antonella; Bagnara, Sebastiano
An in-depth assessment of work-related stress was conducted in a major national telecommunications company undergoing major changes. The assessment was made on three homogeneous groups of workers and covered a large representative sample of the corresponding populations. To identify the main sources of stress for the three populations of workers, stimulate a discussion on the possible corrective actions, and assess the impact of the on-going organizational changes on workers' health. The assessment started with an analysis of the objective stress indicators listed in the INAIL (National Insurance Institute for Occupational Diseases and Accidents) Checklist. This was followed by a combination of qualitative and quantitative investigations on work context and tasks and on the subjective perceptions of workers, which were carried out by using: semi-structured interviews with management, field observations of work tasks, focus groups and questionnaires (GHQ-12, HSE Indicator Tool, ad-hoc questionnaire). The assessment allowed identification of the critical areas to be addressed with specific interventions: relationship with the company, work performance, work organization, and equipment. the investigation allowed to identification of specific practical actions (improvement of technological tools; professional development through training courses) as well as strategic actions ( re-establish relationship of trust with the company) so as to mitigate the workers' level of stress. Analysis of the results also showed that the three targeted populations differed in the degree of acceptance and understanding of the organizational changes.
de Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, Diana; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.
Qualitative research methods can provide an in-depth understanding of how people come to certain decisions, providing valuable input to ground behavioural assumptions in activity-based travel demand models and to implement high impact policy measures to change travel behaviour. The CNET interview
Rurup, M.L.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Goedhart, J.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.
Background: Quantitative studies in several European countries showed that 10-20% of older people have or have had a wish to die. Aims: To improve our understanding of why some older people develop a wish to die. Methods: In-depth interviews with people with a wish to die (n = 31) were carried out.
Sana, Mariano; Stecklov, Guy; Weinreb, Alexander A
We offer the first empirical test of the 'stranger-interviewer norm', according to which interviewers in social, demographic, and health surveys should be strangers-not personally familiar with respondents. We use data from an experimental survey in the Dominican Republic that featured three types of interviewer: from out of town (outsiders); local but unknown to the respondent (local-strangers); and local with a previous relationship to the respondent (insiders). We were able to validate answers to up to 18 questions per respondent, mainly by checking official documents in their possession. Contrary to expectations derived from the stranger-interviewer norm, respondents were more reluctant to show the documents needed for validation when the interviewer was an outsider. Furthermore, and again at odds with the stranger-interviewer norm, we found no difference in accuracy by type of interviewer. Our results have important implications for the selection of survey interviewers in less developed and non-Western settings.
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...
Beck, Ben; Stevenson, Mark; Newstead, Stuart; Cameron, Peter; Judson, Rodney; Edwards, Elton R; Bucknill, Andrew; Johnson, Marilyn; Gabbe, Belinda
The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study. Crashes commonly occurred during daylight hours and in clear weather conditions. Two-thirds of crashes occurred on-road (69%) and were a combination of single cyclist-only events (56%) and multi-vehicle crashes (44%). Of the multi-vehicle crashes, a motor vehicle was the most common impact partner (72%) and distinct pre-crash directional interactions were observed between the cyclist and motor vehicle. Nearly a quarter of on-road crashes occurred when the cyclist was in a marked bicycle lane. Of the 31% of crashes that were not on-road, 28 (15%) occurred on bicycle paths and 29 (16%) occurred in other locations. Crashes on bicycle paths commonly occurred on shared bicycle and pedestrian paths (83%) and did not involve another person or vehicle. Other crash locations included mountain bike trails (39%), BMX parks (21%) and footpaths (18%). While differences in impact partners and crash characteristics were observed between crashes occurring on-road, on bicycle paths and in other locations, injury patterns and severity were similar. Most cyclists had returned to work at 6 months post-injury, however only a third of participants reported a complete functional recovery. Further research is required to develop targeted countermeasures to address the risk factors identified in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
health leaders such as Jonathan Mann and Daniel Tarantola. We moved back ... We were starting to slow down our moves by then and we ... Profile Interview: Prof. Rob Moodie. “Get up. Do good. Be good. Be.” foundation to use a tax on tobacco to buy out and replace tobacco industry sponsorship in sports and the arts, and.
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...
Thomas J. T. Williams
Full Text Available Mike Parker Pearson is the Institute of Archaeology’s newly appointed Professor of British Later Prehistory. In this interview he reflects on his experience at the birth of post-processualism, current problems and opportunities in modern archaeology, and the subject for which he is best known: Stonehenge.
Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…
Raney, Mardell Jefferson
This interview with Lewis Perelman, author of "Global Mind" and "School's Out: Hyperlearning, the New Technology, and the End of Education," explores the future of education in the U.S. Argues that the forces changing academia in the direction of obsolescence and ultimate extinction are unrelated to education policy or…
Kastenbaum, Robert J.
Presents interview with Ralph Mero, Executive Director of Compassion in Dying, Seattle (Washington)-based organization that has brought new voice to controversial issue of physician-assisted rational suicide. Mero explains how his years as minister watching people suffer with cancer or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome led him to work for…
Harvard Educational Review, 2006
In an interview, Khalil Mahshi, director-general of international and public relations for the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education, talks about the legacy of the first Palestinian intifadah and the current state of Palestinian education. He emphasizes the subjective nature of his observations and the complex role of commenting…
Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.
Burcu Gülüm Tekin
Full Text Available In this interview, Roddy Doyle, one of the most popular contemporary writers in Ireland, provides insightful comments on crucial aspects of his writing career. Doyle speaks about the beginning of his literary adventure, the creative process of his work, and his artistic influences, as well as his feeling of pride in being a native Dubliner. Furthermore, he addresses his experience of the Celtic Tiger era in Ireland and the multicultural reality of the country in the late 1990s. Doyle’s detailed discussion of the female characters in his work is one of the most intriguing parts of the interview. He also gives hints about his latest novel The Guts (2013 and talks about the shift in theme, to the middle-age crisis in men, in his recent work: The Bullfighting (2011, Two Pints (2012, and The Guts (2013. His ideas about the filmic adaptations of his work, his favourite writers and his favourite fictional female characters are other inspiring points of the interview. The interview closes with Doyle’s characterization of the Post-Celtic Tiger period in Ireland and his views about the shifting portraits of Irish men and women.
In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…
practitioners in the domain of English for Speciﬁc Purposes (ESP) to generate communicative and meta-communicative .... Adopting a discourse-based approach places this research article in the realm of qualitative research (cf. ..... design language activities for South African business-news interviewer trainees. Adopting ...
Karo, Seftyani Fransiska; Tangkas, I Wayan Dirgayasa
This study was intended to describe levels of formality used by Obama and SBY in their interviews. This study was carried out with descriptive research. The data were collected with documentary technique and the instrument used was documentary sheet. The data were analyzed by descriptive comparative. The result of the research show that Obama tends to use Casual level (44,78%), Formal (29,05%), Consultative (26%), and Intimate (0,17%) while SBY tends to use Formal level (49,20%), ...
Angela Nieto is Full Professor at the Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH) in Alicante, Spain, and Head of the institute's Developmental Neurobiology Unit. She is also the current president of the Spanish Society for Developmental Biology (Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarollo, SEBD). We interviewed her to talk about the plans of the SEBD for the coming years.
Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Desmet, Pieter M A
This paper presents a more ecologically valid way of developing theory-based item questionnaires for measuring user experience. In this novel approach, items were generated using natural and domain-specific language of the research population, what seems to have made the survey much more sensitive to real experiences than theory-based ones. The approach was applied in a survey that measured car experience. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with drivers inside their cars. The resulting transcripts were analysed with the aim of capturing their natural utterances for expressing their car experience. This analysis resulted in 71 categories of answers. For each category, one sentence was selected to serve as a survey-item. In an online platform, 538 respondents answered the survey. Data reliability, tested with Cronbach alpha index, was 0.94, suggesting a survey with highly reliable results to measure drivers' appraisals of their cars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore how survey respondents perceived their experiences and the impact of participating in a survey, and to assess adverse consequences resulting from participation. DESIGN: Qualitative study involving purposefully selected participants who had participated in a household-based survey. METHODS: This qualitative study was nested within a survey that investigated the prevalence of gender-based violence perpetration and victimization with adult men and women in South Africa. 13 male- and 10 female-in-depth interviews were conducted with survey respondents. RESULTS: A majority of informants, without gender-differences, perceived the survey interview as a rare opportunity to share their adverse and or personal experiences in a 'safe' space. Gender-differences were noted in reporting perceptions of risks involved with survey participation. Some women remained fearful after completing the survey, that should breach of confidentiality or full survey content disclosure occur, they may be victimized by partners as a punishment for survey participation without men's approval. A number of informants generally discussed their survey participation with others. However, among women with interpersonal violence history or currently in abusive relationships, full survey content disclosure was done with fear; the partner responses were negative, and few women reported receiving threatening remarks but none reported being assaulted. In contrast no man reported adverse reaction by others. Informants with major life adversities reported that the survey had made them to relive the experiences causing them sadness and pain at the time. No informant perceived the survey as emotionally harmful or needed professional support because of survey questions. Rather the vast majority perceived benefit from survey participation. CONCLUSION: Whilst no informant felt answering the survey questions had caused them emotional or physical harm, some were distressed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society.
Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina
The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.
Documentation from Simon Yuill's Stackwalker project, a parallel study made from audio interviews relating to crofting communities in the West of Scotland and migrant workers in fishing and food production in the North East of Scotland.The project reflects upon issues of spatial agency (land use,...... in context.This artist's book follows the exhibition, Fields, Factories and Workshops at the Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, 7 August – 18 September 2010.English language text with Gaelic, Polish, Russian, Latvian and Lithuanian sections......., occupancy, and mobility) and forms of communal organisation that have developed within these communities. These are set against processes of archiving and documentation in terms of historical and legal practices. The book collates the transcribed interviews and provides an introductory essay setting them...
Choe, Kyle S; Yalamanchili, Haresh R; Litner, Jason A; Sclafani, Anthony P; Quatela, Vito C
To assess the differences in nasal anthropometric measurements between Korean American women and North American white women and to perform an in-depth nasal index calculation. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of Korean American women (n = 72) aged 18 to 35 years with Korean parents and no previous nasal surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized and referenced frontal, lateral, and basal photographs of the nose were taken of the subjects and 22 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. Results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, 18 nasal indices were calculated and compared with the published standards for North American white women. The Korean American woman's nose did not fit the neoclassic facial canons. Compared with North American white women, 20 of 22 nasal measurements in Korean American women were found to be significantly different. Nasal indices also revealed significant differences in 16 of the 18 that were calculated. The Korean American woman's nose exhibits less rotation, has a flatter dorsum, and is more flared at the alae, with less definition of the nasal tip. The average Korean American and North American white female nasal anthropometric measurements are very different. As cosmetic surgery becomes more popular among Asian Americans, our findings bolster the need for a broader view of facial analysis and transcultural aesthetics.
Full Text Available This interview between Jeff Gonzales and Joseph Tabbi discusses Tabbi’s new book of literary criticism Nobody Grew But the Business: On the Life and Work of William Gaddis (Northwestern UP, 2015. The book effectively and compellingly demonstrates that Gaddis was deeply engaged with the continuing corporate reengineering of postwar American experience not just in 1976’s J R, the Gaddis novel that deals most explicitly with corporations, but throughout his career.
Interviewee: Guerin, Delbert; Interviewer: Hall, Peter V; Interviewer: Smith, Leigha; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V
This interview is with Delbert Guerin, retired longshoreman (local 500), fisherman, and former chief of the Musqueam First Nation (1973-1982), He was also the lead plaintiff in Guerin v. The Queen, a land rights case decided in favour of the Musqueam in 1984. Topics discussed include: fishing industry; longshoring; job duties; equipment; technology; workplace safety; race; gender; rates of pay; alcohol use; and the evolution of work duties and culture.
Interviewee: Brine, Terry; Interviewer: La, Michelle; Interviewer: Garden, Bailey; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V
Terry Brine was born in New Westminster and grew up in Burnaby. He studied education at the university and upon graduation joined the successful family business. He was the third manager of this family business after his father and grandfather. The store existed for more than 100 years at its origin location. Terry shares his experience about the success, decline and revitalization of Columbia Street from its heyday as the “Miracle Mile” of the region until today. The interview provides infor...
Much of what is known about evacuations is based on preparations for incidents, such as hurricanes, for which there is advance warning. With advance warning, evacuations can be planned and managed using procedures and systems that have been developed...
Describes how one college helps students assemble a portfolio for the job search. Claims that presenting physical evidence of competencies is better than just talking about them. Outlines the characteristics of a portfolio and its use in an interview. Reports the results of an employer survey of desired job skills. (RJM)
Lindson-Hawley, Nicola; Thompson, Tom P; Begh, Rachna
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a directive patient-centred style of counselling, designed to help people to explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change. It was developed as a treatment for alcohol abuse, but may help people to a make a successful attempt to quit smoking. To determine whether or not motivational interviewing (MI) promotes smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for studies using the term motivat* NEAR2 (interview* OR enhanc* OR session* OR counsel* OR practi* OR behav*) in the title or abstract, or motivation* as a keyword. Date of the most recent search: August 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing or its variants were offered to tobacco users to assist cessation. We extracted data in duplicate. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. We counted participants lost to follow-up as continuing smoking or relapsed. We performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model. We identified 28 studies published between 1997 and 2014, involving over 16,000 participants. MI was conducted in one to six sessions, with the duration of each session ranging from 10 to 60 minutes. Interventions were delivered by primary care physicians, hospital clinicians, nurses or counsellors. Our meta-analysis of MI versus brief advice or usual care yielded a modest but significant increase in quitting (risk ratio (RR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16 to 1.36; 28 studies; N = 16,803). Subgroup analyses found that MI delivered by primary care physicians resulted in an RR of 3.49 (95% CI 1.53 to 7.94; 2 trials; N = 736). When delivered by counsellors the RR was smaller (1.25; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.63; 22 trials; N = 13,593) but MI still resulted in higher quit rates than brief advice or usual care. When we
Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Williams, Adrienne A; Wright, Katherine S
Helping parents change key behaviors may reduce the risk of child maltreatment. However, traditional provider-centered approaches to working with the parents of pediatric patients may increase resistance to behavioral change. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered communication technique that helps address problems of provider-centered approaches. In this article, evidence for use of MI to address several risk factors for child maltreatment is reviewed, including parental substance abuse, partner violence, depression treatment, harsh punishment, and parental management of children's health. Fundamental components of MI that may be incorporated into clinical practice are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Edje, Louito; Miller, Christine; Kiefer, Jacklyn; Oram, David
Residency interviews can place significant time and financial burdens on applicants. To determine whether the use of Skype as a screening tool during interview season in a family medicine residency is cost-effective and time-efficient for the applicant and the residency program. We surveyed 2 groups of medical students during interviews for our family medicine program. Thirty-two students were interviewed via our face-to-face, traditional interview (TI) process, and 10 students, the second group, who did not meet the program's standard interview selection criteria for TI, underwent our Skype interview (SI) process. Using an unpaired t test, we found that the applicants' costs of an SI were significantly less than a TI, $566 (95% confidence interval [CI] $784-$349, P Skype may be a cost-effective and time-efficient screening tool for both the applicant and the program. Alternate uses of SI may include the time-sensitive, postmatch Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program.
Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities’ interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred ‘entitlements’ whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred ‘opinion conformity’ as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities’ use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants’ preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters’ interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:28203211
Jacobs, Jesse C; Guralnick, Michael L; Sandlow, Jay I; Langenstroer, Peter; Begun, Frank P; See, William A; O'Connor, Robert Corey
Applicant interviews for urology residency positions are a stressful and costly process for students, faculty, and staff. We conducted a prospective survey to better determine what urology applicants perceive as an ideal interview process to gain sufficient knowledge about a training program. A questionnaire was anonymously completed by all urology residency applicants interviewing at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2007 to 2013. Questionnaire subject headings included "ideal interview format," "factors contributing to understanding the residency program," and "factors contributing to final rank list order." Questionnaires were distributed to and completed by 221 senior medical students applying for a urology residency position. Most respondents (>80%) reported they would prefer to partake in 5 to 7 faculty interviews in an office setting with the total interview process spanning half to three-fourths of the workday. Spending time with current residents was considered the most valuable tool to acquire knowledge about a residency program. The most important criteria when ranking a program were resident satisfaction, resident operative experience, and perceived strength of faculty. Academic urology programs may wish to consider applicant ideals when organizing residency interviews. Interaction with current residents appears to be the most valuable resource allowing applicants to garner knowledge about a urology training program. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Adolf Muschg, a popular writer, teacher and aesthetician, is one of the comparatively few contemporary Swiss writers who has been able to establish himself firmly in Germany. In recent years, he has begun to attract the attention of American critics and Germanists as well. In the interview, Adolf Muschg deals with a wide spectrum of issues. He identifies the authors and works that mean most to him. He traces, for instance, his changing relationship to Goethe, whom he recently rediscovered. In Goethe's works, above all in his scientific studies, Muschg finds issues that are of central importance to the survival of our planet. He detects a kinship between Goethe and the "Greens" of the seventies and looks back critically on the turbulent sixties. He provides an analysis of the current tensions between the USA and Western Europe, while confirming his keen and very personal involvement with the USA. But at the core of the interview are his extensive comments on the creative processes and the perils inherent in writing fiction. There he deals with the complex relationship between literature and therapy, the therapeutic potential of literature for the writer and the reader. By describing the novelist's difficult journey on the narrow path between self-revelation and indiscretion, he also reflects upon the related issue of literary narcissism.
White, Marilyn Domas
Develops a conceptual base for analyzing the literature on interviewing for its usefulness to the reference interview. Four holistic dimensions of the reference interview are identified and discussed in relation to interviewer decisions and other factors not directly controlled by the librarian. There are 18 references. (Author/RAA)
Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg
an explanation for variations in interviewer behaviour? The point of departure of the study is two interviewers - a female and a male - who have conducted a range of sociolinguistic interviews for the LANCHART Centre. The studies show clear differences in what the interviewers classify as their best and worst...
Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K
Individuals with the neurodevelopmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) often report difficulty processing and acting in depth, such as crossing roads or reaching for objects; however little research attention has been directed at understanding depth perception and action in depth in WS and whether deficits in depth perception have an ocular or perceptual root in this group. This study assessed the extent and relationship of deficits in stereopsis (binocular, three dimensional vision) and actions performed in depth in WS, as well as in typically developing participants (TD) matched for non-verbal ability. Stereoacuity was age-appropriate in the TD group but at the level of a TD three year old in WS; one third of the WS group did not show evidence of stereopsis. When monocularly acting in depth there was no difference between the WS and TD groups. When binocularly acting in depth the WS group that did not exhibit stereopsis were significantly poorer than the TD group and the WS group that exhibited stereopsis. When assessing the relationship between stereoacuity and action in depth, stereoacuity negatively correlated with binocular action in depth for the WS group with stereopsis, but not the TD group. Therefore, no deficits in monocular depth perception in WS were evidenced, yet significant deficits are exhibited in binocular depth perception and action. Importantly action in depth under binocular viewing may be a useful gross screening measure for stereodeficits in WS. Remediation of depth perception deficits in WS could train further understanding of monocular cues to compensate for poor stereopsis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.
Full Text Available Fictions Inc., and this interview, offers detailed readings of a diverse body of texts that, in one way or another, push readers to think about the role of the corporation in 20th and 21st century America. Using a complex set of critical tools—historicizing the rise in the pharmaceutical industry in the 1980s to read White Noise; drawing on Slavoj Žižek and Louis Althusser to explain the model of resistance that appears in Crying of Lot 49; looking at 1980s gentrification policies and government outsourcing while discussing Ghostbusters—Clare generates a series of insights about the fears and the desires embodied in the corporation. What he finds is that older avenues of resistance to consumer capitalism have closed, but the desire to imagine new ones, and maybe create them, remains open.
Full Text Available This issue of LEA features an interview with Professor Theo van Leeuwen, where – starting from the fundamental role of the Hallidayan socio-semiotic approach to language in the development of Multimodality – he illustrates the background of his theoretical work as social semiotician and critical discourse analyst. Theo van Leeuwen broadly deals with issues such as the new emerging field of Critical Multimodal Studies, the importance of the socio-cultural perspective in Multimodality and the potential encounter between Multimodality and Cognitivism, with special reference to the concept of “social cognition” and to Metaphor Theory. He concludes his conversation with a reflection on the function of Studies in the Humanities in a specialized and digitally mediated world.
Joan E. Holmes
Full Text Available In an interview with Joan E. Holmes (University of Kansas, Hermann Kant, novelist and current president of the Writers Union of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany, discusses his own work, literary developments since 1949 in the GDR, and the changing concept of socialist realism. Central to all of these topics is the role of the writer and the function of literature in a socialist system, a question which resulted in a heated controversy during the summer and fall of 1979 in the GDR. The crux of the matter lies in the nature of Marxist theory and is at least as old as the Sickingen debate of 1859, when Marx, Engels and Lassalle discussed the kind of literature that the fledgling socialist movement should encourage in order to promote the building of a future communist society. The question of the role of the author and the function of literature has reappeared since that time in various forms—in the formulation of the concept of socialist realism in the 1930's by Gorki and Soviet Party Secretary Zhadanov, in the formalism debates of the 1950's, in the dictates of the Bitterfelder Way (1960's, and in the liberalizing influence of the proclamations of the Eighth Party Congress in 1971. Since the Ninth Party Congress (May 1976, the controversy has become a critical matter in the cultural policies of the GDR, a country where literature is considered an important political tool. Hermann Kant, in the tradition of the Eighth and Ninth Party Congresses, presents in this interview a broad interpretation of the concept of socialist realism, while at the same time strongly emphasizing the responsibility of the author vis à vis the socialist society. He questions whether too much rapid change can be beneficial for East Germany, and suggests that both tolerance and caution are required.
Full Text Available The phenomenon of market globalization and also the periods of economic instability worldwide led to increased competition and hence to growing concerns of companies to continuously improve their products and services, the quality of which could be a real competitive advantage in attracting and retaining bigger segments of consumers. But to succeed in the market, the companies need to focus their efforts also to finding, knowing, understanding and meeting the needs, requirements and expectations of current and future consumers. Thus, it becomes essential that the flow of information be carried out in two ways: organization – customer, customer – organization, a particular importance being given to the frequency with which they get feedback from customers, this feedback determining the accuracy of the measures taken to improve those aspects appreciated by consumers as being nonconforming. Therefore, knowing the customer perception on the quality of offer has become vital, this being an important determinant of the degree of satisfaction which in turn can decisively influence the profitability of companies, regardless their field of activity. In this context, this paper, which is based on a qualitative marketing research, highlights the main categories of banking products and services used by Romanian consumers and their perceptions on banks and their offers. A particular attention was paid on the methods, techniques and tools used by banks to assess the satisfaction of their customers in order to improve their experience.
Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Blackman, Kate F.; Wegmann, Kate M.
The alarming number of youth with unmet mental health needs in the US is a significant social problem. The pilot school-based mental health project described here established an innovative multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental health agency, and a local university to better meet the mental health needs of youth…
DudokdeWit, AC; Tibben, A; Duivenvoorden, HJ; Niermeijer, MF; Passchier, J; Trijsburg, RW; Lindhout, D; Meijers-Heijboer, EJ; Frets, PG; Frets, PG; Lodder, LN; Zoetewij, MW; Klijn, JGM; Brocker-Vriends, A; van Haeringen, A; Helderman, ATJM; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y; Kant, S; Maat-Kievit, JA; Oosterwijk, JC; van der Smagt, JJ; Vegter-van der Vlis, M; Vries-van der Weerd, MACS; Zoeteweij, MW; Bakker, E; Devilee, P; Losekoot, M; Tops, C; Cornelisse, CJ; Vasen, HFA
In 50% risk carriers for Huntington disease (n = 41), hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis Dutch-type (n = 9) familial adenomatous polyposis coli (n = 45) and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (n = 24), pretest intrusion and avoidance (Impact of Event Scale), anxiety and depression
Anquinet, Livia; Rietjens, Judith A; Mathers, Nigel; Seymour, Jane; van der Heide, Agnes; Deliens, Luc
.... To present case-based GP and nurse descriptions of their collaboration, roles, and responsibilities during the process of continuous sedation until death at home in Belgium, The Netherlands, and the U.K...
Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Hall, Elisabeth
To discuss ethical and methodological challenges related to in-depth interviews with patients and partners when interviewed together or separately. Increased interest in exploring illness phenomena from both patients' and partners' perspectives has emerged. The decision about how to collect data is challenging. Patients and partners can be interviewed separately or together; in both scenarios researchers face complex questions of methodology and ethics. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on individual or joint interviewing and the effect of absence/presence of the partner on data collection. Discussion paper that draws on data from three phenomenological studies. Referring to three cases from our phenomenological studies, we discuss the different types of ethical and methodological dilemmas faced when undertaking joint and separate interviews with couples. Furthermore, we discuss how the unexpected presence of the partner potentially influences the data gathered from the patient. The cases demonstrate the interrelatedness of ethics and methodology in studies based on in-depth interviews with couples. Nurse researchers may be caught up in a dilemma between ethical concerns and methodological considerations. We argue that the presence of the partner during an interview session might influence the data and favour expressions of shared rather than individual experiences of the phenomenon studied. Furthermore, we argue that ethical concerns must be given higher priority than methodology when interviewing couples. An increased awareness of the tension between ethical and methodological challenges in joint or individual interviewing with patients and partners is necessary, as this issue is underexposed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Edwards, J C; Johnson, E K; Molidor, J B
Significant demographic, legal, and educational developments during the last ten years have led medical schools to review critically their selection procedures. A critical component of this review is the selection interview, since it is an integral part of most admission processes; however, some question its value. Interviews serve four purposes: information gathering, decision making, verification of application data, and recruitment. The first and last of these merit special attention. The interview enables an admission committee to gather information about a candidate that would be difficult or impossible to obtain by any other means yet is readily evaluated in an interview. Given the recent decline in numbers of applicants to and interest in medical school, many schools are paying closer attention to the interview as a powerful recruiting tool. Interviews can be unstructured, semistructured, or structured. Structuring involves analyzing what makes a medical student successful, standardizing the questions for all applicants, providing sample answers for evaluating responses, and using panel interviews (several interviewers simultaneously with one applicant). Reliability and validity of results increase with the degree of structuring. Studies of interviewers show that they are often biased in terms of the rating tendencies (for instance, leniency or severity) and in terms of an applicant's sex, race, appearance, similarity to the interviewer, and contrast to other applicants). Training interviewers may reduce such bias. Admission committees should weigh the purposes of interviewing differently for various types of candidates, develop structured or semistructured interviews focusing on nonacademic criteria, and train the interviewers.
Full Text Available and processed in-depth deflection and permanent deformation data for a number of past HVS tests sections which were added to the structural database during the current financial year....
Katsuyama, Narumi; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato
.... For example, when a cast shadow moves away from or toward an object in a two-dimensional plane, the object appears to move toward or away from the observer in depth, respectively, whereas the size...
CANU, Bastien; Perrin, Christophe; MAGNIN, Joël; CANU, Adrien; SERRE, Thierry; Brenac, Thierry
7th International Conference ESAR - Expert Symposium on Accident Research, Hanovre, ALLEMAGNE, 09-/06/2016 - 10/06/2016; In-depth accident investigation offers many advantages for the analysis and comprehension of crash mechanisms. IFSTTAR makes such investigations since 1992 without interruption. The corresponding database contains more than 1200 accident case studies. Currently, in-depth accident investigation is one of the best ways to determine the speed or cars involved in accidents. Thi...
Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)
Michael Dell, founder and presently Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Office of the DELL computer company visited CERN on Tuesday 26th January 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience. Michael S. Dell with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. What motivated you to come and visit CERN? I obviously heard about the great science and research has going on here, and DELL is very pleased to be a partner and providing a lot of the computers to analyse the data and I really wanted to see for myself in person, some of the great science that is going on here. What is your view on fundamental research in IT, and in general? I think if you look at the field of science in the last hundred years, we have been able to solve a lot of problems, but there are still lots of unsolved problems and unsolved mysteries. And it is only through basic fundamental research that we will address these probl...
The recording and verbatim transcription of interviews is often considered to be one of the more tedious but necessary aspects of the in-depth qualitative research process. While transcription is undoubtedly a necessary methodological tool for researchers focusing specifically on discourse and language, it has also been widely adopted by researchers across the social sciences, and is sometimes advocated as a means of inherently improving the rigour of qualitative research. Based on recent exp...
Stigter, S.; Beerkens, L.; 't Hoen, P.; Hummelen, IJ.; van Saaze, V.; Scholte, T.; Stigter, S.
The oeuvre interview conducted with Sjoerd Buisman in 1998 was followed up ten years later with a case interview about the ‘planting piece’ Dennenwal from the collection of the Kröller-Müller Museum. Living material such as trees, grasses and potatoes, which frequently recurs in the work of Buisman, is a challenging phenomenon in the practice of conservation. This article pays in-depth attention to the dilemmas with regard to the behaviour of this material and the preservation of the artwor...
Conclusions: The findings of this unique historical-prospective qualitative analysis of interviews performed before the onset of psychosis, confirmed previous findings of premorbid abnormality of future non-affective psychosis patients. Using qualitative analysis enabled obtaining a more in-depth understanding of the real-life experience of the premorbid period among patients with non-affective psychotic disorders.
Wilhelmy, Annika; Kleinmann, Martin; Melchers, Klaus G; Götz, Martin
Prior research suggests that interviewers play an important role in representing their organization and in making the interview a pleasant experience for applicants. This study examined whether impression management used by interviewers (organization-enhancement and applicant-enhancement) is perceived by applicants, and how it influences applicants' attitudes, intentions, and emotions. Adopting a signaling perspective, this article argues that applicants' positive attitudes and intentions toward the organization increase if interviewers not only enhance the organization, but if the signals they sent (i.e., organization-enhancement) are actually received by the applicant. Similarly, applicants' positive emotions should increase if interviewers not only enhance the applicant, but if the signals they send (i.e., applicant-enhancement) are actually received by the applicant. A field study that involved video coding interviewers' impression management behavior during 153 selection interviews and pre- and post-interview applicant surveys showed that the signals sent by interviewers during the interview were received by applicants. In addition, applicants rated the organization's prestige and their own positive affect after the interview more positively when they perceived higher levels of organization-enhancement during the interview. Furthermore, applicants reported more positive affect and interview self-efficacy after the interview when they perceived higher levels of interviewer applicant-enhancement. We also found an indirect effect of interviewers' organization-enhancement on organizational prestige through applicants' perceptions of organization-enhancement as well as indirect effects of interviewers' applicant-enhancement on applicants' positive affect and interview self-efficacy through applicants' perceptions of applicant-enhancement. Our findings contribute to an integrated understanding of the effects of interviewer impression management and point out both
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.
Lewis, Robert E; van Walsum, Kimberly L; Spafford, Marlee M; Edwards, Janine C; Turnwald, Grant H
The veterinary school admission interview is a widely used selection tool, yet concerns persist about its reliability, validity, and cost. Relative to medicine, optometry, and dentistry schools, veterinary schools have been more likely to conduct panel interviews and to fix the interview's weight in selection decisions, strategies that increase interview validity. This article provides strategies for further increasing the veterinary school interview's validity. Interview reliability and validity studies point to key strategies the veterinary school admissions committee can implement before the interview: (1) establishing the interview's purpose(s); (2) conducting a "job" analysis to identify desirable candidate skills, knowledge, and attributes; (3) developing a structured and panel interview where interviewers, if possible, are blind to other admission data; (4) training interviewers; (5) setting a reasonable interview schedule; and (6) determining methods for analyzing applicant data. During the interview, interviewers should proceed through a structured series of steps: (1) open the interview with a specified agenda; (2) probe for information using structured questions and anchored rating scales; (3) close the interview to allow for candidate questions; and (4) evaluate the interview data. After the interview, the admissions committee should (1) analyze the interview data within and across interviewers and (2) analyze the data across all selection tools in order to assign relative weights to the selection tools.
Sadoff, Dianne F.
Offers advice about interviewing at the Modern Language Association (MLA) convention: practice or rehearse issues; allow enthusiasm about teaching to show; model good teaching practices in the interview; and listen thoughtfully and resist the temptation to talk too much. (RS)
Based on interviews with employers of alumni from a vocational-technical school, instructors discuss the importance of an employment interview, stressing composure, preparation, appropriate business-like attire, importance of a resume, and personality and attitude. (TA)
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television.......Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television....
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
Abels, Eileen G.
Discusses differences between e-mail reference interviews and those conducted using other media; presents a taxonomy of approaches to e-mail interviews; and introduces a model e-mail interview, based on a project at the University of Maryland's College of Library and Information Services. (Author/LRW)
White, Marilyn Domas
Develops two models of reference interview behavior: the Needs-Oriented Model and the Question-Oriented Model. The models are tested by reanalysis of data from a 1978 dissertation on interviews in the public library setting. Results show the appropriateness of the models and indicate that the question-oriented interview was more prevalent. (eight…
Jordao, Clarissa Menezes
In anticipation of the European Union (EU) Year of Intercultural Dialogue, 2008, Clarissa Menezes Jordao interviewed Jose Eustaquio Romao, Director of the Paulo Freire Institute in Brazil. Her edited translation of that interview is presented here. In the interview Romao, guided by the legacy of Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire, discusses the…
Duron, Jacquelynn F; Cheung, Monit
Forensic interviewers have a difficult job with high risk for career burnout and secondary trauma. Few studies have addressed how new forensic interviewers or trainees experience repeated questioning and multiple interviews. This study simulated the process of training new forensic interviewers through the creation of two interview videos in which social work graduate students participated as actors portraying the roles of interviewer and child. These films served as instructional aids preparing graduate social work students for professional child welfare roles while promoting research-based approaches to interviewing children about sexual abuse allegations. Qualitative data from two cohorts of student actors were collected to analyze interviewers' perspectives on repeated questioning and interviews in child sexual abuse cases. Two themes were extracted from the subjects' experiences: "It is emotionally taxing" and "Navigating the interviewer role is unexpectedly complex." Exposure to repeated questions and multiple interviews affected the performance and confidence of the interviewers.
Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities’ interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred ‘entitlements’ whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians...
MUNOZ, J. Mark
Abstract. Interest in transnational entrepreneurship has expanded in recent years. However, there are limited qualitative surveys that shed light on the mindset of the contemporary transnational entrepreneur. This article contributes to academic and business literature by presenting the views of a Panama-born investment banker Jose Goldner. Jose Goldner is a partner at Briggs Capital based in Massachusetts, USA. Through an interview conducted by Dr. J. Mark Munoz of Millikin University, with ...
Gadepalli, Samir K; Downard, Cynthia D; Thatch, Keith A; Islam, Saleem; Azarow, Kenneth S; Chen, Mike K; Lillehei, Craig W; Puligandla, Pramod S; Reynolds, Marleta; Waldhausen, John H; Oldham, Keith T; Langham, Max R; Tracy, Thomas F; Hirschl, Ronald B
Increasing numbers of programs participating in the pediatric surgery match has resulted in economic and logistical issues for candidates, General Surgery residencies, and Pediatric Surgery training programs (PSTP). We sought to determine the ideal number of interviews conducted by programs based on resultant rank order lists (ROL) of matched candidates. PSTPs received 4 online surveys regarding interview practices (2011-2012, 2014), and matched candidate ROL (2008-2010, 2012, 2014). Program directors (PD) also provided estimates regarding minimum candidate interview numbers necessary for an effective match (2011-2012, 2014). Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank tests compared ROL and interview numbers conducted. Quartile regression predicted ROL based on the interview numbers. Wilcoxon signed rank-sum tests compared the interview numbers to the minimal interview number using a matched pair. p Values<0.05 were significant. Survey response rates ranged from 85-100%. Median ROL of matched candidates (2-3.5) did not differ between programs (p=0.09) and the lowest matched ROL for any year was 10-12. Interview numbers did not affect the final candidate ROL (p=0.22). While PDs thought the minimum median interview number should be 20, the number actually conducted was significantly higher (p<0.001). These data suggest that PSTPs interview excessive numbers of candidates. Programs and applicants should evaluate mechanisms to reduce interviews to limit costs and effort associated with the match. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali
... affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types...
Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD
Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.
Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry
E-mail interviewing-not to be confused with "online surveying"-shows promise for researchers working with adolescent mental health populations as a data collection method. To explore potential advantages, constraints, and applications of e-mail interviewing as a research method for staff working with adolescent mental health populations. At face value, there appear to be several advantages to e-mail interviewing with young populations and further exploration of this method is warranted. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Erlandsson, Kerstin; Jinghede Nordvall, Cecilia; Ohman, Anna; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
To describe the thoughts, reflections, and experiences of friends-with-benefits relationships among a group of Swedish adolescents. A qualitative study with an explorative and descriptive design. Eight adolescents, aged 16-18, were interviewed. Individual in-depth interviews were undertaken. Data were analyzed using latent content analysis. The informants involved themselves in Friends-with-benefits (FWB) relationships to find physical and psychological intimacy without any expectations or demands. FWB relationships were perceived to have more advantages when the partner was a close friend with whom an informant felt comfortable. There was ambivalence about the legitimacy of romantic feelings in an FWB relationship, although it was quite common. Sexual concurrency was common and often accepted. Sexual risk-taking behavior involving the use of alcohol and a lack of contraception was considered common in FWB relationships. Informants requested more education and support as regards their sexual behavior. FWB relationships were often initiated to find physical and psychological intimacy with no expectations or demands. Advantages such as sexual concurrency and no demands were central. A deeper understanding of how adolescents think and reason about sexuality and relationships can make a difference when working to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Connelly, Lynne M; Peltzer, Jill N
In this methodological article, the authors address the problem of underdeveloped themes in qualitative studies they have reviewed. Various possible reasons for underdeveloped themes are examined, and suggestions offered. Each problem area is explored, and literature support is provided. The suggestions that are offered are supported by the literature as well. The problem with underdeveloped themes in certain articles is related to 3 interconnected issues: (a) lack of clear relationship to the underlying research method, (b) an apparent lack of depth in interviewing techniques, and (c) lack of depth in the analysis. Underdeveloped themes in a qualitative study can lead to a lack of substantive findings that have meaningful implications for practice, research, and the nursing profession, as well as the rejection of articles for publication. Fully developed themes require knowledge about the paradigm of qualitative research, the methodology that is proposed, the effective techniques of interviewing that can produce rich data with examples and experiences, and analysis that goes beyond superficial reporting of what the participants have said. Analytic problem areas include premature closure, anxiety about how to analyze, and confusion about categories and themes. Effective qualitative research takes time and effort and is not as easy as is sometimes presumed. The usefulness of findings depends on researchers improving their research skills and practices. Increasingly researchers are using qualitative research to explore clinically important issues. As consumers of research or members of a research team, clinical nurse specialists need to understand the nature of this research that can provide in-depth insight and meaning.
The study involved 16 American undergraduate students who used weekly blogs and conducted ethnographic interviews with native speakers to develop their intercultural competence over the course of one semester abroad. Selected blog entries, post-surveys, and final interviews were collected and analyzed to report the findings. The results show that…
Wilson, Gerald L.; Goodall, H. Lloyd, Jr.
A performance appraisal interview is a primary and important context for the supervisor and employee to work together to achieve superior performance. A survey of the research literature reveals that the appraisal interview functions to provide feedback on performance, to counsel and provide help, to discover what the employee is thinking, to…
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Questionnaire... survey methodology. Computer User Volunteers...... (3) Research on 600 1 75/60 (1.25) 750.0 computer-user interface design. Household Interview Volunteers (4) Pilot 1,200 1 30/60 (0.5) 600.0 Household interviews...
[Differences in subjective health, mental health, and health behavior among 11- to 17-year-olds at secondary schools in Germany : Results of the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].
Waldhauer, Julia; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas
Social inequalities in health can already be found among children and adolescents to the disadvantage of socially deprived population groups. This paper aims to detect, whether differences in subjective health, mental health and health behavior among young people are due to the secondary school type attended and whether these associations exist independently of the family's socioeconomic position (SEP). The data basis was the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012). Data of 11- to 17-year-old girls and boys (n = 4665) who attend different types of secondary schools in Germany were analyzed. The dependent variables were self-rated health, findings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the detection of psychological abnormalities, as well as self-reported information regarding leisure sport, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) based on logistic regressions are shown. For the majority of the examined indicators, it can be shown that adolescents in lower secondary schools are more likely to report worse self-rated health and mental problems and engage in unhealthy behavior than peers in grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The differences decrease after controlling for family's SEP but mostly remain statistically significant. Adolescents who don't attend grammar schools are most strongly disadvantaged in terms of inattention/hyperactivity for both gender (OR: 2.29 [1.70-3.08]), smoking among girls (2.91 [1.85-4.57]) and physical inactivity (no leisure sport) among boys (OR: 2.71 [1.85-3.95]). Unequal health opportunities should be viewed in relation to people's living conditions. For adolescents, school constitutes an important setting for learning, experience, and health. The results indicate divergent needs of school-based health promotion and prevention regarding differences among gender and type of school.
Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Hall, Elisabeth
with couples. Furthermore, we discuss how the unexpected presence of the partner potentially influences the data gathered from the patient. Implication for nursing The cases demonstrate the interrelatedness of ethics and methodology in studies based on in-depth interviews with couples. Nurse researchers may...... that ethical concerns must be given higher priority than methodology when interviewing couples. Conclusion An increased awareness of the tension between ethical and methodological challenges in joint or individual interviewing with patients and partners is necessary, as this issue is underexposed....
Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Rattray, Janice
To explore experiences and needs over time, of patients discharged from ICU using the Intensive Care Experience (ICE-q) questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and EuroQoL (EQ-5D), associated clinical predictors (APACHE II, TISS, Length of stay, RIKER scores) and in-depth email interviewing. A mixed-method, longitudinal study of patients with >48hour ICU stays at 2 weeks, 6 months, 12 months using the ICE-q, HADS, EQ-5D triangulated with clinical predictors, including age, gender, length of stay (ICU and hospital), APACHE II and TISS. In-depth qualitative email interviews were completed at 1 month and 6 months. Grounded Theory analysis was applied to interview data and data were triangulated with questionnaire and clinical data. Data was collected from January 2010 to March 2012 from 77 participants. Both mean EQ-5D visual analogue scale, utility scores and HADS scores improved from 2 weeks to 6 months, (p=Email interviews offer a convenient method of gaining in-depth interview data and could be used as part of ICU follow-up. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kleinke, C L; Staneski, R A; Berger, D E
Male subjects were interviewed by female interviewers who gazed constantly, intermittently, or not at all. Experimental subjects were reinforced with green light feedback whenever they gazed at the interviewers and were punished with red light feedback when they averted gaze for more than 6 seconds. Control subjects received noncontingent green and red light feedback. Although gaze of experimental subjects toward the interviewers was increased significantly, their attitudes toward the interviewers remained the same. This was probably because the subjects did not discriminate that their gazing behavior had changed. Subjects gave the most unfavorable reactions to the nongazing interviewers, rating them as least attractive, giving them the shortest answers, and sitting farthest from them during the debriefing session. Subjects did not discriminate between high and low attractive interviewers, except that the latter were rated disproportionately low on attentiveness if they did not gaze. Interviewers with high rates of talking were preferred over interviewers with low rates of talking. It was concluded that interpersonal attraction is related to gaze and physical attractiveness through a number of mediating variables which will have to be isolated more specifically in future research.
CANU, Bastien; Perrin, Christophe; Brenac, Thierry; SERRE, Thierry; CANU, Adrien; MAGNIN, Joël
Mise en évidence de l'intérêt des études détaillées d'accident pour étudier la relation en entre la vitesse et les risque d'accidents. In-depth accident investigation offers many advantages for the analysis and comprehension of crash mechanisms. IFSTTAR makes such investigations since 1992 without interruption. The corresponding database contains more than 1200 accident case studies. Currently, in-depth accident investigation is one of the best ways to determine the speed or cars involved ...
González, Esther G; Allison, Robert S; Ono, Hiroshi; Vinnikov, Margarita
We hypothesized that it is the conflict between various cues to distance that have produced results purportedly showing that vergence eye movements induced by disparity change are not an effective cue for depth. Single and compound stimuli were used to examine the perceived motion in depth (MID) produced by simulated motion oscillations specified by disparity, relative disparity, and/or looming. Estimations of the extent of MID and binocularly recorded eye movements showed that the vergence induced by disparity change is indeed an effective cue for motion in depth in conditions where looming information does not conflict with it. When looming and disparity are in conflict, looming is the stronger cue.
Full Text Available There is widespread fear that applicants can fake during selection interviews and that this impairs the quality of selection decisions. Several theories assume that faking occurrence is influenced by personality and attitudes, which together influence applicants’ motivation to show faking behavior. However, for faking behavior to be effective, interviewees also need certain skills and abilities. To investigate the impact of several relevant individual difference variables on faking behavior and interview success, we conducted two studies. In Study 1, we surveyed 222 individuals to assess different personality variables, attitude toward faking, cognitive ability, self-reported faking behavior, and success in previous interviews, and in Study 2, we assessed cognitive ability, social skills, faking behavior, and interview performance in an interview simulation with 108 participants. Taken together, personality, as well as attitude toward faking, influenced who showed faking behavior in an interview, but there was no evidence for the assumed moderating effect of cognitive ability or social skills on interview success.
Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy
Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection
Patterson, Tess; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen
Objective: The present study extends field research on interviews with young children suspected of having been abused by examining multiple assessment interviews designed to be inquisitory and exploratory, rather than formal evidential or forensic interviews. Methods: Sixty-six interviews with 24 children between the ages of 3 and 6 years who were…
Fonsino, Frank J.
Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)
This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.
An in-depth safety audit of several of the facilities and operations supporting the Biological Monitoring Program on L Lake was conducted. Subsequent to the initial audit, the audit team evaluated the handling of samples taken for analysis of Naegleria fowleri at the 704-U laboratory facility.
Mooi, H.G.; Galliano, F.
In September 1999 the Dutch Accident Research Team (DART) within TNO Automotive started with the in-depth investigation of traffic accidents. In this paper, the methodology, working procedures and experiences of the team are described and explained in detail. Furthermore, an elaborate description of
Global and in-depth protein characterisation is a key fundamental step in the unravelling of biological processes in all living organisms. However, the characterisation of the protein content (i.e. the proteome) of a cell, tissue or organism is an extremely challenging task due to the large number
Harold T Nefs
Full Text Available Our forward-facing eyes allow us the advantage of binocular visual information: using the tiny differences between right and left eye views to learn about depth and location in three dimensions. Our visual systems also contain specialized mechanisms to detect motion-in-depth from binocular vision, but the nature of these mechanisms remains controversial. Binocular motion-in-depth perception could theoretically be based on first detecting binocular disparity and then monitoring how it changes over time. The alternative is to monitor the motion in the right and left eye separately and then compare these motion signals. Here we used an individual differences approach to test whether the two sources of information are processed via dissociated mechanisms, and to measure the relative importance of those mechanisms. Our results suggest the existence of two distinct mechanisms, each contributing to the perception of motion in depth in most observers. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrate the relative prevalence of the two mechanisms within a normal population. In general, visual systems appear to rely mostly on the mechanism sensitive to changing binocular disparity, but perception of motion in depth is augmented by the presence of a less sensitive mechanism that uses interocular velocity differences. Occasionally, we find observers with the opposite pattern of sensitivity. More generally this work showcases the power of the individual differences approach in studying the functional organisation of cognitive systems.
Qian, D.D.; Schedl, M.
The central purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate an in-depth vocabulary knowledge measure in the context of developing the new TOEFL test. The study was carried out with a sample of 207 international students attending an intensive English as a second language (ESL) program in a major Canadian university, in order to determine whether…
Full Text Available A framework is proposed for analyzing the perception of motion in depth produced by simple proximal motion patterns of two to four points. The framework includes input structure, perceptual system constraints, and a depth scaling mechanism. The input is relational stimulation described by two proximal dimensions, orientation and separation, that can change or remain constant over the course of a motion pattern. Combinations of change or no-change in these dimensions yield four basic patterns of proximal stimulation: parallel, circular, perspective, and parallax. These primary patterns initiate automatic processing mechanisms - a unity constraint that treats pairs of points as connected and a rigidity constraint that treats the connection as rigid. When the constraints are activated by perspective or parallax patterns, the rigid connection between the points also appears to move in depth. A scaling mechanism governs the degree to which the objects move in depth in order to maintain the perceived rigidity. Although this framework is sufficient to explain perceptions produced by three- and four-point motion patterns in most cases, some patterns require additional configurational factors to supplement the framework. Nevertheless, perceptual qualities such as shrinking, stretching, bending, and folding emerge from the application of the same processing constraints and depth scaling factors as those that produce the perception of rigid objects moving in depth.
Fulvio, Jacqueline M; Rosen, Monica L; Rokers, Bas
Although we have made major advances in understanding motion perception based on the processing of lateral (2D) motion signals on computer displays, the majority of motion in the real (3D) world occurs outside of the plane of fixation, and motion directly toward or away from observers has particular behavioral relevance. Previous work has reported a systematic lateral bias in the perception of 3D motion, such that an object on a collision course with an observer's head is frequently judged to miss it, with obvious negative consequences. To better understand this bias, we systematically investigated the accuracy of 3D motion perception while manipulating sensory noise by varying the contrast of a moving target and its position in depth relative to fixation. Inconsistent with previous work, we found little bias under low sensory noise conditions. With increased sensory noise, however, we revealed a novel perceptual phenomenon: observers demonstrated a surprising tendency to confuse the direction of motion-in-depth, such that approaching objects were reported to be receding and vice versa. Subsequent analysis revealed that the lateral and motion-in-depth components of observers' reports are similarly affected, but that the effects on the motion-in-depth component (i.e., the motion-in-depth confusions) are much more apparent than those on the lateral component. In addition to revealing this novel visual phenomenon, these results shed new light on errors that can occur in motion perception and provide a basis for continued development of motion perception models. Finally, our findings suggest methods to evaluate the effectiveness of 3D visualization environments, such as 3D movies and virtual reality devices.
Hern, H Gene; Wills, Charlotte P; Alter, Harrison J; Bowman, Steven H; Burns, Boyd D; Loyd, Joshua; Schneider, Jeffrey I; Yarris, Lalena M
Residency applicants often have difficulty coordinating interviews with multiple programs. An online scheduling system might improve this process. The authors sought to determine applicant mean time to schedule interviews and satisfaction using online scheduling compared with manual scheduling. An electronic survey was sent to US graduates applying to any of 6 emergency medicine programs in the 2014-2015 application cycle. Of the participant programs, 3 used an online system and 3 did not. Applicants were asked to report estimated time to schedule with the online system compared to their average time using other methods, and to rate their satisfaction with the scheduling process. Of 1720 applicants to at least 1 of the 6 programs, 856 completed the survey (49.8%). Respondents reported spending less time scheduling interviews using the online system compared to other systems (median of 5 minutes [IQR 3-10] versus 60 minutes [IQR 15-240], respectively, P preferred using the online system (93.6% versus 1.4%, P travel arrangements (74.7% versus 41.5%, P travel arrangements. The results likely are generalizable to other medical and surgical specialties.
The research strategy interview at the level of the signifier was developed in relation to a qualitative interview project into cross-cultural encounters temporarily and spatially framed by academic organizational settings. The research interest is gender and ethnicity. However, neither happens all...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
Schwanenflugel, Paula J.
Describes a method for teaching adolescent psychology which requires that students interview adolescents on course topics. The reports of these interviews become the basis of classroom discussions which are designed to demonstrate that concepts of adolescence vary as a function of time. (Author/DH)
Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda
Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…
White, Marilyn Domas
This paper develops two models of the reference interview: (1) the Need-Oriented Model, which emphasizes identifying the client's information needs and allows for a broad-ranging diagnostic interview; and (2) the Question-Oriented Model, which is constrained by the client's initial question and focuses on refining that specific question,…
Roessler, Richard; Bolton, Brian
The Employability Maturity Interview (EMI) is a 10-item structured interview developed to assess readiness for the vocational rehabilitation planning process and the need for additional vocational exploration and employability services. The items deal with occupational choice, self-appraisal of abilities, self-appraisal of personality…
Saigh, Philip A.
Reviews history of psychiatric nosology and the use of interview data as a vehicle for formulating clinical inferences. Focuses on qualities of structured interviews as well as procedures for constructing these indices and methods for establishing their psychometric properties. Reviews practical and theoretical limitations relating to formal…
Grunig, Larissa A.
Describes how to teach interviewing to journalism students. Advocates a course informed by attribution theory, based on a creative, dialogical definition of the interview. Suggests using tape recorders or videotapes to help students objectively evaluate their own and others' performances. (SR)
Gender disparities in health and healthcare: results from the Portuguese National Health Interview Survey Disparidades de gênero na saúde e nos cuidados de saúde: resultados para Portugal com base no Inquérito Nacional de Saúde
Full Text Available Although women experience poorer health conditions during their lives, they live longer than men. The main explanations for this paradox suggest that women's excess of ill-health is limited to minor illnesses and their different attitudes toward health. The authors test these assumptions by investigating disparities between men and women in health and healthcare in Portugal. Data are used from the Portuguese National Health Interview Survey 2005/2006 (N = 33,662. Multivariate regressions showed that women were more likely to report worse self-rated health, more days with disability, higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic pain, cancer, anxiety and depression, and more medical consultations. Heart disease was significantly more prevalent among men, possibly explaining part of the paradox. Women's more frequent use of medical consultations may reflect their heightened awareness of health problems, which may protect them against early death. Gender differences in socioeconomic status explain part of the differences in health, but fail to provide a complete understanding.Embora tenham pior saúde ao longo da vida, as mulheres vivem mais anos do que os homens. As principais explicações para este paradoxo são que as mulheres sofrem mais de doenças menores, e adotam atitudes diferentes em relação à saúde. Testamos essas hipóteses pela investigação de disparidades entre homens e mulheres na saúde e nos cuidados de saúde em Portugal. Os dados usados são do Inquérito Nacional de Saúde 2005/2006 (N = 33.662. Regressões multivariadas mostram que as mulheres declaram pior estado de saúde autoavaliado, maior número de dias de incapacidade, maior prevalência de hipertensão, dor crônica, cancro, ansiedade e depressão, e maior utilização de consultas. A doença cardíaca é significativamente mais prevalente nos homens, o que pode explicar em parte o paradoxo. A maior utilização de consultas nas mulheres pode refletir a sua maior
Houle, Brian; Angotti, Nicole; Clark, Samuel J; Williams, Jill; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Menken, Jane; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Tollman, Stephen M
Researchers are often skeptical of sexual behavior surveys: respondents may lie or forget details of their intimate lives, and interviewers may exercise authority in how they capture responses. We use data from a 2010-2011 cross-sectional sexual behavior survey in rural South Africa to explore who
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the reference interview is essential in the provision of public library reference service. A survey questionnaire was mailed to 125 small and medium sized public libraries throughout Ohio. The survey was administered in the spring of 1994 with a response rate of 56%. Respondents were asked…
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Mogensen, Ole
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a three day training course in motivational interviewing which is an approach to helping people to change could improve the communication skills of obstetric healthcare professionals in their interaction with obese pregnant women. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING......: The Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: Eleven obstetric healthcare professionals working with obese pregnant women underwent a three day course in motivational interviewing techniques and were assessed before- and after training to measure the impact on their overall performance as well as the effect...... on specific behavioral techniques observed during interviews. FINDINGS: With a few exceptions, the participants changed their behavior appropriate to the motivational interviewing technique. The participants made more interventions towards the principles of motivational interviewing (adherent and non...
Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali
The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.
Full Text Available The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.
Social Security Administration — The National Beneficiary Survey (NBS) collects information from disability beneficiaries. Round 5 - NBS, provides information from semi-structured interviews with...
Murphy, David; Gemmell, Brad; Vaccari, Liana; Li, Cheng; Bacosa, Hernando; Evans, Meredith; Gemmell, Colbi; Harvey, Tracy; Jalali, Maryam; Niepa, Tagbo H R
In order to characterize the state of oil spill research and describe how the field has changed since its inception in the 1960s and since the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010, we examined approximately 10% of oil spill literature (1255 of over 11,000 publications) published from 1968 to 2015. We find that, despite its episodic nature, oil spill research is a rapidly expanding field with a growth rate faster than that of science as a whole. There is a massive post-Deepwater Horizon shift of research attention to the Gulf of Mexico, from 2% of studies in 2004-2008 to 61% in 2014-2015, thus ranking Deepwater Horizon as the most studied oil spill. There is, however, a longstanding gap in research in that only 1% of studies deal with the effects of oil spills on human health. These results provide a better understanding of the current trends and gaps within the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerfoot, B Price; Asher, Kevin P; McCullough, David L
To investigate the financial and educational costs of the urology residency interview process, we performed a survey of the applicants to the 2006 urology match. All applicants registered for the 2006 urology match were invited to participate. In January 2006 prior to the match, an anonymous online survey containing 8 questions on the financial and educational costs of the interview process was distributed via email. Survey response rate was 61% (287/468). The median educational debt of the applicants was $125,000 (IQR 65,000 to 160,000). Respondents reported having a median 12 interviews (IQR 8 to 15) with urology residencies and spending a median 20 days (IQR 14 to 30) on the interview trail. The total cost of the interview process was a median $4000 (IQR 2000 to 5200) with a median expense per interview of $330 (IQR 211 to 455). Applicants reported that travel expenses accounted for a median 60% of overall interview expenses, whereas the remainder of the expense was accounted for by lodging (25%), food (10%) and clothing (5%). The money to cover these interview-related expenses was obtained primarily by loans. Forty-six percent of the applicants reported that skipping medical school clerkships and classes for urology interviews was "not at all detrimental" to their medical education, whereas 1% reported that it was "greatly detrimental." The financial cost of the interview process for urology applicants is substantial, although the educational cost appears to be limited. Efforts to reduce the financial impact of the interview process should be initiated at both a regional and national level.
Aziz, Adnan; Prakash, Amit
This is a larger-format version of Elements of Programming Interviews. The language is C++. Specifically, the font size is larger, and the page size is 7"x10" (the regular format uses 6"x9"). The content is identical. Have you ever... Wanted to work at an exciting futuristic company? Struggled with an interview problem that could have been solved in 15 minutes? Wished you could study real-world computing problems? If so, you need to read Elements of Programming Interviews (EPI). EPI is your comprehensive guide to interviewing for software development roles. The core of EPI is a collection of over 250 problems with detailed solutions. The problems are representative of interview questions asked at leading software companies. The problems are illustrated with 200 figures, 300 tested programs, and 150 additional variants. The book begins with a summary of the nontechnical aspects of interviewing, such as strategies for a great interview, common mistakes, perspectives from the other side of the table,...
Full Text Available A common failure in endodontic treatment of the permanent maxillary first molars is likely to be caused by an inability to locate, clean, and obturate the second mesiobuccal (MB canals. Because of the importance of knowledge on these additional canals, there have been numerous studies which investigated the maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology using in vivo and laboratory methods. In this article, the protocols, advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies for in-depth study of maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology were discussed. Furthermore, newly identified configuration types for the establishment of new classification system were suggested based on two image reformatting techniques of micro-computed tomography, which can be useful as a further 'Gold Standard' method for in-depth morphological study of complex root canal systems.
Br?ggmann, D?rthe; Elizabeth-Martinez, Alexandra; Klingelh?fer, Doris; Quarcoo, David; Jaque, Jenny M; David A. Groneberg
Background Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases. It is still a chameleon in many aspects and urges intense research activities in the fields of diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Despite the need to foster research in this area, no in-depth analysis of the global architecture of endometriosis research exists yet. Methods We here used the NewQIS platform to conduct a density equalizing mapping study, using the Web of Science as database with endometriosis related entr...