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Sample records for surveys field log

  1. Combined PDF of acquisition logs maintained on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in Indian River Bay, Delaware, April 12-15, 2010 (CRUISE2010-006_LOGS.PDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  2. Acquisition log maintained during the U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-009-FA conducted offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2014 (Excel spreadsheet format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical and sampling survey in October 2014 that focused on a series of shoreface-attached ridges offshore of...

  3. Raw HYPACK navigation logged during U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in Indian River Bay, Delaware, in April 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  4. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  5. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania).......The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania)....

  6. A survey of animal-powered logging in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Toms; Mark R. Dubois; John C. Bliss; John H. Wilhoit; Robert B. Rummer

    2001-01-01

    In a state with a very large, highly mechanized timber harvesting industry, animal-powered logging still occupies a niche in Alabama as a small-scale harvesting alternative. This article summarizes the results from a study that examined the extent of animal logging in Alabama. We investigated this topic by asking who is logging with animals, where are they working,...

  7. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD.......Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD....

  8. Case-Logging Practices in Otolaryngology Residency Training: National Survey of Residents and Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Sarah M; Gao, William; McGinn, Johnathan D; Malekzadeh, Sonya

    2017-06-01

    Objective (1) Evaluate the consistency and manner in which otolaryngology residents log surgical cases. (2) Assess the extent of instruction and guidance provided by program directors on case-logging practices. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Subjects and Methods US otolaryngology residents, postgraduate year 2 through graduating chiefs as of July 2016, were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire designed to characterize surgical case-logging practices. Program directors of US otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire to elucidate how residents are instructed to log cases. Results A total of 272 residents and 53 program directors completed the survey, yielding response rates of 40.6% and 49.5%, respectively. Perceived accuracy of case logs is low among residents and program directors. Nearly 40% of residents purposely choose not to log certain cases, and 65.1% of residents underreport cases performed. More than 80% of program directors advise residents to log procedures performed outside the operating room, yet only 16% of residents consistently log such cases. Conclusion Variability in surgical case-logging behaviors and differences in provided instruction highlight the need for methods to improve consistency of logging practices. It is imperative to standardize practices across otolaryngology residency programs for case logs to serve as an accurate measure of surgical competency. This study provides a foundation for reform efforts within residency programs and for the Resident Case Log System.

  9. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during field activity 2013-003-FA in 2013 by the U.S. Geological Survey south of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  10. Ship's log recorded during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2012-005-FA conducted in Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk Canyons in a Microsoft Excel 2010 spreadsheet format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A large number of high-resolution geophysical surveys between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank have been conducted by federal, state, and academic institutions since...

  11. Data acquisition logs in PDF format maintained on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activities 2008-007-FA and 2008-037-FA in Great South Bay, Long Island, New York in May and September, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York, was conducted to assess the importance of submarine...

  12. Surgical Case Logging Habits and Attitudes: A Multispecialty Survey of Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadish, Lauren A; Fung, Vicki; Lane, Felicia L; Campbell, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education measures surgical residents' experience in the United States by mandating that residents log each procedure in which they have participated. This system is the primary mechanism by which breadth and depth of surgical training are documented, and data are used for program accreditation and by individual program directors to assess resident preparedness. The study objective was to learn from residents across surgical specialties how this system is being used, and whether they believe these data are reliable. Investigators developed and administered a voluntary, 45-item survey. Resident demographic data, program details, logging behaviors, and attitudes were examined using descriptive statistics. Authors used multivariate logistic regression to assess respondent and program characteristics associated with logging habits. The survey was administered at a large academic medical center. All general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, neurosurgery, otolaryngology, and plastic surgery residents were eligible. Of 126 surgical residents, 82 participated, yielding a response rate of 65%. Overall, 7.5% considered the case log system highly inaccurate, 28.8% somewhat inaccurate, 52.5% somewhat accurate, and 11.3% highly accurate. Nearly half (48.1%) use an incorrect metric to log their role as surgeon or assistant. Half logged monthly or less frequently. The longest time residents reported falling behind ranged from less than a week to more than a year, with about half (51.4%) reporting backlogs of 3 months or longer. Approximately two-thirds considered the system difficult to navigate (64.2%) and burdensome (68.8%). Departmental training and reminders to log were associated with high fidelity logging habits. Inconsistency of logging habits and perceived lack of accuracy raise concerns about use of the system for assessing surgical preparedness or accrediting training programs. Academic departments

  13. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  14. Perturbation Theory of the Cosmological Log-Density Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin; Szapudi, István; Szalay, Alex; Chen, Xuelei; Lesgourgues, Julien; Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin; 10.1088/0004-637X/735/1/32

    2011-01-01

    The matter density field exhibits a nearly lognormal probability density distribution (PDF) after entering into the nonlinear regime. Recently, it has been shown that the shape of the power spectrum of a logarithmically transformed density field is very close to the linear density power spectrum, motivating an analytic study of it. In this paper, we develop cosmological perturbation theory for the power spectrum of this field. Our formalism is developed in the context of renormalized perturbation theory, which helps to regulate the convergence behavior of the perturbation series, and of the Taylor- series expansion we use of the logarithmic mapping. This approach allows us to handle the critical issue of density smoothing in a straightforward way. We also compare our perturbative results with simulation measurements.

  15. Perturbation Theory of the Cosmological Log-Density Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Neyrinck, Mark; Szapudi, István

    2011-01-01

    , motivating an analytic study of it. In this paper, we develop cosmological perturbation theory for the power spectrum of this field. Our formalism is developed in the context of renormalized perturbation theory, which helps to regulate the convergence behavior of the perturbation series, and of the Taylor...

  16. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Inexpensive Open-Source Data Logging in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    I present a general-purpose open-source field-capable data logger, which provides a mechanism to develop dense networks of inexpensive environmental sensors. This data logger was developed as a low-power variant of the Arduino open-source development system, and is named the ALog ("Arduino Logger") BottleLogger (it is slim enough to fit inside a Nalgene water bottle) version 1.0. It features an integrated high-precision real-time clock, SD card slot for high-volume data storage, and integrated power switching. The ALog can interface with sensors via six analog/digital pins, two digital pins, and one digital interrupt pin that can read event-based inputs, such as those from a tipping-bucket rain gauge. We have successfully tested the ALog BottleLogger with ultrasonic rangefinders (for water stage and snow accumulation and melt), temperature sensors, tipping-bucket rain gauges, soil moisture and water potential sensors, resistance-based tools to measure frost heave, and cameras that it triggers based on events. The source code for the ALog, including functions to interface with a a range of commercially-available sensors, is provided as an Arduino C++ library with example implementations. All schematics, circuit board layouts, and source code files are open-source and freely available under GNU GPL v3.0 and Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported licenses. Through this work, we hope to foster a community-driven movement to collect field environmental data on a budget that permits citizen-scientists and researchers from low-income countries to collect the same high-quality data as researchers in wealthy countries. These data can provide information about global change to managers, governments, scientists, and interested citizens worldwide. Watertight box with ALog BottleLogger data logger on the left and battery pack with 3 D cells on the right. Data can be collected for 3-5 years on one set of batteries.

  18. Star Formation Rate Indicators in Wide-Field Infrared Survey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) traces the SFR, we analyse 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 m data in a sample of ∼ 140,000 star-forming galaxies or star-forming regions covering a wide range in metallicity 7.66 < 12 + \\log (O/H) ...

  19. Acquisition and processing logs maintained by Alpine Ocean Seismic Survey, Inc., during U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-072-FA offshore of southern Long Island, NY in 2014, as part of a collaborative U.S. Army Corp of Engineers and U.S. Geological Survey mapping effort (Excel spreadsheet, PDF, and Microsoft word formats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hurricane Sandy, the largest storm of historical record in the Atlantic basin, severely impacted southern Long Island, New York in October 2012. In 2014, the U.S....

  20. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  1. A method to describe inelastic gamma field distribution in neutron gamma density logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Quanying; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Xinguang; Wu, He; Jia, Wenbao; Ti, Yongzhou; Qiu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed neutron gamma density logging (NGD) is of great significance for radioprotection and density measurement in LWD, however, the current methods have difficulty in quantitative calculation and single factor analysis for the inelastic gamma field distribution. In order to clarify the NGD mechanism, a new method is developed to describe the inelastic gamma field distribution. Based on the fast-neutron scattering and gamma attenuation, the inelastic gamma field distribution is characterized by the inelastic scattering cross section, fast-neutron scattering free path, formation density and other parameters. And the contribution of formation parameters on the field distribution is quantitatively analyzed. The results shows the contribution of density attenuation is opposite to that of inelastic scattering cross section and fast-neutron scattering free path. And as the detector-spacing increases, the density attenuation gradually plays a dominant role in the gamma field distribution, which means large detector-spacing is more favorable for the density measurement. Besides, the relationship of density sensitivity and detector spacing was studied according to this gamma field distribution, therefore, the spacing of near and far gamma ray detector is determined. The research provides theoretical guidance for the tool parameter design and density determination of pulsed neutron gamma density logging technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fracture mapping in geothermal fields with long-offset induction logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.; Takasugi, Shinji; Uchida, Toshihiro [and others

    1997-12-31

    The mapping of producing fractures in a geothermal field is an important technical objective in field development. Locating, orienting, and assessing producing fractures can guide drilling programs and optimize the placement of production and injection wells. A long-offset multicomponent borehole induction resistivity tool capable of surviving the high temperatures encountered in geothermal wells has recently been developed in a NEDO project, {open_quotes}Deep-Seated Geothermal Reservoirs,{close_quotes} and tested in a high temperature environment. Several characteristics of this device make it ideal for detecting producing fractures. Whereas commercial induction logging devices have source-receiver separations of 1 m, this device has multiple sensors with separations up to 8 m, allowing for deeper penetration and the ability to straddle fracture-induced washout zones in boreholes. The three-component measurements also make it possible to map the strike and inclination of nearby fractures and other three-dimensional structures. This, in turn, allows for accurate projection of these structures into the space between wells. In this paper, we describe the design of the tool and show results of a performance test carried out in an oil-field steam flood. Data from vertical sensors are compared to conventional logging results and indicate the recent formation of a low-resistivity zone associated with high temperatures due to steam flood breakthrough. Horizontal field data indicate that the high-temperature zone is irregular in the vicinity of the borehole and more pronounced closest to the steam injector.

  3. Acquisition and observation logs for seabed video and sediment samples from Stellwagen Bank on U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2015-062-FA, aboard the R/V Auk, Oct. 21 and 22 and Nov. 3 and 4 2015 (PDF files)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This field activity is part of the effort to map geologic substrates of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts. The overall...

  4. A Field Study of NMR Logging to Quantify Petroleum Contamination in Subsurface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, E. L.; Knight, R. J.; Grunewald, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements are directly sensitive to hydrogen-bearing fluids including water and petroleum products. NMR logging tools can be used to detect and quantify petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the sediments surrounding a well or borehole. An advantage of the NMR method is that data can be collected in both cased and uncased holes. In order to estimate the volume of in-situ hydrocarbon, there must be sufficient contrast between either the relaxation times (T2) or the diffusion coefficients (D) of water and the contaminant. In a field study conducted in Pine Ridge, South Dakota, NMR logging measurements were used to investigate an area of hydrocarbon contamination from leaking underground storage tanks. A contaminant sample recovered from a monitoring well at the site was found to be consistent with a mixture of gasoline and diesel fuel. NMR measurements were collected in two PVC-cased monitoring wells; D and T2 measurements were used together to detect and quantify contaminant in the sediments above and below the water table at both of the wells. While the contrast in D between the fluids was found to be inadequate for fluid typing, the T2 contrast between the contaminant and water in silt enabled the estimation of the water and contaminant volumes. This study shows that NMR logging can be used to detect and quantify in-situ contamination, but also highlights the importance of sediment and contaminant properties that lead to a sufficiently large contrast in T2 or D.

  5. Lacunarity of geophysical well logs in the Cantarell oil field, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizabalo, Ruben Dario [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oleschko, Klavdia [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Korvin, Gabor [King Fahd University, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Lozada, Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castrejon, Ricardo [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ronquillo, Gerardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Lacunarity and fractal variations in geophysical well logs are associated with stratigraphic and petrophysical properties of the naturally fractured Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico. Neutron porosity (NPHI), density (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistivity (LLD, LLS, MSFL), natural radioactivity (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) and caliper (CALI) logs are studied. The resistivity logs yielded remarkably high lacunarity values, especially in the hydrocarbon source- and reservoir rocks. Lacunarity {delta} was found to depend on the resolution and radial depth of penetration of the logging method. It systematically increased in the following order: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD). [Spanish] En este trabajo fueron analizadas las variaciones fractales y de lagunaridad de los registros geofisicos de pozo, con el fin de asociarlos con las propiedades estratigraficas y petrofisicas del yacimiento naturalmente fracturado de Cantarell, en el Golfo de Mexico. Los registros considerados fueron: porosidad neutron (NPHI), densidad (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistividad (LLD, LLS, MSFL), radiactividad natural (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) y caliper (CALI). Los registros de resistividad produjeron valores de lagunaridad notablemente altos, especialmente en las rocas generadoras y almacenadoras, a diferencia de los demas registros, cuya homogeneidad de traza implico una baja lagunaridad. Los resultados indican que la lagunaridad observada depende de la resolucion y profundidad radial de penetracion del metodo geofisico estudiado y aumenta sistematicamente en el siguiente orden: {delta}(RHOB) < {delta}(CALI) < {delta}(PEF) < {delta}(URAN) < {delta}(GR) < {delta}(NPHI) < {delta}(POTA) < {delta}(CGR) < {delta}(THOR) < {delta}(MSFL) < {delta}(DRHO) < {delta}(LLS) < {delta}(LLD).

  6. FIELD SURVEY, YAVAPAI COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. Drone photogrammetry for geological research: field digital stratigraphic logs for turbiditic reservoir analog studies in Calabria, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillois, Maxime; Brocheray, Sandra; Paron, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Drone technology combined with new algorithms like Structure from Motion (SfM) has revived and expanded the uses of photogrammetry bringing new flexibility and the capacity to carry on close range photogrammetry to inaccessible areas. This characteristics are particularly appealing in field geology offering the option to reconstruct continuous digital outcrop models of vertical or difficult to reach outcrops. In this light we present the results of a digital outcrop modelling of a Miocene turbiditic system (mainly sandstone) in Calabria (Southern Italy) generated through field data collected by means of a light-weight commercial drone, a detailed geological field survey and cloud point photogrammetric analyses comparing different software for this purpose (Agisoft Photoscan, Drone deploy, Arc3D). The geological model has been used as an input for preliminary reservoir modelling. We generated digital geological sections (stratigraphic logs) of 1,200 m of sections using expert digital image and terrain model interprepation from the DTM generated with drone data, with the goal to reconstruct the real thickness of each layer. We then compared the results with previously created detailed field geological cross sections. The comparison between drone-derived sections and field-survey sections shows a global accuracy of the thickness ranging between 1% to 10%. Although this new methodology still has to be validated in other morpho-lithological context it already demonstrating its usefulness for preliminary geological outcrop investigation and modelling in remote areas. We also compared the different softwares used and we made recommendations for future deployment. This research has been made possible thanks to a collaboration between UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, and UniLaSalle Beauvais, France.

  8. Numerical and experimental study of moisture-induced stress and strain field developments in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2013-01-01

    When solid wood dries from a green condition to a moisture content used for further processing, moisture-induced fracture and stresses can occur. The drying stresses arise because of internal deformation constraints that are strongly affected by the cross-sectional moisture gradient differential...... shrinkage and the inhomogeneity of the material. To obtain a better understanding of how stresses develop during climatic variations, the field histories of stresses (and strains) in cross sections in their entirety need to be studied. The present paper reports on experiments and numerical simulations...... concerned with analysing the development of strains and stresses during the drying of 15-mm-thick discs of Norway spruce timber log. The samples were dried at 23 °C and relative humidity of 64 % from a green condition to equilibrium moisture content. The moisture gradient in the longitudinal direction...

  9. Acoustic Log Prediction on the Basis of Kernel Extreme Learning Machine for Wells in GJH Survey, Erdos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In petroleum exploration, the acoustic log (DT is popularly used as an estimator to calculate formation porosity, to carry out petrophysical studies, or to participate in geological analysis and research (e.g., to map abnormal pore-fluid pressure. But sometime it does not exist in those old wells drilled 20 years ago, either because of data loss or because of just being not recorded at that time. Thus synthesizing the DT log becomes the necessary task for the researchers. In this paper we propose using kernel extreme learning machine (KELM to predict missing sonic (DT logs when only common logs (e.g., natural gamma ray: GR, deep resistivity: REID, and bulk density: DEN are available. The common logs are set as predictors and the DT log is the target. By using KELM, a prediction model is firstly created based on the experimental data and then confirmed and validated by blind-testing the results in wells containing both the predictors and the target (DT values used in the supervised training. Finally the optimal model is set up as a predictor. A case study for wells in GJH survey from the Erdos Basin, about velocity inversion using the KELM-estimated DT values, is presented. The results are promising and encouraging.

  10. Stopping Criteria for Log-Domain Diffeomorphic Demons Registration: An Experimental Survey for Radiotherapy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, M; Golland, P; Sharp, G C; Baroni, G

    2016-02-01

    A crucial issue in deformable image registration is achieving a robust registration algorithm at a reasonable computational cost. Given the iterative nature of the optimization procedure an algorithm must automatically detect convergence, and stop the iterative process when most appropriate. This paper ranks the performances of three stopping criteria and six stopping value computation strategies for a Log-Domain Demons Deformable registration method simulating both a coarse and a fine registration. The analyzed stopping criteria are: (a) velocity field update magnitude, (b) mean squared error, and (c) harmonic energy. Each stoping condition is formulated so that the user defines a threshold ∊, which quantifies the residual error that is acceptable for the particular problem and calculation strategy. In this work, we did not aim at assigning a value to e, but to give insights in how to evaluate and to set the threshold on a given exit strategy in a very popular registration scheme. Experiments on phantom and patient data demonstrate that comparing the optimization metric minimum over the most recent three iterations with the minimum over the fourth to sixth most recent iterations can be an appropriate algorithm stopping strategy. The harmonic energy was found to provide best trade-off between robustness and speed of convergence for the analyzed registration method at coarse registration, but was outperformed by mean squared error when all the original pixel information is used. This suggests the need of developing mathematically sound new convergence criteria in which both image and vector field information could be used to detect the actual convergence, which could be especially useful when considering multi-resolution registrations. Further work should be also dedicated to study same strategies performances in other deformable registration methods and body districts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asnera; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweeded

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  12. Gull Foraging Field Survey Data (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We conducted a predation study to determine whether emergence from the sediment affected cockle survival or physiological condition. We performed a field survey of...

  13. Ambit fields: survey and new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a survey on recent developments in the study of ambit fields and point out some open problems. Ambit fields is a class of spatio-temporal stochastic processes, which by its general structure constitutes a flexible model for dynamical structures in time and/or in space. We...... will review their basic probabilistic properties, main stochastic integration concepts and recent limit theory for high frequency statistics of ambit fields....

  14. Logistics analysis to Improve Deployability (LOG-AID): Field Experiment/Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    .... Under sponsorship of the Air Force Research Laboratory Logistics Readiness Branch (AFRL/HESR), the Synergy team analyzed the current wing-level deployment process as part of the Logistics Analysis to Improve Deployability (LOG-AID) program...

  15. WFIRST: Science from Deep Field Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton; Foley, Ryan; WFIRST Deep Field Working Group

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will enable deep field imaging across much larger areas than those previously obtained with Hubble, opening up completely new areas of parameter space for extragalactic deep fields including cosmology, supernova and galaxy evolution science. The instantaneous field of view of the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) is about 0.3 square degrees, which would for example yield an Ultra Deep Field (UDF) reaching similar depths at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to that obtained with Hubble, over an area about 100-200 times larger, for a comparable investment in time. Moreover, wider fields on scales of 10-20 square degrees could achieve depths comparable to large HST surveys at medium depths such as GOODS and CANDELS, and would enable multi-epoch supernova science that could be matched in area to LSST Deep Drilling fields or other large survey areas. Such fields may benefit from being placed on locations in the sky that have ancillary multi-band imaging or spectroscopy from other facilities, from the ground or in space. The WFIRST Deep Fields Working Group has been examining the science considerations for various types of deep fields that may be obtained with WFIRST, and present here a summary of the various properties of different locations in the sky that may be considered for future deep fields with WFIRST.

  16. Comparison of log-periodic, dual-stacked log-periodic, and horn antenna on the field uniformity and power efficiency from 80 MHz to 1 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandaris, Dwi; Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; Schuurmans, Jaap; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    A Comparison of 4 different types of antennas, - a biconical (dipole like-type) antenna, a single log periodic dipole antenna (LPDA), a dual-stacked log periodic antenna (dual-stacked LPDA, HL043E) and Extended-Double Ridge Guide (Ext-DRG) Horn antenna has been performed. The aims are to obtain an

  17. Fundamentals of Acoustic Measurements on Trees and Logs and Their Implication to Field Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic technologies have been well established as material evaluation tools in the past several decades, and their use has become widely accepted in the forest products industry for on-line quality control and products grading. Recent research developments on acoustic sensing technology offer further opportunities to evaluate standing trees and logs for general wood...

  18. Geoelectrical structure by electrical logs and Schlumberger sounding at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture; Denki kenso oyobi Schlumberger ho ni yoru Akinomiya chinetsu chiiki no hiteiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, T.; Takemoto, S.

    1997-05-27

    Based on the electrical logging data of the existed well and Schlumberger sounding data obtained in 1974, a two-dimensional inversion analysis of the specific resistance profile was conducted at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture. From the electrical logging data, relationships between the geology and the specific resistance were illustrated. The specific resistance values of basement rocks showed more than 100 ohm-m, which were higher than those of the other seams. Intrusive rocks and tuffs in the basement rocks showed locally low values less than 100 ohm-m. Younger volcanic rocks showed low values around 10 ohm-m. As a result of the two-dimensional inversion analysis, the basement rocks could be detected as high specific resistance layers. Accordingly, it was considered that the basement rocks in this field can be detected as high specific resistance layers by analyzing the results of field survey sufficiently. Low specific resistance zones were observed in the shallow depth, which corresponded to the fumarolic gases. There were some layers with remarkably varied specific resistance values, which were considered to be related with alteration. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Nonperturbative dynamics of hot non-Abelian gauge fields: Beyond the leading log approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Peter; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2000-12-15

    Many aspects of high-temperature gauge theories, such as the electroweak baryon number violation rate, color conductivity, and the hard gluon damping rate, have previously been understood only at leading logarithmic order (that is, neglecting effects suppressed only by an inverse logarithm of the gauge coupling). We discuss how to systematically go beyond leading logarithmic order in the analysis of physical quantities. Specifically, we extend to next-to-leading-log order (NLLO) the simple leading-log effective theory due to Bo''deker that describes non-perturbative color physics in hot non-Abelian plasmas. A suitable scaling analysis is used to show that no new operators enter the effective theory at next-to-leading-log order. However, a NLLO calculation of the color conductivity is required, and we report the resulting value. Our NLLO result for the color conductivity can be trivially combined with previous numerical work by Moore to yield a NLLO result for the hot electroweak baryon number violation rate.

  20. Well logging for physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearst, J.R.; Nelson, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications.

  1. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  2. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part 1: Web Server Log Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a two‐part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage instatistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  3. Toward 6 log10 pulsed electric field inactivation with conductive plastic packaging material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Ferreira, J.A.; Coronel, P.; Wouters, P.C.; Hatt, V.

    2013-01-01

    Generally, high grade products such as pulsed electric field (PEF) treated fruit juices are packaged after their preservative treatment. However, PEF treatment after packaging could avoid recontamination of the product and becomes feasible when electric field pulses of sufficient magnitude can be

  4. New Field Surveys of The Great 1946 Aleutian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.; Plafker, G.

    We seek to reopen the case of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami, which was the most destruc- tive transpacific event in the past century, despite the relatively moderate size of its parent earthquake. As a result, the exact nature of its source, and in particular whether it requires a submarine landslide, remains controversial. In 1999, we started a system- atic effort to build a modern database of runup and inundation values for the 1946 event throughout the Pacific Basin. At teleseismic distances, we rely on interviews from elderly witnesses whose testimony is then quantified using standard surveying techniques. As of early 2002, we were able to gather about 60 such measurements in the Marquesas, Society and Austral Islands, French Polynesia; and at Easter and Juan Fernandez Islands. They point out to the concentration of high runup values (8 m or more) in a narrow band of epicentral azimuths including Hawaii, the Marque- sas and Easter, but excluding Juan Fernandez. In the near field, we surveyed in 2001 the islands of Unimak and Sanak, based on available Coast Guard reports at Scotch Cap, and on subsisting watermarks such as large logs of driftwood deposited on these unforrested islands. We obtain a maximum runup height of 42 m on the Southern coast of Unimak and of 22 m at Sanak. These preliminary results suggest the combi- nation of a slow earthquake dislocation responsible for the strong far-field directivity of the tsunami, and of a co-seismic underwater landslide necessary to account for the exceptional near-field amplitudes, which are many times larger than the seismic dis- placement at the source for any acceptable seismological model of the dislocation. The existence of a large landslide is also suggested by anectodal reports of post-quake changes in local bathymetry and diminished fisheries productivity, and a preliminary confirmation is found on post-1946 bathymetric charts of the continental slope around 53.75 deg.N and 163.75 deg.W.

  5. Issues in E-Research: Log In/Out Virtual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shesha Kanta PANGENI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of technology and its tremendous use in education has changed the ways of educational services in higher education around the world. There is worldwide access to higher education through virtual learning environments. This is a new avenue for 21st century education and within a short time, it has been able to establish new culture of learning i.e. e-learning or online learning. As a result, e-learning has been the greater field for educational research. In this context, this paper focuses on methodological issues of the Internet mediated research (e-Research with particular focus on virtual fields. Paper explores and discusses on possible sources of data, methods of data collection, process of analysis and ethical issues to adopt research with virtual fields. In doing so, the purpose is to reveal answer to the question: how do e-Researchers deal with methodological issues related to collecting data, determining data sources, data analysis/interpretation, and ethical considerations? Paper presents examples from the Internet mediated empirical studies. Conclusion of the paper is that e-field or cyberspace is an avenue for modern researchers. Researchers are supported with various Information Communication Technology (ICT tools for field access, data collection, analysis and interpretation. However, they need to pay full attention to deal with major issues such as locating and gaining access to virtual/Internet-mediated fields, selecting e-participants and working with them, and using varieties of ICT tools for data collection, analysis and interpretation.

  6. Seismic and well logging interpretation for evaluation of the lower Bahariya reservoir, southwest Qarun (SWQ) Field, Gindi Basin, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Mohammad Abdelfattah; Basal, A. M. K.; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on seismic and well log interpretations for evaluating the sandstones of the Cenomanian Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field, Gindi Basin, northern Western Desert of Egypt. The seismic profiles display a clear anticlinal structure intersected by reverse faults in the study area. This faulted anticline has been interpreted to be one of the Syrian arc system folds formed by Upper Cretaceous tectonic inversion, which resulted from the NW movement of the African Plate relative to Laurasia. This anticline has been recommended as a target for exploration by the present work as it may represent a structural trap for hydrocarbon accumulation. The sandstones of the Lower Bahariya Formation in the southwest Qarun Field display good reservoir characteristics. The interpretation of the available well log data for the SWQ-21 and SWQ-25 wells for the Lower Bahariya Formation reflects a good reservoir quality for oil production in its topmost part. This reservoir possesses low SW (<50%), high porosity (16%), low SW/SXO and low BVW (<0.09) which all reflect a high potential for oil production.

  7. Brine delineation and monitoring with electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetic borehole logging at the Fort Knox well field near West Point, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rory; Unthank, Michael D.; Zettwoch, Douglas D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The potable water system at Fort Knox is threatened by brine contamination from improperly abandoned natural gas exploration wells. The Fort Knox well field is located near the town of West Point, Kentucky, in the flood plain of the Ohio River. At the site, unconsolidated sediments approximately 30 – 40 m thick, overlie shale and porous limestone. Brine is believed to flow vertically from the underlying formations to the unconsolidated aquifer through damaged or leaky well casings under a high hydraulic gradient from the artificially pressurized porous limestone, which is utilized for natural gas storage by a regional energy company. Upon reaching the unconsolidated aquifer, brinecontaminated groundwater enters water supply production wells under the pumping‐induced gradient. As part of the Fort Knox remediation strategy to reduce the impact of brine contamination, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and borehole electromagnetic (EM) logs are being collected annually to detect gross changes in subsurface conductivity. The 2009 ERT data show areas of high conductivity on the western (contaminated) side of the site with conductivities more than an order of magnitude higher than on the eastern (uncontaminated) side of the site. The areas of high conductivity are interpreted as brine contamination, consistent with known regions of brine contamination. Conductivities from the EM logs are consistent with the results from the ERT inversions. The EM logs show little change between 2008 and 2009, except for some small changes in the brine distribution in well PZ1. Yearly ERT surveys will be continued to detect new areas of brine contamination and monitor the remediation effort.

  8. Porosity prediction of I-field in the Niger delta area using well-log ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -statistical analysis and seismic attributes to determine porosity values in order to overcome the problem of multiple well drilling. The study area, I-field, is located between latitudes 4.7950oN and 4.8186oN, longitudes 6.9595oE and 6.9800oE.

  9. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  10. Quantification of pore size distribution in reservoir rocks using MRI logging: A case study of South Pars Gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghojogh, Jalal Neshat; Esmaili, Mohammad; Noruzi-Masir, Behrooz; Bakhshi, Puyan

    2017-12-01

    Pore size distribution (PSD) is an important factor for controlling fluid transport through porous media. The study of PSD can be applicable in areas such as hydrocarbon storage, contaminant transport, prediction of multiphase flow, and analysis of the formation damage by mud infiltration. Nitrogen adsorption, centrifugation method, mercury injection, and X-ray computed tomography are commonly used to measure the distribution of pores. A core sample is occasionally not available because of the unconsolidated nature of reservoirs, high cost of coring operation, and program limitations. Magnetic resonance imaging logging (MRIL) is a proper logging technique that allows the direct measurement of the relaxation time of protons in pore fluids and correlating T2 distribution to PSD using proper mathematical equations. It is nondestructive and fast and does not require core samples. In this paper, 8 core samples collected from the Dalan reservoir in South Pars Gas Field were studied by processing MRIL data and comparing them by PSD determined in the laboratory. By using the MRIL method, variation in PSD corresponding to the depth for the entire logged interval was determined. Moreover, a detailed mineralogical composition of the reservoir samples related to T2 distribution was obtained. A good correlation between MRIL and mercury injection data was observed. High degree of similarity was also observed between T2 distribution and PSD (R2 = 0.85 to 0.91). Based on the findings from the MRIL method, the obtained values for clay bond water varied between 1E-6 and 1E-3µm, a range that is comprehended from an extra peak on the PSD curve. The frequent pore radius was determined to be 1µm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrical geophysical characterization of the Hanford 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge using high performance DC resistivity inversion geostatistically constrained by borehole conductivity logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Versteeg, R. J.; Ward, A. L.; Strickland, C. E.; Greenwood, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Hanford 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge is a DOE funded multi-institution field study designed to better understand the field scale subsurface processes governing uranium transport in the Hanford 300 Area and other DOE sites. The primary focus area includes 28 monitoring wells spaced approximately 10 meters apart and extending downward 18 meters through the unconfined aquifer to a lower fine-grained confining unit. Each well is equipped with 15 permanent electrodes in the vadose zone and 15 removable electrodes in the saturated zone for a total 840 electrodes. To characterize the electrical conductivity structure of the site, a set of 32 overlapping 3D DC resistivity surveys were conducted where each survey included 4 adjacent wells. The complete set of surveys comprises approximately 150,000 resistivity measurements. We demonstrate the characterization by inverting the complete data set using a parallel resistivity modeling/inversion code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. We compare two approaches; 1) an Occam minimum-structure type inversion, and 2) an inversion using geostatistical and borehole conductivity constraints. The first inversion shows the larger scale conductivity features of the site as resolved by the resistivity data only. The second inversion provides solutions which honor the resistivity data, the directional and zonal semivariograms derived from borehole conductivity logs, and the corresponding borehole conductivities. This approach allows an ensemble of solutions to be generated which incorporate uncertainty in both the semivariograms and the resistivity data. Assuming electrical conductivity is well correlated with hydrogeologic properties at the site, this ensemble of models can be used, along with appropriate petrophyiscal transforms, to generate an ensemble of hydrogeologic models which can ultimately be used to investigate uncertainty in flow and transport processes.

  12. Exploring Online Students' Self-Regulated Learning with Self-Reported Surveys and Log Files: A Data Mining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Yoo, Jin Soung

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers who are interested in studying students' online self-regulated learning (SRL) have heavily relied on self-reported surveys. Data mining is an alternative technique that can be used to discover students' SRL patterns from large data logs saved on a course management system. The purpose of this study was to identify students' online…

  13. Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramoto, F.S.; Elders, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to the physical properties of the rocks. Three hydrothermal and one unaltered zone can be identified from log data on shales. These are: (1) the unaltered montmorillonite zone (<100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C); (2) the illite zone (100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C); (3) the chlorite zone (230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C to 290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and (4) the feldspar zone (>290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C). The characteristic responses on well logs by which these zones are identified result primarily from changes in clay mineralogy of the shales and increases in density with progressive hydrothermal metamorphism. In the Westmorland geothermal field, differentiating mineral zones from log responses was only partially successful. However, analyses of both well log and petrologic data for wells Landers 1 and Kalin Farms 1 suggest that the former is heating up and the latter is cooling.

  14. Inexpensive, Low Power, Open-Source Data Logging in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Collecting a robust data set of environmental conditions with commercial equipment is often cost prohibitive. I present the ALog, a general-purpose, inexpensive, low-power, open-source data logger that has proven its durability on long-term deployments in the harsh conditions of high altitude glaciers and humid river deltas. The ALog was developed to fill the need for a capable, rugged, easy-to-use, inexpensive, open-source hardware targeted at long-term remote deployment in nearly any environment. Building on the popular Arduino platform, the hardware features a high-precision clock, full size SD card slot for high-volume data storage, screw terminals, six analog inputs, two digital inputs, one digital interrupt, 3.3V and 5V power outputs, and SPI and I2C communication capability. The design is focused on extremely low power consumption allowing the Alog to be deployed for years on a single set of common alkaline batteries. The power efficiency of the Alog eliminates the difficulties associated with field power collection including additional hardware and installation costs, dependence on weather conditions, possible equipment failure, and the transport of bulky/heavy equipment to a remote site. Battery power increases suitable data collection sites (too shaded for photovoltaics) and allows for low profile installation options (including underground). The ALog has gone through continuous development with over four years of successful data collection in hydrologic field research. Over this time, software support for a wide range of sensors has been made available such as ultrasonic rangefinders (for water level, snow accumulation and glacial melt), temperature sensors (air and groundwater), humidity sensors, pyranometers, inclinometers, rain gauges, soil moisture and water potential sensors, resistance-based tools to measure frost heave, and cameras that trigger on events. The software developed for use with the ALog allows simple integration of established

  15. FIELD SURVEY, CLALLAM COUNTY, WA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Coskun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  17. The Survey on Near Field Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-06-05

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  18. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem. PMID:26057043

  19. Survey results for oblique field magnetic flux leakage survey in comparison to axial field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simek, James [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pipeline operators worldwide have implemented integrity management programs in an effort to improve operation and maintenance efficiency along with continued safe operation of pipeline systems. Several types of monitoring and data collection activities are incorporated into these programs, with in line inspection (ILI) tools providing data for detection and quantification of features that may impact the integrity of the pipeline system. Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) ILI tools are among the most widely used in pipeline systems. Primarily used for metal loss detection and quantification, these tools are extremely robust, performing successfully in the harsh environments found in operating pipelines, with the majority of MFL tools in service today relying upon axially oriented magnetic fields. For feature classes whose principal axis is aligned parallel to the pipe axis, the use of an axially applied magnetic field may quite often result in decreased performance due to difficulties in detection and sizing. Through the use of fields applied either perpendicular or in an oblique direction to the principal axis, the magnetic leakage levels generated at feature locations are increased, providing usable signal levels. When used concurrently with an axially oriented magnetizer, an obliquely applied magnetic field may provide the ability to detect, quantify, or otherwise aid in discrimination of volumetric versus non-volumetric features. Providing the ability to collect both of these data sets in a single survey would allow operators to minimize the number of surveys required to address all categories of metal loss features that may be present within pipeline systems. This paper will discuss some of the variables that affect detection and sizing of metal loss zones with respect to the applied field direction, including graphs and tables to quantify the effects of angular displacement for specific feature shapes. Several classes of features have been chosen for evaluation

  20. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    V, we propose to perform a spectroscopic survey with SODART and push these telescopes to the limit at the high energies. By selecting the four ESO Imaging Survey fields EIS teach 6 deg(2)) we will take full advantage of the large, systematic effort ESO is putting into the optical survey of these fields...

  1. The Forum State of the Field Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2011, the Forum on Education Abroad conducted its fourth State of the Field Survey. This survey is an annual or biannual assessment of the very latest trends and issues in the field of education abroad. As in the past, questions on new topics have been combined with questions that have been asked on previous State of the Field…

  2. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  3. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  4. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others...

  5. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  6. Cockle/Green Macroalgae Field Survey Data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To quantify any spatial or temporal variability in cockle densities with respect to in situ GMA biomass in Yaquina Bay, OR, we conducted field surveys during...

  7. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Integrated Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Contents: introduction to WFIRST (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope) and integrated modeling; WFIRST stability requirement summary; instability mitigation strategies; dynamic jitter results; STOP (structural-thermal-optical performance) (thermal distortion) results; STOP and jitter capability limitations; model validation philosophy.

  8. Environmental survey of the Heidrun Field 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oug, E.; Lind, K.; Konieczny, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the first regular bottom condition monitoring of the Heidrun field since the drilling programme began in 1992. This is an oil and gas field at Haltenbanken on the coastal shelf NW of Troendelag about 175 km from the Norwegian coast. Physical, chemical and biological aspects were characterized at 18 sites along four transect axes from the platform position. THC and metals were at background levels at most sites. Concentrations of ethers from a new drilling mud - Aquamud II - were generally low. Increased levels of barium and ethers were observed at the position of the discharges of drill cuttings. The seabed fauna was sparse with few species and individuals. The conditions were generally similar to the conditions described in previous baseline studies, except that the fauna was strongly reduced since 1988, which presumably reflects a large natural variation. It is concluded that the operations and drilling activities in the field had not affected the bottom environment in significant ways. 19 refs., 50 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  10. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  11. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio) can be maintained in slightly logged forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancrenaz, Marc; Ambu, Laurentius; Sunjoto, Indra; Ahmad, Eddie; Manokaran, Kennesh; Meijaard, Erik; Lackman, Isabelle

    2010-07-09

    Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP) conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM) in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3) ha(-1) of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations). Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.

  12. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio can be maintained in slightly logged forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ancrenaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3 ha(-1 of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations. Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.

  13. The usage of velocity deviation log (VDL) in order to recognize porosity types and trends in permeability of the Asmari and Jahrum reservoirs units in the KHESHT oil field (Kazeroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedi Pour, Amin; Lotfpour, Masoud; Enayati, Aliasghar

    2010-05-01

    Porosity value is one of the most important factors which determine the oil volume and also basis of economical or uneconomical calculation of a distinct oil field. By combining the logs, nowadays, very detailed and precise issues could be recognized, for instance we could point examining of porosity types and trends in permeability by using the velocity deviation log (VDL). Velocity devotion log which is calculated by combination sonic log with the Norton porosity or density log provides tool to obtain down hole information on the predominate pore type in carbonates the log can be use to trace the down hole distribution of digenetic processes and to estimate trends in permeability. Generally speaking, porosity and velocity have inverted relationship; nevertheless the type of porosity changes this relationship. In order to establish the velocity deviation log at first; by using the Wyllie equation, porosity log was exchanged to synthetic velocity log, acquired real velocity difference from sonic log and the acquired synthetic velocity from the porosity log is expressed as velocity deviation log. With log being deviated to left and right, the type of porosity would be identified .this method is applied for the Asmari and Jahrum reservoirs units of the Khesht oil field in Kazeroon (Fars),And in one of the wells. This log approves the boundary of Formations which is along with unconformities and even zoning whether is based on porosity value or change of lithology, and also the results which are gotten from the log have close similarities with the results of thin section studies in terms of porosity. Drawing of log and calculation of petrophysic parameters are done by Geolog software.

  14. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...

  15. Using Collector for ArcGIS for Field Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Meador, Chris; Horn, Adam

    2017-01-01

    In this session we discuss the use of mobile devices such as tablets and cell phones to complete field surveys using the Collector app. This app is a product of ArcGIS and allows for collection of points, lines, areas, and other related data in the field without internet or home network connection. It also makes completing data forms easy.

  16. Results of investigation at the Miravalles Geothermal Field, Costa Rica: Part 1, Well logging. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica: Parte 1, Registros de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.R.; Lawton, R.G.; Kolar, J.D.; Alvarado, A.

    1989-03-01

    The well-logging operations performed in the Miravalles Geothermal Field in Costa Rica were conducted during two separate field trips. The Phase I program provided the deployment of a suite of high-temperature borehole instruments, including the temperature/rabbit, fluid sampler, and three-arm caliper in Well PGM-3. These same tools were deployed in Well PGM-10 along with an additional survey run with a combination fluid velocity/temperature/pressure instrument used to measure thermodynamic properties under flowing well conditions. The Phase II program complemented Phase I with the suite of tools deployed in Wells PGM-5, PGM-11, and PGM-12. 4 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Extending field life in offshore Gulf of Mexico using 3-D seismic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, T.P.; Olsen, R.S. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Discovered by ARCO in 1967, the High Island 24L field (lower Miocene) is located in the Texas state waters of the Gulf of Mexico. By 1986, the field had produced 320 billion ft{sup 3} of gas and 3.0 million bbl of oil. An engineering field study completed in 1986 showed the field was declining and would be unprofitable within 3 yr. Study of reservoir maps revealed three basin problems: volumetric reserve calculations were less than reserves produced, hydrocarbon-water contacts were inconsistent between wells thought to be in communication, and ultimate recoveries could not be accurately calculated. Attempts to remap the field with the existing two-dimensional seismic data base and well data proved unsuccessful. In 1986, a three-dimensional seismic survey was acquired in an effort to evaluate the true present worth and potential of the field. Remapping of 30 reservoir horizons began in 1987. The integration of detailed well log correlations tied to the dense grid of quality three dimensional seismic data improved the reservoir maps. These maps helped resolve engineering problems by defining the configuration of the reservoirs more accurately. Reservoir maps now closely match volumetrics, fluid contacts within reservoir units are consistent, and a better definition of extension well opportunities exists. The authors study resulted in six additional wells. These wells along with engineering modifications and operations cost containment resulted in the extension of the economic life of the High Island 24-L field by at least 8 yr.

  18. Raw navigation files logged with HYPACK Survey software during a geophysical survey conducted by the USGS within Red Brook Harbor, MA, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  19. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  20. Software for improved field surveys of nesting marine turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Anast?cio, R.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Slater, K.; Pereira, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Field data are still recorded on paper in many worldwide beach surveys of nesting marine turtles. The data must be subsequently transferred into an electronic database, and this can introduce errors in the dataset. To minimize such errors, the ?Turtles? software was developed and piloted to record field data by one software user accompanying one Tortuguero in Akumal beaches, Quintana Roo, Mexico, from June 1st to July 31st during the night patrols. Comparisons were made between exported data ...

  1. Cost shared wildfire risk mitigation in Log Hill Mesa, Colorado: Survey evidence on participation and willingness to pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Travis Warziniack; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2014-01-01

    Wildland-urban interface (WUI) homeowners who do not mitigate the wildfire risk on their properties impose a negative externality on society. To reduce the social costs of wildfire and incentivise homeowners to take action, cost sharing programs seek to reduce the barriers that impede wildfire risk mitigation. Using survey data from a WUI community in western Colorado...

  2. Survey of high field superconducting material for accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scahlan, R.; Greene, A.F.; Suenaga, M.

    1986-05-01

    The high field superconductors which could be used in accelerator dipole magnets are surveyed, ranking these candidates with respect to ease of fabrication and cost as well as superconducting properties. Emphasis is on Nb/sub 3/Sn and NbTi. 27 refs., 2 figs. (LEW)

  3. Survey of viruses present in radish fields in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Korea, recent climate change has caused increased insect populations and migration from neighboring countries. As insect migration increases newly emerging virus diseases have been reported. In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in radish fields to investigate the distribution of common virus...

  4. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  5. Verticillium survey results: Is it in red raspberry production fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results of the survey for Verticillium dahliae, the cause of Verticillium wilt, in the Washington Red Raspberry industry were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Verticillium was found in many field soils, but was rarely isolated from plants and was just as likely to ...

  6. Simulation and measurement of log-periodic antenna and double ridged guide horn antenna for optimized field uniformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandaris, Dwi; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Three basic types of antennas have been designed and simulated for field calibration, i.e. field homogeneity or uniformity, and power efficiency. The objective is to develop the best antenna in terms of field uniformity and power efficiency. Experiments have been performed according to IEC 61000-4-3

  7. Use of borehole radar reflection logging to monitor steam-enhanced remediation in fractured limestone-results of numerical modelling and a field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, C.; Joesten, P.K.; Lane, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar is an efficient geophysical method for the detection and location of fractures and fracture zones in electrically resistive rocks. In this study, the use of down-hole (borehole) radar reflection logs to monitor the injection of steam in fractured rocks was tested as part of a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation pilot study conducted at a fractured limestone quarry contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons at the former Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine, USA. In support of the pilot study, borehole radar reflection logs were collected three times (before, during, and near the end of steam injection) using broadband 100 MHz electric dipole antennas. Numerical modelling was performed to predict the effect of heating on radar-frequency electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity, attenuation, and fracture reflectivity. The modelling results indicate that EM wave velocity and attenuation change substantially if heating increases the electrical conductivity of the limestone matrix. Furthermore, the net effect of heat-induced variations in fracture-fluid dielectric properties on average medium velocity is insignificant because the expected total fracture porosity is low. In contrast, changes in fracture fluid electrical conductivity can have a significant effect on EM wave attenuation and fracture reflectivity. Total replacement of water by steam in a fracture decreases fracture reflectivity of a factor of 10 and induces a change in reflected wave polarity. Based on the numerical modelling results, a reflection amplitude analysis method was developed to delineate fractures where steam has displaced water. Radar reflection logs collected during the three acquisition periods were analysed in the frequency domain to determine if steam had replaced water in the fractures (after normalizing the logs to compensate for differences in antenna performance between logging runs). Analysis of the radar reflection logs from a borehole where the temperature

  8. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cooray, Asantha R.; /UC, Irvine; Covey, Kevin R.; /Harvard U.; Csabai, Istvan; /Eotvos U.; Ferguson, Henry C.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kantor, Jeffrey; /LSST Corp.; Kent, Stephen M.; /Fermilab; Knapp, G.R.; /Princeton U.; Myers, Steven T.; /NRAO, Socorro; Neilsen, Eric H., Jr.; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Caltech, IPAC /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Harvard U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /NOAO, Tucson /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2011-11-14

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  9. Wide-Field Astronomical Surveys in the Next Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.S.; /LSST Corp.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Condon, J.J.; /NRAO, Socorro; Connolly, A.J.

    2009-03-01

    Wide-angle surveys have been an engine for new discoveries throughout the modern history of astronomy, and have been among the most highly cited and scientifically productive observing facilities in recent years. This trend is likely to continue over the next decade, as many of the most important questions in astrophysics are best tackled with massive surveys, often in synergy with each other and in tandem with the more traditional observatories. We argue that these surveys are most productive and have the greatest impact when the data from the surveys are made public in a timely manner. The rise of the 'survey astronomer' is a substantial change in the demographics of our field; one of the most important challenges of the next decade is to find ways to recognize the intellectual contributions of those who work on the infrastructure of surveys (hardware, software, survey planning and operations, and databases/data distribution), and to make career paths to allow them to thrive.

  10. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  11. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  12. Weeds in spring cereal fields in Finland - a third survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of weeds in spring cereal fields was conducted in 16 regions of southern and central Finland in 1997-1999. Data were collected from conventional and organic farms, both of which applied their normal cropping practices. A total of 690 fields were investigated by counting and weighing the weed species from ten sample quadrats 0.1 m2 in size in late July - early August. Altogether 160 weed species were found, of which 134 were broad-leaved and 26 grass species. The total number of weed species ranged from 41 to 84 between regions. In organically farmed fields, the average species number was 24 and in conventionally farmed fields 16. The most frequent weed species were Viola arvensis 84%, Stellaria media 76% and Galeopsis spp. 70%. Only 18 species exceeded the frequency level of 33%. The average density of weeds was 136 m-2 (median= 91 in sprayed conventional fields, 420 m-2 (374 in unsprayed conventional fields and 469 m-2 (395 in organic fields. The average air-dry above-ground biomass of weeds was 163 kg ha-1 (median=63, 605 kg ha-1 (413 and 678 kg ha-1 (567, respectively. Weed biomass accounted for 3% of the total biomass of the crop stand in sprayed conventional fields and for 17% in organic fields. Elymus repens, the most frequent grass species, produced the highest proportion of weed biomass.

  13. Logging into the Field—Methodological Reflections on Ethnographic Research in a Pluri-Local and Computer-Mediated Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Mónika Greschke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce an ethnic group inhabiting a common virtual space in the World Wide Web (WWW, while being physically located in different socio-geographical contexts. Potentially global in its geographical extent, this social formation is constituted by means of interrelating virtual-global dimensions with physically grounded parts of the actors' lifeworlds. In addition, the communities' social life relies on specific communicative practices joining mediated forms of communication with co-presence based encounters. Ethnographic research in a pluri-local and computer-mediated field poses a set of problems which demand thorough reflection as well as a search for creative solutions. How can the boundaries of the field be determined? What does "being there" signify in such a case? Is it possible to enter the field while sitting at my own desk, just by visiting the respective site in the WWW, simply observing the communication going on without even being noticed by the subjects in the field? Or does "being in the field" imply that I ought to turn into a member of the studied community? Am I supposed to effectively live with the others for a while? And then, what can "living together" actually mean in that case? Will I learn enough about the field simply by participating in its virtual activities? Or do I have to account for the physically grounded dimensions of the actors' lifeworlds, as well? Ethnographic research in a pluri-local and computer-mediated field in practice raises a lot of questions regarding the ways of entering the field and being in the field. Some of them will be discussed in this paper by means of reflecting research experiences gained in the context of a recently concluded case study. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703321

  14. 1946 Dominican Republic Tsunami: Field Survey based on Eyewitness Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Martinez, Claudio; Salado, Juan; Rivera, Wagner; Duarte, Leoncio

    2017-04-01

    On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the north-eastern shore of Hispaniola Island resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field, tsunami waves were recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes reported in the Caribbean since colonial times. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from the eastern most tip at Punta Cana to La Isabela some 70 km from the border with Haiti. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, sea-level drawdown, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field

  15. Field Survey - A Journey of Exploration and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Kiran

    2017-04-01

    You can teach a student a lesson a day but if you teach him to learn by creating curiosity ,he will continue the learning process for life.This abstract is a manifestation of my innate desire as an educator to build students cognitive level of thinking and refine their processes to gain knowledge from the environment ,process it and put it to optimum use. This field survey has been planned and conducted for students of 12th grade (+16yrs). At this level students are introduced to various aspects of Human geography and how human intervention has harnessed environmental resources for its growth and development. They are also encouraged to observe how humans have adapted to the environment and in this process also modified it to satisfy their needs and demands. Students are also sensitized to the understand how geography has evolved as a scientific subject of enquiry. Hence it calls for a deeper understanding and analysis of issues from the local to the global level. Through the pedagogical approach of field survey, they have been oriented to the process of conducting Research -as a well-defined procedure. It involves three phases 1. Planning and preliminary preparation before the survey, 2. During the field survey 3. After the survey compilation, computation and presentation. This activity has been planned over a period of 3 months and as of now the topic and area of case study have been selected. The general concern was studying low rainfall and agriculturally less productive regions hence a case study of a drought prone village- Hiware Bazaar in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra was undertaken. The site Hiware Bazar has been selected as it is based on the principles of sustainable development and water shed development programme to combat severe drought. The statement of the problem has been defined along with the outlined objectives ,scope of study and the time frame needed to gather the information. The field visit spanned over 5 days for data collection has

  16. Multi-resolution graph-based clustering analysis for lithofacies identification from well log data: Case study of intraplatform bank gas fields, Amu Darya Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xing-Yang; Wang, Hong-Jun; Guo, Tong-Cui; Zhang, Liang-Jie; Gong, Xing-Lin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we used the multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC) method for determining the electrofacies (EF) and lithofacies (LF) from well log data obtained from the intraplatform bank gas fields located in the Amu Darya Basin. The MRGC could automatically determine the optimal number of clusters without prior knowledge about the structure or cluster numbers of the analyzed data set and allowed the users to control the level of detail actually needed to define the EF. Based on the LF identification and successful EF calibration using core data, an MRGC EF partition model including five clusters and a quantitative LF interpretation chart were constructed. The EF clusters 1 to 5 were interpreted as lagoon, anhydrite flat, interbank, low-energy bank, and high-energy bank, and the coincidence rate in the cored interval could reach 85%. We concluded that the MRGC could be accurately applied to predict the LF in non-cored but logged wells. Therefore, continuous EF clusters were partitioned and corresponding LF were interpreted, and the distribution and petrophysical characteristics of different LF were analyzed in the framework of sequence stratigraphy.

  17. Enhancement of subsurface geologic structure model based on gravity, magnetotelluric, and well log data in Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.

  18. Mean Field Games Models-A Brief Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2013-11-20

    The mean-field framework was developed to study systems with an infinite number of rational agents in competition, which arise naturally in many applications. The systematic study of these problems was started, in the mathematical community by Lasry and Lions, and independently around the same time in the engineering community by P. Caines, Minyi Huang, and Roland Malhamé. Since these seminal contributions, the research in mean-field games has grown exponentially, and in this paper we present a brief survey of mean-field models as well as recent results and techniques. In the first part of this paper, we study reduced mean-field games, that is, mean-field games, which are written as a system of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and a transport or Fokker-Planck equation. We start by the derivation of the models and by describing some of the existence results available in the literature. Then we discuss the uniqueness of a solution and propose a definition of relaxed solution for mean-field games that allows to establish uniqueness under minimal regularity hypothesis. A special class of mean-field games that we discuss in some detail is equivalent to the Euler-Lagrange equation of suitable functionals. We present in detail various additional examples, including extensions to population dynamics models. This section ends with a brief overview of the random variables point of view as well as some applications to extended mean-field games models. These extended models arise in problems where the costs incurred by the agents depend not only on the distribution of the other agents, but also on their actions. The second part of the paper concerns mean-field games in master form. These mean-field games can be modeled as a partial differential equation in an infinite dimensional space. We discuss both deterministic models as well as problems where the agents are correlated. We end the paper with a mean-field model for price impact. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  19. A Survey of Snakebite Knowledge among Field Forces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chulin; Gui, Li; Kan, Ting; Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen

    2016-12-26

    A snakebite is a neglected extrinsic injury associated with high morbidity and global mortality. Members of Chinese field forces are at high risk of snakebites, and their perception and knowledge of snakebites are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess perception and knowledge of snakebites in field forces in southeast China; Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted in July 2016. A total of 216 field force members participated in this study; Results: A total of 10.3% had experienced snakebites and 86.4% rated their demands for knowledge about snakebite as "high". No significant correlation between the actual and perceived snakebite knowledge status was detected (κ = 0.0237, p = 0.3852). Ineffective and harmful traditional first-aid methods, such as the application of tourniquets, sucking the venom out of the wound, and making local incisions, were used by more than three quarters of the respondents. However, pressure immobilization bandages were applied by only 17.3% of members. The proportion of responses for each question was not significantly different among the respondents when considering separate demographic groups; Conclusions: Snakebite knowledge among Chinese field force members is inadequate and in some cases misleading, when focusing on manifestation, prevention, and first-aid. A pragmatic, intensive educational scheme should be undertaken in at-risk populations.

  20. Survey of large-scale isotope applications: nuclear technology field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, R.

    1977-01-21

    A preliminary literature survey of potential large-scale isotope applications was made according to topical fields; i.e., nuclear, biological, medical, environmental, agricultural, geological, and industrial. Other than the possible expansion of established large-scale isotope applications such as uranium, boron, lithium, and hydrogen, no new immediate isotope usage appears to be developing. Over the long term a change in emphasis for isotope applications was identified which appears to be more responsive to societal concerns for health, the environment, and the conservation of materials and energy. For gram-scale applications, a variety of isotopes may be required for use as nonradioactive ''activable'' tracers. A more detailed survey of the nuclear field identified a potential need for large amounts (tons) of special isotopic materials for advanced reactor components and structures. At this need for special materials and the development of efficient separation methods progresses, the utilization of isotopes from nuclear wastes for beneficial uses should also progress.

  1. [Survey of risks related to static magnetic fields in ultra high field MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, H E; von Cramon, D Y

    2008-04-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), substantial improvements with respect to sensitivity are expected due to the development of so-called ultra high field scanners, i. e., whole-body scanners with a magnetic field strength of 7 T or above. Users of this technology need to evaluate this benefit for potential risks since commercially available systems are not certified as a medical device for human use. This review provides a detailed survey of static field bioeffects related to the exposure of subjects being scanned, to occupational exposure, and to exposure of the general public under consideration of current standards and directives. According to present knowledge, it is not expected that exposure of human subjects to static magnetic fields of 7 T implies a specific risk of damage or disease provided that known contraindications are observed. The available database does not permit definition of exact thresholds for harmful effects. However, experience from previous application of ultra high field MRI indicates that transient phenomena, such as vertigo, nausea, metallic taste, or magneto-phosphenes, are more frequently observed. In particular, movements in the field or the gradient of the fringe field seem to lead to detectable effects. Besides such observations, there is a strong demand for systematic investigation of potential interaction mechanisms related to static field exposure during MRI examinations.

  2. Mining the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey: submillimetre-selected blazars in equatorial fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caniego, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Massardi, M.; Bonavera, L.; Herranz, D.; Negrello, M.; De Zotti, G.; Carrera, F. J.; Danese, L.; Fleuren, S.; Hardcastle, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Mauch, T.; Procopio, P.; Righini, S.; Sutherland, W.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Buttiglione, S.; Clark, C. J. R.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S.; Valiante, E.

    2013-04-01

    The Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to search for blazars at sub-mm wavelengths. We cross-matched the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) radio source catalogue with the 11 655 sources brighter than 35 mJy at 500 μm in the ˜135 deg2 of the sky covered by the H-ATLAS equatorial fields at 9h and 15h, plus half of the field at 12h. We found that 379 of the H-ATLAS sources have a FIRST counterpart within 10 arcsec, including eight catalogued blazars (plus one known blazar that was found at the edge of one of the H-ATLAS maps). To search for additional blazar candidates we have devised new diagnostic diagrams and found that known blazars occupy a region of the log (S500 μm/S350 μm) versus log (S500 μm/S1.4 GHz) plane separated from that of sub-mm sources with radio emission powered by star formation, but shared with radio galaxies and steep-spectrum radio quasars. Using this diagnostic we have selected 12 further possible candidates that turn out to be scattered in the (r - z) versus (u - r) plane or in the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer colour-colour diagram, where known blazars are concentrated in well defined strips. This suggests that the majority of them are not blazars. Based on an inspection of all the available photometric data, including unpublished VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy survey photometry and new radio observations, we found that the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of only one out of the 12 newly selected sources are compatible with being synchrotron dominated at least up to 500 μm, i.e. with being a blazar. Another object may consist of a faint blazar nucleus inside a bright star-forming galaxy. The possibility that some blazar hosts are endowed with active star formation is supported by our analysis of the SEDs of Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue blazars detected at both 545 and 857 GHz. The estimated rest-frame synchrotron peak

  3. An integral-field spectroscopic strong lens survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burles, Scott [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We present the observational results of a survey for strong gravitational lens systems consisting of extended emission-line galaxies lensed by intervening early-type galaxies, conducted using integral field units (IFUs) of the Magellan IMACS and Gemini GMOS-N spectrographs. These data are highly valuable for corroborating the lensing interpretation of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We show that in many cases, ground-based IFU spectroscopy is in fact competitive with space-based imaging for the measurement of the mass model parameters of the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate a novel technique of three-dimensional gravitational lens modeling for a single lens system with a resolved lensed rotation curve. We also describe the details of our custom IFU data analysis software, which performs optimal multi-fiber extraction, relative and absolute wavelength calibration to a few hundredths of a pixel RMS and nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction.

  4. Digital Field Mapping with the British Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Nichola; Jordan, Colm

    2014-05-01

    The BGS•SIGMA project was initiated in 2001 in response to a major stakeholder review of onshore mapping within the British Geological Survey (BGS). That review proposed a significant change for BGS with the recommendation that digital methods should be implemented for field mapping and data compilation. The BGS•SIGMA project (System for Integrated Geoscience MApping) is an integrated workflow for geoscientific surveying and visualisation using digital methods for geological data visualisation, recording and interpretation, in both 2D and 3D. The project has defined and documented an underpinning framework of best practice for survey and information management, best practice that has then informed the design brief and specification for a toolkit to support this new methodology. The project has now delivered BGS•SIGMA2012. BGS•SIGMA2012 is a integrated toolkit which enables assembly and interrogation/visualisation of existing geological information; capture of, and integration with, new data and geological interpretations; and delivery of 3D digital products and services. From its early days as a system which used PocketGIS run on Husky Fex21 hardware, to the present day system which runs on ruggedized tablet PCs with integrated GPS units, the system has evolved into a complete digital mapping and compilation system. BGS•SIGMA2012 uses a highly customised version of ESRI's ArcGIS 10 and 10.1 with a fully relational Access 2007/2010 geodatabase. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the third external release of our award-winning digital field mapping toolkit. The first free external release of the award-winning digital field mapping toolkit was in 2009, with the third version (BGS-SIGMAmobile2012 v1.01) released on our website (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/sigma/home.html) in 2013. The BGS•SIGMAmobile toolkit formed the major part of the first two releases but this new version integrates the BGS•SIGMAdesktop functionality that BGS routinely uses to transform our field

  5. SYSTEMATIC FIELD SURVEY ON LIMES TRANSALUTANUS. SĂPATA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two adjoined forts and their surroundings, elements of the 3rd century Roman frontier in Dacia – Limes Transalutanus, which were last archaeologically investigated in 1930, were recently systematic surface surveyed, resulting in the identification of the associated civilian settlement in what seemed, at first glance, as an unexpected location, more distant than other military vici the team had previously identified along the same frontier line.Not only the limits of the settlement at Săpata were established, but also the density of occupation and territory division into various functional areas, allowing further interpretations regarding the network of ancient local roads and a better understanding of the way in which the Romans adjusted their built facilities to available resources (water or exploited the strategical features of the relief.Using an efficient, quick and rather inexpensive combination of survey methods (field walking and measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of the soil applied on a 4.8 ha surface, followed by pottery typological and spatial distribution analysis, the investigation team tried to mitigate the challenging vegetation situation, adjusting likewise to the limited resources of a scheduled research project.  Data relevance was increased by applying statistical corrections and using complementary investigation methods in order to cover the various available types of land (relief, vegetation, visibility; while data integration was ensured employing a unitary spatial gridded system for fieldwork and also by relating the obtained results to the high resolution digital terrain model of the sites obtained during UAV photogrammetric aerial survey.In particular, the study takes the opportunity opened by the analysis of the Roman Age pottery found in Săpata vicus to debate on the significance of the traditional, yet not unitary perceived, scholarly division between ‘Chilia-Militari’ ware (dwelling on Dacian

  6. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Nightjar Survey Network Survey Field Procedures and Completed Data Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data and survey instructions from the Nightjar Survey Network's nighjar survey on Okefenokee NWR. Nightjar Surveys are standardized population counts conducted...

  7. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  8. Survey of Viruses Present in Radish Fields in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2014 nationwide survey in radish fields investigated the distribution of common viruses and possible emerging viruses. Radish leaves with virus-like symptoms were collected and 108 samples assayed by RT-PCR using specific primers for Radish mosaic virus (RaMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV; 47 samples were TuMV positive, and RaMV and CMV were detected in 3 and 2 samples, respectively. No samples showed double infection of TuMV/RaMV, or RaMV/CMV, but two double infections of TuMV/CMV were detected. TuMV isolates were sorted by symptom severity, and three isolates (R007-mild; R041 and R065-severe selected for BLAST and phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that the coat protein (CP of these isolates (R007, R041, and R065 have approx. 98-99% homology to a previously reported TuMV isolate. RaMV CP showed approx. 99% homology to a previously reported isolate, and the CMV CP is identical to a previously reported Korean isolate (GenBank : GU327368. Three isolates of TuMV showing different pathogenicity (degree of symptom severity will be valuable to study determinants of pathogenicity.

  9. Log-Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the log file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.

  10. Monitoring field scale CO2 injection from time-lapse seismic and well log, integrating with advanced rock physics model at Cranfield EOR site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjana

    2017-10-01

    Causes and effects of global warming have been highly debated in recent years. Nonetheless, injection and storage of CO2 (CO2 sequestration) in the subsurface is becoming increasingly accepted as a viable tool to reduce the amount of CO2 from the atmosphere, which is a primary contributor to global warming. Monitoring of CO2 movement with time is essential to ascertain that sequestration is not hazardous. A method is proposed here to appraise CO2 saturation from seismic attributes using differential effective medium theory modified for pressure (PDEM). The PDEM theory accounts pressure-induced fluid flow between cavities, which is a very important investigation in the CO2-sequestered regime of heterogeneous microstructure. The study area is the lower Tuscaloosa formation at Cranfield in Mississippi, USA, which is one of the active enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and CO2 capture and storage (CCS) fields. Injection well (F1) and two observation wells (F2 and F3) are present close (within 112 m) to the detailed area of study for this region. Since the three wells are closely situated, two wells, namely injection well F1 and the furthest observation well F3, have been focused on to monitor CO2 movement. Time-lapse (pre- and post-injection) log, core and surface seismic data are used in the quantitative assessment of CO2 saturation from the PDEM theory. It has been found that after approximately 9 months of injection, average CO2 saturations in F1 and F3 are estimated as 50% in a zone of thickness 25 m at a depth of 3 km.

  11. Monitoring field scale CO2 injection from time-lapse seismic and well log, integrating with advanced rock physics model at Cranfield EOR site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjana

    2017-12-01

    Causes and effects of global warming have been highly debated in recent years. Nonetheless, injection and storage of CO2 (CO2 sequestration) in the subsurface is becoming increasingly accepted as a viable tool to reduce the amount of CO2 from the atmosphere, which is a primary contributor to global warming. Monitoring of CO2 movement with time is essential to ascertain that sequestration is not hazardous. A method is proposed here to appraise CO2 saturation from seismic attributes using differential effective medium theory modified for pressure (PDEM). The PDEM theory accounts pressure-induced fluid flow between cavities, which is a very important investigation in the CO2-sequestered regime of heterogeneous microstructure. The study area is the lower Tuscaloosa formation at Cranfield in Mississippi, USA, which is one of the active enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and CO2 capture and storage (CCS) fields. Injection well (F1) and two observation wells (F2 and F3) are present close (within 112 m) to the detailed area of study for this region. Since the three wells are closely situated, two wells, namely injection well F1 and the furthest observation well F3, have been focused on to monitor CO2 movement. Time-lapse (pre- and post-injection) log, core and surface seismic data are used in the quantitative assessment of CO2 saturation from the PDEM theory. It has been found that after approximately 9 months of injection, average CO2 saturations in F1 and F3 are estimated as 50% in a zone of thickness 25 m at a depth of 3 km.

  12. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Survey Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Le Fevre, Olivier; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    We present the rationale for and the observational description of ASPECS: the ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF), the cosmological deep field that has the deepest multi-wavelength data available. Our overarching goal is to obtain an unbiased census of molecular gas and dust continuum emission in high-redshift (z > 0.5) galaxies. The ˜1‧ region covered within the UDF was chosen to overlap with the deepest available imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope. Our ALMA observations consist of full frequency scans in band 3 (84-115 GHz) and band 6 (212-272 GHz) at approximately uniform line sensitivity ({L}{CO}\\prime ˜ 2 × 109 K km s-1 pc2), and continuum noise levels of 3.8 μJy beam-1 and 12.7 μJy beam-1, respectively. The molecular surveys cover the different rotational transitions of the CO molecule, leading to essentially full redshift coverage. The [C ii] emission line is also covered at redshifts 6.0\\lt z\\lt 8.0. We present a customized algorithm to identify line candidates in the molecular line scans and quantify our ability to recover artificial sources from our data. Based on whether multiple CO lines are detected, and whether optical spectroscopic redshifts as well as optical counterparts exist, we constrain the most likely line identification. We report 10 (11) CO line candidates in the 3 mm (1 mm) band, and our statistical analysis shows that data presented here form the basis of a number of dedicated studies that are presented in subsequent papers.

  13. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  14. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  15. Pixel History for Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borncamp, D.; Grogin, N.; Bourque, M.; Ogaz, S.

    2017-06-01

    Excess thermal energy present in a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) can result in additional electrical current. This excess charge is trapped within the silicon lattice structure of the CCD electronics. It can persist through multiple exposures and have an adverse effect on science performance of the detectors unless properly flagged and corrected for. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take occasional long-exposure images with the camera shutter closed. These images, generally referred to as "dark" images, allow for the measurement of the thermal-electron contamination present in each pixel of the CCD lattice. This so-called "dark current" can then be subtracted from the science images by re-scaling the dark to the corresponding exposure times. Pixels that have signal above a certain threshold are traditionally marked as "hot" and flagged in the data quality array. Many users will discard these because of the extra current. However, these pixels may not be unusable because of an unreliable dark subtraction; if we find these pixels to be stable over an anneal period, we can properly subtract the charge and the extra Poisson noise from this dark current will be propagated into the error arrays. Here we present the results of a pixel history study that analyzes every individual pixel of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) CCDs over time and allows pixels that were previously flagged as unusable to be brought back into the science image as a reliable pixel.

  16. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  17. Satellite images as primers to target priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa

    Sustainable management of tropical forests has been identified as one of the main objectives for global conservation of carbon stocks. In order to achieve this, managers need tools to establish whether or not their management practices are sustainable. Several tool development initiatives have undertaken the creation of sets of criteria and indicators to aid managers to target, if not achieve, sustainability. The question of how to assess these indicators remains to be answered from an operational viewpoint, where logistical constraints become critical and priorization becomes necessary. The present dissertation sought to determine whether satellite imagery can be used, in conjunction with standard forest management data, to identify priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability of managed tropical forests. It presents a novel approach to the assessment of CIFOR indicator I.2.1.2: "The change in diversity of habitats as a result of human interventions is maintained within critical limits as defined by natural variation and/or regional conservation objectives" by means of semivariography of remote sensing data. It shows the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI) is a good alternative for the detection and quantification of tropical forests structural heterogeneity and its dynamic change. The differences observed between forest management units and natural areas forest structural heterogeneity were used to identify priority areas for field survey of ecological sustainability indicators and evaluate how these priorities were reflected in dung beetles community structure and composition. The link between forest structural heterogeneity dynamic change, forest logging intensity and dung beetle community structure and composition is established. A logging intensity threshold of 4 trees per hectare is identified as the limit between significant or not significant differences in forest structure dynamic changes and dung beetles community

  18. Can We Trust Our Finds Distribution Maps? : Anchoring Field Survey Data by Field Experiments in the Raganello Basin (Calabria, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leusen, Martijn; Witmer, Evelien

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological field surveys, especially of the ‚non-site’ or ‚off-site’ kind, aim to produce a detailed, fair and complete record of the archaeological remains detectable on the land surface. However, all practicing survey archaeologists agree that many factors conspire to reduce the

  19. Raw HYPACK navigation logs (text) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Middle Ground, MA, September 22, 2009 (2009-068-FA_hypack)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  20. Text files of the navigation logged by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2011 (Geographic, WGS 84, HYPACK ASCII Text Files)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner-continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York in...

  1. Raw HYPACK navigation logs (text) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center offshore of the Gulf Islands, MS, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA and St. Petersburg, FL, in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District conducted...

  2. Raw HYPACK navigation logs (text) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Muskeget Channel, MA, 2010 (2010-072-FA_hypack)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected in a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The primary objective of this...

  3. Raw HYPACK navigation logs (text) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay, MA, July 2010 (2010-047-FA_hypack)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  4. Text Files of the DGPS Navigation Logged with HYPACK Software on April 17, 2010 During U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 2010-010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  5. Raw HYPACK navigation logs (text) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Vineyard Sound, MA, January 5, 2011 (2010-100-FA_hypack)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  6. Raw HYPACK navigation logs (text) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center offshore of the Elizabeth Islands, MA, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  7. Text Files of the DGPS Navigation Logged with HYPACK Software on U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 2014-046-FA from September 15 to 17, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  8. Text Files of the DGPS Navigation Logged with HYPACK Software on U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 2012-002-FA from June 11 to June 14, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  9. Text Files of the DGPS Navigation Logged with HYPACK Software on April 18, 2010 During U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 2010-010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  10. A Strategy for Interpretation of Microearthquake Tomography Results in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field Based upon Rock Physics Interpretations of State 2-14 Borehole Logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B; Hutchings, L; Kasameyer, P

    2006-06-14

    We devise a strategy for analysis of Vp and Vs microearthquake tomography results in the Salton Sea geothermal field to identify important features of the geothermal reservoir. We first interpret rock properties in State 2-14 borehole based upon logged core through the reservoir. Then, we interpret seismic recordings in the well (Daley et al., 1988) to develop the strategy. We hypothesize that mapping Poisson's ratio has two applications for the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir: (1) to map the top of the reservoir, and (2) as a diagnostic for permeable zones. Poisson's ratio can be obtained from Vp and Vs. In the State 2-14 borehole, Poisson's ratio calculated from large scale averages ({approx} 150 m) shows a monotonic decrease with depth to about 1300 m, at which point it increases with depth. Our model is that the monotonic decrease is due to compaction, and the increase below 1300 m is due to the rocks being hydrothermally altered. We hypothesize we can map the depth to alteration by identifying the transition from decreasing to increasing values; and thus, map the top of the reservoir, which is associated with a known increase in sulfite, chlorite, and epidote alteration that may be indicative of hydrothermal activity. We also observe (from Daley et. al. plots) an anomalous drop in Poisson's ratio at a depth of about 900 m, within a sandstone formation. The sandstone has a P-wave velocity significantly higher than the siltstone above it but a lower velocity in the lower half of the formation relative to the upper half. We interpret the relative decrease in velocity to be due to fracturing and chemical alteration caused by permeability. We conclude that using Vp and Vs tomography results to obtain images of Poisson's ratio has the potential to identify significant features in the geothermal reservoir in this geologic setting. Seismic attenuation tomography results (mapped as Qp and Qs) should also be useful for evaluating geothermal

  11. Performance of Ductless Personalized Ventilation in Open-Plan Office - Field Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Ezzat Khalifa, H.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in an architectural company located in Syracuse, USA. 54 employees who participated in the survey performed mostly design work. Large open-plan office and several single offices ventilated by displacement air distribution were included in the survey. Ductless...

  12. Sanitary/Storm Drainage Characterization Survey, Hurlburt Field, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Volatile Halocarbons (601) From the data, it seems that most of the storm drains contained volatiles that are major components of solvents. 4 b. Metals...period of the survey. The storm drains were evaluated with the flow that they had in them at the time of the survey. If the site did not contain flow...analytical results from the sites should prove or disprove this theory. Some oil was seen in the sanitary and storm drains . The oil/water separators

  13. Field Research Facility Data Integration Framework Data Management Plan: Survey Lines Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ER D C/ CH L SR -1 6- 4 Coastal Ocean Data Systems Program Field Research Facility Data Integration Framework Data Management Plan...Systems Program ERDC/CHL SR-16-4 August 2016 Field Research Facility Data Integration Framework Data Management Plan Survey Lines Dataset Michael F...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Field Research Facility Data Integration Framework Data Management Plan: Survey Lines Dataset 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  14. “How do you do it?”: MSW Field Director Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Dalton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a survey of MSW field directors in the United States. Results indicate that in some areas there is similarity between field programs, such as field training and orientation, and the student placement process. There was great variety between field programs in the areas of student field requirements, student field credits, and field liaison faculty status. Most field programs report adequate resources but a significant minority report a lack of resources. The benefits of increasing specificity of mandated standards at the cost of lessened program flexibility is discussed.

  15. Effect of External Disturbing Gravity Field on Spacecraft Guidance and Surveying Line Layout for Marine Gravity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Motao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Centred on the support requirement of flying track control for a long range spacecraft, a detail research is made on the computation of external disturbing gravity field, the survey accuracy of gravity anomaly on the earth' surface and the program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey. Firstly, the solution expression of navigation error for a long range spacecraft is analyzed and modified, and the influence of the earth's gravity field on flying track of spacecraft is evaluated. Then with a given limited quota of biased error of spacecraft drop point, the accuracy requirement for calculating the external disturbing gravity field is discussed and researched. Secondly, the data truncation error and the propagated data error are studied and estimated, and the quotas of survey resolution and computation accuracy for gravity anomaly on the earth' surface are determined. Finally, based on the above quotas, a corresponding program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey is proposed. A numerical test has been made to prove the reasonableness and validity of the suggested program.

  16. MONITOIRNG OF A CONTROLLED DNAPL SPILL USING A PROTOTYPE DIELECTRIC LOGGING TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilized their prototype dielectric logging tool to monitor a controlled Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) spill into a large tank located at the University of California Richmond Field Station (RFS) containing multiple sand and clayey sand...

  17. Effect of inhomogeneous surface relaxivity, pore geometry and internal field gradient on NMR logging:exact and perturbative theories and numerical investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Seungoh

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is widely used as a probe of pore geometry and fluid composition in well logging. One of the critical assumptions often made is that the diffusion of fluid molecules is sufficiently fast to warrant the condition for direct mapping between the surface-enhanced relaxation rate and the pore geometry. In pores satisfying such a condition, but having a significant spatial variation of surface relaxivity (rho), one can show that the one-to-one mapping may break down. The ...

  18. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  19. Web Indexing with Meta Fields: A Survey of Web Objects in Polymer Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Wesley, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    This survey of 1037 World Wide Web objects on polymer chemistry collected by four search engines (AltaVista, Lycos, Excite, Webcrawler) examined document information and use of meta fields, images, and chemical names. Found that the use of meta fields was not widespread and that knowledge of meta fields in HTML varied among Web object creators.…

  20. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellety Emmanuel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance employed wherever feasible.

  1. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Coe, D.; Capak, P.; Brammer, G., E-mail: lotz@stsci.edu [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 Sam Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope ? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5 σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands to 5 σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  2. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Coe, D.; Grogin, N.; Capak, P.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Brammer, G.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S.; Porterfield, B.; Reid, N.; Robberto, M.; Royle, P.; Smith, L. J.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Sunnquist, B.; Surace, J.; Taylor, D. C.; Williams, R.; Bullock, J.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Natarajan, P.; Richard, J.; Robertson, B.; Tumlinson, J.; Zitrin, A.; Flanagan, K.; Sembach, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Mountain, M.

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5σ point-source depths of ˜29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10-100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ˜30-33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands to 5σ point-source depths of ˜26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  3. Power to the logs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; MACMAHON, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Are you tired of using grep, vi and emacs to read your logs? Do you feel like you’re missing the big picture? Does the word "statistics" put a smile on your face? Then it’s time to give power to the logs!

  4. Field calibration and validation of remote-sensing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe'eri, Shachak; McLeod, Andy; Lavoie, Paul; Ackerman, Seth D.; Gardner, James; Parrish, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Optical Collection Suite (OCS) is a ground-truth sampling system designed to perform in situ measurements that help calibrate and validate optical remote-sensing and swath-sonar surveys for mapping and monitoring coastal ecosystems and ocean planning. The OCS system enables researchers to collect underwater imagery with real-time feedback, measure the spectral response, and quantify the water clarity with simple and relatively inexpensive instruments that can be hand-deployed from a small vessel. This article reviews the design and performance of the system, based on operational and logistical considerations, as well as the data requirements to support a number of coastal science and management projects. The OCS system has been operational since 2009 and has been used in several ground-truth missions that overlapped with airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and swath-sonar bathymetric surveys in the Gulf of Maine, southwest Alaska, and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Research projects that have used the system include a comparison of backscatter intensity derived from acoustic (multibeam/interferometric sonars) versus active optical (ALB) sensors, ALB bottom detection, and seafloor characterization using HSI and ALB.

  5. Iranian mental health survey: design and field proced.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS was conducted to assess the twelve-month prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in the Iranian adult population and to determine the pattern of health care utilization and cost of services. IranMHS is a cross-sectional national household survey with face-to-face interviews as the main data collection method. The study was carried out between January and June 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was applied for the selection of a representative sample from the non-institutionalized population aged 15 to 64. The primary instrument utilized for assessing the prevalence of mental disorders was the Persian version of Composite International Diagnosis Interview, version 2.1. The instruments for assessing the service and cost of mental illness were developed by the research team. The response rate was 86.2%, and a total of 7886 individuals participated in the study. Sampling weights were the joint product of inverse probability of unit selection, non-response weights and post-stratification weights. This paper presents an overview of the study design, fieldwork organization and procedures, weightings and analysis. The strengths and limitations of the study are also discussed.

  6. Design and Experiment of Onboard Field 3D Topography Surveying System

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Mingming; Liu, Gang; Li, Xinlei

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Laser-controlled land leveling system can obviously improve the planeness of the field and enhance the efficiency of irrigation. The 3D topographic information was needed for project design and evaluation of laser land leveling. In order to obtain the topographic information efficiently, an onboard field 3D topography surveying system was developed. The surveying system consisted of a measuring laser receiver, a GPS receiver, a controller and a hydraulic system. Beside...

  7. Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol ...AND SUBTITLE Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...1 Invasion Biology and Biocontrol Lab, Wuhan Botanical Institute, CAS ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 3 named previously as Bagous sp. 3 and

  8. Surveying the Field: The Research Model of Women in Librarianship, 1882-1898

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Women who promoted library services to children in the United States in the late nineteenth century introduced the systematic use of survey research on library practice to the field of professional librarianship. They created a series of qualitative survey-based reports, the "Reading of the Young" reports, which were presented at ALA conferences…

  9. Recovery of the otter Lutra lutra in Denmark monitored by field surveys and collection of carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Elmeros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The otter Lutra lutra suffered serious declines in Denmark during the 1960s and 1970s. A series of conservation and management projects were initiated to protect the remnant population, including national surveys and collection of otter carcasses. The recovery of the otter in Denmark since the 1980s was described by four national field surveys in 1984-86, 1991, 1996 and 2004 following the standard otter survey method, and by the geographical distribution of otter carcasses collected in 5-year periods prior to the field surveys. The surveys document a substantial increase in distribution range during the past 20 years. The number of collected carcasses increased annually by 9.1 ± 0.7% (mean ± S.E. between 1980-2003. The spatial distribution of carcasses collected in the 5-year period prior to field surveys was correlated with regional site occupancy in field surveys. The implemented management practices are presented and discussed. We conclude that the standard otter survey method is a reliable method to monitor otter distribution range in Danish habitats, and that compiling records of otter casualties is a suitable methods to monitor long-term population trends.

  10. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Overview And Catalog From The Cosmos Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Civano, F.; Hickox, R. C.; Puccetti, S.

    2015-01-01

    To provide the census of the sources contributing to the X-ray background peak above 10 keV, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is performing extragalactic surveys using a three-tier "wedding cake" approach. We present the NuSTAR survey of the COSMOS field, the medium sensitivity...

  11. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  12. Airborne geophysical survey of the catastrophic landslide at Stože, Log pod Mangrtom, as a test of an innovative approach for landslide mapping in steep alpine terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baroň

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne geophysics is a promising method for investigating landslides. Here we present a case study of multisensor airborne geophysical survey at the catastrophic landslide Stože near Log pod Mangrtom in Slovenia, which was conducted in the framework of the European FP7th Project "SafeLand". Based on the survey itself and achieved results, we discuss applicability, limits, and benefits and costs of the method for investigating landslides in steep alpine terrains. Despite of several operational constraints, the airborne electromagnetic survey of the area well presented the lithological pattern and water saturation. The high resistivity regions mostly indicated drained slope scree and landslide mass, drained and loosened material of the moraine deposit in the tension zone of the landslide with present cracks and cavities. The minima of the resistivity pattern were attributed to the outcrop of marls rich in clay, to water-saturated moraine deposit above impermeable marls in the tension zone, and to water-saturated porous alluvial gravel and landslide scree along the Koritnica River. The magnetic survey proved to be inapplicable for such a small and rough area. The Potassium and Thorium maps, on the other hand, both well identified the regions of tension inside the landslide zone, outcrops of marls and dolomite, clay-rich colluvium, weathered zones along a regional tectonic fault, and alluvial deposits and deposits of debris flows, and the minima of the 137Cs clearly revealed the zones of material removal due to recent mass movements.

  13. Data acquisition logs in PDF format maintained on USGS Field Activity 2008-007-FA on Long Island, New York in May, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An investigation of coastal groundwater systems was performed along the north shore of Long Island, New York during May 2008 to constrain nutrient delivery to...

  14. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  15. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  16. Magnetic field topographical survey by magneto-optical space-time light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sergey V.; Ostrovsky, Andrey S.; Agalidy, Yu. S.

    1993-12-01

    Utilization of magneto-optical spacing light modulators based on Bi-substituted monocrystalline ferrite-garnet films for spatially distributed magnetic field measurements is discussed. Numerous variants of magnetic field topographical survey for different types (audio & video ...) of magnetic signalogramms geometrical parameters control are described. Special usages for magnetic signalogramms criminalistics examination and faint amplitude signalogramms visualization are described too.

  17. University Clinics as Field Placements in School Psychology Training: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Benson, A. Jerry

    Although many school psychology programs use university-based clinics as field placements for school psychology students, there is little information in the literature on how these clinics are organized, administered, and funded or on the nature, duration, and sequencing of clinic field experiences. A national telephone survey of 71 directors of…

  18. The Galactic Plane Exoplanet Survey (GPX) - an Amateur Designed Transiting Exoplanet Wide-Field Search (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benni, P.

    2017-06-01

    (Abstract only) GPX is designed to search high density star fields where other surveys, such as WASP, HATNet, XO, and KELT would find challenging due to blending of transit like events. Using readily available amateur equipment, a survey telescope (Celestron RASA, 279 mm f/2.2, based in Acton, Massachusetts) was configured first with a SBIG ST-8300M camera then later upgraded to an FLI ML16200 camera and tested under different sampling scenarios with multiple image fields to obtain a 9- to 11-minute cadence per field. The resultant image resolution of GPX is about 2 arcsec/pixel compared to 13.7±23 arcsec/pixel of the aforementioned surveys and the future TESS space telescope exoplanet survey.

  19. Seismic inversion of the 1987 Harald 3D survey covering the Lulu and West fields using the ISIS software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, T.

    1997-11-01

    A data cube consisting of part of the 1987 Harald 3D seismic survey, covering the Lulu and West Lulu fields, was inverted for acoustic impedance using the ISIS global seismic inversion software. The cube comprises in-lines 1 through 551 and cross-lines 51 through 700. In total 358, 150 traces were inverted. The trace spacing is 20 metres in both the in-line and the cross-line directions. The seismic inversion was carried out in the time window 1.8-4.0 seconds two-way travel-time (s TWT). Using a least squares wavelet estimation method, a wavelet for the inversion was estimated from well West Lulu-4. The wavelet derived is near zero-phase and of normal polarity. In the seismic inversion, the effect on the wavelet of frequency-dependent attenuation was taken into account. Low-frequency components of the acoustic impedance variations are not present in the seismic data. Since this information is important to the interpretation, it should be accounted for in the seismic inversion. A low-frequency model was constructed for the seismic cube by extrapolating the acoustic impedance logs for wells Lulu-1, Lulu-2 and West Lulu-1 throughout the area and by filtering the resulting volume. The extrapolation was guided by four interpreted horizons supplied by GEUS. The main inversion result consists of: 1. An acoustic impedance cube with low-frequency information. 2. An acoustic impedance cube without low-frequency information. 3. A low-frequency model. The inversion models approximately 97.5% of the seismic energy of the whole data volume. The match between the acoustic impedance volume with low-frequency information and the acoustic impedance logs is good both with respect to reflector placement and absolute acoustic impedance value. (EHS)

  20. Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

    2014-08-11

    Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

  1. Stand structure, composition and illegal logging in selectively logged production forests of Myanmar: Comparison of two compartments subject to different cutting frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tual Cin Khai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate cutting cycles and annual allowable cuts are crucial to ensure sustainability of tropical selective logging, but there have been limited field data to verify long-term effects of different cutting cycles. This study reveals some evidence of forest degradation in selectively logged production forests of Myanmar, which are subject to inappropriate cutting frequency. We compared stand structure, commercial species composition, and incidence of illegal logging between two compartments with low (LCF; 1 time and high (HCF; 5 times cutting frequency over a recent 18 years. Prior to the latest cutting, LCF had 176 trees ha−1 with an inverted-J shape distribution of diameter at breast height (DBH, including a substantial amount of teak (Tectona grandis and other commercially important species in each DBH class. HCF prior to the latest cut had only 41 trees ha−1 without many commercially important species. At HCF, nearly half the standing trees of various species and size were illegally cut following legal operations; this was for charcoal making in nearby kilns. At LCF, two species, teak and Xylia xylocarpa, were cut illegally and sawn for timber on the spot. More extensive and systematic surveys are needed to generalize the findings of forest degradation and illegal logging. However, our study calls for urgent reconsideration of logging practices with high cutting frequency, which can greatly degrade forests with accompanying illegal logging, and for rehabilitating strongly degraded, bamboo-dominated forests. To reduce illegal logging, it would be important to pay more attention on a MSS regulation stating that logging roads should be destroyed after logging operations.

  2. Text files of the navigation logged with Microsoft HyperTerminal during sampling survey 07003 conducted aboard the R/V Connecticut by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts between Duxbury and Hull (DH_SAMPLING_NAV)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  3. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during survey 2011-004-FA conducted in Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts in 2011.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  4. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during survey 2012-005-FA conducted in Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk Canyons by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A large number of high-resolution geophysical surveys between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank have been conducted by federal, state, and academic institutions since...

  5. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during survey 2009-002-FA conducted in Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts in 2009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  6. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during survey 2010-004-FA conducted in Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts in 2010.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  7. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during surveys 06012 and 07001 conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts between Duxbury and Hull (DH_HYPACK_NAV)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  8. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during surveys 07002, and 08002 conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_Hypack_Nav)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal...

  9. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  10. Long term continuous field survey to assess nutrient emission impact from irrigated paddy field into river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    In order to achieve good river environment, it is very important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. As we could reduce impact from urban and industrial activities by wastewater treatment, pollution from point sources are likely to be controlled. Besides them, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. In many countries in Asia and Africa, rice is widely cultivated and paddy field covers large areas. In Japan 54% of its arable land is occupied with irrigated paddy field. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality due to fertilization, it is also suggested that paddy field can purify water. We carried out field survey in middle reach of the Tone River Basin with focus on a paddy field IM. The objectives of the research are 1) understanding of water and nutrient balance in paddy field, 2) data collection for assessing nutrient emission. Field survey was conducted from June 2015 to October 2016 covering two flooding seasons in summer. In our measurement, all input and output were measured regarding water, N and P to quantify water and nutrient balance in the paddy field. By measuring water quality and flow rate of inflow, outflow, infiltrating water, ground water and flooding water, we tried to quantitatively understand water, N and P cycle in a paddy field including seasonal trends, and changes accompanied with rainy events and agricultural activities like fertilization. Concerning water balance, infiltration rate was estimated by following equation. Infiltration=Irrigation water + Precipitation - Evapotranspiration -Outflow We estimated mean daily water balance during flooding season. Infiltration is 11.9mm/day in our estimation for summer in 2015. Daily water reduction depth (WRD) is sum of Evapotranspiration and Infiltration. WRD is 21.5mm/day in IM and agrees with average value in previous research. Regarding nutrient balance, we estimated an annual N and

  11. Development of regional stump-to-mill logging cost estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1989-01-01

    Planning logging operations requires estimating the logging costs for the sale or tract being harvested. Decisions need to be made on equipment selection and its application to terrain. In this paper a methodology is described that has been developed and implemented to solve the problem of accurately estimating logging costs by region. The methodology blends field time...

  12. Response of six neutron survey meters in mixed fields of fast and thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S I; Kim, B H; Chang, I; Lee, J I; Kim, J L; Pradhan, A S

    2013-10-01

    Calibration neutron fields have been developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to study the responses of commonly used neutron survey meters in the presence of fast neutrons of energy around 10 MeV. The neutron fields were produced by using neutrons from the (241)Am-Be sources held in a graphite pile and a DT neutron generator. The spectral details and the ambient dose equivalent rates of the calibration fields were established, and the responses of six neutron survey meters were evaluated. Four single-moderator-based survey meters exhibited an under-responses ranging from ∼9 to 55 %. DINEUTRUN, commonly used in fields around nuclear reactors, exhibited an over-response by a factor of three in the thermal neutron field and an under-response of ∼85 % in the mixed fields. REM-500 (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) exhibited a response close to 1.0 in the fast neutron fields and an under-response of ∼50 % in the thermal neutron field.

  13. New Edition of the UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Borrero, J. C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Fritz, H. M.; Imamura, F.; Kong, L. S.; Koshimura, S.; McAdoo, B. G.; Satake, K.; Yalciner, A. C.; Yulianto, E.

    2011-12-01

    A subcommittee of the IUGG International Tsunami Commission was convened in 2010 to revise and update the 1998 UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. The revised Guide addresses the developments in the tsunami field since 1998, the need to accommodate vastly increased amounts of data, and to incorporate disciplines that were not covered in the original guide. The Guide also advocates a systems-approach to assessing tsunami impacts that examines the full range of physical, environmental, and socio-economic effects and their interrelationship, bringing tsunami research efforts into a closer alignment with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). This Field Guide is intended to provide a flexible framework to facilitate the acquisition of critical data in the immediate aftermath of significant tsunamis and to balance the needs of international researchers with those of communities and agencies involved with response and recovery. It will be of use to a variety of people and organizations who may either participate in, assist in coordination, or host post-tsunami field surveys. It is hoped that this Guide will promote pre-event planning in countries at risk of tsunamis to reduce the stresses of developing organizational logistics in the post-emergency response phase and make the process of conducting an ITST easier and more productive for both participating researchers and host country organizations. A complete draft of the Guide will be presented at the meeting and members of the tsunami community invited to comment.

  14. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  15. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  16. Stratigraphy and geophysical logs from a corehole drilled to bedrock at Robins Point, J-Field, Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous core was recovered from a 961-foot- deep stratigraphic corehole at Robins Point, located at the southeastern tip of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula, Harford County, Maryland. A 2-inch- diameter ground-water-quality observation well was installed with the screen set at a depth of 392 to 402 feet (ft). Geophysical logs obtained from thecorehole include: natural gamma, multipoint normal resistivity (16-inch and 64-inch), 4-ft-guard focused resistivity, acoustic (sonic) velocity, and caliper. Pollen analysis of 34 samples provided relativestratigraphic ages. Lithologies encountered in ascending order (surface elevation 4 ft above mean sea level), include: 72.4 ft of weatheredmetamorphic rock and saprolie, 711.4 ft of lower and upper Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic deposits, and 145.9 ft of Pleistocene and 31.3 ft of Holocene(?) fluvial and estuarine deposits. Aquifers and confining units identified include, in descending order: 41.8 ft of surficial aquifer, 90.9 ft of upper paleochannel confining unit, 28.8 ft of paleochannel confined aquifer, 15.7 ft of lower paleochannel confining unit, 123.7 ft of Upper Patapsco aquifer, 44.6 ft of Upper Patapsco confining unit, 92.8 ft of Middle Patapsco aquifer, 57.3 ft of Lower Patapsco confining unit, 151.7 ft of Lower Patapsco aquifer, 115.4 ft of Potomac confining unit, 126.4 ft of Patuxent aquifer, an aquifer of 23.4 ft of saprolite, and 48.7 ft of weathered-rock/saprolite confining unit.

  17. HIGH-SCALE THEMATIC MAPPING BASED ON FIELD SURVEY DATA (CASE OF VESLOVSKY PENINSULA, KUNASHIR ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Gavrilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, high-scale field surveys-based thematic mapping is not very widespread, though it provides detailed and accurate information about the study area, presented in representative cartographic form. In this paper, authors present the soil map and landscape map of Veslovsky peninsula (Kunashir island, Kuril islands based on wide field surveys led in summer of 2014. Veslovsky peninsula is located in the buffer zone of the Kuril nature reserve. The maps provide detailed information on the soil cover and the landscape differentiation of the study area.

  18. Modes of log gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized

  19. Logging on to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  20. Multiple field-based methods to assess the potential impacts of seismic surveys on scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Huang, Zhi; Anderson, Jade; Carroll, Andrew G; Edmunds, Matthew; Hurt, Lynton; Williams, Stefan

    2017-10-30

    Marine seismic surveys are an important tool to map geology beneath the seafloor and manage petroleum resources, but they are also a source of underwater noise pollution. A mass mortality of scallops in the Bass Strait, Australia occurred a few months after a marine seismic survey in 2010, and fishing groups were concerned about the potential relationship between the two events. The current study used three field-based methods to investigate the potential impact of marine seismic surveys on scallops in the region: 1) dredging and 2) deployment of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) were undertaken to examine the potential response of two species of scallops (Pecten fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima) before, two months after, and ten months after a 2015 marine seismic survey; and 3) MODIS satellite data revealed patterns of sea surface temperatures from 2006-2016. Results from the dredging and AUV components show no evidence of scallop mortality attributable to the seismic survey, although sub-lethal effects cannot be excluded. The remote sensing revealed a pronounced thermal spike in the eastern Bass Strait between February and May 2010, overlapping the scallop beds that suffered extensive mortality and coinciding almost exactly with dates of operation for the 2010 seismic survey. The acquisition of in situ data coupled with consideration of commercial seismic arrays meant that results were ecologically realistic, while the paired field-based components (dredging, AUV imagery) provided a failsafe against challenges associated with working wholly in the field. This study expands our knowledge of the potential environmental impacts of marine seismic survey and will inform future applications for marine seismic surveys, as well as the assessment of such applications by regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Methane Hydrate Field Program: Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Greg [Consortium for Ocean Leadership, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report: Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report; Methane Hydrate Workshop Report; Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan; and Final Scientific/Technical Report.

  2. 75 FR 19953 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field Energy Consumption of Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...

  3. Respondent Conditioning in Online Panel Surveys: Results of Two Field Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struminskaya, Bella

    In this article, we investigate changes in survey reporting due to prior interviewing. Two field experiments were implemented in a probability-based online panel in which the order of the questionnaires was switched. Although experimental methods for studying panel conditioning are favorable,

  4. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during survey 2014-002-FA conducted along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2014.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  5. Text files of the navigation logged with HYPACK Software during survey 2015-001-FA conducted along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2015.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy in the fall of 2012. The...

  6. Airborne and field-temperature surveys compared at Long Valley KGRA, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, N.K.

    1981-06-01

    An airborne predawn radiometric temperature survey was flown over the Long Valley KGRA. Radiometric temperatures were recorded at 10 to 12 ..mu..m and 4.5 to 5.5 ..mu..m. They were corrected to obtain true land-surface temperatures in agreement with field data. After accounting for thermal effects from surface features, there remained a thermal anomaly. The anomalous zone encompassed 2 km/sup 2/. It was a dry land area with a predawn surface temperature which averaged 1.4 +- 0.3/sup 0/C warmer than ambient. This area coincided with a thermal discharge zone where deep temperature gradients were 5 to 30 times normal. The predawn radiometric survey clarified and supplemented conclusions drawn from 6 to 30m deep field surveys. Heat from hydrothermal discharge was stored in a shallow aquifer and conducted to the surface.

  7. 1992-2002: Perspective on a decade of tsunami field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.; Borrero, J. C.; Members Of Itst, .

    2003-12-01

    The past decade has seen the systematic deployment of international field survey teams (ITST), following damaging regional tsunamis. Fourteen such surveys have been carried out: Nicaragua (1992), Okushiri (1993), Mindoro (1994), Java (1994), Flores (1994), Kuriles (1994), Mexico (1995), Biak (1996), Chimbote (1996), PNG (1998), Izmit (1999), Fatu Hiva (1999), Vanuatu (1999), Peru (2001) and PNG (2002). In addition, similar techniques have been applied to the survey of important historical tsunamis such as Aleutian (1946) and Amorgos (1956). The primary goal of the field surveys is to obtain a reliable, quantitative dataset of run-up and inundation measurements, which can be used in simulation experiments based on hydrodynamic modeling, in order to unravel the mechanism of generation of the tsunami. One of the most important results obtained from the compilation of such datasets has been the emergence of the aspect ratio of the distribution of run-up in the near field as a most promising discriminant between generation by the seismic dislocation (e.g., Nicaragua; Peru, 2001; PNG 2002) and by an underwater slump (e.g., Aleutian 1946, PNG 1998). Surveying also reveals localized enhancement of run-up, controlled on a smaller scale by occasional underwater landslides (Flores, 1992), splashes against cliffs (Mexico, 1995; Peru, 2001) or interaction with steep coastal valleys (Okushiri, 1993). Field surveys have also provided insight into engineering and societal factors controlling the extent of human and property losses, such as coastal land use, building codes and materials, and public education and awareness. To foster the latter, the teams constantly repeat simple messages on tsunami mitigation during one-on-one interviews with local residents, as well as town meetings. In this respect, the successful self-evacuation at Bay Mairtele, Vanuatu in 1999 is a gratifying example of the value of education.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Plane Survey: l=30° field (Moore+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Parsons, H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Eden, D. J.; Dempsey, J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thomas, H. S.; Buckle, J.; Brunt, C. M.; Butner, H.; Carretero, D.; Chrysostomou, A.; Devilliers, H. M.; Fich, M.; Hoare, M. G.; Manser, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natario, C.; Olguin, F.; Peretto, N.; Polychroni, D.; Redman, R. O.; Rigby, A. J.; Salji, C.; Summers, L. J.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Traficante, A.; Bastien, P.; Difrancesco, J.; Davis, C. J.; Evans, A.; Friberg, P.; Fuller, G. A.; Gibb, A. G.; Gibson, S.; Hill, T.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martin, P. G.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Pineda, J. E.; Purcell, C.; Richer, J. S.; Schieven, G. H.; Shipman, R.; Spaans, M.; Taylor, A. R.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-06-01

    JPS uses the wide-field submm-band bolometer camera SCUBA-2 (the Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2) in the 850um band at a spatial resolution of 14.5-arcsec. The 850um survey data presented in this paper cover the l=30° field of the JPS and were observed between 2012 June and 2013 October. The 11 tiles making up the field were observed on average three times each. A strategy of minimum elevation limits for given atmospheric opacity bands within the allocated range was adopted, in order to minimize variations in the resulting noise in each repeated tile. (1 data file).

  9. Methane Hydrate Field Program. Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Tim [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Bahk, Jang-Jun [Korea Inst. of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea); Frye, Matt [U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Sterling, VA (United States); Goldberg, Dave [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Husebo, Jarle [Statoil ASA, Stavenger (Norway); Koh, Carolyn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Malone, Mitch [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shipp, Craig [Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Torres, Marta [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Myers, Greg [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Divins, David [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Morell, Margo [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these efforts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these efforts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and offers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.

  10. Investigation of Axial Electric Field Measurements with Grounded-Wire TEM Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan-nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Hou, Dong-yang

    2017-09-01

    The grounded-wire transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveying is often performed along the equatorial direction with its observation lines paralleling to the transmitting wire with a certain transmitter-receiver distance. However, such method takes into account only the equatorial component of the electromagnetic field, and a little effort has been made on incorporating the other major component along the transmitting wire, here denoted as axial field. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of its fundamental characteristics and guide the designing of the corresponding observation system for reliable anomaly detection, this study for the first time investigates the axial electric field from three crucial aspects, including its decay curve, plane distribution, and anomaly sensitivity, through both synthetic modeling and real application to one major coal field in China. The results demonstrate a higher sensitivity to both high- and low-resistivity anomalies by the electric field in axial direction and confirm its great potentials for robust anomaly detection in the subsurface.

  11. Performance of radiation survey meters in X- and gamma-radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceklic, Sandra; Arandjic, Danijela; Zivanovic, Milos; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the different types of radiation detectors commonly used for radiation protection purposes as survey meters. The study was performed on survey meters that use different detectors as ionisation chamber, Geiger Mueller (GM) counter and scintillation detector. For each survey meter, energy dependence and angular response in X- and gamma-radiation fields was tested. The following commercially available survey meters were investigated: ionisation chambers Victoreen 451P, Babyline 31 and VA-J-15A, Geiger counter MRK-M87, 6150 AD6 and FAG FH 40F2 and scintillation counter 6150 ADB. As a source of gamma radiation, (137)Cs and (60)Co were used whereas X-ray radiation fields were generated using an X-ray unit. The radiation characteristics of the survey meters were mostly in compliance with references estimated by standard IEC 1017-2. However, some of them showed larger deviation at lower energies. GM counters exhibit strong energy dependence for low-energy photons. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  13. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  14. The XMM-Newton survey in the H-ATLAS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, P.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Koutoulidis, L.; Rovilos, M.; Carrera, F. J.; Akylas, A.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Gilli, R.; Vignali, C.

    2015-05-01

    Wide-area X-ray and far-infrared surveys are a fundamental tool to investigate the link between AGN growth and star formation, especially in the low-redshift universe (z ≲ 1). The Herschel Terahertz Large Area survey (H-ATLAS) has covered 550 deg2 in five far-infrared and sub-mm bands, 16 deg2 of which have been presented in the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) catalogue. Here we introduce the XMM-Newton observations in the H-ATLAS SDP area, covering 7.1 deg2 with flux limits of 2 × 10-15, 6 × 10-15, and 9 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-2, 0.5-8, and 2-8 keV bands, respectively. We present the source detection and the catalogue, which includes 1700, 1582, and 814 sources detected by EMLDetect in the 0.5-8, 0.5-2, and 2-8 keV bands, respectively; the number of unique sources is 1816. We extract spectra and derive fluxes from power-law fits for 398 sources with more than 40 counts in the 0.5-8 keV band. We compare the best-fit fluxes with those in the catalogue, which are obtained assuming a common photon index of Γ = 1.7; we find no bulk difference between the fluxes and a moderate dispersion of s = 0.33 dex. Using the fluxes from the spectral fits wherever possible, we derive the 2-10 keV Log N-Log S, which is consistent with a Euclidean distribution. Finally, we release the computer code for the tools developed for this project. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.Catalogue tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A121

  15. Results From The PEARS Spectrophotometric Redshift Survey In The Northern And Southern GOODS Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth H.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Grogin, N. A.; Pirzkal, N.; Xu, C.; Meurer, G. R.; Walsh, J. R.; PEARS Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the spectrophotometric redshifts (SPZs) of 1.5x104 galaxies observed as part of the Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) survey. This survey is an HST/ACS/G880L grism survey in the GOODS-N and S fields. Redshifts are measured using a combination of the slitless grism spectra and available broad-band data. Using the existing sample of over 3000 ground-based spectroscopic redshifts, we show that the average uncertainty in our SPZs is Δz/(1+z)≈0.038 in the redshift range of 0.5≤z≤1.25 where the 4000 Å break passes through the grism window. These redshifts are used to measure the z=1 galaxy luminosity function down to MB=-18.0 mag. PEARS is an HST Treasury Program and is supported by HST grant 10530.

  16. Coexistence of DTT and Mobile Broadband: A Survey and Guidelines for Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Kalliovaara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey and a general methodology for coexistence studies between digital terrestrial television (DTT and mobile broadband (MBB systems in the ultra high frequency (UHF broadcasting band. The methodology includes characterization of relevant field measurement scenarios and gives a step-by-step guideline on how to obtain reliable field measurement results to be used in conjunction with link budget analyses, laboratory measurements, and simulations. A survey of potential European coexistence scenarios and regulatory status is given to determine feasible future use scenarios for the UHF television (TV broadcasting band. The DTT reception system behavior and performance are also described as they greatly affect the amount of spectrum potentially available for MBB use and determine the relevant coexistence field measurement scenarios. Simulation methods used in determining broadcast protection criteria and in coexistence studies are briefly described to demonstrate how the information obtained from field measurements can be used to improve their accuracy. The presented field measurement guidelines can be applied to any DTT-MBB coexistence scenarios and to a wide range of spectrum sharing and cognitive radio system coexistence measurements.

  17. Modeling and Results for Creating Oblique Fields in a Magnetic Flux Leakage Survey Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, James C.

    2010-02-01

    Integrity management programs designed to maintain safe pipeline systems quite often will use survey results from In line inspection (ILI) tools in addition to data from other sources. Commonly referred to a "smart pigs," one of the most widely used types are those based upon the magnetic flux leakage technique, typically used to detect and quantify metal loss zones. The majority of pipelines surveyed to date have used tools with the magnetic field direction axially aligned with the length of the pipeline. In order to enable detection and quantification of extremely narrow metal loss features or certain types of weld zone anomalies, tools employing magnetic circuits directing the magnetic fields around the pipe circumference have been designed and are use in segments where these feature categories are a primary concern. Modeling and laboratory test data of metal loss features will be used to demonstrate the response of extremely narrow metal loss zones as the features are rotated relative to the induced field direction. Based upon these results, the basis for developing a magnetizer capable of creating fields oblique to either pipeline axis will be presented along with the magnetic field profile models of several configurations.

  18. a Survey on Topics, Researchers and Cultures in the Field of Digital Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, S.

    2017-08-01

    Digital heritage comprises a broad variety of approaches and topics and involves researchers from multiple disciplines. While the use of digital methods in the text-oriented disciplines dealing with cultural heritage is widely discussed and canonized, an up-to-date investigation on cultural heritage as a scholarly field is currently missing. The extended abstract is about a three-stage investigation on standards, publications, disciplinary cultures as well as scholars in the field of digital heritage, carried out in 2016 and 2017. It includes results of a workshop-based survey involving 44 researchers, 15 qualitative interviews as well as an online survey with nearly 1000 participants. As an overall finding, a community is driven by researchers from European countries and especially Italy with a background in humanities, dealing with topics of data acquisition, data management and visualization. Moreover, conference series are most relevant for a scientific discourse, and especially EU projects set pace as most important research endeavours.

  19. Virtual Vents: A Microbathymetrical Survey of the Niua South Hydrothermal Field, NE Lau Basin, Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Köser, K.; Duda, A.; Jamieson, J. W.; Boschen, R.; Gartman, A.; Hannington, M. D.; Funganitao, C.

    2016-12-01

    At a diameter of 200 m, the 1100 m deep Niua South hydrothermal field (NE Lau Basin) was studied in an interdisciplinary approach during the SOI funded Virtual Vents cruise in March of 2016. On the grounds of a previously generated 50 cm resolution AUV multi beam map, the projects backbone is formed by a fully color textured, 5 cm resolution photogrammetrical 3D model. Several hundred smaller and about 15 chimneys larger than 3 m were surveyed including their basal mounds and surrounding environment interconnecting to each other. This model was populated through exhaustive geological, biological and fluid sampling as well as continuous Eh measurements, forming the basis for highly detailed geological structural and biological studies resulting in 3D maps of the entire field. At a reasonable effort, such surveys form the basis for repetitive time series analysis and have the potential of a new standard in seafloor monitoring.

  20. Results of Field Survey to Evaluate an Experimental Set of Officer Duty Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    that field testing and evaluations should be completed before their designation as duty nodules. -3- rJ SURVEY PROCEDURES Pre- Tesis Pre-tests of...Ai: ct I ,ii .1) ..𔃻 I:II m IM in (1 ’.I „ 1(1 -/jv, :• i «Ti •.l.CX, /fi i i . M lUi . _ 111 171 111 Ml A«.-... i CMMI I

  1. Field survey of occupants thermal comfort in rooms with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchurov, G.; Naidenov, K.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    Field survey of occupants´ response to the thermal environment in eight office buildings with displacement ventilation was performed. The response of 227 occupants (94 males and 133 females) was collected and analysed. A neutral thermal sensation was reported by 37% of the occupants, and between...... is that in rooms with displacement ventilation draught is a major local discomfort factor for the occupants. The effect of vertical temperature difference on occupants´ local discomfort was not evidenced....

  2. Census of the Local Universe (CLU) Hα Galaxy Survey: Characterization of Galaxy Catalogs from Preliminary Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David O.; Kasliwal, Mansi; Van Sistine, Anglea; Kaplan, David; iPTF

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I introduce the Census of the Local Universe (CLU) galaxy survey. The survey uses 4 wavelength-adjacent, narrowband filters to search for emission-line (Hα) sources across ~3π (26,470 deg2) of the sky and out to distance of 200 Mpc. I will present an analysis of galaxy candidates in 14 preliminary fields (out of 3626) to assess the limits of the survey and the potential for finding new galaxies in the local Universe. We anticipate finding tens-of-thousands of new galaxies in the full ~3π survey. In addition, I present some interesting galaxies found in these fields, which include: newly discovered blue compact dwarfs (e.g., blueberries), 1 new green pea, 1 new QSO, and a known planetary nebula. The majority of the CLU galaxies show properties similar to normal star-forming galaxies; however, the newly discovered blueberries tend to have high star formation rates for their given stellar mass.

  3. Uso de regressões logísticas múltiplas para mapeamento digital de solos no Planalto Médio do RS Multiple logistic regression applied to soil survey in rio grande do sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribeiro Figueiredo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Regressões nominais logísticas estabelecem relações matemáticas entre variáveis independentes contínuas ou discretas e variáveis dependentes discretas. Essas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial em predizer a ocorrência e distribuição de classes de solos na região dos municípios de Ibirubá e Quinze de Novembro (RS. A partir de modelo numérico de terreno digital (MNT com 90 m de resolução, foram calculadas variáveis de terreno topográficas (elevação, declividade e curvatura e hidrográficas (distância dos rios, índice de umidade topográfica, comprimento de fluxo de escoamento e índice de poder de escoamento. Foram então estabelecidas regressões logísticas múltiplas entre as classes de solos da região com base em levantamento tradicional na escala 1:80.000 e as variáveis de terreno. As regressões serviram para calcular a probabilidade de ocorrência de cada classe de solo, e o mapa final de solos estimado foi produzido atribuindo-se a cada célula do mapa a denominação da classe de solo com maior probabilidade de ocorrência. Observou-se acurácia geral (AG de 58 % e acurácia pelo coeficiente Kappa de Cohen de 38 %, comparando-se o mapa original com o mapa estimado dentro da escala original. Uma simplificação de escala foi pouco significativa para o aumento da acurácia do mapa, sendo 61 % de AG e 39 % de Kappa. Concluiu-se que as regressões logísticas múltiplas apresentaram potencial preditivo para serem usadas como ferramentas no mapeamento supervisionado de solos.Logistic nominal regressions establish mathematical relations between continuous or discrete independent variables and discrete dependent variables. The prediction potential of the occurrence and distribution of soil classes in the region Ibirubá and Quinze de Novembro, RS, Brazil was evaluated. Using a digital elevation model (DEM with 90 m resolution, were calculated several topographic characteristics (elevation, slope, and curvature and

  4. ILearning and EHomeStudy: Multimedia Training and Assessments for Field Survey Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Loftis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Survey data collection projects strive to collect high quality data from survey respondents. The quality of the data collected is greatly dependent upon the effectiveness of field interviewers (FIs to conduct inperson screenings and interviews. Training FIs and subsequently assessing their knowledge of project protocol, methods and interviewing techniques is critical to the overall success of any data collection effort. For large surveys, as the number of FIs increase, the cost of inperson training can become prohibitively large. As a cost effective solution to increase the quality of the field data, we developed a suite of web and media based training and assessment tools called iLearning and eHomeStudy for training field staff. Besides saving the project costs associated with inperson training, we are also able to provide refresher trainings throughout the year. This application also enables FIs to view standardized training courses at their convenience and at their own pace. This paper describes the technical details, key features and benefits of this application suite, and also it includes some details on user satisfaction and future directions.

  5. Microlensing Surveys of M31 in the Wide Field Imaging ERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, E.

    2004-10-27

    The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is the closest large galaxy to the Milky Way, thus it is an important laboratory for studying massive dark objects in galactic halos (MACHOs) by gravitational microlensing. Such studies strongly complement the studies of the Milky Way halo using the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We consider the possibilities for microlensing surveys of M31 using the next generation of wide field imaging telescopes with fields of view in the square degree range. We consider proposals for such imagers both on the ground and in space. For concreteness, we specialize to the SNAP proposal for a space telescope and the LSST proposal for a ground based telescope. We find that a modest space-based survey of 50 visits of one hour each is considerably better than current ground based surveys covering 5 years. Crucially, systematic effects can be considerably better controlled with a space telescope because of both the infrared sensitivity and the angular resolution. To be competitive, 8 meter class wide-field ground based imagers must take exposures of several hundred seconds with several day cadence.

  6. Field survey of the 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami based on eyewitness interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Martinez, C.; Salado, J.; Rivera, W.

    2016-12-01

    On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the northeastern shore of Hispaniola resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field the tsunami was recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes ever reported in the Caribbean. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from La Isabela to Punta Cana. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field data points measured in 2014 and 2016 were corrected for predicted astronomical tide levels at the time of tsunami arrival

  7. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time, a...

  8. Querying Workflow Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A business process or workflow is an assembly of tasks that accomplishes a business goal. Business process management is the study of the design, configuration/implementation, enactment and monitoring, analysis, and re-design of workflows. The traditional methodology for the re-design and improvement of workflows relies on the well-known sequence of extract, transform, and load (ETL, data/process warehousing, and online analytical processing (OLAP tools. In this paper, we study the ad hoc queryiny of process enactments for (data-centric business processes, bypassing the traditional methodology for more flexibility in querying. We develop an algebraic query language based on “incident patterns” with four operators inspired from Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN representation, allowing the user to formulate ad hoc queries directly over workflow logs. A formal semantics of this query language, a preliminary query evaluation algorithm, and a group of elementary properties of the operators are provided.

  9. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zumberge

    2011-09-30

    Carbon dioxide gas (CO{sub 2}) is a byproduct of many wells that produce natural gas. Frequently the CO{sub 2} separated from the valuable fossil fuel gas is released into the atmosphere. This adds to the growing problem of the climatic consequences of greenhouse gas contamination. In the Sleipner North Sea natural gas production facility, the separated CO{sub 2} is injected into an underground saline aquifer to be forever sequestered. Monitoring the fate of such sequestered material is important - and difficult. Local change in Earth's gravity field over the injected gas is one way to detect the CO{sub 2} and track its migration within the reservoir over time. The density of the injected gas is less than that of the brine that becomes displaced from the pore space of the formation, leading to slight but detectable decrease in gravity observed on the seafloor above the reservoir. Using equipment developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, we have been monitoring gravity over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoir since 2002. We surveyed the field in 2009 in a project jointly funded by a consortium of European oil and gas companies and the US Department of Energy. The value of gravity at some 30 benchmarks on the seafloor, emplaced at the beginning of the monitoring project, was observed in a week-long survey with a remotely operated vehicle. Three gravity meters were deployed on the benchmarks multiple times in a campaign-style survey, and the measured gravity values compared to those collected in earlier surveys. A clear signature in the map of gravity differences is well correlated with repeated seismic surveys.

  10. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  11. SkICAT: A cataloging and analysis tool for wide field imaging surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, N.; Fayyad, U. M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Roden, J.

    1992-01-01

    We describe an integrated system, SkICAT (Sky Image Cataloging and Analysis Tool), for the automated reduction and analysis of the Palomar Observatory-ST ScI Digitized Sky Survey. The Survey will consist of the complete digitization of the photographic Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS-II) in three bands, comprising nearly three Terabytes of pixel data. SkICAT applies a combination of existing packages, including FOCAS for basic image detection and measurement and SAS for database management, as well as custom software, to the task of managing this wealth of data. One of the most novel aspects of the system is its method of object classification. Using state-of-theart machine learning classification techniques (GID3* and O-BTree), we have developed a powerful method for automatically distinguishing point sources from non-point sources and artifacts, achieving comparably accurate discrimination a full magnitude fainter than in previous Schmidt plate surveys. The learning algorithms produce decision trees for classification by examining instances of objects classified by eye on both plate and higher quality CCD data. The same techniques will be applied to perform higher-level object classification (e.g., of galaxy morphology) in the near future. Another key feature of the system is the facility to integrate the catalogs from multiple plates (and portions thereof) to construct a single catalog of uniform calibration and quality down to the faintest limits of the survey. SkICAT also provides a variety of data analysis and exploration tools for the scientific utilization of the resulting catalogs. We include initial results of applying this system to measure the counts and distribution of galaxies in two bands down to Bj is approximately 21 mag over an approximate 70 square degree multi-plate field from POSS-II. SkICAT is constructed in a modular and general fashion and should be readily adaptable to other large-scale imaging surveys.

  12. Radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventory & tracking system and prototype RSM field survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1994-09-01

    Based on very preliminary information, it has been estimated that the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventories at DOE facilities amount to about 1.5 million tons and a much larger amount will be generated from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities. To implement a national DOE program for beneficial reuse of RSM, it will be necessary to known the location and characteristics of RSM inventories that are available and will be generated to match them with product demands. It is the intent of this task to provide a standardized methodology via a RSM database for recording, tracking, and reporting data on RSM inventories. A multiple relational database in dBASE IV was designed and a PC-based code was written in Clipper 5.0 syntax to expedite entry, editing, querying, and reporting of RSM survey data. The PC based-code, the multiple relational database files, and other external files used by the code to generate reports and queries constitute a customized software application called the RSM Inventory & Tracking System (RSM I&TS). A prototype RSM field survey was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to demonstrate the field use of the RSM I&TS and logistics of conducting the survey. During the demonstration, about 50 tons of RSM were sized, characterized, sorted, and packaged in transport containers.

  13. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Slitless Spectrometer: Design, Prototype, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; hide

    2016-01-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  14. The JWST North Ecliptic Pole Survey Field for Time-domain Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rolf A.; Webb Medium Deep Fields IDS GTO Team, the NEPTDS-VLA/VLBA Team, and the NEPTDS-Chandra Team

    2017-06-01

    The JWST North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) Survey field is located within JWST's northern Continuous Viewing Zone, will span ~14‧ in diameter (~10‧ with NIRISS coverage) and will be roughly circular in shape (initially sampled during Cycle 1 at 4 distinct orientations with JWST/NIRCam's 4.4‧×2.2‧ FoV —the JWST "windmill") and will have NIRISS slitless grism spectroscopy taken in parallel, overlapping an alternate NIRCam orientation. This is the only region in the sky where JWST can observe a clean extragalactic deep survey field (free of bright foreground stars and with low Galactic foreground extinction AV) at arbitrary cadence or at arbitrary orientation. This will crucially enable a wide range of new and exciting time-domain science, including high redshift transient searches and monitoring (e.g., SNe), variability studies from Active Galactic Nuclei to brown dwarf atmospheres, as well as proper motions of extreme scattered Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects, and of nearby Galactic brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, and ultracool white dwarfs. We therefore welcome and encourage follow-up through GO programs of the initial GTO observations to realize its potential as a JWST time-domain community field. The JWST NEP Survey field was selected from an analysis of WISE 3.4+4.6 μm, 2MASS JHKs, and SDSS ugriz source counts and of Galactic foreground extinction, and is one of very few such ~10‧ fields that are devoid of sources brighter than mAB = 16 mag. We have secured deep (mAB ~ 26 mag) wide-field (~23‧×25‧) Ugrz images of this field and its surroundings with LBT/LBC. We also expect that deep MMT/MMIRS YJHK images, deep 3-4.5 GHz VLA and VLBA radio observations, and possibly HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS ultraviolet-visible (pending) and Chandra/ACIS X-ray (pending) images will be available before JWST launches in Oct 2018.

  15. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  16. AML (Advanced Mud Logging: First Among Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Loermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years an enormous development in mud logging technology has been made. Traditional mud logging was only qualitative in nature, and mudlogs could not be used for the petrophysical well evaluations which form the basis for all subsequent activities on wells and fields. AML however can provide quantitative information, logs with a reliability, trueness and precision like LWD and WLL. Hence for well evaluation programmes there are now three different logging methods available, each with its own pros and cons on specific aspects: AML, LWD and WLL. The largest improvements have been made in mud gas analysis and elemental analysis of cuttings. Mud gas analysis can yield hydrocarbon fluid composition for some components with a quality like PVT analysis, hence not only revolutionising the sampling programme so far done with only LWD/WLL, but also making it possible to geosteer on fluid properties. Elemental analysis of cuttings, e.g. with XRF, with an ability well beyond the capabilities of the spectroscopy measurements possible earlier with LWD/WLL tools, is opening up improved ways to evaluate formations, especially of course where the traditional methods are falling short of requirements, such as in unconventional reservoirs. An overview and specific examples of these AML logs is given, from which it may be concluded that AML now ought to be considered as “first among its equals”.

  17. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-12-13

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. This report covers 3/19/05 to 9/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and graduate student Scott Nooner finished his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a major part. Three new ROVDOG (Remotely Operated Vehicle deployable Deep Ocean Gravimeter) instruments were also completed with funding from Statoil. The primary changes are increased instrument precision and increased data sampling rate. A second gravity survey was carried out from August to September of 2005, allowing us to begin examining the time-lapse gravity changes caused by the injection of CO{sub 2} into the underground aquifer, known as the Utsira formation. Preliminary processing indicates a repeatability of 3.6 {micro}Gal, comparable to the baseline survey.

  18. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  19. Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and ecology that are likely to affect detectability in the field. We summarize characteristics that can help differentiate Oregon spotted frog life stages from other northwestern ranid frogs encountered during surveys. Appendices include examples of data collection formats and a protocol for disinfecting field gear.

  20. Characterizing the AGN populating the NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Alexander, D.

    2017-10-01

    I will present a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 63 AGN detected in the NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey fields and selected to have bright fluxes in the 8-24 keV energy range. I will report on their properties measured through a broad-band joint NuSTAR+Chandra/XMM spectral analysis. In particular I will discuss on the derived observed/intrinsic column density distribution, Compton Thick and absorption fractions comparing them with Cosmic X-ray Background population synthesis model predictions.

  1. The JCMT BISTRO Survey: The Magnetic Field Strength in the Orion A Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattle, Kate; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Berry, David; Hatchell, Jennifer; Chen, Huei-Ru; Pon, Andy; Koch, Patrick M.; Kwon, Woojin; Kim, Jongsoo; Bastien, Pierre; Cho, Jungyeon; Coudé, Simon; Di Francesco, James; Fuller, Gary; Furuya, Ray S.; Graves, Sarah F.; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason; Kwon, Jungmi; Lee, Chang Won; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mottram, Joseph C.; Parsons, Harriet; Sadavoy, Sarah; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Soam, Archana; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Lai, Shih-Ping; Qiu, Keping; Friberg, Per

    2017-09-01

    We determine the magnetic field strength in the OMC 1 region of the Orion A filament via a new implementation of the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method using observations performed as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) B-Fields In Star-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey with the POL-2 instrument. We combine BISTRO data with archival SCUBA-2 and HARP observations to find a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength in OMC 1 of {B}{pos}=6.6+/- 4.7 mG, where δ {B}{pos}=4.7 mG represents a predominantly systematic uncertainty. We develop a new method for measuring angular dispersion, analogous to unsharp masking. We find a magnetic energy density of ˜ 1.7× {10}-7 J m-3 in OMC 1, comparable both to the gravitational potential energy density of OMC 1 (˜10-7 J m-3) and to the energy density in the Orion BN/KL outflow (˜10-7 J m-3). We find that neither the Alfvén velocity in OMC 1 nor the velocity of the super-Alfvénic outflow ejecta is sufficiently large for the BN/KL outflow to have caused large-scale distortion of the local magnetic field in the ˜500 yr lifetime of the outflow. Hence, we propose that the hourglass field morphology in OMC 1 is caused by the distortion of a primordial cylindrically symmetric magnetic field by the gravitational fragmentation of the filament and/or the gravitational interaction of the BN/KL and S clumps. We find that OMC 1 is currently in or near magnetically supported equilibrium, and that the current large-scale morphology of the BN/KL outflow is regulated by the geometry of the magnetic field in OMC 1, and not vice versa.

  2. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  3. The past, present and future of tsunami field surveys post-Samoa, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, J. C.; Synolakis, C.; Okal, E.; Liu, P.; Titov, V. V.; Jaffe, B. E.; Fritz, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    During the past 17 years, field surveys following significant tsunamis have aimed to accurately document tsunami effects by gathering runup, inundation and sediment data while providing outreach and education to affected populations. Field observations have led to insights on tsunami dynamics which are now largely taken for granted, such as the existence of leading depression N-waves, the importance of beach topography to first order, underwater landslides as a tsunami source, and the value of public education in reducing deaths. For these surveys, an ad-hoc, interdisciplinary group of scientists under the banner of the International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) aims to begin work in affected areas after search and rescue operations have ceased but before significant cleanup work begins. Time is of the essence in these efforts; in East Java 1994, bulldozers were cleaning up almost immediately, while in Samoa, after one week, a robust cleanup effort in some areas had left almost no evidence of the catastrophe. Eyewitness accounts, often used to provide input on wave kinematics, tend to rapidly converge on a common story rather than an individual's direct observation. The team works to quell rumors of impending tsunamis by organizing educational talks where the natural phenomenon is explained and simple steps for self-evacuation are repeated. When invited, debriefings are provided to local authorities (i.e. Nicaragua 1992, Mindoro 1994, PNG 1998, Vanuatu 1999, Peru 2001/2007, Sumatra 2004, Solomon 2007), and local scientists are engaged to be part of the survey team and generally included as coauthors on subsequent publications (i.e. Peru 2001/2007, PNG 2002, Sri Lanka 2005, Java 2006, Bengkulu 2007). In past surveys, logistics have ranged from difficult to nearly impossible (i.e. Somalia, 2005), yet outreach remains a priority; whether it is educating village chiefs in Vanuatu, relief managers in PNG, government ministers in the Maldives or assuring tribes in the

  4. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-17

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  5. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  6. Surveying all public drinking water fountains in a city: outdoor field observations and Google Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2018-02-01

    Drinking fountains are a public amenity that may help counter the obesogenic environment (sugary beverages) and reduce the risk of heat stroke during heat waves. As a case study, we aimed to survey all public fountains in a city: Wellington, New Zealand, and to determine the utility of Google Street View in studying drinking fountains. Using a sample of all public drinking fountains in a City Council map, a field observer assessed their exact location and tap functionality, and photographed them. Google Street View was also used by the field observer and an independent observer to attempt fountain detection. There were 47 fountains, found in only 6% of children's playgrounds and 29% of the parks (for a sample of the 10 largest suburbs). While the field observations showed that all 74 taps at the fountains delivered water, only 47% had taps for easy filling of drinking water bottles, and only 15% had bowls for dogs to drink from. Visible discolouration from algae/metal degradation was adjacent to 47% of nozzles. Google Street View detection of fountains by the field observer was successful for 68% and for 52% by the independent observer. The fountains were of generally high quality, but discolouration around the nozzle was common. Implications for public health: Additional investment in public fountains may be needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Emission-Line Galaxies from the HST PEARS Grism Survey Southern Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; Cohen, S.; Windhorst, R.; Malhotra, S.; Gardner, J.; Rhoads, J.; Hathi, N.; Xu, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have detected a sample of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from the PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) HST/ACS grism survey Southern Fields. The PEARS Southern Fields consist of five ACS pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. Using a 2-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines orginating from 230 galaxy ``knots'' within 203 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. Our detection method has allowed us to observe emission lines from distinct giant star-forming regions across individual galaxies at redshifts z 0.5. We find that the radial distances of these HII regions generally reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant HII regions in local galaxies.

  8. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-07-11

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/04 to 3/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and work graduate student Scott Nooner began writing his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a the major part. Improvements to the gravimeters are also underway that will hopefully increase the measurement precision.

  9. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Ola Eiken

    2004-11-29

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 3/18/04 to 9/19/04. During this time, we participated in several CO{sub 2} sequestration-related meetings and conferences. On March 29, 2004, we participated in the 2004 Carbon Sequestration Project Review Meeting for the Department of Energy in Pittsburgh, PA. During the week of May 2, 2004, we attended and presented at the Third Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Alexandria, VA. Finally, during the week of August 8, 2004, we took part in the U.S.-Norway, CO{sub 2} Summer School in Santa Fe, NM. Additional modeling was also completed, examining the seismic velocity pushdown estimates from the gravity models and the expected deformation of the seafloor due to the injected CO{sub 2}.

  10. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  11. Text files of the navigation logged by HYPACK during the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2014 (Geographic, WGS 84, HYPACK ASCII Text Files)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical and sampling survey in October 2014 that focused on a series of shoreface-attached ridges offshore of...

  12. Induction logging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, A.R.; Landt, J.A.

    An instrument is disclosed for mapping vertical conductive fractures in a resistive bedrock, magnetically inducing eddy currents by a pair of vertically oriented, mutually perpendicular, coplanar coils. The eddy currents drive magnetic fields which are picked up by a second, similar pair of coils.

  13. Precision Pointing for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope(WFIRST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Welter, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for a mid-2020's launch, is currently in its definition phase. The mission is designed to investigate essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. WFIRST will use a 2.4-meter primary telescope (same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror) and two instruments: the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) and the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). In order to address the critical science requirements, the WFIRST mission will conduct large-scale surveys of the infrared sky, requiring both agility and precision pointing (11.6 milli-arcsec stability, 14 milli-arcsec jitter). This paper describes some of the challenges this mission profile presents to the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) subsystem, and some of the design elements chosen to accommodate those challenges. The high-galactic-latitude survey is characterized by 3-minute observations separated by slews ranging from 0.025 deg to 0.8 deg. The need for observation efficiency drives the slew and settle process to be as rapid as possible. A description of the shaped slew profile chosen to minimize excitation of structural oscillation, and the handoff from star tracker-gyro control to fine guidance sensor control is detailed. Also presented is the fine guidance sensor (FGS), which is integral with the primary instrument (WFI). The FGS is capable of tracking up to 18 guide stars, enabling robust FGS acquisition and precision pointing. To avoid excitation of observatory structural jitter, reaction wheel speeds are operationally maintained within set limits. In addition, the wheel balance law is designed to maintain 1-Hz separation between the wheel speeds to avoid reinforcing jitter excitation at any particular frequency. The wheel balance law and operational implications are described. Finally, the candidate GNC hardware suite needed to meet the requirements of the mission is presented.

  14. NIR Imaging of the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Akari Nep Survey Team

    2008-02-01

    We propose to perform J- and H-band wide-field imaging of the north ecliptic pole (NEP) area which has been surveyed by the AKARI Infrared Space Telescope. The NEP-Wide survey, one of the AKARI's key scientific programs, images a 5.8 deg^2 circular area centered on the north ecliptic pole with contiguous 9 passbands between 2.5 and 24 (micron) to the flux limit ranging from 15 (mu)Jy to 500 (mu)Jy (plus FIR data), including 11, 15, and 18 (micron) bands where the Spitzer has limitations. Thus, NEP-Wide is the only wide-area IR survey that allows us to study the evolution of various mid-IR features from z=0 to z=2 such as PAHs, silicate absorptions, and power-slopes of AGNs, and their connection to IR-luminosity, star formation and AGN activities of IR sources not bright enough for the Spitzer spectroscopy. Optical imaging as well as radio/X-ray data exist over this field, however there is a gaping hole at NIR between the AKARI and the optical coverage. In order to fill the wavelength gap, we propose to obtain J-, and H-band images to 15 (mu)Jy at 5-σ using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-m. Filling the hole in the spectral energy distribution will significantly increase the value of the NEP-Wide dataset by permitting us to add more accurate stellar mass and photo-z estimates, and also a large number of SEDs from optical to IR without a gap in wavelength coverage.

  15. Review of log sort yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Rusty Dramm; Gerry L. Jackson; Jenny Wong

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of current log sort yard operations in the United States, including an extensive literature review and information collected during on-site visits to several operations throughout the nation. Log sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by concentrating, merchandising, processing, sorting, and adding value to...

  16. SNG-logs at Skjern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Petersen, Jesper; Aage, Helle Karina

    1998-01-01

    Spectral Natural Gamma-ray logs have been run in two water supply borings at Skjern. The log data have been examined by a new technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - in order to get a detailed and reliable picture of the distribution of uranium and thorium gamma-rays from heavy...

  17. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Department of Energy (DOE) activities at Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Ventura County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) activities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratories Site (DOE/SSFL), conducted May 16 through 26, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by an private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with DOE activities at SSFL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at SSFL, and interviews with site personnel. 90 refs., 17 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  20. Comparison of LogMAR Eye charts with angular vision for visually impaired: the Berkeley rudimentary vision test vs LogMAR One target Landolt ring Eye chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Marie; Iwanami, Masaki; Oba, Mari S; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Nishida, Tomomi

    2013-12-01

    It is not common to quantify visual acuity worse than 2.0 logarithm of the minimal angle resolution (logMAR) (commensurate with decimal visual acuity 0.01) at ophthalmology clinics. Recently, the Berkeley rudimentary vision test (BRVT) was developed as a simple measurement tool of logMAR with angular vision for quantifying poor levels of visual acuity. We compared the difference between BRVT and conventional Landolt ring logMAR chart with angular vision measured by the logMAR one target Landolt ring eye chart (LogMAR LEC). We reviewed 110 patients with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the better eye from light perception (LP) to 0.8 logMAR measured by LogMAR LEC. The reproducibility of the log MAR LEC and BRVT was evaluated on 39 eyes from 20 patients, and 33 eyes from 20 patients respectively. The comparison of logMAR between BRVT and logMAR LEC was evaluated by surveying 61 eyes from 70 patients. In addition, regardless of their BCVA, the eyes from patients with worse than 2.0 logMAR by LogMAR LEC were re-evaluated by BRVT. The logMAR of patients examined by BRVT or logMAR LEC did not show any significant difference between the first and second examinations, and there was a strong correlation between the examinations in both eye charts. The BRVT significantly produced better logMAR compared with logMAR LEC, and the strong correlation was shown between both eye charts. Although 35 eyes from 28 patients among 110 patients could not be quantified by logMAR LEC, 18 eyes of 35 eyes could be quantified logMAR by BRVT. The BRVT and logMAR LEC are reliable visual acuity measurement tools. Moreover, the BRVT is potentially effective in quantifying visual acuity of the more severe visually impaired patients.

  1. Pharmacological Neuroenhancement in the field of economics. Poll results from an online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel eDietz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of over-the-counter, prescription, and illicit drugs to increase attention, concentration or memory – often called (pharmacological neuroenhancement – shows a broad range of prevalence rates among students. However, very little data is available on neuroenhancement among employed persons. The aim of this study was to provide first data on substance use for neuroenhancement among readers of the German Handelsblatt coming from the field of economics.Methods: Readers of the online edition of the Handelsblatt, a leading print and online medium for the field of economics, were invited to participate in a survey via a link on the journal homepage to complete a web-based questionnaire. Within the questionnaire, participants were asked for their gender, current age, current professional status, hours of work per week, prevalence rates of substance use for the purpose of neuroenhancement as well as for reasons of its use. Binary regression analyses with stepwise forward selection were used to predict the dependent variables use of illicit and prescription drugs for neuroenhancement (yes/no, use of over-the-counter drugs for neuroenhancement (yes/no, and use of any drug for neuroenhancement (yes/no.Results: A total of 1,021 participants completed the anonymous survey. Lifetime prevalence for the use of any drug for neuroenhancement was 88.0% and for the use of illicit and prescription drugs for neuroenhancement 19.0%. Reasons and situations that predicted neuroenhancement with illicit and prescription drugs were curiosity, to enhance mood, for a confident appearance, stress/pressure to perform, and deadline pressure.Discussion: The study shows that neuroenhancement with drugs is a widespread and frequent phenomenon among people belonging to the professional field of economics. Given in the literature that the use of drugs, especially prescription and illicit drugs, may be associated with side effects, the high epidemic of drug

  2. Convergence of posteriors for discretized log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    In Markov chain Monte Carlo posterior computation for log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) a discretization of the continuously indexed Gaussian field is required. It is demonstrated that approximate posterior expectations computed from discretized LGCPs converge to the exact posterior expectations...

  3. Logging damage in thinned, young-growth true fir stands in California and recommendations for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Mike. Srago

    1983-01-01

    Logging-damage surveys and tree-dissection studies were made in commercially thinned, naturally established young-growth true fir stands in the Lassen National Forest in northern California. Significant damage occurred to residual trees in stands logged by conventional methods. Logging damage was substantially lower in stands thinned using techniques designed to reduce...

  4. Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees Report Harassment and Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Nelson, Robin G.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932

  5. Preliminary Field Report of the United States Geological Survey of Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer

    1869-01-01

    SIR : In accordance with your instructions dated Washington, April 1, 1869, I have the honor to transmit my preliminary field report of the United States geological survey of Colorado and New Mexico, conducted by me, under your direction, during the past season. A portion of your instructions is as follows :  “You will proceed to the field of your labors as soon as the necessary arrangements can be made and the season will permit, and your attention will be especially directed to the geological, mineralogical and agricultural resources of the Territories herein designated; you will be required to ascertain the age, order of succession, relative position, dip, and comparative thickness of the different strata and geological formations, and examine with care all the beds, veins, and other deposits, of ores, coals, clays, marls, peat, and other mineral substances, as well as the fossil remains of the different formations; and you will also make full collections in geology, mineralogy, and paleontology, to illustrate your notes taken in the field.”

  6. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE: trainees report harassment and assault.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn B H Clancy

    Full Text Available Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666 to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.

  7. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE): trainees report harassment and assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.

  8. An Optically Faint Quasar Survey at z ˜ 5 in the CFHTLS Wide Field: Estimates of the Black Hole Masses and Eddington Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, H.; Nagao, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Kawakatu, N.; Kajisawa, M.; Akiyama, M.; Miyaji, T.; Morokuma, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present the result of our spectroscopic follow-up observation for faint quasar candidates at z ˜ 5 in part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey wide field. We select nine photometric candidates and identify three z ˜ 5 faint quasars, one z ˜ 4 faint quasar, and a late-type star. Since two faint quasar spectra show the C IV emission line without suffering from a heavy atmospheric absorption, we estimate their black hole masses ({M}{BH}) and Eddington ratios (L/{L}{Edd}). The inferred {log}{M}{BH} are 9.04 ± 0.14 and 8.53 ± 0.20, respectively. In addition, the inferred {log}(L/{L}{Edd}) are -1.00 ± 0.15 and -0.42 ± 0.22, respectively. If we adopt that L/{L}{Edd}={constant} {or}\\propto {(1+z)}2, the seed black hole masses ({M}{seed}) of our z ˜ 5 faint quasars are expected to be > {10}5 {M}⊙ in most cases. We also compare the observational results with a mass accretion model, where angular momentum is lost due to supernova explosions. Accordingly, {M}{BH} of the z ˜ 5 faint quasars in our sample can be explained even if {M}{seed} is ˜ {10}3 {M}⊙ . Since z ˜ 6 luminous qusars and our z ˜ 5 faint quasars are not on the same evolutionary track, z ˜ 6 luminous quasars and our z ˜ 5 quasars are not the same populations but different populations, due to the difference of a period of the mass supply from host galaxies. Furthermore, we confirm that one can explain {M}{BH} of z ˜ 6 luminous quasars and our z ˜ 5 faint quasars even if their seed black holes are formed at z ˜ 7.

  9. Pairing field methods to improve inference in wildlife surveys while accommodating detection covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, John; McKinney, Shawn T.; DePue, John E.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2017-01-01

    It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another. This assumption is tenuous if methods are paired or deployed in close proximity simultaneously, a common practice that reduces the additional effort required to implement multiple methods and reduces the risk that differences between method-specific detection parameters are confounded by other environmental factors. We develop occupancy and spatial capture–recapture models that permit covariance between the detections produced by different methods, use simulation to compare estimator performance of the new models to models assuming independence, and provide an empirical application based on American marten (Martes americana) surveys using paired remote cameras, hair catches, and snow tracking. Simulation results indicate existing models that assume that methods independently detect organisms produce biased parameter estimates and substantially understate estimate uncertainty when this assumption is violated, while our reformulated models are robust to either methodological independence or covariance. Empirical results suggested that remote cameras and snow tracking had comparable probability of detecting present martens, but that snow tracking also produced false-positive marten detections that could potentially substantially bias distribution estimates if not corrected for. Remote cameras detected marten

  10. The ALMA Frontier Fields Survey. II. Multiwavelength Photometric analysis of 1.1 mm continuum sources in Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403 and MACSJ1149.5+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Bauer, F. E.; Troncoso-Iribarren, P.; Huang, X.; González-López, J.; Kim, S.; Anguita, T.; Aravena, M.; Barrientos, L. F.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Brammer, G.; Carrasco, M.; Carvajal, R.; Coe, D.; Demarco, R.; Ellis, R. S.; Ford, H.; Francke, H.; Ibar, E.; Infante, L.; Kneissl, R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Messias, H.; Muñoz Arancibia, A.; Nagar, N.; Padilla, N.; Pelló, R.; Postman, M.; Quénard, D.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Treister, E.; Villard, E.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope surveys of the Frontier Fields provide extremely deep images around six massive, strong-lensing clusters of galaxies. The ALMA Frontier Fields survey aims to cover the same fields at 1.1 mm, with maps reaching (unlensed) sensitivities of 5σ) sources in the first three Frontier Fields clusters observed by ALMA, based on data from Hubble and Spitzer, the Very Large Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. Methods: We measure the total photometry in all available bands and determine the photometric redshifts and the physical properties of the counterparts via SED-fitting. In particular, we carefully estimate the far-infrared (FIR) photometry using 1.1 mm priors to limit the misidentification of blended FIR counterparts, which strongly affect some flux estimates in previous FIR catalogs. Due to the extremely red nature of these objects, we used a large range of parameters (e.g. 0.0 survey for which we can reproduce their SEDs with existing templates. This verification confirms the validity of our photometric redshift methodology. The mean redshift of our sample is zphot = 1.99 ± 0.27. All 1.1 mm selected objects are massive (10.0 < log [ M⋆(M⊙) ] < 11.5), with high star formation rates (⟨ log [ SFR(M⊙/ yr) ] ⟩ ≈ 1.6) and high dust contents (8.1 < log [ Mdust(M⊙) ] < 8.8), consistent with previous ALMA surveys.

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. XIII. ACS/WFC Parallel-Field Catalogues★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Aparicio, A.; Piotto, G.; Milone, A. P.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Cunial, A.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters, 110 parallel fields were observed with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys, in the outskirts of 48 globular clusters, plus the open cluster NGC 6791. Totalling about 0.3 square degrees of observed sky, this is the largest homogeneous Hubble Space Telescope photometric survey of Galalctic globular clusters outskirts to date. In particular, two distinct pointings have been obtained for each target on average, all centred at about 6.5 arcmin from the cluster centre, thus covering a mean area of about 23 arcmin2 for each globular cluster. For each field, at least one exposure in both F475W and F814W filters was collected. In this work, we publicly release the astrometric and photometric catalogues and the astrometrised atlases for each of these fields.

  12. Morpho-kinematic properties of field S0 bulges in the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Costantin, L.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Zhu, L.; Sánchez-Blazquez, P.; Florido, E.; Corsini, E. M.; Wild, V.; Lyubenova, M.; van de Ven, G.; Sánchez, S. F.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    We study a sample of 28 S0 galaxies extracted from the integral field spectroscopic (IFS) survey Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area. We combine an accurate two-dimensional (2D) multicomponent photometric decomposition with the IFS kinematic properties of their bulges to understand their formation scenario. Our final sample is representative of S0s with high stellar masses (M⋆/M⊙ > 1010). They lay mainly on the red sequence and live in relatively isolated environments similar to that of the field and loose groups. We use our 2D photometric decomposition to define the size and photometric properties of the bulges, as well as their location within the galaxies. We perform mock spectroscopic simulations mimicking our observed galaxies to quantify the impact of the underlying disc on our bulge kinematic measurements (λ and v/σ). We compare our bulge corrected kinematic measurements with the results from Schwarzschild dynamical modelling. The good agreement confirms the robustness of our results and allows us to use bulge deprojected values of λ and v/σ. We find that the photometric (n and B/T) and kinematic (v/σ and λ) properties of our field S0 bulges are not correlated. We demonstrate that this morpho-kinematic decoupling is intrinsic to the bulges and it is not due to projection effects. We conclude that photometric diagnostics to separate different types of bulges (disc-like versus classical) might not be useful for S0 galaxies. The morpho-kinematics properties of S0 bulges derived in this paper suggest that they are mainly formed by dissipational processes happening at high redshift, but dedicated high-resolution simulations are necessary to better identify their origin.

  13. FIELD SURVEY OF THE DECEMBER 26, 2004 TSUNAMI AT KANYAKUMARI, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bapat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami of 26th December 2004 in the Indian Ocean impacted the town of Kanyakumari at the very southern tip of India. On a coastline of about 4.8 km in length, the tsunami amplitudes varied from about 1.5 m to about 9.5 m. The horizontal extent of inundation ranged from a few meters to about 1,000. The large tsunami run-up variations over such a short distance were caused by wave convergences and divergences due to local shoreline geometry, its orientation and the near shore bathymetric gradients. Apparently, the physical process of quarter wave resonance amplification also played a significant role in enhancing the tsunami run-up at certain locations. The present study reports on the results of the field survey as well as on information gathered through eyewitness accounts.

  14. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda; Moore, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM. PMID:28982147

  15. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS): a Field Test among Mexican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field-testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language; immigrant status; work issues; yearning for family and home country; and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (1-5 scale, higher is more stress). Cronbach's alphas >.80 for all sub-scales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women. PMID:26605954

  16. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey: A Field Test Among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A; Stewart, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language, immigrant status, work issues, yearning for family and home country, and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (a scale of 1-5, higher is more stress). Cronbach α values were more than 0.80 for all subscales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women.

  17. San Pedro meeting on Wide Field Variability Surveys: Some concluding comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feast Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a written version of the closing talk at the 22nd Los Alamos Stellar pulsation conference on wide field variability surveys. It comments on some of the issues which arise from the meeting. These include the need for attention to photometric standardization (especially in the infrared and the somewhat controversial problem of statistical bias in the use of parallaxes (and other methods of distance determination. Some major advances in the use of pulsating variables to study Galactic structure are mentioned. The paper includes a clarification of apparently conflicting results from classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars in the inner Galaxy and bulge. The importance of understanding non-periodic phenomena in variable stars, particularly asymptotic giant branch variables and R Coronae Borealis stars, is stressed, especially for its relevance to mass-loss in which pulsation may only play a minor role.

  18. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Meredith; Davies, Amanda; Moore, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  19. Development of multi-frequency array induction logging (MAIL) tool. Part 4; Multi shuhasu array gata induction kenso (MAIL) tool no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Otsuka, K.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    NEDO is now carrying out `the deep-seated geothermal resource survey` with the aim of surveying deep geothermal resource lying 3,000m below sea level. `The development of resistivity use investigation technology` being carried out as element technology for this survey conducts well surveys and earth surface-well surveys using the drilled deep wells. By analyzing these surveys together with electromagnetic method surveys including the MT method carried out on the earth surface, the survey was aimed at grasping in high resolution resistivity structures from the shallow underground to the deep underground. The multi-frequency array induction logging being researched as the well survey is a method to grasp resistivity structures within a radius of several meters of the well using the electromagnetic logging method. The paper reported the field test conducted this time using the improved tool. A comparison of the data obtained in the test with the results of the normal logging showed consistency, and therefore, it showed that the tool itself fully grasped responses from strata. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-530, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  1. THE TEAM KECK REDSHIFT SURVEY 2: MOSFIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Gregory D.; Kassis, Marc; Lyke, Jim; Rizzi, Luca; Campbell, Randy; Goodrich, Robert W. [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Liu, Fengshan; Faber, S. M., E-mail: gregory.wirth@gmail.com [University of California Observatories, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present the Team Keck Redshift Survey 2 (TKRS2), a near-infrared spectral observing program targeting selected galaxies within the CANDELS subsection of the GOODS-North Field. The TKRS2 program exploits the unique capabilities of the Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE), which entered service on the Keck I telescope in 2012 and contributes substantially to the study of galaxy spectral features at redshifts inaccessible to optical spectrographs. The TKRS2 project targets 97 galaxies drawn from samples that include z ≈ 2 emission-line galaxies with features observable in the JHK bands as well as lower-redshift targets with features in the Y band. We present a detailed measurement of MOSFIRE’s sensitivity as a function of wavelength, including the effects of telluric features across the YJHK filters. The largest utility of our survey is in providing rest-frame-optical emission lines for z > 1 galaxies, and we demonstrate that the ratios of strong, optical emission lines of z ≈ 2 galaxies suggest the presence of either higher N/O abundances than are found in z ≈ 0 galaxies or low-metallicity gas ionized by an active galactic nucleus. We have released all TKRS2 data products into the public domain to allow researchers access to representative raw and reduced MOSFIRE spectra.

  2. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  3. Characteristics of plant concentration ratios assessed in a 64-site field survey of 23 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment)

    1990-01-01

    Many of the statistical characteristics of plant concentration ratios (CRs) and translocation factors (TFs) have not been critically assessed, especially in field surveys. The statistical characteristics, particularly the measures of variation, are important for stochastic modelling of plant uptake. The CR and TF values for 23 naturally occurring elements throughout the geographic range of one plant species, blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), in Canada were surveyed. Although the ratios imply linear relationships, the numerator concentrations were not closely correlated with the denominator concentrations. The variation in the ratios was not clearly related to the means or to characteristics of the elements. The overall geometric standard deviation for CRs was 2.5 and for TFs was 1.6. The values of CR were intercorrelated for certain groups of elements and these groups reflected the periodic classification of elements. Thus, correlation between elements in stochastic models, which may reduce overall variability, is valid. Site variables such as soil pH, soil bulk density, soil fertility and plant growth condition were only slightly useful in statistically explaining some of the variation in CR values. (author).

  4. The World Health Survey: a report on the field experience in Brazil Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde: relato da experiência de campo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Otavio de Azevedo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the field experience with the World Health Survey in Brazil with the aim of collaborating in the development and enhancement of the methodology and analyzing interview questions based on the interviewers' experience. The authors comment on the field experience and application of the questionnaire, based on reports by regional coordinators and interviewers, in order to shed light on the context in which the interviews took place. The article reports on how the respondents grasped and interpreted the questionnaire. The authors propose improvements in interviewer training and simple interview reporting measures aimed at improved logistics with such nationwide survey instruments.O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar as experiências de campo da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde no Brasil com o intuito de colaborar com o desenvolvimento e aprimoramento da metodologia e analisar questões do questionário confrontando-as com a experiência dos entrevistadores. Comentou-se sobre a experiência de campo e a aplicação do questionário aproveitando-se relatos de coordenadores regionais e dos entrevistadores para conhecer o contexto em que transcorreram as entrevistas. Foram relatadas as experiências com relação ao entendimento e compreensão do questionário por parte dos entrevistados. Os autores propõem melhorias na forma de treinamento dos entrevistadores e medidas simples para que elas possam ser relatadas visando o aprimoramento da logística na aplicação de instrumentos desta abrangência territorial.

  5. A systematic review of counterfeit and substandard medicines in field quality surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghannam AFA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdulaziz Fahad Abdulaziz Alghannam, Zoe Aslanpour, Sara Evans, Fabrizio Schifano Department of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom Objectives: Counterfeit and substandard medicines pose a great threat to public health and the economy worldwide. Reports suggest their prevalence is increasing and can no longer be ignored. A detailed account on the current nature of the problem and identification of knowledge limitations in terms of geographical location, medicine classes, and type of medicine analysis performed is not available. Our objective was to systematically review articles that have reported investigations of counterfeit and substandard medicines. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge. Data Selection: Prospective field quality surveys on counterfeit and substandard medicines were selected from all available records within the selected databases up to December 31, 2013. All prospective studies performing chemical analysis on medicine samples were identified using the key search terms “counterfeit” or “substandard” and “medicine” or “drug” or “pharmaceutical.” The title, abstract, and/or full articles were reviewed for relevance according to a predetermined set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Medicines procured from the Internet are beyond the scope of this review. Results: Sixty-six research articles were found that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The majority of medicine quality surveys were conducted in specific areas of Africa and Asia. Within these two continents, medicine quality reports covering the Northern part of Africa and the Western part of Asia in the Middle East are extremely scarce. Other continents such as North or South America and Europe were covered in limited articles, whereas the Australian continent had no reports. Moreover, most studies examined medicines that treat infectious diseases; very few articles

  6. Survey management in directional wells in Polvo Field - Campos Basin; Gerenciamento de 'surveys' em pocos direcionais no Campo de Polvo - Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Fernando; Antunes, Francisco; Rafainer, Gilberto [HALLIBURTON, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sperry Drilling Services; Ohara, Shiniti [Devon Energy do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic Surveying Techniques are fully used in order to control the well path in drilling operations, and electronic tools, known as Measure While Drilling (MWD), uses the intensity and inclination of Earth's magnetic field as a reference for its inputs. These tools have three magnetometers and three accelerometers spaced 90 degrees apart which measure the components of magnetic field and gravitational field to calculate the inclination, the direction of the well, and the tool face orientation. Erroneous readings can occur due to the magnetic interference since the Earth magnetic field can be affected by external sources such as, magnetized materials in the BHA (axial), casings strings or near by wells (cross axial), and these abnormal readings are enough to put the well bore far away from its desired location. In this paper we intend to show the methodology and software usage to allow magnetic field strength exam and identification of systematic failures in mechanization or calibration of the electronics tools. Moreover, the use of enhancements as In-Field Referencing (IFR) or Interpolated In Field Referencing (IIFR) in sensors calculation are described. Furthermore, the results obtained comparing the solutions with gyroscope survey data is shown. (author)

  7. Red horizontal branch stars in the Galactic field: A chemical abundance survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fo B.-Q.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large sample survey of Galactic red horizontal-branch (RHB stars was conducted to investigate their atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances. High-resolution spectra of 76 Galactic field stars were obtained with the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. Only the color and the parallax were considered during the selection of the field stars. Equivalent width or synthetic spectrum analyses were used in order to determine the relative abundances of the following elements: proton-capture elements C, N, O and Li, alpha-elements Ca and Si, and neutron-capture elements Eu and La. Additionally, 12C/13C isotopic ratios were derived by using the CN features mainly located in the 7995 − 8040 Å spectral region. The evaluation of effective temperatures, surface gravities and 12C/13C isotopic ratios together with evolutionary stages of the candidates revealed that 18 out of 76 stars in our sample are probable RHBs. Including both kinematic and evolutionary status information, we conclude that we have five thick disk and 13 thin disk RHB stars in our sample. Although RHB stars have been regarded as thick disk members of the Galaxy, the low-velocity RHBs with a solar metallicity in our sample suggests the existence of a large number of thin disk RHBs, which cannot be easily explained by standard stellar evolutionary models.

  8. Calibration of BVRI Photometry for the Wide Field Channel of the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Shaw, Richard A.; Claver, Jennifer A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-04-01

    We present new observations of two Galactic globular clusters, PAL4 and PAL14, using the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and reanalyze archival data from a third, NGC2419. We matched our photometry of hundreds of stars in these fields from the ACS images to existing ground-based photometry of faint sequences that were calibrated on the standard BVRI system of Landolt. These stars are significantly fainter than those generally used for HST calibration purposes and therefore are much better matched to supporting precision photometry of ACS science targets. We were able to derive more accurate photometric transformation coefficients for the commonly used ACS broadband filters, compared with those published by Sirianni et al., due to the use of a factor of several more calibration stars that span a greater range of color. We find that the inferred transformations from each cluster individually do not vary significantly from the average, except for a small offset of the photometric zero point in the F850LP filter. Our results suggest that the published prescriptions for the time-dependent correction of CCD charge transfer efficiency appear to work very well over the ˜3.5 yr interval that spans our observations of PAL4 and PAL14 and the archived images of NGC2419.

  9. Occurrence of Neophytes in Agrophytocoenoses – Field Survey in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kolářová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neophytes belong to a group of non‑native plants, which were introduced by man either intentionally or unintentionally in different ways. The discovery of America is a historical milestone for non-native plant research. Most scientists use the term neophyte for species introduced after the year 1500. Neophytes became progressively more numerous in arable fields and their proportion significantly increased during the second half of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of neophytes in arable fields in the Czech Republic in terms of applied management systems, crops, and environmental site conditions at different altitudes. In the years 2006 to 2008, a phytocoenological survey was conducted on selected farms across the Czech Republic under various climate and soil conditions in spring and winter cereals and in wide‑row crops. Totally, 172 weed species were found. Among these species, 8 % were considered as neophytes (13 species. In respect of their stage of invasiveness, 6 neophytes were considered as invasive, 6 species as naturalized and 1 species was considered as casual. Frequencies of neophyte species we found ranged between 0.3 – 31 % from all relevés. Environmental site conditions associated with altitude were the most important factors correlated with the occurrence of neophytes. The incidence of neophytes is primarily concentrated at lower altitudes and is mainly associated with stands of spring wide‑row crops, especially root crops and vegetables. A higher proportion of neophytes was found in organic farming.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  11. Raw HYPACK navigation logs (text) collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from sand shoals of Vineyard Sound and the eastern Elizabeth Islands, MA, August 2011 (2011-013-FA_hypack)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  12. Text Files of the DGPS Navigation Logged with HYPACK Software During SEABOSS Operations on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2010-010-FA from April 17 to April 18, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  13. 2013-005-FA_HYPACK: Text Files of the DGPS Navigation Logged with HYPACK Software on U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 2013-005-FA from June 17 to June 20, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  14. Logging Concessions and Local Livelihoods in Cameroon: from Indifference to Alliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lescuyer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management gives the opportunity to better integrate the way local populations use their customary "village terroirs" in the logging activities. This requirement is explicitly stated in all forest laws of the Congo Basin countries but its implementation on the field remains under documented. In Cameroon, 30 forest management plans (FMP for logging concessions have been reviewed to assess how they effectively include customary use rights. The integration of use rights into the FMPs is heterogeneous but always with very low enforcement. The weak influence of the FMP application on local practices is confirmed with an empirical survey that shows that natural, financial, and physical capitals in two villages of the eastern region of Cameroon have been little affected by the adjoining logging concession over the latest 13 years. Extrasector policies such as agriculture, road infrastructure, techniques, and land tenure are the real drivers of socioeconomic change at the local scale. Their impacts are facilitated by the presence of the logging concessions, which can contribute indirectly to improve local livelihoods.

  15. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  16. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  17. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  18. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  19. A new approach to UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Field Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L. S.; Steffen, J.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Biukoto, L.; Titimaea, A.; Thaman, R.; Vaa, R.

    2009-12-01

    -sensitive and appropriate way and, (b) outputs achieved were relevant to both GoS and ITST scientists; (2) was interdisciplinary and multisectoral to capture a thorough understanding; and (3) used a ‘coupled human-environment systems framework’ to examine vulnerability and resilience before, during and after the tsunami. ITST succeeded because of (1) the scientists’ strong desire to share their knowledge; (2) GoS’s belief that science will improve disaster risk reduction practices; (3) immediate engagement of UN and regional organizations to provide an umbrella framework for working together; (4) local support to provide the ITST’s command center and; (5) dedicated Science Coordinators to manage the scientific planning, logistics, information sharing, and Report preparation. In 2010, UNESCO/IOC will revise its Post-Tsunami Field Survey Guide to document ITST-Samoa best practices and so provide guidance for future International Tsunami Survey Teams.

  20. A Primer for Conducting Survey Research Using MTurk: Tips for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Silvana; Nimon, Kim; Anthony-McMann, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents best practices for conducting survey research using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Readers will learn the benefits, limitations, and trade-offs of using MTurk as compared to other recruitment services, including SurveyMonkey and Qualtrics. A synthesis of survey design guidelines along with a sample survey are presented to help…

  1. Results of the first order leveling surveys in the Mexicali Valley and at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained from the third leveling survey carried out by the Direccion General de Geografia del Territorio Nacional (previously DETENAL) during November and December 1979 are presented. Calculations of the changes in field elevation and plots showing comparisons of the 1977, 1978, and 1979 surveys are also presented. Results from a second order leveling survey performed to ascertain the extent of ground motion resulting from the 8 June 1980 earthquake are presented. This magnitude ML = 6.7 earthquake with epicenter located 15 km southeast of the Guadalupe Victoria village, caused fissures on the surface, the formation of small sand volcanos, and the ejection of ground water in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto field. This leveling survey was carried out between benchmark BN-10067 at the intersection of the Solfatara canal and the Sonora-Baja California railroad, and benchmark BN-10055 located at the Delta station.

  2. Field survey focused on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in five provinces of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj

    2014-04-01

    Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sedimentary facies interpretation of Gamma Ray (GR log as basic well logs in Central and Lower Indus Basin of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Nazeer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rocks and most type of soils emit Gamma Ray (GR in varying amount. The emitting elements of primary gamma radiations include potassium 40, uranium, and thorium which are associated with rocks forming minerals in variable amount. GR log is used to predict the varying lithology in borehole by measuring the spontaneous emission of GR radiation from rocks. Role of GR logs in the identification of subsurface facies is the main focused research theme of this manuscript including with objective of brief introduction of GR log and its applications in the identification of facies in the field of Petroleum Geosciences by analyzing the examples of GR log(s from wells, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  4. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Spectroscopic Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Simpson, J. M.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; de Breuck, C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Edge, A. C.; Gawiser, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Kovacs, A.; Lutz, D.; Menten, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiß, A.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-05-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of {\\text{}}{S}870μ {{m}} ≳ 2 mJy submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), which have been identified from the ALMA follow-up observations of 870 μm detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (the ALMA-LESS survey). We derive spectroscopic redshifts for 52 SMGs, with a median of z = 2.4 ± 0.1. However, the distribution features a high-redshift tail, with ˜23% of the SMGs at z≥slant 3. Spectral diagnostics suggest that the SMGs are young starbursts, and the velocity offsets between the nebular emission and UV ISM absorption lines suggest that many are driving winds, with velocity offsets of up to 2000 km s-1. Using the spectroscopic redshifts and the extensive UV-to-radio photometry in this field, we produce optimized spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Magphys, and use the SEDs to infer a median stellar mass of {M}\\star = (6 ± 1)× 1010 M {}⊙ for our SMGs with spectroscopic redshift. By combining these stellar masses with the star formation rates (measured from the far-infrared SEDs), we show that SMGs (on average) lie a factor of ˜5 above the so-called “main sequence” at z˜ 2. We provide this library of 52 template fits with robust and uniquely well-sampled SEDs as a resource for future studies of SMGs, and also release the spectroscopic catalog of ˜2000 (mostly infrared-selected) galaxies targeted as part of the spectroscopic campaign.

  5. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, T.; Minniti, D.; Dékány, I.; Clariá, J. J.; Alonso-García, J.; Gramajo, L. V.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Bonatto, C.

    2016-11-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the J-, H- and Ks- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude (J -Ks ,Ks) and color-color (H -Ks , J - H) diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity relation, are very likely type II Cepheids located behind the bulge. Among the newly discovered variables, there are eclipsing binaries, δ Scuti, as well as background RR Lyrae stars. Using the new version of the Wilson & Devinney code as well as the "Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries" (PHOEBE) code, we analyzed some of the best eclipsing binaries we discovered. Our results show that these studied systems turn out to be ranging from detached to double-contact binaries, with low eccentricities and high inclinations of approximately 80°. Their surface temperatures range between 3500 K and 8000 K.

  6. Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Baptist, Martin J; Ens, Bruno J; Krijgsveld, Karen L; van Loon, E Emiel

    2013-01-01

    Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar's detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer's accuracy in determining a bird's transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ~1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50 ± 0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising

  7. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. III. Testing photometric redshifts to 30th magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinchmann, J.; Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Contini, T.; Maseda, M.; Chevallard, J.; Bouché, N.; Boogaard, L.; Carollo, M.; Charlot, S.; Kollatschny, W.; Marino, R. A.; Pello, R.; Richard, J.; Schaye, J.; Verhamme, A.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We tested the performance of photometric redshifts for galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field down to 30th magnitude. We compared photometric redshift estimates from three spectral fitting codes from the literature (EAZY, BPZ and BEAGLE) to high quality redshifts for 1227 galaxies from the MUSE integral field spectrograph. All these codes can return photometric redshifts with bias |(zMUSE-pz) / (1 + zMUSE)| 3 they are systematically biased high by up to (zMUSE-pz) / (1 + zMUSE) = 0.05, an offset that can in part be explained by adjusting the amount of intergalactic absorption applied. In agreement with previous studies we find little difference in the performance of the different codes, but in contrast to those we find that adding extensive ground-based and IRAC photometry actually can worsen photo-z performance for faint galaxies. We find an outlier fraction, defined through |(zMUSE-pz) / (1 + zMUSE)| > 0.15, of 8% for BPZ and 10% for EAZY and BEAGLE, and show explicitly that this is a strong function of magnitude. While this outlier fraction is high relative to numbers presented in the literature for brighter galaxies, they are very comparable to literature results when the depth of the data is taken into account. Finally, we demonstrate that while a redshift might be of high confidence, the association of a spectrum to the photometric object can be very uncertain and lead to a contamination of a few percent in spectroscopic training samples that do not show up as catastrophic outliers, a problem that must be tackled in order to have sufficiently accurate photometric redshifts for future cosmological surveys.

  8. Logística interna

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Paulo Teixeira de

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Essa dissertação tem como objetivo demonstrar a importância da logística interna nas organizações prestadoras de serviço. A logística é vista como um processo capaz de aumentar a eficiência organizacional através da redução dos custos operacionais bem como agiliza os processos de movimentação das mercadorias em toda cadeia de abastecimento. A logística é...

  9. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  10. A Polar Rover for Large-Scale Scientific Surveys: Design, Implementation and Field Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of polar regions is of great importance to scientific research. Unfortunately, due to the harsh environment, most of the regions on the Antarctic continent are still unreachable for humankind. Therefore, in 2011, the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE launched a project to design a rover to conduct large-scale scientific surveys on the Antarctic. The main challenges for the rover are twofold: one is the mobility, i.e., how to make a rover that could survive the harsh environment and safely move on the uneven, icy and snowy terrain; the other is the autonomy, in that the robot should be able to move at a relatively high speed with little or no human intervention so that it can explore a large region in a limit time interval under the communication constraints. In this paper, the corresponding techniques, especially the polar rover's design and autonomous navigation algorithms, are introduced in detail. Subsequently, an experimental report of the fields tests on the Antarctic is given to show some preliminary evaluation of the rover. Finally, experiences and existing challenging problems are summarized.

  11. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  12. The JCMT Plane Survey: early results from the ℓ = 30° field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Parsons, H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Eden, D. J.; Dempsey, J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thomas, H. S.; Buckle, J.; Brunt, C. M.; Butner, H.; Carretero, D.; Chrysostomou, A.; deVilliers, H. M.; Fich, M.; Hoare, M. G.; Manser, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natario, C.; Olguin, F.; Peretto, N.; Polychroni, D.; Redman, R. O.; Rigby, A. J.; Salji, C.; Summers, L. J.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Traficante, A.; Bastien, P.; diFrancesco, J.; Davis, C. J.; Evans, A.; Friberg, P.; Fuller, G. A.; Gibb, A. G.; Gibson, S.; Hill, T.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martin, P. G.; Lu'o'ng, Q. Nguyê˜n.; Pineda, J. E.; Purcell, C.; Richer, J. S.; Schieven, G. H.; Shipman, R.; Spaans, M.; Taylor, A. R.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present early results from the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Plane Survey (JPS), which has surveyed the northern inner Galactic plane between longitudes ℓ = 7° and ℓ = 63° in the 850-μm continuum with SCUBA-2 (Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2), as part of the JCMT Legacy Survey

  13. Upward Transfer in STEM Fields of Study: A New Conceptual Framework and Survey Instrument for Institutional Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a new conceptual framework that informs research on factors influencing transfer in STEM fields of study from 2-year to 4-year institutions, presents a new survey instrument based on the framework, and offers directions for future research in this area.

  14. Field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen Survey; 1, Variable stars at the edge of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultheis, M.

    1996-01-01

    Submitted to: Astron. Astrophys. Abstract: A catalogue is presented with variable (RR Lyrae, semiregular and Mira) stars located inside field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen Survey, at the outer edge of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. One of the semiregular variables is a carbon star, comparable with

  15. A Survey of a Field Monument: Martello Tower, No 10, Shenick’s island, Skerries, County Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Whearity, Peter Francis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to carryout a survey of a Field Monument as a requirement of the course LS 34 PRACTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. The monument in this instance is Martello Tower No 10, which is situated on Shenick’s Island, Skerries, County Dublin.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SHELS: redshift survey of the F1 DLS field (Geller+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, M. J.; Hwang, H. S.; Dell'Antonio, I. P.; Zahid, H. J.; Kurtz, M. J.; Fabricant, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS) redshift survey covers two 4deg2 fields originally selected as part of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS; Wittman et al. 2006ApJ...643..128W). We used the 300-fiber Hectospec instrument on the MMT to acquire spectroscopy for galaxy candidates typically brighter than R=20.6. We observed the F1 field (centered at RA=00:53:25.3 and DEC=12:33:55 (J2000)) in queue mode during dark runs in four periods: 2005 October 24-28; 2006 October 17-November 22; 2012 October 10-December 10; 2014 September 26-November 28. The wavelength range covered by Hectospec in the observer's frame is 3700-9100Å with a resolution of ~5Å. See section 2.2 for further explanations. (4 data files).

  17. C/O logging neutron generator with floating power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Zhon Gjin; Li Wen Sheng; Guo Jing Fu; Wei Bao Jie

    2002-01-01

    Floating power supply is used to neutron tube in logging neutron generator, which minimizes the space of high-strength electric field, and reduces the voltage gradient by 1/3 in the high-strength electric field. Under condition of floating power supply pulse width modulation autocontrol is used to stabilize operation of neutron generator in high temperature circumstance

  18. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  19. Deep wide-field near-infrared survey of the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Kuderna, B.; Ohlendorf, H.; King, R. R.; Hodgkin, S.; Irwin, M.; Lewis, J. R.; McCaughrean, M. J.; Zinnecker, H.

    2011-06-01

    Context. The Great Nebula in Carina is a giant H ii region and a superb location in which to study the physics of violent massive star formation, but the population of the young low-mass stars remained very poorly studied until recently. Aims: Our aim was to produce a near-infrared survey that is deep enough to detect the full low-mass stellar population (i.e. down to ≈0.1 M⊙ and for extinctions up to AV ≈ 15 mag) and wide enough to cover all important parts of the Carina Nebula complex (CNC), including the clusters Tr 14, 15, and 16 as well as the South Pillars region. Methods: We used HAWK-I at the ESO VLT to survey the central ≈0.36 deg2 area of the Carina Nebula. These data reveal more than 600 000 individual infrared sources down to magnitudes as faint as J ≈ 23, H ≈ 22, and Ks ≈ 21. The results of a recent deep X-ray survey (which is complete down to stellar masses of ~0.5-1 M⊙) are used to distinguish between young stars in Carina and background contaminants. We analyze color - magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to derive information about the ages and masses of the low-mass stars. Results: The ages of the low-mass stars agree with previous age estimates for the massive stars. The CMD suggests that ≈3200 of the X-ray selected stars have masses of M∗ ≥ 1 M⊙; this number is in good agreement with extrapolations of the field IMF based on the number of high-mass (M∗ ≥ 20 M⊙) stars and shows that there is no deficit of low-mass stars in the CNC. The HAWK-I images confirm that about 50% of all young stars in Carina are in a widely distributed, non-clustered spatial configuration. Narrow-band images reveal six molecular hydrogen emission objects (MHOs) that trace jets from embedded protostars. However, none of the optical HH objects shows molecular hydrogen emission, suggesting that the jet-driving protostars are located very close to the edges of the globules in which they are embedded. Conclusions: The near-infrared excess fractions for the

  20. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  1. Nondestructive evaluation for sorting red maple logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2000-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  2. Text Files of the DGPS Navigation Logged with HYPACK Software on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cruise 2011-006-FA from June 13 to June 21, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA, is producing detailed maps of the seafloor off southern New England. The current phase of this cooperative research program is...

  3. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  4. Residual effects of metal contamination on the soil quality: a field survey in central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gerardo, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is an important source of income and employment. But depletion and degradation of land challenge to producing safe food and other agricultural products to sustain livelihoods and meet the needs of urban populations. When developing or expanding an agricultural area, it becomes essential to access the soil quality. Even if the present source of contamination is not observed, it is a worth subject to evaluate whether or not any negative effects of the post contamination still last. For this purpose, a field survey (2 ha) was carried: a zinc and lead mining site that was abandoned about 50 years ago was researched at Sanguinheiro (40°18'N and 8°21'W) in Central Portugal. The area is characterized by very steep slopes that are confining with a small stream. The obtained results show that (i) the Pb content in the site (165 mg/kg) is higher than that in the background (67.7 mg/kg); (ii) the Zn content of local vegetation (Eucalyptus globulus) in the post-mining site is 2.1 times that in the control site, and (iii) dead bare ground is observed in some parts of the site. There is a possibility that great amounts of Zn and Pb accumulate in tissues of local vegetation. Although mining activity ended 50 years ago, the contents of Pb and Zn in the sampled soil were comparatively high in the site with about a 75% slope. It is concluded that not only the present contamination but also the post-environmental stress should be assessed to properly develop an agricultural area in terms of securing agricultural products.

  5. Consultations in primary care for symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields – a survey among general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röösli Martin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five percent of the Swiss population attribute symptoms to electromagnetic fields (EMF. General practitioners (GPs might play a key role in recognising an emerging health risk, since they are the first to observe and follow up persons who attribute symptoms to EMF. It is unclear to what extent EMFs have become an issue in general practice and which experiences GPs report from the consultations. Methods We conducted telephone interviews in a random sample of GPs in Switzerland in order to assess the frequency of consultations in primary care due to EMF and the GPs' experience with these patients. Results 342 general practitioners were interviewed, corresponding to a response rate of 28.2%. 69% of the GPs reported at least one consultation due to EMF, but GPs with a certificate in complementary medicine were much more likely to report EMF consultations. The median of EMF consultation numbers within one year was three. An overview of the most recent EMF-related consultation per GP yielded sleep disorders, headaches and fatigue as the most often reported symptoms and mobile phone base stations, power lines and the own use of mobile phones as the main EMF sources suspected to be associated to symptoms. GPs judged the association between EMF and the symptoms to be plausible in 54% of the cases. There was no combination of symptoms and EMF sources that was remarkably and consistently judged to be a plausible cause of the symptoms. Conclusion In our survey, GPs often judged the association between the health problems and the suspected exposure to be plausible. This plausibility assessment seems to be based on grounds of preventive positions in a situation of scientific uncertainty. More research effort is needed to obtain more insight on a potential association between long term EMF exposure and unspecific symptoms.

  6. Red giant stars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. The general field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Carrell, K.; Zhao, J. K.; Tan, K. F.; Nissen, P. E.; Wei, P., E-mail: cyq@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: pen@phys.au.dk [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained a sample of ∼22,000 red giant branch (RGB) stars based on stellar parameters, provided by the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the CH(G)/MgH indices, measured from the included spectra. The Galactic rest-frame velocity of V {sub gsr} versus longitude for the sample shows the existence of several groups of stars from globular clusters and known streams. Excluding these substructures, a sample of ∼16,000 RGB stars from the general field is used to investigate the properties of the thick disk, the inner halo, and the outer halo of our Galaxy. The metallicity and rotational velocity distributions are investigated for stars at 0 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. It is found that the canonical thick disk dominates at 0 kpc < |Z| < 2 kpc and its contribution becomes negligible at |Z| > 3 kpc. The MWTD is present and overlaps with the inner halo at 1 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc. The inner halo starts at 2 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc and becomes the dominated population for 4 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. For halo stars with |Z| > 5 kpc, bimodal metallicity distributions are found for 20 kpc < |Z| < 25 kpc and 35 kpc < RR < 45 kpc, which suggests a dual halo, the inner and the outer halo, as reported in Carollo et al. at low |Z| values. The peak of metallicity for the inner halo is at [Fe/H] ∼ –1.6 and appears to be at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.3 for the outer halo. The transition point from the inner to the outer halo is located at |Z| ∼ 20 kpc and RR ∼ 35 kpc.

  7. Comparison of two recent storm surge events based on results of field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Shibayama, Tomoya; Mikami, Takahito; Esteban, Miguel; Takagi, Hiroshi; Maell, Martin; Iwamoto, Takumu

    2017-10-01

    This paper compares two different types of storm surge disaster based on field surveys. Two cases: a severe storm surge flood with its height of over 5 m due to Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippine, and inundation of storm surge around Nemuro city in Hokkaido of Japan with its maximum surge height of 2.8 m caused by extra-tropical cyclone are taken as examples. For the case of the Typhoon Haiyan, buildings located in coastal region were severely affected due to a rapidly increase in ocean surface. The non-engineering buildings were partially or completely destroyed due to their debris transported to an inner bay region. In fact, several previous reports indicated two unique features, bore-like wave and remarkably high speed currents. These characteristics of the storm surge may contribute to a wide-spread corruption for the buildings around the affected region. Furthermore, in the region where the surge height was nearly 3 m, the wooden houses were completely or partially destroyed. On the other hand, in Nemuro city, a degree of suffering in human and facility caused by the storm surge is minor. There was almost no partially destroyed residential houses even though the height of storm surge reached nearly 2.8 m. An observation in the tide station in Nemuro indicated that this was a usual type of storm surge, which showed a gradual increase of sea level height in several hours without possessing the unique characteristics like Typhoon Haiyan. As a result, not only the height of storm surge but also the robustness of the buildings and characteristics of storm surge, such as bore like wave and strong currents, determined the existent of devastation in coastal regions.

  8. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. II. First public data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; López-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 characteristics and data structure of the CALIFA datasets that should be taken into account for scientific exploitation of the data, in particular the effects of vignetting, bad pixels and spatially correlated noise. The data quality test for all 100 galaxies showed that we reach a median limiting continuum sensitivity of 1.0 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 Å-1 arcsec-2 at 5635 Å and 2.2 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 Å-1 arcsec-2 at 4500 Å for the V500 and V1200 setup respectively, which corresponds to limiting r and g band surface brightnesses of 23.6 mag arcsec-2 and 23.4 mag arcsec-2, or an unresolved emission-line flux detection limit of roughly 1 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 and 0.6 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, respectively. The median spatial resolution is 3farcs7, and the absolute spectrophotometric calibration is better than 15% (1σ). We also describe the available interfaces and tools that allow easy access to this first publicCALIFA data at http://califa.caha.es/DR1 Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max- Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  9. Accelerating the HyperLogLog Cardinality Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Bozkus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vast amounts of data of different kinds, from pictures and videos from our cameras to software logs from sensor networks and Internet routers operating day and night, are being generated. This has led to new big data problems, which require new algorithms to handle these large volumes of data and as a result are very computationally demanding because of the volumes to process. In this paper, we parallelize one of these new algorithms, namely, the HyperLogLog algorithm, which estimates the number of different items in a large data set with minimal memory usage, as it lowers the typical memory usage of this type of calculation from O(n to O(1. We have implemented parallelizations based on OpenMP and OpenCL and evaluated them in a standard multicore system, an Intel Xeon Phi, and two GPUs from different vendors. The results obtained in our experiments, in which we reach a speedup of 88.6 with respect to an optimized sequential implementation, are very positive, particularly taking into account the need to run this kind of algorithm on large amounts of data.

  10. The JCMT Plane Survey: early results from the ℓ = 30° field

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, TJT; Plume, R.; Thompson, MA; Parsons, H; Urquhart, JS; Eden, DJ; Dempsey, JT; Morgan, LK; Thomas, HS; Buckle, J.; Brunt, CM; Butner, H.; Carretero, D; Chrysostomou, A.; deVilliers, HM

    2015-01-01

    We present early results from the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Plane Survey (JPS), which has surveyed the northern inner Galactic plane between longitudes ℓ = 7° and ℓ = 63° in the 850-μm continuum with SCUBA-2 (Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2), as part of the JCMT Legacy Survey programme. Data from the ℓ = 30° survey region, which contains the massive-star-forming regions W43 and G29.96, are analysed after approximately 40 per cent of the observations had been completed. The pixe...

  11. A low cost data logging system with satellite transmission capabilities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; DeSa, E.J.; Desai, R.G.P.

    The concept of updating a shore based data bank by regular satellite transmissions of data collected at sea has important uses in programmes on the exploration and survey of sea bed mineral sites. In this context, the need arose to log data from a...

  12. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  13. Log-periodic dipole antenna with low cross-polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    In this work, log-periodic antennas with improved cross-polarization level were studied. It was found that some modifications of the traditional design lead to an essential improvement of the co-to-cross polarization ratio up to 40 dB. An improved design of a log-periodic dipole antenna with low...... cross-polarization level is described. Some recommendations regarding improvement of the polarization characteristics of log- periodic antennas in general are also given. It was also found that log-periodic antennas can be attributed to the class of so-called first-order (m = plusmn1) antennas, which...... is an important requirement for probes in spherical near- field antenna measurements....

  14. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  15. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  16. Logística empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Sahid

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El concepto logístico, se pudo ver reflejado con exactitud desde el punto de vista etimológico e histórico a través de la revista de la E.A.N; ya que  tiene cierto carácter militar que lo hace característico a la gestión empresarial y de esto se formula un debate definitivo de este concepto.

  17. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  18. Field sites and survey methods. Report No. 3. A study describing characteristics of field sites and survey methods used in the study of heat dissipation from steam electric condenser discharges. EEI publication No. 68-901

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, J.C.; Edinger, J.E.; Graves, W.L. Jr.; Brady, D.K.

    1968-06-01

    This report summarizes the main features of eleven field sites and describes the survey data collection techniques being used to investigate the dissipation of heat from the different types of natural waters which receive the heated discharges from the eleven thermoelectric generating plants. A brief history of the development of this study is followed by a comprehensive tabulation of the geographic and hydrological features of each study site, complete with details of types of survey instruments, survey procedures and data reduction techniques. The eleven study sites are compared first in terms of their geographic location and climate, then by groups according to type of receiving water body, and also in terms of their various heat dissipation characteristics. Comparisons are made between the various survey procedures adopted at each site, and between the different types of meteorological instruments used. The methods of data reduction employed at the field sites are summarized, and an outline is given of the data processing required prior to storage and retrieval for interpretation and analysis. The analytical objectives of the study are also summarized in relation to the applicability of the different study sites to these objectives.

  19. Summarizing clinical pathways from event logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengxing; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong; Fan, Wu

    2013-02-01

    Clinical pathway analysis, as a pivotal issue in ensuring specialized, standardized, normalized and sophisticated therapy procedures, is receiving increasing attention in the field of medical informatics. Research in clinical pathway analysis has so far mostly focused on looking at aggregated data seen from an external perspective, and only provide very limited insight into the pathways. In some recent work, process mining techniques have been studied in discovering clinical pathway models from data. While it is interesting, discovered models may provide too much detail to give a comprehensive summary of the pathway. Moreover, the number of patterns discovered can be large. Alternatively, this article presents a new approach to build a concise and comprehensive summary that describes the entire structure of a clinical pathway, while revealing essential/critical medical behaviors in specific time intervals over the whole time period of the pathway. The presented approach summarizes a clinical pathway from the collected clinical event log, which regularly records all kinds of patient therapy and treatment activities in clinical workflow by various hospital information systems. The proposed approach formally defines the clinical pathway summarization problem as an optimization problem that can be solved in polynomial time by using a dynamic-programming algorithm. More specifically, given an input event log, the presented approach summarizes the pathway by segmenting the observed time period of the pathway into continuous and overlapping time intervals, and discovering frequent medical behavior patterns in each specific time interval from the log. The proposed approach is evaluated via real-world data-sets, which are extracted from Zhejiang Huzhou Central hospital of China with regard to four specific diseases, i.e., bronchial lung cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, and cerebral infarction, in two years (2007.08-2009.09). Although the medical behaviors contained in

  20. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  1. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. An innovative OSCE clinical log station: a quantitative study of its influence on Log use by medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Judith N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Clinical Log was introduced as part of a medical student learning portfolio, aiming to develop a habit of critical reflection while learning was taking place, and provide feedback to students and the institution on learning progress. It was designed as a longitudinal self-directed structured record of student learning events, with reflection on these for personal and professional development, and actions planned or taken for learning. As incentive was needed to encourage student engagement, an innovative Clinical Log station was introduced in the OSCE, an assessment format with established acceptance at the School. This study questions: How does an OSCE Clinical Log station influence Log use by students? Methods The Log station was introduced into the formative, and subsequent summative, OSCEs with careful attention to student and assessor training, marking rubrics and the standard setting procedure. The scoring process sought evidence of educational use of the log, and an ability to present and reflect on key learning issues in a concise and coherent manner. Results Analysis of the first cohort’s Log use over the four-year course (quantified as number of patient visits entered by all students revealed limited initial use. Usage was stimulated after introduction of the Log station early in third year, with some improvement during the subsequent year-long integrated community-based clerkship. Student reflection, quantified by the mean number of characters in the ‘reflection’ fields per entry, peaked just prior to the final OSCE (mid-Year 4. Following this, very few students continued to enter and reflect on clinical experience using the Log. Conclusion While the current study suggested that we can’t assume students will self-reflect unless such an activity is included in an assessment, ongoing work has focused on building learner and faculty confidence in the value of self-reflection as part of being a competent

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Wide-field spectrosc. survey of GCs in Virgo cluster (Ko+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y.; Hwang, H. S.; Lee, M. G.; Park, H. S.; Lim, S.; Sohn, J.; Jang, I. S.; Hwang, N.; Park, B.-G.

    2017-08-01

    We selected globular cluster (GC) candidates using the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS; Ferrarese+ 2012ApJS..200....4F) archival images covering the central region of the Virgo cluster. The NGVS is a wide-field imaging survey of the Virgo cluster using MegaCam with a field of view of 1°x1° attached at the Canada-French-Hawaii Telescope. We carried out spectroscopic observation of GC candidates in the Virgo using the Hectospec mounted on the 6.5m Multiple-Mirror Telescope in queue mode under program ID 2014A-UAO-G18 (PI: Myung Gyoon Lee) between 2014 February and March (wavelength range: 3650Å to 9200Å). (3 data files).

  4. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in

  5. Archive of post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 04CCH01 from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, Florida, August 15, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Miller, Gregory K.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Forde, Arnell S.

    2012-01-01

    On August 15, 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey off the southwest coast of Florida, from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, aboard a Navajo Chieftain airplane, tail number N2KK, at an altitude of 500 ft and approximately 1000 ft offshore. These photographs were used to document coastal changes such as beach erosion and overwash caused by Hurricane Charley. They will also be used as baseline data for future coastal change. The oblique photography also served as qualitative ground truthing for the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) coastal topography and bathymetry data collected on August 16, 2004 (Bonisteel and others, 2009). This report serves as an archive of photographs collected during the August 15, 2004, post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial survey along with associated flight path maps, KML files, navigation files, digital Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  6. Measuring galaxy [O ii] emission line doublet with future ground-based wide-field spectroscopic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bacon, Roland; Mostek, Nick J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Schlegel, David J.; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of wide-field spectroscopic redshift surveys will map the large-scale galaxy distribution in the redshift range 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2 to measure baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). The primary optical signature used in this redshift range comes from the [Oii] emission line doublet, which provides a unique redshift identification that can minimize confusion with other single emission lines. To derive the required spectrograph resolution for these redshift surveys, we simulate observations of the [Oii] (λλ 3727, 3729) doublet for various instrument resolutions, and line velocities. We foresee two strategies for the choice of the resolution for future spectrographs for BAO surveys. For bright [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~30 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like SDSS-IV/eBOSS), a resolution of R ~ 3300 allows the separation of 90 percent of the doublets. The impact of the sky lines on the completeness in redshift is less than 6 percent. For faint [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~10 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like DESi), the detection improves continuously with resolution, so we recommend the highest possible resolution, the limit being given by the number of pixels (4k by 4k) on the detector and the number of spectroscopic channels (2 or 3).

  7. Logística empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Carro, Roberto; González Gómez, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    El éxito de una empresa, creada para ofrecer productos en el mercado, depende en gran medida de que pueda lograr una conjunción razonable de la cantidad, calidad, oportunidad y el costo de los bienes y servicios que produce. Cuando se habla de oportunidad en el aprovisionamiento y la entrega, lo que se considera en realidad es la tarea que ha de desarrollar la empresa para satisfacer, rentablemente, las necesidades de producción y de los clientes en el momento adecuado. El cometido de la logí...

  8. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  9. Star crossings and stone monuments-Field astronomy by the Wheeler Survey in 1870s Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The decade of the 1870s was a time of extensive exploration and surveying in the American West. The nation needed knowledge of the cultural features, topography, natural resources, and geology of this land to promote and aid the 'rapid development of an empire.' The need was particularly acute in the region that still was known in the early 1870s as Colorado Territory. There, cities and towns were springing up along the base of the Front Range, railroads were expanding, and in the mountains prospectors and miners were exploring the countryside seeking and extracting the region's abundant mineral resources. Also, recurring conflicts between the newcomers and Native Americans made it desirable to have accurate maps for military purposes. Four major government-sponsored scientific surveys formed the principal organized effort to provide critical knowledge of the land. Civilian scientists led three of these: John Wesley Powell ('Geographical and Topographical Survey of the Colorado River of the West'); Ferdinand V. Hayden ('Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories'); and Clarence King ('Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'). Lt. George Montague Wheeler, a young graduate of West Point (Class of 1866) and a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, led the fourth and most ambitious project ('United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian').

  10. Anti-Austerity Adult Education in Canada: A Survey of a Nascent Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As the realities of austerity agendas exert pressure on adult education around the globe, this paper attempts to map the developing, albeit small, field of anti-austerity adult education in Canada. In doing so, I attempt to trace the connections between anti-austerity education and existing fields of adult education. I argue that the cases we see…

  11. An optical survey of the Elais-S2 field : Data reduction with Astro-Wise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Héraudeau, Ph.; Valentijn, E.; Casoli, F.; Contini, T.; Hameury, J.M.; Pagani, L.

    2005-01-01

    We use the ASTRO-WISE system to reduce observations on the ELAIS-S2 field obtained in the B, V, R and I-bands with the Wide-Field Imager at the 2.2m ESO/MPG telescope. We present the main data reduction steps performed by the prototype version of ASTRO-WISE.

  12. Standardization of soil apparent electrical conductivity using multi-temporal surveys across multiple production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an efficient technique for understanding within-field variability of physical and chemical soil characteristics. Commercial devices are readily available for collecting ECa on whole fields and used broadly for crop management in precision agriculture; h...

  13. Survey of Current Practices in Field Experience Education. Michigan State University 1977-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, John S.

    During the 1978 winter term, the Learning and Evaluation Service of Michigan State University initiated, in collaboration with the Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning (CAEL), an institutional development program in field experience education. Purposes of the study were to describe the nature and extent of field experience…

  14. Log files can and should be prepared for a functionalistic approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User surveys of printed dictionaries may be characterised as non-representative and non-realistic laboratory tests, often with retrospective questions based on memory. ... This article proposes the development of lexicographically relevant log files for the use in log file analyses in order to give a true picture of how and why ...

  15. Two-stage recovery of amphibian assemblages following selective logging of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adum, Gilbert Baase; Eichhorn, Markus Peter; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information on the effectiveness of selective-logging practices in ameliorating effects of logging on faunal communities. We conducted a large-scale replicated field study in 3 selectively logged moist semideciduous forests in West Africa at varying times after timber extraction to assess post logging effects on amphibian assemblages. Specifically, we assessed whether the diversity, abundance, and assemblage composition of amphibians changed over time for forest-dependent species and those tolerant of forest disturbance. In 2009, we sampled amphibians in 3 forests (total of 48 study plots, each 2 ha) in southwestern Ghana. In each forest, we established plots in undisturbed forest, recently logged forest, and forest logged 10 and 20 years previously. Logging intensity was constant across sites with 3 trees/ha removed. Recently logged forests supported substantially more species than unlogged forests. This was due to an influx of disturbance-tolerant species after logging. Simultaneously Simpson's index decreased, with increased in dominance of a few species. As time since logging increased richness of disturbance-tolerant species decreased until 10 years after logging when their composition was indistinguishable from unlogged forests. Simpson's index increased with time since logging and was indistinguishable from unlogged forest 20 years after logging. Forest specialists decreased after logging and recovered slowly. However, after 20 years amphibian assemblages had returned to a state indistinguishable from that of undisturbed forest in both abundance and composition. These results demonstrate that even with low-intensity logging (≤3 trees/ha) a minimum 20-year rotation of logging is required for effective conservation of amphibian assemblages in moist semideciduous forests. Furthermore, remnant patches of intact forests retained in the landscape and the presence of permanent brooks may aid in the effective recovery of amphibian

  16. Automatic Data Logging and Quality Analysis System for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yi Fanjiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing phase of mobile device products includes two important test projects that must be completed before shipment: the field trial and the beta user trial. During the field trial, the product is certified based on its integration and stability with the local operator’s system, and, during the beta user trial, the product is certified by multiple users regarding its daily use, where the goal is to detect and solve early problems. In the traditional approach used to issue returns, testers must log into a web site, fill out a problem form, and then go through a browser or FTP to upload logs; however, this is inconvenient, and problems are reported slowly. Therefore, we propose an “automatic logging analysis system” (ALAS to construct a convenient test environment and, using a record analysis (log parser program, automate the parsing of log files and have questions automatically sent to the database by the system. Finally, the mean time between failures (MTBF is used to establish measurement indicators for the beta user trial.

  17. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  18. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Marco Lentini; Frank Merry; Souza Jr. Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common high-impact conventional and often illegal logging...

  19. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  20. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  1. The angular power spectrum measurement of the Galactic synchrotron emission in two fields of the TGSS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ali, Sk. Saiyad; Roy, Nirupam; Intema, Huib. T.; Ghosh, Abhik

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission at arcminute angular scales is needed to reliably remove foregrounds in cosmological 21-cm measurements. The study of this emission is also interesting in its own right. Here, we quantify the fluctuations of the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission using visibility data for two of the fields observed by the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey. We have used the 2D Tapered Gridded Estimator to estimate the angular power spectrum (Cℓ) from the visibilities. We find that the sky signal, after subtracting the point sources, is likely dominated by the diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation across the angular multipole range 240 ≤ ℓ ≲ 500. We present a power-law fit, C_{ℓ}=A× \\big (1000/l\\big )^{β }, to the measured Cℓ over this ℓ range. We find that (A, β) have values (356 ± 109 mK2, 2.8 ± 0.3) and (54 ± 26 mK2, 2.2 ± 0.4) in the two fields. For the second field, however, there is indication of a significant residual point source contribution and for this field we interpret the measured Cℓ as an upper limit for the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission. While in both fields the slopes are consistent with earlier measurements, the second field appears to have an amplitude that is considerably smaller compared to similar measurements in other parts of the sky.

  2. Methods and logistics of a multidisciplinary survey of schoolchildren from Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil Métodos y logística de un estudio multidisciplinar con escolares de Pelotas, sur de Brasil Métodos e logística de um estudo multidisciplinar com escolares de Pelotas, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methods of a multidisciplinary epidemiological survey conducted in schools in Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil. This cross-sectional study evaluated a representative sample (n = 1,211 of eight to 12-year-old children attending public (15 and private (5 schools. Questionnaires were applied to parents to obtain information about socioeconomic and sociocultural characteristics. Children were interviewed to provide information on demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and physical activity habits. Oral health examinations were performed on the children and anthropometric data was collected to assess nutritional status. School principals responded a questionnaire about the social and physical environment of the school. A total of 1,744 children were eligible for the study; a response rate of 69.4% was achieved, with no significant differences between schools. The method used allowed investigators to obtain data on several health outcomes as well as on possible risk factors. This strategy optimizes the use of financial resources for research and promotes interprofessional collaboration.El artículo detalla los métodos de un estudio epidemiológico multidisciplinar llevado a cabo en escuelas en Pelotas, sur de Brasil. El estudio transversal incluyó una muestra representativa (n = 1.211 de niños de 8 a 12 años, en escuelas públicas (15 y privadas (5. Los cuestionarios fueron administrados a los padres para obtener información socioeconómica y cultural. Los niños fueron entrevistados, proporcionando información demográfica, comportamientos de salud bucal y práctica de actividad física. Se realizaron un examen de salud bucal y medidas antropométricas para la evaluación de la condición nutricional. Directores de escuelas proporcionaron información sobre el ambiente físico y social de las escuelas. De los 1.744 niños elegibles, la tasa de respuesta fue de un 69,4% sin diferencias entre escuelas

  3. A field critique of the 3-year pilot test for the CUSTOMER recreation visitor survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Reed; Gwen Hirsch

    1995-01-01

    From 1990 to 1992, the USDA Forest Service implemented a 3-year pilot test of CUSTOMER, a standardized nationwide recreation visitor survey. Intended as a partnership between the agency's Research and National Forest System branches, CUSTOMER has been a limited success to date. By the end of 1993, nearly 20,000 recreation visitors had been interviewed in more than...

  4. Field survey and fungicide screening of fungal pathogens of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) fruit rot in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.) is a tropical fruit in Hawaii that has increased in value in the niche market of exotic fruits. The primary limitation to pre-harvest and post-harvest quality is the occurrence of fungal diseases of the fruit. A survey of rambutan disease was conducted in Hilo, H...

  5. How and Why Educators Use Twitter: A Survey of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Krutka, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    While the microblogging service Twitter is increasingly popular among educators and offers numerous affordances for learning, its relationship with formal education systems remains complicated by generally ambivalent educator attitudes and institutional policies. To better understand the role Twitter plays in education, we conducted a survey of…

  6. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  7. A field survey to investigate why nightjars frequent roads at night ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All nightjar encounters were documented in relation to variations in road surface, road width, adjacent habitat, arc of sky visible and other variables, such as the time of night, moon phase and weather conditions. None of these factors provided a complete explanation for the presence of nightjars on the roads surveyed.

  8. Static dictionaries on AC0 RAMs: query time (√log n/log log n) is necessary and sufficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Arne; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Riis, Søren

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider solutions to the static dictionary problem on AC0 RAMs, i.e. random access machines where the only restriction on the finite instruction set is that all computational instructions are in AC0. Our main result is a tight upper and lower bound of θ(√log n/log log n......, we show a tradeoff between time and circuit depth under the unit-cost assumption: any RAM instruction set which permits a linear space, constant query time solution to the static dictionary problem must have an instruction of depth Ω(log w/log log to), where w is the word size of the machine (and log...

  9. Experiences in the use of an electronic tool to measure pressure, temperature and spinner logs in the Mexican geothermal fields; Experiencias en el uso de sondas electronicas de presion, temperatura y flujo en campos geotermicos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly; Jaimes Maldonado, Guillermo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    In this article are exposed the results of an electronic tool to measure pressure-temperature and spinner profiles in the geothermal wells of Mexico, utilized in order to identify unobservable phenomena with traditional Kuster type pressure and temperature logs. Some examples of the applications are the identifications of production zones, interaction from between two or more zones of contribution under several conditions of operation, casing damages and apparition of sink flow intervals into the formation in producer wells. It is also presented the quantitative method utilized to calculate the masic contribution of the intervals of interest. [Spanish] En este articulo se exponen los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una sonda electronica para la medicion de presion-temperatura y flujo en los pozos geotermicos de Mexico, utilizada para identificar fenomenos que no son observables con las mediciones tradicionales tipo Kuster de presion y temperatura. Se ejemplifican algunas de las aplicaciones hechas, tales como la identificacion de zonas de produccion, forma de interaccion entre dos o mas zonas de aporte bajo diferentes condiciones de operacion, roturas en tuberias y aparicion de zonas ladronas en pozos. Se presenta brevemente el metodo cuantitativo utilizado para calcular el aporte masico de las intervalos de interes.

  10. Quality control for quantitative geophysical logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Hwang, Se Ho; Hwang, Hak Soo; Park, In Hwa [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Despite the great availability of geophysical data obtained from boreholes, the interpretation is subject to significant uncertainties. More accurate data with less statistical uncertainties should require an employment of more quantitative techniques in log acquisition and interpretation technique. The long-term objective of this project is the development of techniques in both quality control of log measurement and the quantitative interpretation. In the first year, the goals of the project will include establishing the procedure of log acquisition using various tests, analysing the effect of logging velocity change on the logging data, examining the repeatability and reproducibility, analyzing of filtering effect on the log measurements, and finally the zonation and the correlation of single-and inter-well log data. For the establishment of logging procedure, we have tested the multiple factors affecting the accuracy in depth. The factors are divided into two parts: human and mechanical. These factors include the zero setting of depth, the calculation of offset for the sonde, the stretching effect of cable, and measuring wheel accuracy. We conclude that the error in depth setting results primarily from human factor, and also in part from the stretching of cable. The statistical fluctuation of log measurements increases according to increasing the logging speed for the zone of lower natural gamma. Thus, the problem related with logging speed is a trifling matter in case of the application of resources exploration, the logging speed should run more slowly to reduce the statistical fluctuation of natural gamma with lithologic correlation in mind. The repeatability and reproducibility of logging measurements are tested. The results of repeatability test for the natural gamma sonde are qualitatively acceptable in the reproducibility test, the errors occurs in logging data between two operators and successive trials. We conclude that the errors result from the

  11. Irrigation Wells from the Nevada Division of Water Resources Well Log Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set was derived from the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources (NDWR) well log data base...

  12. Log files can and should be prepared for a functionalistic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2007-01-01

     User surveys of printed dictionaries may be characterised as non-representative and non-realistic laboratory tests, often with retrospective questions based on memory. Log file analy­ses concerning the use of Internet dictionaries, on the other hand, are based on large numbers of users and look......-ups. However, log file analyses have also been characterised by a juggling of num­bers based on data calculations of limited direct relevance to practical and theoretical lexicography. This article proposes the development of lexicographically relevant log files for the use in log file analyses in order...

  13. Logged In and Zoned Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2017-02-01

    Laptop computers are widely prevalent in university classrooms. Although laptops are a valuable tool, they offer access to a distracting temptation: the Internet. In the study reported here, we assessed the relationship between classroom performance and actual Internet usage for academic and nonacademic purposes. Students who were enrolled in an introductory psychology course logged into a proxy server that monitored their online activity during class. Past research relied on self-report, but the current methodology objectively measured time, frequency, and browsing history of participants' Internet usage. In addition, we assessed whether intelligence, motivation, and interest in course material could account for the relationship between Internet use and performance. Our results showed that nonacademic Internet use was common among students who brought laptops to class and was inversely related to class performance. This relationship was upheld after we accounted for motivation, interest, and intelligence. Class-related Internet use was not associated with a benefit to classroom performance.

  14. Surveys, Fields, and Collections in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.; Barker, T.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on more than 100 years of photographic glass plates. About 20 percent of the plates in North America are located in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). APDA was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format. APDA currently has 50 collections with more than 250,000 plates taken for QSO identification, parallax measurements, spectral classification and monitoring, Magellanic Cloud studies, H-alpha emission star surveys, novae evolution, and astrometry of asteroids, outer planet satellites and Pluto. Some examples of collections include the complete set of the Henize H-alpha Southern Survey plates taken between 1949 and 1952 (Henize 1954, AJ, 59, 325), the Case Western Objective Prism All Sky Survey from 1958-1976 (e.g. Pesch, Sanduleak, and Stephenson 1996, ApJS, 103, 513), and QSO Survey from 1980 to 1991 (e.g. Pesch and Stephenson 1983, ApJS, 51, 171). We feature the contents of the APDA collections to provide the opportunity to the astronomical community to advance new and established areas of study.

  15. German wide cross sectional survey on health impacts of electromagnetic fields in the view of general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Heyer, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The proportion of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany who assume health impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is assessed. Moreover, factors associated with this risk perception are examined. METHODS: A 7% random sample was drawn from online lists of all the GPs working in Germany...... there are persons whose health complaints are caused by EMF when legal limit values are met". A late responder analysis for the survey with the short questionnaire led to a still lower estimate of 29% for GPs believing in health-relevant effects of EMF. CONCLUSION: About a third of German GPs associate EMF...... with health complaints and thus deviate considerably from current scientific knowledge. To avoid a strong selection bias in the surveys of the perception of EMF risks, use of short questionnaires and late responder analysis are recommended....

  16. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  17. Optical performance characterization of light-logging actigraphy dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A; Lyachev, Andrey; Khazova, Marina

    2017-04-01

    There are several wearable products specially developed or marketed for studying sleep, circadian rhythms, and light levels. However, new recommendations relating to human physiological responses to light have changed what measurements researchers may demand. The performances of 11 light-logging dosimeters from eight manufacturers were compared. The directional and spectral sensitivities, linearity, dynamic range, and resolution were tested for seven models, and compared along with other published data. The sample mainly comprised light-logging actigraphy dosimeters wearable as badges, in accordance with measurement protocols for larger-scale field studies. A proposed standard for optical performance assessments is set out.

  18. Assessment of a relative contribution of terrestrial background radiation in the test field by using RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the radiological investigation of terrestrial gamma radiation in the test field with soil samples from different minefields in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent rate, commonly referred to as “air dose rate”, in the test field located in the Tuzla Canton, were performed by RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter, based on energy-compensated Geiger-Muller counter. Its performances were tested in the laboratory conditions with gamma point sources. Since all the samples in the test field were exposed to the same cosmic radiation, there was a possibility to assess a relative contribution of terrestrial gamma radiation due to soil samples of different composition. One set of measurements in the test field was performed with RADIAGEMTM 2000, at a height of about one meter above the ground and basic statistical parameters indicated that there was no significant difference of terrestrial gamma radiation from different soil samples. The other set of measurements was carried out with the same device placed on the ground in the test field. Processing of experimental data on terrestrial gamma radiation has shown that it was possible to make a difference between relative contributions of terrestrial gamma radiation from individual soil samples. The results of investigation could be useful for multiple purposes of public interest.

  19. Effects of salvage logging and pile-and-burn on fuel loading, potential fire behaviour, fuel consumption and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris C. Johnson; Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    We used a combination of field measurements and simulation modelling to quantify the effects of salvage logging, and a combination of salvage logging and pile-and-burn fuel surface fuel treatment (treatment combination), on fuel loadings, fire behaviour, fuel consumption and pollutant emissions at three points in time: post-windstorm (before salvage logging), post-...

  20. Anti-malarial medicine quality field studies and surveys: a systematic review of screening technologies used and reporting of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Mirza; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Clarke, Siân E; Kaur, Harparkash

    2017-05-15

    Assessing the quality of medicines in low-middle income countries (LMICs) relies primarily on human inspection and screening technologies, where available. Field studies and surveys have frequently utilized screening tests to analyse medicines sampled at the point of care, such as health care facilities and medicine outlets, to provide a snap shot of medicine quality in a specific geographical area. This review presents an overview of the screening tests typically employed in surveys to assess anti-malarial medicine quality, summarizes the analytical methods used, how findings have been reported and proposes a reporting template for future studies. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature available in the public domain (including national and multi-national medicine quality surveys) covering the period 1990-2016 was undertaken. Studies were included if they had used screening techniques to assess the quality of anti-malarial medicines. As no standardized set of guidelines for the methodology and reporting of medicine quality surveys exist, the included studies were assessed for their standard against a newly proposed list of criteria. The titles and abstracts of 4621 records were screened and only 39 were found to meet the eligibility criteria. These 39 studies utilized visual inspection, disintegration, colorimetry and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) either as components of the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) MiniLab® or as individual tests. Overall, 30/39 studies reported employing confirmatory testing described in international pharmacopeia to verify the quality of anti-malarials post assessment by a screening test. The authors assigned scores for the 23 criteria for the standard of reporting of each study. There is considerable heterogeneity in study design and inconsistency in reporting of field surveys of medicine quality. A lack of standardization in the design and reporting of studies of medicine quality increases the risk of bias and

  1. Cosmological constraints with weak lensing peak counts and second-order statistics in a large-field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Austin; Lin, Chieh-An; Lanusse, Francois; Leonard, Adrienne; Starck, Jean-Luc; Kilbinger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Peak statistics in weak lensing maps access the non-Gaussian information contained in the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are therefore a promising complementary probe to two-point and higher-order statistics to constrain our cosmological models. To prepare for the high precision afforded by next-generation weak lensing surveys, we assess the constraining power of peak counts in a simulated Euclid-like survey on the cosmological parameters Ωm, σ8, and w0de. In particular, we study how CAMELUS---a fast stochastic model for predicting peaks---can be applied to such large surveys. The algorithm avoids the need for time-costly N-body simulations, and its stochastic approach provides full PDF information of observables. We measure the abundance histogram of peaks in a mock shear catalogue of approximately 5,000 deg2 using a multiscale mass map filtering technique, and we then constrain the parameters of the mock survey using CAMELUS combined with approximate Bayesian computation, a robust likelihood-free inference algorithm. We find that peak statistics yield a tight but significantly biased constraint in the σ8-Ωm plane, indicating the need to better understand and control the model's systematics before applying it to a real survey of this size or larger. We perform a calibration of the model to remove the bias and compare results to those from the two-point correlation functions (2PCF) measured on the same field. In this case, we find the derived parameter Σ8 = σ8(Ωm/0.27)α = 0.76 (-0.03 +0.02) with α = 0.65 for peaks, while for 2PCF the values are Σ8 = 0.76 (-0.01 +0.02) and α = 0.70. We conclude that the constraining power can therefore be comparable between the two weak lensing observables in large-field surveys. Furthermore, the tilt in the σ8-Ωm degeneracy direction for peaks with respect to that of 2PCF suggests that a combined analysis would yield tighter constraints than either measure alone. As expected, w0de cannot be

  2. A Survey of Star Clusters in the M31 South-West Field. UBVRI Photometry and Multi-Band Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Narbutis, D.; Vansevicius, V.; Kodaira, K.; Bridzius, A.; Stonkute, R.

    2008-01-01

    A new survey of star clusters in the South-West field of the M31 disk based on the high resolution Subaru Suprime-Cam observations is presented. The UBVRI aperture CCD photometry catalog of 285 objects (V < 20.5; 169 of them identified for the first time) is provided. Each object is supplemented with multi-band color maps presented in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement. Seventy seven star cluster candidates from the catalog are located in the Hubble Space Telescope...

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Ground-based Orbit Determination Accuracy for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sease, Brad

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a 2.4-meter telescope planned for launch to the Sun-Earth L2 point in 2026. This paper details a preliminary study of the achievable accuracy for WFIRST from ground-based orbit determination routines. The analysis here is divided into two segments. First, a linear covariance analysis of early mission and routine operations provides an estimate of the tracking schedule required to meet mission requirements. Second, a simulated operations scenario gives insight into the expected behavior of a daily Extended Kalman Filter orbit estimate over the first mission year given a variety of potential momentum unloading schemes.

  4. NADE Members Respond--Developmental Education Research Agenda: Survey of Field Professionals, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, D. Patrick; Martirosyan, Nara M.; Wentworth, Rebecca A.; Boylan, Hunter R.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final of a two-part article that provides the results of a qualitative study designed to document ideas and beliefs that professionals have regarding an appropriate research agenda on which the field of developmental education should focus in the near future. The participants of the study were members of the National Association for…

  5. Lake shore and littoral habitat structure: a field survey method and its precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Until recently, lake physical habitat assessment has been and underemployed tool for assessing lake and reservoir ecological condition. Herein, we outline and evaluate a rapid (2 persons: 1.5-3.5 h) field sampling and analytical approach for quantifying near-shore physical habit...

  6. Psychosocial and ergonomic survey of office and field jobs in a utility company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Denis A; Tavares, Carla S D; Lima, Tânia M; Lourenço, Miguel L

    2017-08-04

    The effect of different kinds of work on the psychosocial assessment of workers under the same management and organizational environment is investigated. A voluntary assessment in a utility company was carried out using the short version of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire (CoPsoQ) on two occasions, 1.5 years apart. Initially, 25 office workers (11 men and 14 women) participated, while 14 of those workers (8 women and 6 men) participated in the second assessment together with 32 field workers. The sewage, water treatment and maintenance workers, totaling 32 men, also participated in a field ergonomics assessment using the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries field work ergonomic checklist. The longitudinal outlook was fairly stable, with sustained severe scores in many CoPsoQ subscales and intensification of severity of workers' control over work and esteem for men. A significantly higher esteem score resulted for field rather than office workers. Workers subjected to foul odors showed similar severity of psychosocial factors. For most psychosocial dimensions, the organizational design and management system in place, as well as the overall cultural environment in which it operates, create a much stronger and more decisive impact than job-specific factors.

  7. Elementary Preservice Teacher Field Supervision: A Survey of Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer; Hogarty, Kristine; Burns, Rebecca West

    2017-01-01

    There is a heightened focus within teacher education to centralize clinical experiences and develop strong partnerships between schools and universities. University field supervisors fulfill a critical role within clinical experiences because they are uniquely situated in spaces where they can help preservice teachers and school-based partners…

  8. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børja, Isabella; Alfredsen, Gry; Filbakk, Tore; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones.

  9. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Børja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones.

  10. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Yao, Dan; Bai, Lanqiang; Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kun; Tian, Fuyou; Wang, Mingjun

    Based on observational analyses and on-site ground and aerial damage surveys, this work aims to reveal the weather phenomena-especially the wind situation-when Oriental Star capsized in the Yangtze River on June 1, 2015. Results demonstrate that the cruise ship capsized when it encountered strong winds at speeds of at least 31 m s-1 near the apex of a bow echo embedded in a squall line. As suggested by the fallen trees within a 2-km radius around the wreck location, such strong winds were likely caused by microburst straight-line wind and/or embedded small vortices, rather than tornadoes.

  11. Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flynn, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS), a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign, was based out of Ellington Field in Houston, Texas, during August and September 2013. The study focused on pollution emissions and the evolution of gases and aerosols in deep convective outflow, and the influences and feedbacks of aerosol particles from anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning on meteorology, clouds, and climate. The project required three aircraft to accomplish these goals. The NASA DC-8 provided observations from near the surface to 12 km, while the NASA ER-2 provided high-altitude observations reaching into the lower stratosphere as well as important remote-sensing observations connecting satellites with observations from lower-flying aircraft and surface sites. The SPEC, Inc. Learjet obtained aerosol and cloud microphysical measurement in convective clouds and convective outflow.

  12. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. VLT/ISAAC near-infrared imaging of the GOODS-South field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff, J.; Rosati, P.; Dickinson, M.; Vandame, B.; Rité, C.; Nonino, M.; Cesarsky, C.; GOODS Team

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We present the final public data release of the VLT/ISAAC near-infrared imaging survey in the GOODS-South field. The survey covers an area of 172.5, 159.6 and 173.1 arcmin{}^2 in the J, H, and K_s bands, respectively. For point sources total limiting magnitudes of J=25.0, H=24.5, and K_s=24.4 (5σ, AB) are reached within 75% of the survey area. Thus these observations are significantly deeper than the previous EIS Deep Public Survey which covers the same region. The image quality is characterized by a point spread function ranging between 0.34´´ and 0.65´´ FWHM. The images are registered to a common astrometric grid defined by the GSC 2 with an accuracy of 0.06 arcsec RMS over the whole field. The overall photometric accuracy, including all systematic effects, adds up to 0.05 mag. The data are publicly available from the ESO science archive facility. Methods: We describe the data reduction, the calibration, and the quality control process. The final data set is characterized in terms of astrometric and photometric properties, including the PSF and the curve of growth. We establish an empirical model for the sky background noise in order to quantify the variation of limiting depth and statistical photometric errors over the survey area. We define a catalog of K_s-selected sources which contains JHK_s photometry for 7079 objects. Differential aperture corrections were applied to the color measurements in order to avoid possible biases as a result of the variation of the PSF. We briefly discuss the resulting color distributions in the context of available redshift data. Furthermore, we estimate the completeness fraction and relative contamination due to spurious detections for source catalogs extracted from the survey data. For this purpose, an empirical study based on a deep K_s image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field is combined with extensive image simulations. Results: With respect to previous deep near-infrared surveys, the surface density of faint

  13. A multi-spacecraft survey of magnetic field line draping in the dayside magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Coleman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF encounters the Earth's magnetosphere, it is compressed and distorted. This distortion is known as draping, and plays an important role in the interaction between the IMF and the geomagnetic field. This paper considers a particular aspect of draping, namely how the orientation of the IMF in a plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line (the clock angle is altered by draping in the magnetosheath close to the dayside magnetopause. The clock angle of the magnetosheath field is commonly estimated from the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF measured by upstream monitoring spacecraft either by assuming that the draping process does not significantly alter the clock angle ("perfect draping" or that the change in clock angle is reasonably approximated by a gas dynamic model. In this paper, the magnetosheath clock angles measured during 36 crossings of the magnetopause by the Geotail and Interball-Tail spacecraft are compared to the upstream IMF clock angles measured by the Wind spacecraft. Overall, about 30% of data points exhibit perfect draping within ±10°, and 70% are within 30°. The differences between the IMF and magnetosheath clock angles are not, in general, well-ordered in any systematic fashion which could be accounted for by hydrodynamic draping. The draping behaviour is asymmetric with respect to the y-component of the IMF, and the form of the draping distribution function is dependent on solar wind pressure. While the average clock angle observed in the magnetosheath does reflect the orientation of the IMF to within ~30° or less, the assumption that the magnetosheath field direction at any particular region of the magnetopause at any instant is approximately similar to the IMF direction is not justified. This study shows that reconnection models which assume laminar draping are unlikely to accurately reflect the distribution of reconnection sites across the dayside magnetopause.

  14. Biological legacies buffer local species extinction after logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Jönsson, Mari T; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugmann, H

    2014-02-01

    Clearcutting has been identified as a main threat to forest biodiversity. In the last few decades, alternatives to clearcutting have gained much interest. Living and dead trees are often retained after harvest to serve as structural legacies to mitigate negative effects of forestry. However, this practice is widely employed without information from systematic before-after control-impact studies to assess the processes involved in species responses after clearcutting with retention. We performed a large-scale survey of the occurrence of logging-sensitive and red-listed bryophytes and lichens before and after clearcutting with the retention approach. A methodology was adopted that, for the first time in studies on retention approaches, enabled monitoring of location-specific substrates. We used uncut stands as controls to assess the variables affecting the survival of species after a major disturbance. In total, 12 bryophyte species and 27 lichen species were analysed. All were classified as sensitive to logging, and most species are also currently red-listed. We found that living and dead trees retained after final harvest acted as refugia in which logging-sensitive species were able to survive for 3 to 7 years after logging. Depending on type of retention and organism group, between 35% and 92% of the species occurrences persisted on retained structures. Most species observed outside retention trees or patches disappeared. Larger pre-harvest population sizes of bryophytes on dead wood increased the survival probability of the species and hence buffered the negative effects of logging. Synthesis and applications. Careful spatial planning of retention structures is required to fully embrace the habitats of logging-sensitive species. Bryophytes and lichens persisted to a higher degree in retention patches compared to solitary trees or in the clearcut area. Retaining groups of trees in logged areas will help to sustain populations of species over the clearcut phase

  15. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  16. Has Toxicity Testing Moved into the 21st Century? A Survey and Analysis of Perceptions in the Field of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Parodi, Daniela; Telesca, Donatello; Doherty, Joseph; Malloy, Timothy; Allard, Patrick

    2017-08-30

    Ten years ago, leaders in the field of toxicology called for a transformation of the discipline and a shift from primarily relying on traditional animal testing to incorporating advances in biotechnology and predictive methodologies into alternative testing strategies (ATS). Governmental agencies and academic and industry partners initiated programs to support such a transformation, but a decade later, the outcomes of these efforts are not well understood. We aimed to assess the use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers to their adoption by toxicologists and by others working in, or closely linked with, the field of toxicology. We surveyed 1,381 toxicologists and experts in associated fields regarding the viability and use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers of ATS for a range of applications. We performed ranking, hierarchical clustering, and correlation analyses of the survey data. Many respondents indicated that they were already using ATS, or believed that ATS were already viable approaches, for toxicological assessment of one or more end points in their primary area of interest or concern (26-86%, depending on the specific ATS/application pair). However, the proportions of respondents reporting use of ATS in the previous 12 mo were smaller (4.5-41%). Concern about regulatory acceptance was the most commonly cited factor inhibiting the adoption of ATS, and a variety of technical concerns were also cited as significant barriers to ATS viability. The factors most often cited as playing a significant role (currently or in the future) in driving the adoption of ATS were the need for expedited toxicology information, the need for reduced toxicity testing costs, demand by regulatory agencies, and ethical or moral concerns. Our findings indicate that the transformation of the field of toxicology is partly implemented, but significant barriers to acceptance and adoption remain. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1435.

  17. Field Survey of the 1945 Makran and 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunamis in Baluchistan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Emile A.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemzadeh, Javad

    2015-12-01

    We report the result of a 2010 survey of the effects on the Iranian coastline of the tsunami which followed the earthquake of 27 November 1945 ( M 0 = 2.8 × 1028 dyn cm; M w = 8.2), the only large event recorded along the Makran subduction zone since the onset of instrumental seismology. Based on the interview of elderly survivors of the event, we obtained a database of nine values of run-up or splash amplitudes on a segment of shore extending 280 km from Souraf in the West to Pasabandar near the Pakistani border, and ranging in vertical amplitude from 2.3 to 13.7 m. Witness reports are consistent with a significant delay (estimated at ~2.5 h) of the tsunami waves, suggesting that they were generated by an ancillary phenomenon, such as a landslide triggered by the earthquake. None of our witnesses bore ancestral memory of comparable events in the past, suggesting that reported predecessors to the 1945 earthquake may have been smaller in size. The survey also allowed the compilation of previously unreported data concerning the effects of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami.

  18. Influence of gender in choosing a career amongst engineering fields: a survey study from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Seyda; Kadirgan, Neset

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the motivating factors behind students' choices in their decision-making process and also get an insight on their perception of different engineering branches. A survey was prepared and the results were evaluated amongst 1163 answers. Two major influences on student's decision in their professional choices are shown to be career services and family members. Generally, students have claimed to choose a profession based on 'finding a job' and 'being happy'. Some engineering branches such as Genetic and Bioengineering, Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering and Industrial Engineering, are shown to be distinctly preferred by female students, whereas mechanical, civil and electronic engineering are favourites for male students. The survey results were also compared with the distribution of male and female students in various engineering departments. This study clearly shows that certain engineering branches are perceived as more appropriate for women and are thus favoured by female students, while those perceived as more appropriate for men are favoured by male students.

  19. Sediment Grab Samples from the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington coast from U.S. Geological Survey field activity 1998-014-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two 21-day field operations were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the estuaries and on the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington...

  20. A numerical survey of motion-induced electric fields experienced by MRI operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberti, Luca; Chiampi, Mario

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with the electric field generated inside the bodies of people moving in proximity to magnetic resonance scanners. Different types of scanners (tubular and open) and various kinds of movements (translation, rotation, and revolution) are analyzed, considering the homogeneous human model proposed in some technical Standards. The computations are performed through the Boundary Element Method, adopting a reference frame attached to the body, which significantly reduces the computational burden. The induced electric fields are evaluated in terms of both spatial distributions and local time evolutions. The possibility of limiting the study to the head without affecting the accuracy of the results is also investigated. Finally, a first attempt to quantify the transient effect of charge separation is proposed.

  1. Field Survey of the 2015 Ilapel Tsunami in North Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M.; Fritz, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake in north-central Chile on September 16, 2015 generated a tsunami that rapidly flooded coastal areas. The tsunami impact was concentrated in Coquimbo region, while the regions of Valparaiso and Atacama were also affected. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past tsunamis in the region, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The event caused 11 fatalities: 8 were associated with the tsunami, while 3 were attributed to building collapses caused by the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared with recent Chilean tsunamis. The tsunami was characterized by rapid arrival within minutes in the nearfield requiring spontaneous self-evacuation as warning messages did not reach some of the hardest hit fishing villages prior to

  2. Field survey of the 1 April 2014 Iquique tsunami along the coasts of Chile and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M.; Fritz, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    On 1 April, 2014 a magnitude Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred off the coast of northern Chile less than 100 km NW of Iquique within a region of historic quiescence termed the northern Chile seismic gap. The ensuing tsunami inundation caused mostly minor damage centered in Iquique and neighbouring stretches of coastline. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in the region along with the recent 2010 Maule tsunami, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were no tsunami victims, while a handful of fatalities were associated to the earthquake and the tsunami evacuation. The local scientist deployed in the morning hours to start the tsunami survey in Iquique on the day after the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from April 6 to 11. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 700 km stretch of coastline from the Mejillones Peninsula (23.5° S) north of Antofagasta in Chile up to Vila Vila (18.1° S) in southern Peru. We surveyed 30 locations with differential GPS and laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked in the vicinity of Iquique exceeding 4 m in tsunami height. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of Chile and Peru both at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2014 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1868, 1877 and 2010 Chile tsunamis. Given the magnitude of the 1 April 2014 earthquake the tsunami could have been significantly larger. However the absence of a massive tsunami may mislead residents in the future to believe another minor tsunami

  3. 3D-HST: A WIDE-FIELD GRISM SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Nelson, Erica; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Da Cunha, Elisabete [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Erb, Dawn K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Foerster Schreiber, Natascha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Dan, E-mail: gbrammer@eso.org [Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2012-06-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of {approx}7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when {approx}60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625 arcmin{sup 2}) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}5 per resolution element at H{sub 140} {approx} 23.1 and a 5{sigma} emission-line sensitivity of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for typical objects, improving by a factor of {approx}2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 {mu}m at a spatial resolution of {approx}0.''13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of {sigma}(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or {sigma}(v) Almost-Equal-To 1000 km s{sup -1}. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z {approx} 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys

  4. The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline

  5. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  6. The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Radio-detected Submillimeter Galaxies in the HST Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Desai, Vandana; Murphy, Eric J.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Heywood, Ian; Momjian, Emmanuel; Barger, Amy J.; Smail, Ian

    2017-05-01

    In this second paper of the Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey series, we cross-match SCUBA-2 maps with 3 and 6 GHz images from the Janksy-VLA Frontier Fields Legacy Survey for three cluster fields, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1149.5+2223. Within the HST coverage, 14 out of 44 850 μm sources have 3 GHz counterparts, five of which are also detected at 6 GHz. The 850 μm flux densities of these detected sources span from 0.7 to 4.4 mJy after correcting for lensing amplification. The median redshift of the sample is z={1.28}-0.09+0.07, much lower than the typical redshifts (z = 2-3) of brighter submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the literature. In addition, we find that our sources have lower dust temperatures than those of the brighter SMGs. This is also confirmed by an analysis of the ratio between infrared star-formation rate and 850 μm flux density. However, these 14 sources may not represent the general submillimeter population at the same flux range, given that the SCUBA-2 sources without radio counterparts are likely at higher redshifts. Detection of these sources would require deeper radio images or submillimeter interferometry.

  7. Sri Lanka field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, James; Liu, Philip L-F.; Higman, Bretwood; Morton, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fernando, Haindra; Lynett, Patrick; Fritz, Hermann; Synolakis, Costas; Fernando, Starin

    2006-01-01

    An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) consisting of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka evaluated the impacts of the 26 December 2004 transoceanic tsunami in Sri Lanka two weeks after the event. Tsunami runup height, inundation distance, morphological changes, and sedimentary characteristics of deposits were recorded and analyzed along the southwest and east coasts of the country. Preliminary results show how local topography and bathymetry controlled the limits of inundation and associated damage to the infrastructure. The largest wave height of 8.71 m was recorded at Nonagama, while the greatest inundation distance of 390 m and runup height of 12.50 m was at Yala. At some sites, human alterations to the landscape increased the damage caused by the tsunami; this was particularly evident in areas of coral poaching and of sand dune removal.

  8. Field and office instructions in stream gauging for the Hydrological Survey of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L.E.

    1971-01-01

    The importance of water to the basic needs of man is self- evident and needs no particular emphasis. The importance of water to a developing economy cannot be overemphasized. A few decades ago, hydrology was a division of hydraulic engineering and was a tool for project survey, plan, and design. Today hydrology still remains an important part of planning and management of water use projects, but it is imperative that surface and ground-water basic data networks be designed and operated from the standpoint of both present and future water needs. Water problems are ever increasing and ever changing and preparation for the future water demands of Zambia requires knowledge of the hydrology of the country instead of the examination of piecemeal samples for each water use project. The hydrologic survey of Zambia needs to be under the guidance of competent and imaginative hydrologists solidly trained in all elements of basic data collection and analysis and not in the hands of water project planners. Hydrology is a science which requires the highest order of teamwork and the hydrologist will need the help and advice of many employees within the organization to operate the network, provide adequate research, and examine the water needs of the country. It must be thoroughly understood that communication is essential between the hydrological survey and water project planners from both the government and private sectors. It is very important to define the aims and duties of the Hydrological Branch of the Water Affairs Department in a clear cut "Statement of Policy". Personal copies of the statement should be made available to all professional employees and technicians. The reasons for the existence of the Branch may be self-apparent to heads of the organization, but to all other employees the reasons may be vague and unknown. Every member of the technical and administrative staff would benefit by an understanding of the purpose of his work. Nebulous ideas of the function of a

  9. Understanding sub-stellar populations using wide-field infrared surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewett P.C.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses benchmark brown dwarfs in various environments, and focuses on those in wide binary systems. We present a summary of the recently discovered T dwarf population from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, and describe the constraints that it places on our knowledge of the sub-stellar initial mass function. We also present some exciting results from our ongoing search for wide companions to this sample, that has so far revealed an M4-T8.5 binary system at ∼12 parsecs and also the first ever Tdwarf-white dwarf binary system. The T dwarfs in these binaries have their properties constrained by the primary object and are thus benchmark objects that are already testing the predictions of theoretical model atmospheres.

  10. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Jacob A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Foster, Caroline, E-mail: romanow@ucolick.org [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  11. Attitudes towards terminal sedation: an empirical survey among experts in the field of medical ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz José

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Terminal sedation" regarded as the use of sedation in (pre-terminal patients with treatment-refractory symptoms is controversially discussed not only within palliative medicine. While supporters consider terminal sedation as an indispensable palliative medical treatment option, opponents disapprove of it as "slow euthanasia". Against this background, we interviewed medical ethics experts by questionnaire on the term and the moral acceptance of terminal sedation in order to find out how they think about this topic. We were especially interested in whether experts with a professional medical and nursing background think differently about the topic than experts without this background. Methods The survey was carried out by questionnaire; beside the provided answering options free text comments were possible. As test persons we chose the 477 members of the German Academy for Ethics in Medicine, an interdisciplinary society for medical ethics. Results 281 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate = 59%. The majority of persons without medical background regarded "terminal sedation" as an intentional elimination of consciousness until the patient's death occurs; persons with a medical background generally had a broader understanding of the term, including light or intermittent forms of sedation. 98% of the respondents regarded terminal sedation in dying patients with treatment-refractory physical symptoms as acceptable. Situations in which the dying process has not yet started, in which untreatable mental symptoms are the indication for terminal sedation or in which life-sustaining measures are withdrawn during sedation were evaluated as morally difficult. Conclusion The survey reveals a great need for research and discussion on the medical indication as well as on the moral evaluation of terminal sedation. Prerequisite for this is a more precise terminology which describes the circumstances of the sedation.

  12. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating...... tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......" and face logs show a sub-horizontally layered structure, with alternate extremely weak to extremely strong beds of variable thickness. The rhythmicity is thought to be climatically controlled. Stronger beds represent reduced sedimentation rate related to climatic deterioration while weaker beds result from...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC survey of the SHADES fields. II. (Michalowski+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Austermann, J. E.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Egami, E.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Schael, A. M.; Scott, K. S.; Smail, I.; Targett, T. A.; Wagg, J.; Wilson, G. W.; Xu, L.; Yun, M.

    2013-04-01

    We utilized the JCMT/AzTEC 1.1mm maps and catalogues from Austermann et al. (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/401/160). These data cover 0.7deg2 to an rms depth of 0.9-1.7mJy/beam. We selected all 148 sources presented by Austermann et al. (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/401/160) with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) > 3.5, and adopted the statistically deboosted 1.1mm flux densities. The VLA 1.4GHz and GMRT 0.61GHz radio data were taken from Ivison et al. (2005MNRAS.364.1025I, 2007, Cat. J/MNRAS/380/199) and Ibar et al. (2009, Cat. J/MNRAS/397/281, 2010MNRAS.401L..53I), respectively. The mid-IR Spitzer data in the Lockman Hole East field are from programmes PID 81 (PI: G. Rieke) and PID 50249 (PI: E. Egami), described in Egami et al. (2004ApJS..154..130E) and Dye et al. (2008MNRAS.386.1107D), whereas in the UDS field the mid-IR data are from the Spitzer Public Legacy Survey of the UKIDSS UDS (PI: J. Dunlop, http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/spitzermission/observingprograms/ legacy/spuds/) described in Caputi et al. (2011MNRAS.413..162C). The optical data in both fields were obtained with Subaru/SuprimeCam, as described in Dye et al. (2006MNRAS.372.1227D) and Furusawa et al. (2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1). The near-IR data in both fields are provided by the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS; Lawrence et al. 2007, Cat. II/314) with the SXDF/UDS field benefitting from the ultradeep J, H, K coverage provided by the UDS (e.g. Cirasuolo et al. 2010MNRAS.401.1166C), while the Lockman Hole East field is part of the somewhat shallower UKIDSS DXS (Warren et al., 2007MNRAS.375..213W). (5 data files).

  14. South Korea- Potential Market for Russian Logs

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, K.

    1994-01-01

    Korea with its over 40 million population and small forest land base relies heavily on imports for its wood consumption. Korea is usually the second largest log importer in the world after Japan. Since the worsening importing conditions in the traditional log suppling countries, Korea has always looked for alternative supply sources which could provide logs with better conditions. The Russian Far East has emerged as a new source of supply which could meet the conditions Korea looks for since ...

  15. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation of red oak logs eradicates the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer L. Schmidt; Jennifer Juzwik; Brian Schneider

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary field trials using red oak logs from trees dying from oak wilt disease were successful in eliminating oak wilt fungus from sapwood after fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride for 72 h under tarp. These results support earlier laboratory data on the fungitoxicity of sulfuryl fluoride as a potential replacement for methyl bromide of exported red oak veneer logs....

  16. A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J.; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations.

  17. A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W; Johnson, Carole D; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-07

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields from working in the static magnetic stray fields of MRI scanners: a comprehensive survey in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-De Vries, Yvette; Crozier, Stuart; De Vocht, Frank; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Clinical and research staff who work around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed to the static magnetic stray fields of these scanners. Although the past decade has seen strong developments in the assessment of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from MRI scanners, there is insufficient insight into the exposure variability that characterizes routine MRI work practice. However, this is an essential component of risk assessment and epidemiological studies. This paper describes the results of a measurement survey of shift-based personal exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) (B) and motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (dB/dt) among workers at 15 MRI facilities in the Netherlands. With the use of portable magnetic field dosimeters, >400 full-shift and partial shift exposure measurements were collected among various jobs involved in clinical and research MRI. Various full-shift exposure metrics for B and motion-induced dB/dt exposure were calculated from the measurements, including instantaneous peak exposure and time-weighted average (TWA) exposures. We found strong correlations between levels of static (B) and time-varying (dB/dt) exposure (r = 0.88-0.92) and between different metrics (i.e. peak exposure, TWA exposure) to express full-shift exposure (r = 0.69-0.78). On average, participants were exposed to MRI-related SMFs during only 3.7% of their work shift. Average and peak B and dB/dt exposure levels during the work inside the MRI scanner room were highest among technical staff, research staff, and radiographers. Average and peak B exposure levels were lowest among cleaners, while dB/dt levels were lowest among anaesthesiology staff. Although modest exposure variability between workplaces and occupations was observed, variation between individuals of the same occupation was substantial, especially among research staff. This relatively large variability between workers with the same job suggests that exposure classification

  20. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Peter Christiansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35–0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0–300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS and the Point Cloud Library (PCL. Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  1. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Skovsen, Søren; Gislum, René

    2017-11-23

    A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35-0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0-300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS) and the Point Cloud Library (PCL). Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  2. Hyper Suprime-Camera Survey of the Akari NEP Wide Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Toba, Yoshiki; Utsumi, Yousuke; Oi, Nagisa; Takagi, Toshinobu; Malkan, Matt; Ohayma, Youichi; Murata, Kazumi; Price, Paul; Karouzos, Marios; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Wada, Takehiko; Serjeant, Steve; Burgarella, Denis; Buat, Veronique; Takada, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Oyabu, Shinki; White, Glenn; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Inami, Hanae; Perason, Chris; Malek, Katarzyna; Marchetti, Lucia; Lee, Hyung Mok; Im, Myung; Kim, Seong Jin; Koptelova, Ekaterina; Chao, Dani; Wu, Yi-Han; AKARI NEP Survey Team; AKARI All Sky Survey Team

    2017-03-01

    The extragalactic background suggests half the energy generated by stars was reprocessed into the infrared (IR) by dust. At z ∼1.3, 90% of star formation is obscured by dust. To fully understand the cosmic star formation history, it is critical to investigate infrared emission. AKARI has made deep mid-IR observation using its continuous 9-band filters in the NEP field (5.4 deg^2), using ∼10% of the entire pointed observations available throughout its lifetime. However, there remain 11,000 AKARI infrared sources undetected with the previous CFHT/Megacam imaging (r ∼25.9ABmag). Redshift and IR luminosity of these sources are unknown. These sources may contribute significantly to the cosmic star-formation rate density (CSFRD). For example, if they all lie at 1 Camera (HSC), which has 1.5 deg field of view in diameter on Subaru 8m telescope. This will provide photometric redshift information, and thereby IR luminosity for the previously-undetected 11,000 faint AKARI IR sources. Combined with AKARI's mid-IR AGN/SF diagnosis, and accurate mid-IR luminosity measurement, this will allow a complete census of cosmic star-formation/AGN accretion history obscured by dust.

  3. Archaeological field survey automation: concurrent multisensor site mapping and automated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowicz, Mateusz; Sokolov, Oleksandr; Meszyński, Sebastian; Siemińska, Dominika; Kołosowski, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    ABM SE develops mobile robots (rovers) used for analog research of Mars exploration missions. The rovers are all-terrain exploration platforms, carrying third-party payloads: scientific instrumentation. "Wisdom" ground penetrating radar for Exomars mission has been tested onboard, as well as electrical resistivity module and other devices. Robot has operated in various environments, such as Central European countryside, Dachstein ice caves or Sahara, Morocco (controlled remotely via satellite from Toruń, Poland. Currently ABM SE works on local and global positioning system for a Mars rover basing on image and IMU data. This is performed under a project from ESA. In the next Mars rover missions a Mars GIS model will be build, including an acquired GPR profile, DEM and regular image data, integrated into a concurrent 3D terrain model. It is proposed to use similar approach in surveys of archaeological sites, especially those, where solid architecture remains can be expected at shallow depths or being partially exposed. It is possible to deploy a rover that will concurrently map a selected site with GPR, 2D and 3D cameras to create a site model. The rover image processing algorithms are capable of automatic tracing of distinctive features (such as exposed structure remains on a desert ground, differences in color of the ground, etc.) and to mark regularities on a created map. It is also possible to correlate the 3D map with an aerial photo taken under any angle to achieve interpretation synergy. Currently the algorithms are an interpretation aid and their results must be confirmed by a human. The advantages of a rover over traditional approaches, such as a manual cart or a drone include: a) long hours of continuous work or work in unfavorable environment, such as high desert, frozen water pools or large areas, b) concurrent multisensory data acquisition, c) working from the ground level enables capturing of sites obstructed from the air (trees), d) it is possible to

  4. Tsunami damages assessment: vulnerability functions on buildings based on field and earth observation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauraz, A. L.; Valencia, N.; Koscielny, M.; Guillande, R.; Gardi, A.; Leone, F.; Salaun, T.

    2009-04-01

    The assessment of damages caused by tsunami scenarios on coastal buildings requires using vulnerability matrixes or functions to carry out a relation between the magnitude of the phenomena and the damage expected. These functions represent the probability for a building belonging to a class of vulnerability to suffer from a mean damage level. The physical vulnerability of buildings depends on two parameters: the solicitation level applied by the tsunami on buildings and their resistance capacity. According to the authors after post-tsunami observations (Reese et al. 2007; Ruangrassamee et al. 2006; Leone et al. 2006; Peiris 2006), the level of damage is clearly linked to the water elevation of the inundated areas and the type of observed buildings. Very few works propose relations based on velocity or hydrodynamic pressure of the waves. An approach developed for the estimation of the building vulnerability consists in deriving empirical damage functions starting from field observations. As part of the SCHEMA European Project on the vulnerability assessment for tsunami hazards in the Atlantic and Mediterranean area, vulnerability functions have been elaborated for different classes of buildings in order to produce vulnerability maps for exposed areas with emphasis on extraction of building characteristics using remote sensing data. The damage detection has been carried out by field data collected after the 24 December 2006 tsunami event on the southwest area of Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Thailand) completed by photo-interpretation of satellite images to get representative functions with large population of samples. The building classes consist in several categories depending mainly on the type of construction material (timber/bamboo, traditional brick, reinforced concrete …), the type of structure (beam, pillars, etc) and the number of storeys. The level of damage has been also classified in five categories, from D0 (no damage) to D5 (total destruction). Vulnerability

  5. Wide-Field Lensing Mass Maps from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Vikram, V; Jain, B; Bacon, D; Amara, A; Becker, M R; Bernstein, G; Bonnett, C; Bridle, S; Brout, D; Busha, M; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Hartley, W; Jarvis, M; Kacprzak, T; Kovács, A; Lahav, O; Lin, H; Melchior, P; Peiris, H; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E; Sánchez, C; Sheldon, E; Troxel, M A; Wechsler, R; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Annis, J; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Lévy, A; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Carnero Rosell, A; Carrasco Kind, M; Castander, F J; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Fausti Neto, A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A R

    2015-07-31

    We present a mass map reconstructed from weak gravitational lensing shear measurements over 139  deg2 from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. The mass map probes both luminous and dark matter, thus providing a tool for studying cosmology. We find good agreement between the mass map and the distribution of massive galaxy clusters identified using a red-sequence cluster finder. Potential candidates for superclusters and voids are identified using these maps. We measure the cross-correlation between the mass map and a magnitude-limited foreground galaxy sample and find a detection at the 6.8σ level with 20 arc min smoothing. These measurements are consistent with simulated galaxy catalogs based on N-body simulations from a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant. This suggests low systematics uncertainties in the map. We summarize our key findings in this Letter; the detailed methodology and tests for systematics are presented in a companion paper.

  6. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. IV. Global properties of C III] emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Franx, Marijn; Bacon, Roland; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Boogaard, Leindert A.; Contini, Thierry; Feltre, Anna; Inami, Hanae; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Marino, Raffaella A.; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    The C III] λλ1907, 1909 emission doublet has been proposed as an alternative to Lyman-α in redshift confirmations of galaxies at z ≳ 6 since it is not attenuated by the largely neutral intergalactic medium at these redshifts and is believed to be strong in the young, vigorously star-forming galaxies present at these early cosmic times. We present a statistical sample of 17 C III]-emitting galaxies beyond z 1.5 using 30 h deep VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy covering 2 square arcminutes in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) and Ultra Deep Field (UDF), achieving C III] sensitivities of 2 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 in the HDFS and 7 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 in the UDF. The rest-frame equivalent widths range from 2 to 19 Å. These 17 galaxies represent 3% of the total sample of galaxies found between 1.5 ≲ z ≲ 4. They also show elevated star formation rates, lower dust attenuation, and younger mass-weighted ages than the general population of galaxies at the same redshifts. Combined with deep slitless grism spectroscopy from the HST/WFC3 in the UDF, we can tie the rest-frame ultraviolet C III] emission to rest-frame optical emission lines, namely [O III] λ5007, finding a strong correlation between the two. Down to the flux limits that we observe ( 1 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 with the grism data in the UDF), all objects with a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 equivalent width in excess of 250 Å, the so-called extreme emission line galaxies, have detections of C III] in our MUSE data. More detailed studies of the C III]-emitting population at these intermediate redshifts will be crucial to understand the physical conditions in galaxies at early cosmic times and to determine the utility of C III] as a redshift tracer. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 60.A-9100(C), 094.A-2089(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A), and 096.A-0045(B). This work is also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble

  8. Calculation of porosity from nuclear magnetic resonance and conventional logs in gas-bearing reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Li, Gao-ren; Jin, Yan

    2012-08-01

    The porosity may be overestimated or underestimated when calculated from conventional logs and also underestimated when derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs due to the effect of the lower hydrogen index of natural gas in gas-bearing sandstones. Proceeding from the basic principle of NMR log and the results obtained from a physical rock volume model constructed on the basis of interval transit time logs, a technique of calculating porosity by combining the NMR log with the conventional interval transit time log is proposed. For wells with the NMR log acquired from the MRIL-C tool, this technique is reliable for evaluating the effect of natural gas and obtaining accurate porosity in any borehole. In wells with NMR log acquired from the CMR-Plus tool and with collapsed borehole, the NMR porosity should be first corrected by using the deep lateral resistivity log. Two field examples of tight gas sandstones in the Xujiahe Formation, central Sichuan basin, Southwest China, illustrate that the porosity calculated by using this technique matches the core analyzed results very well. Another field example of conventional gas-bearing reservoir in the Ziniquanzi Formation, southern Junggar basin, Northwest China, verifies that this technique is usable not only in tight gas sandstones, but also in any gas-bearing reservoirs.

  9. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at zhttp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A2

  10. The HST Medium Deep Survey: Light Profiles and Redshifts for Field Galaxies out to z{ ~ }0.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, P. C.; Windhorst, R. A.; Mutz, S. B.; Pascarelle, S. M.; Franklin, B. E.; Ostrander, E. J.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1994-12-01

    Isophotal light profiles have been determined for 29 faint field galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope (``HST'') images taken for the Medium Deep Survey (``MDS'') prior to the refurbishment mission, for which ground-based spectroscopy and reshifts are available. The images were obtained with the Wide Field Camera in ``parallel mode'' and deconvolved using the Lucy method with a large grid of observed field stars as point-spread functions. The effective resolution of the restored WFC images is { ~ }0.2('') FWHM. By fitting the light profiles to models of exponential disks and/or r(1/4) -bulges, accurate values for their scale-lengths (r_s and/or r_e) have been determined. Most galaxies in this sample are disk-dominated, with small central bulges. From ground-based spectroscopy, the measured redshifts for these galaxies are z=0.026---0.554. The light-profiles, color gradients and spectra of these galaxies are discussed as a function of galaxy type and cosmic time. This work was supported by NASA/HST grants GO-2684-0*-94A from STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  11. Single-Beam Bathymetry Survey Tracklines Collected in 2012 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 12BIM04)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted...

  12. Asteroid spin-rate studies using large sky-field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ip, Wing-Huen; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2017-12-01

    Eight campaigns to survey asteroid rotation periods have been carried out using the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory in the past 3 years. 2780 reliable rotation periods were obtained, from which we identified two new super-fast rotators (SFRs), (335433) 2005 UW163 and (40511) 1999 RE88, and 23 candidate SFRs. Along with other three known super-fast rotators, there are five known SFRs so far. Contrary to the case of rubble-pile asteroids (i.e., bounded aggregations by gravity only), an internal cohesion, ranging from 100 to 1000 Pa, is required to prevent these five SFRs from flying apart because of their super-fast rotations. This cohesion range is comparable with that of lunar regolith. However, some candidates of several kilometers in size require unusually high cohesion (i.e., a few thousands of Pa). Therefore, the confirmation of these kilometer-sized candidates can provide important information about asteroid interior structure. From the rotation periods we collected, we also found that the spin-rate limit of C-type asteroids, which has a lower bulk density, is lower than for S-type asteroids. This result is in agreement with the general picture of rubble-pile asteroids (i.e., lower bulk density, lower spin-rate limit). Moreover, the spin-rate distributions of asteroids of 3 5 rev/day, regardless of the location in the main belt. The YORP effect is indicated to be less efficient in altering asteroid spin rates from our results when compared with the flat distribution found by Pravec et al. (Icarus 197:497-504, 2008. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.012). We also found a significant number drop at f = 5 rev/day in the spin-rate distributions of asteroids of D < 3 km.

  13. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental campaign which aims at sup-porting the modeling (conceptual and numerical) of water circulation in a terraced slope, and its in-fluence on stability of retaining dry stone walls. The case study is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy). At Lamole site both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt (with different techniques) dry stone walls are present. Furthermore the intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and wall. The survey is developed within the bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. Second Part A second effort is devoted to couple hydrological, hydraulic and geotechnical modeling: - Flow directions and the drainage area have been derived from DTM (high-resolution digital terrain model obtained by a terrestrial laser scanner.), and served for the RPII index calcula-tion (Tarolli et al., 2013), that is coherent with the critical spots observed in situ and marked with GPS. - Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). - Retention curves related with different depths have been derived. - Geoelectric analysis in order to locate the bedrock and to determine the subterranean water flows originated from controlled infitration tests (1 l/s discharge). - A simple dry-wall stability model has been carried out; this model analyses the wall stability with finite elements method, evaluating pressures derived from uphill water infiltration, stone friction and buoyancy in retaining wall layers: simulated deformation are suitable with the observed ones. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and

  14. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: Physical properties derived from energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Brisbin, D.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Novak, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Albrecht, M.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P. L.; Casey, C. M.; Hayward, C. C.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Jiang, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F.; Padilla, N. D.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Scott, K. S.; Sheth, K.; Tasca, L. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) represent an important source population in the origin and cosmic evolution of the most massive galaxies. Hence, it is imperative to place firm constraints on the fundamental physical properties of large samples of SMGs. Aims: We determine the physical properties of a sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field that were pre-selected at the observed-frame wavelength of λobs = 1.1 mm, and followed up at λobs = 1.3 mm with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA). Methods: We used the MAGPHYS model package to fit the panchromatic (ultraviolet to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 124 of the target SMGs, which lie at a median redshift of z = 2.30 (19.4% are spectroscopically confirmed). The SED analysis was complemented by estimating the gas masses of the SMGs by using the λobs = 1.3 mm dust emission as a tracer of the molecular gas component. Results: The sample median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of the stellar masses, obscured star formation rates, dust temperatures, and dust and gas masses were derived to be log(M⋆/M⊙) = 11.09+0.41-0.53, SFR = 402+661-233 M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 39.7+9.7-7.4 K, log(Mdust/M⊙) = 9.01+0.20-0.31, and log(Mgas/M⊙ = 11.34+0.20-0.23, respectively. The Mdust/M⋆ ratio was found to decrease as a function of redshift, while the Mgas/Mdust ratio shows the opposite, positive correlation with redshift. The derived median gas-to-dust ratio of 120+73-30 agrees well with the canonical expectation. The gas fraction (Mgas/ (Mgas + M⋆)) was found to range from 0.10 to 0.98 with a median of 0.62+0.27-0.23. We found that 57.3% of our SMGs populate the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies, while 41.9% of the sources lie above the MS by a factor of greater than three (one source lies below the MS). These super-MS objects, or starbursts, are preferentially found at z ≳ 3, which likely reflects the sensitivity limit of our source selection. We estimated that the median gas

  15. Feasibility Study of Soil Quality Survey using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Rice Paddy Fields in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey and monitoring of soil quality are needed to prevent soil degradation and are important for sustainable farming and food production. Conventional soil survey involves intensive soil sampling and laboratory analysis, which are time consuming and expensive. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy of soil has proved to be accurate, cheap and robust and has huge potential for survey of soil quality. To test its potential, 327 soil samples were taken from long-term paddy rice fields in four provinces in south of China and covered a wide range of soil types and texture. The samples were air-dried, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. They were then scanned by an ASD vis–NIR spectrometer with wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm. Organic matter (OM, pH, total nitrogen (TN and available nitrogen (N_av were also measured on soil samples to build calibration models and also to validate the models’ accuracy. On the basis of the ratio of prediction deviation (RPD, which is standard deviation (SD of prediction divided by the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, the accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation of soil N_av model was classified very good (RPD=1.96 and soil OM and TN was good (RPD=1.78 and RPD=1.81, respectively. However, the model accuracy of pH was poor due to non-direct soil spectral response for soil pH in vis–NIR spectroscopy. The independent validation results showed excellent accuracy for soil N_av (RPD=3.26, good accuracy for OM and TN (RPD=1.76 and RPD=1.78 and relative poor accuracy for soil pH (RPD=1.27. This feasibility study is encouraging for the application of vis–NIR surveys of soil quality accuracy at regional and national scales; it found good to excellent accuracy for some important soil properties in quality survey.

  16. LHCb Online Log Analysis and Maintenance System

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, J-C; Neufeld, N; Nikolaidis, F

    2011-01-01

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. ...

  17. Logging methods and peeling of Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Schantz-Hansen

    1948-01-01

    The logging of forest products is influenced by many factors, including the size of the trees, density of the stand, the soundness of the trees, size of the area logged, topography and soil, weather conditions, the degree of utilization, the skill of the logger and the equipment used, the distance from market, etc. Each of these factors influences not only the method...

  18. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as...

  19. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A...

  20. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as...

  1. Utilization and cost for animal logging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2001-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. Due to the development of efficient machines and high volume demands from the forest products industry, mechanization of logging developed very fast, leaving behind the traditional horse and mule logging. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically...

  2. A handy aid for hardwood log graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. D. Ostrander

    1952-01-01

    In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...

  3. Mathematical model of a smoldering log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando de Souza Costa; David. Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed describing the natural smoldering of logs. It is considered the steady one dimensional propagation of infinitesimally thin fronts of drying, pyrolysis, and char oxidation in a horizontal semi-infinite log. Expressions for the burn rates, distribution profiles of temperature, and positions of the drying, pyrolysis, and smoldering fronts...

  4. Log sort yard economics, planning, and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Rusty Dramm; Robert Govett; Ted Bilek; Gerry L. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    This publication discusses basic marketing and economic concepts, planning approach, and feasibility methodology for assessing log sort yard operations. Special attention is given to sorting small diameter and underutilized logs from forest restoration, fuels reduction, and thinning operations. A planned programming approach of objectively determining the feasibility...

  5. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  6. SOME LIMIT-THEOREMS IN LOG DENSITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERKES, [No Value; DEHLING, H

    Motivated by recent results on pathwise central limit theorems, we study in a systematic way log-average versions of classical limit theorems. For partial sums S(k) of independent r.v.'s we prove under mild technical conditions that (1/log N)SIGMA(k less-than-or-equal-to N)(1/k)I{S(k)/a(k)

  7. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  8. FIELD SURVEYS OF OZONE SYMPTOMS IN EUROPE. PROBLEMS, RELIABILITY AND SIGNIFICANCE FOR ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bussotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ICP-Forest program for the monitoring of forest conditions includes the assessment of ozone symptoms in the European forests. This contribute to discussion points out the problems related to the recognition of such symptoms, with a special focus on the difficulties to extend the results obtained in experimental conditions to woody plant species growing in the field. Non specific symptoms (such as reddening, yellowing, early senescence and leaf loss, and the concurrent action of modifying factors (high light, drought, nutrient deficiency, pest attack and fungi make the recognition elusive. In these cases, the action of ozone cannot be proven or excluded with “ad hoc” experiments. Apparently “good” bioindicators (Rubus sp. Cornus sp. pl., Prunus sp. pl., Viburnum sp. pl. etc.  are not suitable to assess the impact of ozone on vegetation. Symptoms are not necessarily related to the ozone dose taken up by stomata, and don’t are reliable indicator for biomass and productivity losses. Symptoms can be considered an epiphenomenon of more complex ecosystem processes.

  9. Do journals publishing in the field of urology endorse reporting guidelines? A survey of author instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, Frank; Grobe, Henrik R; Rücker, Gerta; Engehausen, Dirk; Antes, Gerd; Wullich, Bernd; Meerpohl, Jörg J

    2012-01-01

    Reporting guidelines aim to ensure adequate and complete reporting of clinical studies and are an indispensable tool to translate scientific results into clinical practice. The extent to which reporting guidelines are incorporated into the author instructions of journals publishing in the field of urology remained unclear. We assessed the author instructions of uro-nephrological journals indexed in 'Journal Citation Reports 2009'. Two authors independently assessed the author guidelines. We evaluated additional information including whether a journal was published by or in association with a medical association. Discrepancies were resolved by re-checking the respective author instructions and by discussion with a third author. The recommendations of the International Committee of Journal Editors were endorsed by 32 journals (58.2%) but were mentioned in 12 (37.5%) only to give general advice about manuscript preparation. Fourteen journals (25.5%) mentioned at least one reporting guideline, with CONSORT the most frequently cited. Journals with high impact factors were more likely to endorse CONSORT (p < 0.009). Other reporting guidelines were mentioned by <6% of the journals. All key stakeholders involved in the publication process should more frequently promote the awareness and use of reporting guidelines. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. J- AND H-BAND IMAGING OF AKARI NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE SURVEY FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yiseul; Im, Myungshin; Kang, Eugene; Lee, Hyung Mok [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Matsuhara, Hideo, E-mail: ysjeon@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    We present the J- and H-band source catalog covering the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole field. Filling the gap between the optical data from other follow-up observations and mid-infrared (MIR) data from AKARI, our near-infrared (NIR) data provides contiguous wavelength coverage from optical to MIR. For the J- and H-band imaging, we used the FLoridA Multi-object Imaging Near-ir Grism Observational Spectrometer on the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope covering a 5.1 deg{sup 2} area down to a 5σ depth of ∼21.6 mag and ∼21.3 mag (AB) for the J and H bands with an astrometric accuracy of 0.''14 and 0.''17 for 1σ in R.A. and decl. directions, respectively. We detected 208,020 sources for the J band and 203,832 sources for the H band. This NIR data is being used for studies including the analysis of the physical properties of infrared sources such as stellar mass and photometric redshifts, and will be a valuable data set for various future missions.

  11. Correlation of T-log with E-log in coal-bearing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, J. R.

    1980-03-01

    The profile of temperature gradient versus depth (T-log) has been found to be very useful for correlation with electrical resistivity log (E-log) in coal-bearing formations. A positive correlation between electrical resistivity and thermal resistivity is observed in coal sections whereas a negative correlation is found in sandstone/shale beds, thus helping in coal prospect evaluation. T logs have been used to correct the location of coal bed which had apparently been misinterpreted by the E-log. Hole to hole correlation of T-log and E-log is found to be excellent and it is observed that thermal resistivity characteristics of given formations remain fairly uniform. A rough estimation of coal grade is possible from the detailed study of the T-logs. Abrupt changes of temperature gradient as also its reversals have been observed in burnt coal sections.

  12. Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey. VIII. Analysis of the Field J0053+1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Blandford, Roger; Hogg, David W.; Pahre, Michael A.; Shopbell, Patrick L.

    1999-02-01

    The results of a spectroscopic investigation of a complete sample of objects with Ksincidence of emission lines in the luminous galaxies increases with redshift. The estimated dynamical masses of these redshift peaks, and the sky distribution of the galaxies within them, appear similar to groups or poor clusters of galaxies in the local universe at various stages of virialization. Some groups of galaxies therefore form at epochs z>1.5, and the galaxies in such groups appear to be coeval and to show little sign of ongoing star formation. The galaxies outside the redshift peaks are also clustered, albeit more weakly, are less luminous and more frequently exhibit strong emission lines. These ``isolated'' galaxies therefore appear, on average, to form stars at later epochs than the strongly clustered galaxies. The galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) derived from our UBVRIK photometry are also very closely correlated with the galaxy spectral types and luminosities. These results have strong implications for the analysis of redshift surveys at intermediate redshift. The sample is used to investigate the evolution of the combined galaxy luminosity function back to z=0.8. No significant change is found in the characteristic luminosity L*, and only weak color changes are detected, consistent with passive evolution. The blue galaxy-luminosity function is more dwarf rich than the red galaxy-luminosity function. No significant change in the comoving density is found in this sample out to z~1.4, assuming that the objects without redshifts (16% of the sample) are galaxies, essentially all of which have z>0.8. This suggests that mergers are not important among the objects in this sample. A population of extremely red objects with (R-K)>5 mag exists in the infrared-selected sample; all four such objects with redshifts are found to be absorption-line galaxies with z~1. Most of the very red objects therefore appear to be galaxies with z>~1 that are not heavily reddened by

  13. Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.

  14. Cosmological constraints with weak-lensing peak counts and second-order statistics in a large-field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Austin; Lin, Chieh-An; Lanusse, François; Leonard, Adrienne; Starck, Jean-Luc; Kilbinger, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Peak statistics in weak-lensing maps access the non-Gaussian information contained in the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are therefore a promising complementary probe to two-point and higher-order statistics to constrain our cosmological models. Next-generation galaxy surveys, with their advanced optics and large areas, will measure the cosmic weak-lensing signal with unprecedented precision. To prepare for these anticipated data sets, we assess the constraining power of peak counts in a simulated Euclid-like survey on the cosmological parameters Ωm, σ8, and w0de. In particular, we study how Camelus, a fast stochastic model for predicting peaks, can be applied to such large surveys. The algorithm avoids the need for time-costly N-body simulations, and its stochastic approach provides full PDF information of observables. Considering peaks with a signal-to-noise ratio ≥ 1, we measure the abundance histogram in a mock shear catalogue of approximately 5000 deg2 using a multiscale mass-map filtering technique. We constrain the parameters of the mock survey using Camelus combined with approximate Bayesian computation, a robust likelihood-free inference algorithm. Peak statistics yield a tight but significantly biased constraint in the σ8-Ωm plane, as measured by the width ΔΣ8 of the 1σ contour. We find Σ8 = σ8(Ωm/ 0.27)α = 0.77-0.05+0.06 with α = 0.75 for a flat ΛCDM model. The strong bias indicates the need to better understand and control the model systematics before applying it to a real survey of this size or larger. We perform a calibration of the model and compare results to those from the two-point correlation functions ξ± measured on the same field. We calibrate the ξ± result as well, since its contours are also biased, although not as severely as for peaks. In this case, we find for peaks Σ8 = 0.76-0.03+0.02 with α = 0.65, while for the combined ξ+ and ξ- statistics the values are Σ8 = 0.76-0.01+0.02 and α = 0

  15. Fluid circulation and reservoir conditions of the Los Humeros Geothermal Field (LHGF), Mexico, as revealed by a noble gas survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Castro, M. Clara; Lopez-Hernandez, Aida; Han, Guolei; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Hall, Chris M.; Ramírez-Montes, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Los Humeros Geothermal Field (LHGF) is one of four geothermal fields currently operating in Mexico, in exploitation since 1990. Located in a caldera complex filled with very low-permeability rhyolitic ignimbrites that are the reservoir cap-rock, recharge of the geothermal field is both limited and localized. Because of this, planning of any future geothermal exploitation must be based on a clear understanding of the fluid circulation. To this end, a first noble gas survey was carried out in which twenty-two production wells were sampled for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotope analysis. Air-corrected 3He/4He ratios (Rc) measured in the fluid, normalized to the helium atmospheric ratio (Ra; 1.384 × 10- 6), are consistently high across the field, with an average value of 7.03 ± 0.40 Ra. This value is close to that of the sub-continental upper mantle, indicating that LHGF mines heat from an active magmatic system. Freshwater recharge does not significantly affect He isotopic ratios, contributing 1-10% of the total fluid amount. The presence of radiogenic 40Ar* in the fluid suggests a fossil fluid component that might have circulated within the metacarbonate basement with radiogenic argon produced from detrital dispersed illite. Solubility-driven elemental fractionation of Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar, and Xe/Ar confirm extreme boiling in the reservoir. However, a combined analysis of these ratios with 40Ar/36Ar reveals mixing with an air component, possibly introduced by re-injected geothermal fluids.

  16. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  17. Window opening behaviour: simulations of occupant behaviour in residential buildings using models based on a field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentina, Fabi; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Window opening behaviour has been shown to have a significant impact on airflow rates and hence energy consumption. Nevertheless, the inhabitant behaviour related to window opening in residential buildings is currently poorly investigated through both field surveys and building energy simulations....... In particular, reliable information regarding user behaviour in residential buildings is crucial for suitable prediction of building performance (energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, etc.). To face this issue, measurements of indoor climate and outdoor environmental parameters and window “opening...... and closing” actions were performed in 15 dwellings from January to August 2008 in Denmark. Probabilistic models of inhabitants’ window “opening and closing” behaviour were developed and implemented in the energy simulation software IDA ICE to improve window opening and closing strategies in simulations...

  18. Executive summary: report on Health Canada survey of ultraviolet radiation and electric and magnetic fields from compact fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report details the levels of ultraviolet and electromagnetic emissions from a sample of 30 compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). It is based on the results of tests designed to measure spectral irradiance data and calculate recommended maximum daily UVR (ultraviolet radiation) exposure. This survey dealt with widely used standard incandescent lamps which are generally CFLs. So it is important to identify whether the ultraviolet radiation and electromagnetic emissions from CFLs exceed current exposure guidelines or not. The lamp selection was carried out under supervision of the of Natural Resources Canada and it was done using the criteria which specify that the lamps have integrated electronic ballasts and be of the screw-in type or can be used with a screw-in adapter. Fortunately, the results show that CFLs do not pose any risk to the health of the general population either from ultraviolet radiation or from the associated electric and magnetic fields.

  19. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, Deborah L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Terebey, Susan; Angione, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Leisawitz, David, E-mail: wliu@ipac.caltech.edu [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 605, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  20. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating...... tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone...... the limestone is presented along with a longsection showing the sub-horizontal layering. Knowledge of the lateral bed continuity can be used to predict challenging levels within the limestone and levels more favourable for tunnelling....

  1. Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Randomized Soil Survey of the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Rice Fields in Laos ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Langla, Sayan; Amornchai, Premjit; Sirisouk, Joy; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Moore, Catrin E.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N.

    2011-01-01

    Melioidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, where the causative organism (Burkholderia pseudomallei) is present in the soil. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), B. pseudomallei is a significant cause of sepsis around the capital, Vientiane, and has been isolated in soil near the city, adjacent to the Mekong River. We explored whether B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soil distant from the Mekong River, drawing three axes across northwest, northeast, and southern Laos to create nine sampling areas in six provinces. Within each sampling area, a random rice field site containing a grid of 100 sampling points each 5 m apart was selected. Soil was obtained from a depth of 30 cm and cultured for B. pseudomallei. Four of nine sites (44%) were positive for B. pseudomallei, including all three sites in Saravane Province, southern Laos. The highest isolation frequency was in east Saravane, where 94% of soil samples were B. pseudomallei positive with a geometric mean concentration of 464 CFU/g soil (95% confidence interval, 372 to 579 CFU/g soil; range, 25 to 10,850 CFU/g soil). At one site in northwest Laos (Luangnamtha), only one sample (1%) was positive for B. pseudomallei, at a concentration of 80 CFU/g soil. Therefore, B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soils beyond the immediate vicinity of the Mekong River, alerting physicians to the likelihood of melioidosis in these areas. Further studies are needed to investigate potential climatic, soil, and biological determinants of this heterogeneity. PMID:21075883

  3. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular Gas Reservoirs in High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-z galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets an ˜1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3 and 1 mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11 {L}⊙ , i.e., a detection in CO emission was expected. Out of these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than those typically found in starburst/sub-mm galaxy/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in the context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): the CO-detected galaxies in the UDF tend to reside on the low-{L}{IR} envelope of the scatter in the {L}{IR}{--}{L}{CO}\\prime relation, but exceptions exist. For the CO-detected sources, we find an average depletion time of ˜1 Gyr, with significant scatter. The average molecular-to-stellar mass ratio ({M}{{H}2}/M *) is consistent with earlier measurements of main-sequence galaxies at these redshifts, and again shows large variations among sources. In some cases, we also measure dust continuum emission. On average, the dust-based estimates of the molecular gas are a factor ˜2-5× smaller than those based on CO. When we account for detections as well as non-detections, we find large diversity in the molecular gas properties of the high-redshift galaxies covered by ASPECS.

  4. MRI-related magnetic field exposures and risk of commuting accidents - A cross-sectional survey among Dutch imaging technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Schaap, Kristel; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Imaging technicians working with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may experience acute effects such as vertigo or dizziness when being exposed. A previous study also reported an increased risk of accidents in MRI exposed staff. We aimed at evaluating commuting accident risk in Dutch imaging technicians. Of invited imaging technicians, 490 (29%) filled in a questionnaire pertaining to (near) accidents when driving or riding a bike, health, lifestyle and work practices. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposure to MRI-related electromagnetic fields and risk of commuting (near) accidents in the year prior to the survey, adjusted for a range of potential confounders. Our cross-sectional study indicated an increased risk of (near) accidents if imaging technicians had worked with MRI in the year prior to the survey (odds ratio OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.23-3.69). Risks were higher in persons who worked with MRI more often (OR 2.32, 95%CI 1.25-4.31) compared to persons who worked sometimes with MRI (OR 1.91, 95%CI 0.98-3.72), and higher in those who had likely experienced higher peak exposures to static and time-varying magnetic fields (OR 2.18, 95%CI 1.06-4.48). The effect was seen on commuting accidents that had occurred on the commute from home to work as well as accidents from work to home or elsewhere. Imaging technicians working with MRI scanners may be at an increased risk of commuting (near) accidents. This result needs confirmation and potential risks for other groups (volunteers, patients) should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. a Comparison of Close-Range Photogrammetry Using a Non-Professional Camerawith Field Surveying for Vplume Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, S.; Rastiveis, H.

    2017-09-01

    Rapid and accurate volume calculation is one of the most important requirements in many applications such as construction and mining industries. The accuracy of a calculated volume depends on the number of collected points on the object. Increasing the number of measured points undoubtedly requires higher cost and time. On the other hand, collecting surveying points might sometimes be difficult, dangerous or impossible. The aim of this study is to evaluate the close range photogrammetry (CRP) using a non-professional camera for DEM generation in comparison to the traditional field surveying technique (TST). For this purpose, a test area in Deralok hydropower planet site was considered and the process of DEM extraction in both methods was compared. The obtained results showed that although the CRP method in contrast with TST method was more time consuming, however, this method was able to successfully measure negative slops and berms and, consequently, calculated more accurate volume. Moreover, the relative error of 0.2% was reported.

  6. Mining ticketing logs for usage characterization with nonnegative matrix factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Poussevin, Mickaël; Baskiotis, Nicolas; Guigue, Vincent; Gallinari, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Understanding urban mobility is a fundamental question for institutional organizations (transport authorities, city halls) and it involves many different fields like social sciences, urbanism or geography. With the increasing number of probes tracking human locations, like magnetic pass for urban transportation, road sensors, CCTV systems or cell phones, mobility data are exponentially growing. Mining the activity logs in order to model and characterize efficiently our...

  7. An Analysis of the Differences among Log Scaling Methods and Actual Log Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Log rules estimate the volume of green lumber that can be expected to result from the sawing of a log. As such, this ability to reliably predict lumber recovery forms the foundation of log sales and purchase. The more efficient a sawmill, the less the scaling methods reflect the actual volume recovery and the greater the overrun factor. Using high-resolution scanned...

  8. LOG2MARKUP: State module to transform a Stata text log into a markup document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    log2markup extract parts of the text version from the Stata log command and transform the logfile into a markup based document with the same name, but with extension markup (or otherwise specified in option extension) instead of log. The author usually uses markdown for writing documents. However...

  9. THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: MULTIWAVELENGTH COUNTERPARTS TO 10{sup 3} SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE UKIDSS-UDS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Simpson, James M.; Swinbank, A. Mark [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ivison, Rob J.; Arumugam, Vinodiran; Mortlock, Alice; Dunlop, James S.; Michałowski, Michał J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Almaini, Omar; Conselice, Christopher J.; Hartley, Will G. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Geach, James E. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Blain, Andrew [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2016-04-01

    We present multiwavelength identifications for the counterparts of 1088 submillimeter sources detected at 850 μm in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey study of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) field. By utilizing an Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) pilot study on a subset of our bright SCUBA-2 sample as a training set, along with the deep optical–near-infrared (OIR) data available in this field, we develop a novel technique, Optical–IR Triple Color (OIRTC), using z − K, K − [3.6], [3.6] − [4.5] colors to select the candidate submillimeter galaxy (SMG) counterparts. By combining radio identification and the OIRTC technique, we find counterpart candidates for 80% of the Class = 1 ≥ 4σ SCUBA-2 sample, defined as those that are covered by both radio and OIR imaging and the base sample for our scientific analyses. Based on the ALMA training set, we expect the accuracy of these identifications to be 82% ± 20%, with a completeness of 69% ± 16%, essentially as accurate as the traditional p-value technique but with higher completeness. We find that the fraction of SCUBA-2 sources having candidate counterparts is lower for fainter 850 μm sources, and we argue that for follow-up observations sensitive to SMGs with S{sub 850} ≳ 1 mJy across the whole ALMA beam, the fraction with multiple counterparts is likely to be >40% for SCUBA-2 sources at S{sub 850} ≳ 4 mJy. We find that the photometric redshift distribution for the SMGs is well fit by a lognormal distribution, with a median redshift of z = 2.3 ± 0.1. After accounting for the sources without any radio and/or OIRTC counterpart, we estimate the median redshift to be z = 2.6 ± 0.1 for SMGs with S{sub 850} > 1 mJy. We also use this new large sample to study the clustering of SMGs and the far-infrared properties of the unidentified submillimeter sources by stacking their Herschel SPIRE far-infrared emission.

  10. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  11. Field survey for collection of information on the Pacific energy policy (China); Taiheiyo energy seisaku johonado genchi shushu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The field survey for collection of synthetic information on petroleum substitution energy was made mostly in the electric power field in China. The capacity of hydroelectric power that China holds within is approximately 676 million kW, and the annual generated energy is presumed to be 5922.2 billion kWh. China is abundant in hydroelectric power source. Among these, the developmental capacities are 379 million kW and 1923.3 billion kWh, respectively, only about 15% of which has already been developed. The developmental capacity in the southwest area including the Yangtze River is about 60% of all the developmental capacity in China. Especially Sichuan Province is abundant in hydroelectric power. In the future, development is planned of large-scale power plants such as the Sanxia power plant. Further, for electrification of villages, the development of the wind power plant, in particular, out of small-scale hydroelectric power generation and new energy will be positively conducted, and wind power generation of 1 million kW is planned for 2000. With respect to energy conservation, reduction of 170 million ton/year equivalent in coal by 2000 is planned. The coal consumption at the sending end of coal power plant is planned to be reduced to 367g/kWh in 2000 while it was 417g/kWh in 1993. 27 refs., 48 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Fast, wide-field and distortion-free telescope with curved detectors for surveys at ultralow surface brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Eduard; Valls-Gabaud, David; Lemaître, Gérard; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfred; Lombardo, Simona; Wang, Xin; Vola, Pascal; Ferrari, Marc

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of an all-reflective, bifolded Schmidt telescope aimed at surveys of extended astronomical objects with extremely low surface brightness. The design leads to a high image quality without any diffracting spider, a large aperture and field of view (FoV), and a small central obstruction that barely alters the point spread function (PSF). As an example, we design a high-quality, 36 cm diameter, fast (f/2.5) telescope working in the visible with a large FoV (1.6°×2.6°). The telescope can operate with a curved detector (or with a flat detector with a field flattener) and a set of filters. The entrance mirror is anamorphic and replaces the classical Schmidt entrance corrector plate. We show that this anamorphic primary mirror can be manufactured through stress polishing, avoiding high spatial frequency errors, and testing with a simple interferometer scheme. This prototype is intended to serve as a fast-track scientific and technological pathfinder for the future space-based MESSIER mission.

  13. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhua; Li, Nianping; Lv, Yang; Liu, Jing; Xie, Jingchao; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-08-29

    Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO₂, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9-12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (70%), CO₂ concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM 2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in house dust. Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO₂ exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM 2.5 , Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children's allergies.

  14. A Survey of the Rapidly Emerging Field of Nanotechnology: Potential Applications for Scientific Instruments and Technologies for Atmospheric Entry Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Nanotechnology is well funded worldwide and innovations applicable to Solar System Exploration are emerging much more rapidly than thought possible just a few years ago. This presentation will survey recent innovations from nanotechnololgy with a focus on novel applications to atmospheric entry science and probe technology, in a fashion similar to that presented by Arnold and Venkatapathy at the previous workshop forum at Lisbon Portugal, October 6-9, 2003. Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that builds systems, devices and materials from the bottom up, atom by atom, and in so doing provides them with novel and remarkable macro-scale performance. This technology has the potential to revolutionize space exploration by reducing mass and simultaneously increasing capability. Thermal, Radiation, Impact Protective Shields: Atmospheric probes and humans on long duration deep space missions involved in Solar System Exploration must safely endure 3 significant hazards: (i) atmospheric entry; (ii) radiation; and (iii) micrometeorite or debris impact. Nanostructured materials could be developed to address all three hazards with a single protective shield, which would involve much less mass than a traditional approach. The concept can be ready in time for incorporation into NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle, and possible entry probes to fly on the Jupiter Icy Moons

  15. As distribuições Kumaraswamy-log-logística e Kumaraswamy-logística

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Viana Flor de Santana

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresenta-se duas novas distribuições de probabilidade obtidas de dois métodos de generalização da distribuição log-logística com dois parâmetros (LL(?,?)). O primeiro método descrito em Marshall e Olkin (1997) transforma a nova distribuição, agora com três parâmetros e denominada distribuição log-logística modificada (LLM (v,?,?)), mais flexível porém, não muda a forma geral da função de taxa de falha e o novo parâmetro v, não influência no cálculo da assimetria e curtose. O s...

  16. National-scale crop type mapping and area estimation using multi-resolution remote sensing and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. P.; Potapov, P.; Adusei, B.; King, L.; Khan, A.; Krylov, A.; Di Bella, C. M.; Pickens, A. H.; Stehman, S. V.; Hansen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and timely information on agricultural production is essential for ensuring world food security. Freely available medium-resolution satellite data (e.g. Landsat, Sentinel) offer the possibility of improved global agriculture monitoring. Here we develop and test a method for estimating in-season crop acreage using a probability sample of field visits and producing wall-to-wall crop type maps at national scales. The method is first illustrated for soybean cultivated area in the US for 2015. A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design was used to collect field data to estimate national soybean area. The field-based estimate employed historical soybean extent maps from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cropland Data Layer to delineate and stratify U.S. soybean growing regions. The estimated 2015 U.S. soybean cultivated area based on the field sample was 341,000 km2 with a standard error of 23,000 km2. This result is 1.0% lower than USDA's 2015 June survey estimate and 1.9% higher than USDA's 2016 January estimate. Our area estimate was derived in early September, about 2 months ahead of harvest. To map soybean cover, the Landsat image archive for the year 2015 growing season was processed using an active learning approach. Overall accuracy of the soybean map was 84%. The field-based sample estimated area was then used to calibrate the map such that the soybean acreage of the map derived through pixel counting matched the sample-based area estimate. The strength of the sample-based area estimation lies in the stratified design that takes advantage of the spatially explicit cropland layers to construct the strata. The success of the mapping was built upon an automated system which transforms Landsat images into standardized time-series metrics. The developed method produces reliable and timely information on soybean area in a cost-effective way and could be implemented in an operational mode. The approach has also been applied for other crops in

  17. A study of methods to predict and measure the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft. A survey of techniques for visualization of noise fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the most widely used methods for visualizing acoustic phenomena is presented. Emphasis is placed on acoustic processes in the audible frequencies. Many visual problems are analyzed on computer graphic systems. A brief description of the current technology in computer graphics is included. The visualization technique survey will serve as basis for recommending an optimum scheme for displaying acoustic fields on computer graphic systems.

  18. Selective logging: does the imprint remain on tree structure and composition after 45 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L; Chapman, Colin A; Zanne, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging of tropical forests is increasing in extent and intensity. The duration over which impacts of selective logging persist, however, remains an unresolved question, particularly for African forests. Here, we investigate the extent to which a past selective logging event continues to leave its imprint on different components of an East African forest 45 years later. We inventoried 2358 stems ≥10 cm in diameter in 26 plots (200 m × 10 m) within a 5.2 ha area in Kibale National Park, Uganda, in logged and unlogged forest. In these surveys, we characterized the forest light environment, taxonomic composition, functional trait composition using three traits (wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter) and forest structure based on three measures (stem density, total basal area and total above-ground biomass). In comparison to unlogged forests, selectively logged forest plots in Kibale National Park on average had higher light levels, different structure characterized by lower stem density, lower total basal area and lower above-ground biomass, and a distinct taxonomic composition driven primarily by changes in the relative abundance of species. Conversely, selectively logged forest plots were like unlogged plots in functional composition, having similar community-weighted mean values for wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter. This similarity in functional composition irrespective of logging history may be due to functional recovery of logged forest or background changes in functional attributes of unlogged forest. Despite the passage of 45 years, the legacy of selective logging on the tree community in Kibale National Park is still evident, as indicated by distinct taxonomic and structural composition and reduced carbon storage in logged forest compared with unlogged forest. The effects of selective logging are exerted via influences on tree demography rather than functional trait composition.

  19. Report on the 2016−2017 (JARE-58 geological field survey of Lützow-Holm Bay, Prince Olav Coast and Enderby Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Hokada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The 58th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-58 conducted geological field surveys in the regions of Lützow-Holm Bay, Prince Olav Coast, and Enderby Land during the 2016−2017 austral summer season. The field party consisted of four Japanese geologists and three Asian geologists (Thai, Indonesian, Mongolian, and was joined periodically by JARE-58 expedition leader, Prof. Motoyoshi. Field parties were supported throughout the summer season by a smaller secondary helicopter (AS350 in addition to two main helicopters (CH101 stationed on the icebreaker Shirase. This report summarizes field preparations and the geological work undertaken, and highlights several key points for future planning and research.

  20. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  1. A complete distribution of redshifts for submillimetre galaxies in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey UDS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. J. B.; Hayward, C. C.; Jarvis, M. J.; Simpson, C.

    2017-10-01

    Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) are some of the most luminous star-forming galaxies in the Universe; however, their properties remain hard to determine due to the difficulty of identifying their optical/near-infrared counterparts. One of the key steps to determining the nature of SMGs is measuring a redshift distribution representative of the whole population. We do this by applying statistical techniques to a sample of 761 850 μm sources from the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array 2 Cosmology Legacy Survey observations of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) field. We detect excess galaxies around >98.4 per cent of the 850 μm positions in the deep UDS catalogue, giving us the first 850 μm selected sample to have virtually complete optical/near-infrared redshift information. Under the reasonable assumption that the redshifts of the excess galaxies are representative of the SMGs themselves, we derive a median SMG redshift of z = 2.05 ± 0.03, with 68 per cent of SMGs residing between 1.07 star forming, 8.0 ± 2.1 per cent have passive rest-frame colours and are therefore unlikely to be detected at submillimetre wavelengths even in deep interferometry. We show that brighter SMGs lie at higher redshifts, and use our SMG redshift distribution - along with the assumption of a universal far-infrared Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) - to estimate that SMGs contribute around 30 per cent of the cosmic star formation rate density between 0.5 < z < 5.0.

  2. SNG-log i boring ved Tinglev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Madsen, Peter Buch

    1999-01-01

    A 4-windows SNG-log has been run in a 185 m exploration borehole at Tinglev. A new method for examining the effect of borehole geometry on the measured gamma-spectra has been tested.......A 4-windows SNG-log has been run in a 185 m exploration borehole at Tinglev. A new method for examining the effect of borehole geometry on the measured gamma-spectra has been tested....

  3. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  4. One year after the 1 April 2014 Iquique tsunami field survey along the coasts of Chile and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2015-04-01

    One year ago on the evening of 1 April, 2014 a magnitude Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred off the coast of northern Chile off the coast of Pisagua within a region of historic quiescence termed the northern Chile seismic gap. The ensuing tsunami inundation caused mostly minor damage centered in Iquique and neighbouring stretches of coastline. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in the region along with the recent 2010 Maule tsunami, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were no tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The Arica native local scientist deployed overnight and started the tsunami survey in Iquique on the day after the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from April 6 to 11, 2014. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 700 km stretch of coastline from the Mejillones Peninsula (23.5° S) north of Antofagasta in Chile up to Vila Vila (18.1° S) in southern Peru. We surveyed 30 locations with differential GPS and laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Camarones exceeding 5 m in tsunami runup height. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of Chile and Peru both at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2014 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1868, 1877 and 2010 Chile tsunamis. Comparing to other similar magnitude events such as the 2007 Pisco tsunami in Peru the 1 April 2014

  5. Do geological field survey and remote sensing record the same fractures? The case of the corallian Loyalty Islands (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thovert, J.; Huaman, D.; Genthon, P.; Adler, P. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Loyalty Islands are a series of corallian islands uplifted on the elastic bulge of the Australian lithosphere before its subduction at the Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) Trench. They are located on the non seismic Loyalty Ridge, which is starting colliding the Vanuatu Trench. The interiors of the islands are covered with dense forests and devoid of outcrops. Lineaments seen on remote sensing data (aerial photos, SPOT 3 and 4, Envisat) are compared with fractures and joints measured on a geological survey near the coasts, where corallian limestones outcrop. Lineaments observed by remote sensing in the inner Islands correspond to one main N110 direction with a large variance of nearly 15° in rms, two minor directions nearly 45° apart (N150 and N60) and no systematic evolution with distance to coasts. The three lineament families are seen near coasts as centimetric to decimetric aperture cracks without evidence of any displacement. However, an extensive geological survey of the fractures near the coast of the islands reveals a clear N135 direction and possibly an EW direction in the Lifou Island, while in the Maré island fractures present a large variance with a single N70 direction. The directions N 135, N110 and N60 are also observed regionally on the seafloor and are presumably present in the basement of the islands. It is shown that lineaments longer than 2000 m are close to the N110 direction and that the mean orientation shifts progressively to reach the N125 direction for L<400 m. Therefore, it is likely that the progressive shift in orientation continues up to the N135 direction observed in the field at the 10-50 m scale. The origin of this apparent difference between field data and remote sensing lineaments is discussed, considering (i) the intense karstification of these islands, where dissolution occurs during infiltration of rainwater, but also due to corrosion mixing at the top and the bottom of the freshwater lens and at its tips near coast. This

  6. Active and passive seismic methods for characterization and monitoring of unstable rock masses: field surveys, laboratory tests and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, Chiara; Baillet, Laurent; Comina, Cesare; Jongmans, Denis; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate characterization and monitoring of potentially unstable rock masses may provide a better knowledge of the active processes and help to forecast the evolution to failure. Among the available geophysical methods, active seismic surveys are often suitable to infer the internal structure and the fracturing conditions of the unstable body. For monitoring purposes, although remote-sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical measurements are successfully tested on landslides, they may not be suitable to early forecast sudden rapid rockslides. Passive seismic monitoring can help for this purpose. Detection, classification and localization of microseismic events within the prone-to-fall rock mass can provide information about the incipient failure of internal rock bridges. Acceleration to failure can be detected from an increasing microseismic event rate. The latter can be compared with meteorological data to understand the external factors controlling stability. On the other hand, seismic noise recorded on prone-to-fall rock slopes shows that the temporal variations in spectral content and correlation of ambient vibrations can be related to both reversible and irreversible changes within the rock mass. We present the results of the active and passive seismic data acquired at the potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW Italy). Down-hole tests, surface refraction and cross-hole tomography were carried out for the characterization of the fracturing state of the site. Field surveys were implemented with laboratory determination of physico-mechanical properties on rock samples and measurements of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. This multi-scale approach led to a lithological interpretation of the seismic velocity field obtained at the site and to a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granitic cliff (fracturing, weathering and anisotropy). Continuous

  7. Report on geomorphologic and geodesic field surveys in the Sor Rondane Mountains, Eastern Dronning Maud Land, 2011-2012 (JARE-53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Suganuma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologic and geodetic field surveys were carried out in the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, during the 2011-2012 summer season as part of the 53rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-53. The field party consisted of three geomorphologists, one geodesist, and one field assistant. The expedition was supported by the Belgian Antarctic Research Expedition (BELARE and the International Polar Foundation (IPF. Dronning Maud Land Air Network (DROMLAN provided air transport from Cape Town, South Africa to the Sor Rondane Mountains via Novolazarevskaya Airbase. The survey areas were the central and western parts of the Sor Rondane Mountains. This report summarizes the field expedition in terms of operations, logistics, and weather records.

  8. Mapping the impact of river regulation on carbon dynamics using coupled field surveys and remotely-sensed optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, C.; Butman, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Many river-reservoir networks are already managed for ecological targets such as stream temperature regulation, but less is known about how management choices alter the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon as well as the concentration of dissolved carbon gases. Understanding these ecological impacts is critical to informing water resources management, especially in light of the global hydropower boom and the increased interest in dam removal in the United States. Here we present results from a field survey and remote sensing imagery analysis quantifying a suite of water quality variables. With this approach, we evaluate spatial differences in carbon signals above, and below eight mainstem dams located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations were in excess of atmospheric levels with occasional carbon dioxide undersaturation being observed in the Snake River. CH4 and CO2 δ13C values shifted between the mainstem and the tributaries reflecting changes in carbon sources and processes. Satellite-retrieved estimates of CDOM and chlorophyll-a were compared to in situ measurements to enable surface mapping of concentrations at broader spatial scales. Our technical approach blends cloud-based data fusion techniques and machine learning to link ground-collected observations to remote sensing imagery in order to produce spatially-explicit, cross-scale estimates of carbon dynamics in a large, highly regulated river system. These findings test the feasibility of coupling remote sensing with field-based measurements to observe the complex impacts of run-of-the river impoundments to aquatic carbon cycling.

  9. Logging legacies affect insect pollinator communities in southern Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Jackson; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson

    2014-01-01

    Many temperate deciduous forests are recovering from past logging, but the effects of logging legacies and environmental gradients on forest insect pollinators have not been well studied. In this study, we asked how pollinator abundance and community composition varied with distance from logging roads and elevation in old (logged >90 years ago) and young (logged 20–...

  10. Logging, arboricide treatments and regeneration at Budongo Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to detect whether logging and arboricide treatments had influences on floristic composition of four compartments in Budongo Forest, Uganda. The compartments were (N15) which had never been logged or treated; B4) logged 50 years; N4 logged 40 years, and W2I logged 30 years ago. The species ...

  11. Vertical resolution enhancement of petrophysical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) log using ordinary kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheripour, Parisa; Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Nazarpour, Ayoob

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging provides priceless information about hydrocarbon bearing intervals such as free fluid porosity and permeability. This study focuses on using geostatistics from NMR logging instruments at high depths of investigation to enhance vertical resolution for better understanding of reservoirs. In this study, a NMR log was used such that half of its midpoint data was used for geostatistical model construction using an ordinary kriging technique and the rest of the data points were used for assessing the performance of the constructed model. This strategy enhances the resolution of NMR logging by twofold. Results indicated that the correlation coefficient between measured and predicted permeability and free fluid porosity is equal to 0.976 and 0.970, respectively. This means that geostatistical modeling is capable of enhancing the vertical resolution of NMR logging. This study was successfully applied to carbonate reservoir rocks of the South Pars Gas Field.

  12. Analysis of a double steering forest trailer for long wood log transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marinello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A cost effective technical solution of a forest double steering trailer was studied and tested, allowing decrease of radius of curvature and increase of the maneuverability, independently from the length of the transported logs. The steering system improves the so called “stingertype truck” configuration using an articulated frame; through a rearward hinge, the front wheels direction mechanically controls and adapts the direction of rear twin wheels. The study was based on CAD simulations considering the dimensions of the trailer transporting logs with a length up to 12 m. For different log lengths the simulation analyzed the total maneuver area, in terms of minimum curve radius and curve widening. A field test on a prototype operated for transport of long logs along a representative forest road in the Alps was carried out. The results confirm the improvements foreseen by CAD simulations, with allowed curve radius down to 6 m, even with 12 m logs.

  13. Coral genetic - Taxonomic and genetic identification of deep-sea corals in bycatch and field surveys -linked to groundfish survey dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project will reside in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data Base. This proposal relates to a continuation and augmentation of our efforts...

  14. SDSS-IV MaNGA: identification of active galactic nuclei in optical integral field unit surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Drory, Niv; Andrews, Brett H.; Merloni, Andrea; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate 2727 galaxies observed by MaNGA as of 2016 June to develop spatially resolved techniques for identifying signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We identify 303 AGN candidates. The additional spatial dimension imposes challenges in identifying AGNs due to contamination from diffuse ionized gas, extraplanar gas and photoionization by hot stars. We show that the combination of spatially resolved line diagnostic diagrams and additional cuts on H α surface brightness and H α equivalent width can distinguish between AGN-like signatures and high-metallicity galaxies with low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions-like spectra. Low-mass galaxies with high specific star formation rates are particularly difficult to diagnose and routinely show diagnostic line ratios outside of the standard star formation locus. We develop a new diagnostic - the distance from the standard diagnostic line in the line-ratio space - to evaluate the significance of the deviation from the star formation locus. We find 173 galaxies that would not have been selected as AGN candidates based on single-fibre spectral measurements but exhibit photoionization signatures suggestive of AGN activity in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO resolved observations, underscoring the power of large integral field unit surveys. A complete census of these new AGN candidates is necessary to understand their nature and probe the complex co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their hosts.

  15. Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Romijn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel production at this time. Plantations were found to be unviable because of insurmountable up-front capital requirements in combination with slow and unreliable crop maturation, inefficient oil pressing owing to a lack of scale and experience, inadequate utilization of by-products, and competitively-priced fossil diesel and palm oil. For smallholders, jatropha only has limited value as a hedge crop in environmentally and economically disadvantaged areas. Better prospects have to wait for the advent of improved jatropha varieties. Social impacts from the perspective of project managers were rather mixed: overall, food security perceptions were positive and no massive forced human displacements were noted so far, though some disputes over land access and compensation were reported. Labor legislation was apparently respected on plantations, and positive gender effects, regional income/employment effects and better public facilities were also reported. The projects generated considerable employment, albeit mostly of a temporary nature, as lack of economic viability had caused many projects to close down again. When introducing next-generation biofuel projects, better monitoring by various actor groups is recommended, as well as long-term investment plans that include integral exit strategies.

  16. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Ratnavelu, Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Scholars (n = 580) from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5%) had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors' contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors.

  17. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South : Source Catalog and Multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodge, J.; Karim, A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A.; Walter, F.; Biggs, A.; Ivison, R.; Weiss, A.; Alexander, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Brandt, W.; Chapman, S.; Coppin, K.; Cox, P.; Danielson, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; De, Breuck C.; Decarli, R.; Edge, A.; Greve, T.; Knudsen, K.; Menten, K.; Rix, H.; Schinnerer, E.; Simpson, J.; Wardlow, J.; Werf, van der P.P.

    2013-01-01

    We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 survey of 126 submillimeter sources from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS). Our 870 {$μ$}m survey with ALMA (ALESS) has produced maps ~{}3{ imes} deeper and with a beam area ~{}200{ imes} smaller than the original

  18. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  19. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  20. ANALYSIS OF USING EFFICIENT LOGGING TOOLS AT PT. PURWA PERMAI IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A high log demand that often exceeds its supply capability should be overcome by using appropriate logging  tools. Numerous  kinds and types of logging  tools require  a well planning in their utilization. Number of tools which are greater or fewer than what is actually needed can be disadvantageous  for a company. In relevant to these aspects, a study was carried out at a timber estate in Central Kalimantan  in 2007. The aim of the study was to find out an efficient number  of tools used for logging  in a timber  estate. The analysis was based on the target and realization of the company’s log production. The result revealed that: (1 Optimum number of logging tools depended on production target,  i.e. 41 units  of chainsaws  for felling,  42 units  of farm tractors  for skidding,  9 units of loaders for loading and unloading, and 36 units of trucks for transportation; (2 Number  of logging tools as obtained from all activities  in the field was fewer than that from  the analysis based on production target and realization. This condition  indicated that number of logging tools used in the company was not yet efficient.

  1. Using patient encounter logs for mandated clinical encounters in an internal medicine clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenchick, Gary; Mohmand, Asad; Mireles, Jesus; Solomon, David

    2009-10-01

    Patient encounter logs help assess a student's educational experience. The use of a grading incentive linked to the mandatory documentation of prespecified clinical encounters has been insufficiently studied. Given this, our objectives were to determine (a) if mandating student exposure to patients with 18 key training problems leads to the successful documentation of these encounters, (b) the degree of difficulty students and clerkship directors experienced in meeting these mandates, (c) the accuracy of mandated log entries, and (d) how often the log entries were questioned or rejected by preceptors. Ninety-two 3rd-year internal medicine students and 6 internal medicine clerkship directors at 9 geographically dispersed hospitals and 30 ambulatory sites participated in the study. Over a single academic year, we directly measured the completion rate of mandated logs, the degree of their accuracy as judged against faculty-generated logs of two required videotaped standardized patient encounters, and the percentage of logs that were not validated. We surveyed students and directors on the perceived degree of difficulty in meeting mandated requirements. Ninety-eight percent of students met our mandated requirements and 93.8% of students found it "easy" or "very easy" to meet this requirement. The amount of estimated time spent by clerkship directors helping students meet mandated requirements for the entire year was 4.5 hr. The accuracy of submitted logs was 77%; however, almost all inaccurate log entries were "validated" by preceptors. Mandating encounters is effective in assuring that students document encounters with patients who present with specific clinical problems. The accuracy of our students' mandated logs is similar to previously published data. However, even inaccurate logs were rarely questioned or rejected by preceptors.

  2. Minnesota logging utilization factors, 1975-1976--development, use, implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Minnesota saw log and pulpwood logging utilization factors developed during 1975-1976 and their implications. Compares factors for several species groups and shows their use in estimating growing stock cut for pulpwood and saw logs.

  3. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, C.M., E-mail: cfrankle@lanl.gov; Dale, G.E.

    2013-09-21

    Americium–Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological ({sup 252}Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D–D and D–T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from {sup 252}Cf, D–D, D–T, filtered D–T, and T–T sources. -- Highlights: • AmBe sources are widely used for well logging purposes. • Governmental bodies would prefer to minimize AmBe use. • Other neutron sources are available, both radiological and electronic. • Tritium–tritium spectrum neutrons have similar logging tool response to AmBe. • A tritium–tritium neutron generator may be a viable AmBe replacement.

  4. Wide-Field Survey around Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Leo II: Spatial Distribution of Stellar Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Yutaka; Doi, Mamoru; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hamabe, Masaru; Imi, Katsumi; Kimura, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Okamura, Sadanori; Ouchi, Masami; Sekiguchi, Maki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki

    2007-08-01

    We carried out a wide-field V, I imaging survey of the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo II using the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The survey covered an area of 26.67×26.67 arcmin2, far beyond the tidal radius of Leo II (8.63'), down to the limiting magnitude of V~=26, which is roughly 1 mag deeper than the turnoff point of the main-sequence stars of Leo II. Radial number density profiles of bright and faint red giant branch (RGB) stars were found to change their slopes at around the tidal radius, and extend beyond the tidal radius with shallower slopes. A smoothed surface brightness map of Leo II suggests the existence of a small substructure (4×2.5 arcmin2, 270×170 pc 2 in physical size) of globular cluster luminosity beyond the tidal radius. We investigated the properties of the stellar population by means of a color-magnitude diagram. The horizontal branch (HB) morphology index shows a radial gradient in which red HB stars are more concentrated than blue HB stars, which is common to many Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The color distribution of RGB stars around the mean RGB sequence shows a larger dispersion at the center than in the outskirts, indicating a mixture of stellar populations at the center and a more homogeneous population in the outskirts. Based on the age estimation using subgiant branch stars, we found that although the major star formation took place ~8 Gyr ago, a considerable stellar population younger than 8 Gyr is found at the center; such a younger population is insignificant in the outskirts. The following star formation history is suggested for Leo II. Star-forming activity occurred more than ~8 Gyr ago throughout the galaxy at a modest star formation rate. The star-forming region gradually shrank from the outside toward the center, and star-forming activity finally dropped to ~0 by ~4 Gyr ago, except for the center, where a small population younger than 4 Gyr is present. Based on data collected

  5. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  6. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    Log data from smartphones have primarily been used in large-scale research designs to draw statistical inferences from hundreds or even thousands of participants. In this article, we argue that more qualitatively oriented designs can also benefit greatly from integrating these rich data sources...... serve as cues to instigate discussion and reflection as well as act as resources for contextualizing and organizing related empirical material. In the discussion, the advantages of a qualitative perspective for research designs are assessed in relation to issues of validity. Further perspectives...... into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate...

  7. Narrating Illegal Logging Across the Globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Georg; Leipold, Sina; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic...... debate has resulted, exploring the nexus between markets and trade on one hand, and environmental and social sustainability on the other. The purpose of this paper is systematically assess the international policy discourse on illegal logging and legality verification policies in different regions...... conversations with practitioners, policy documents and a media analysis. We find striking differences across the globe in narratives about illegal logging and legality verification and conclude that these need to be considered when assessing the support for, and the current and potential effects of...

  8. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  9. Deepest View of AGN X-Ray Variability with the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. C.; Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Li, J. Y.; Paolillo, M.; Yang, G.; Zhu, S. F.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Hughes, T. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Vito, F.; Wang, J. X.; Liu, T.; Vignali, C.; Shu, X. W.

    2017-11-01

    We systematically analyze the X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South survey. On the longest timescale (≈17 years), we find only a weak (if any) dependence of X-ray variability amplitudes on energy bands or obscuration. We use four different power spectral density (PSD) models to fit the anticorrelation between normalized excess variance ({σ }{nxv}2) and luminosity, and obtain a best-fit power-law index β ={1.16}-0.05+0.05 for the low-frequency part of the AGN PSD. We also divide the whole light curves into four epochs in order to inspect the dependence of {σ }{nxv}2 on these timescales, finding an overall increasing trend. The analysis of these shorter light curves also infers a β of ∼1.3 that is consistent with the above-derived β, which is larger than the frequently assumed value of β =1. We then investigate the evolution of {σ }{nxv}2. No definitive conclusion is reached because of limited source statistics, but if present, the observed trend goes in the direction of decreasing AGN variability at fixed luminosity toward high redshifts. We also search for transient events and find six notable candidate events with our considered criteria. Two of them may be a new type of fast transient events, one of which is reported here for the first time. We therefore estimate a rate of fast outbursts ={1.0}-0.7+1.1× {10}-3 {{galaxy}}-1 {{yr}}-1 and a tidal disruption event (TDE) rate ={8.6}-4.9+8.5× {10}-5 {{galaxy}}-1 {{yr}}-1 assuming the other four long outbursts to be TDEs.

  10. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] Line and Dust Emission in 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, M.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Bouwens, R.; Oesch, P. A.; Carilli, C. L.; Bauer, F. E.; Da Cunha, E.; Daddi, E.; Gónzalez-López, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Weiss, A.; Anguita, T.; Bacon, R.; Bell, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Cortes, P.; Cox, P.; Hodge, J.; Ibar, E.; Inami, H.; Infante, L.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Ota, K.; Popping, G.; van der Werf, P.; Wagg, J.; Fudamoto, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We present a search for [C II] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at z > 6 using ASPECS, our Atacama Large Millimeter submillimeter Array Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range of 212-272 GHz, encompass approximately the range of 6 4.5σ, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [C II] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3 mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [C II] candidates results in a tentative detection with S 1.2 mm = 14 ± 5 μJy. This implies a dust-obscured star-formation rate (SFR) of (3 ± 1) M ⊙ yr-1. We find that the two highest-SFR objects have candidate [C II] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift L [C II] versus SFR relation. The other candidates have significantly higher [C II] luminosities than expected from their UV-based SFR. At the current sensitivity, it is unclear whether the majority of these sources are intrinsically bright [C II] emitters, or spurious sources. If only one of our line candidates was real (a scenario greatly favored by our statistical analysis), we find a source density for [C II] emitters at 6 < z < 8 that is significantly higher than predicted by current models and some extrapolations from galaxies in the local universe.

  11. Perceptions of Scholars in the Field of Economics on Co-Authorship Associations: Evidence from an International Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Kumar

    Full Text Available Scholars (n = 580 from 69 countries who had contributed articles in the field of Economics during the year 2015 participated in a survey that gauged their perceptions of various aspects of co-authorship, including its benefits, motivations, working relationships, order of authorship and association preferences. Among the main findings, significant differences emerged in the proportion of co-authored papers based on age, gender and number of years the researchers had spent in their present institution. Female scholars had a greater proportion of co-authored papers than male scholars. Respondents considered improved quality of paper, contribution of mutual expertise, and division of labor as the biggest benefits of and motivation for co-authorship. Contrary to common perceptions that Economics researchers used a predominantly alphabetical order of authorship, our study found that a considerable percentage of respondents (34.5% had practiced an order of authorship based on the significance of the authors' contribution to the work. The relative importance of tasks differed significantly according to whether researchers co-authored as mentors or co-authored as colleagues. Lastly, researchers were found to associate, to varying degrees, with other researchers based on socio-academic parameters, such as nationality, ethnicity, gender, professional position and friendship. The study indicates that Economics authors perceive co-authorship as a rewarding endeavor. Nonetheless, the level of contribution and even the choice of association itself as a co-author depends to a great extent on the type of working relationship and socio-academic factors.

  12. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  13. A field survey of the partially edentate elderly: Investigation of factors related to the usage rate of removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, S; Matsuda, K; Ikebe, K; Enoki, K; Hatta, K; Fujiwara, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-11-01

    Although the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept has been known to all over the world, acceptance of the SDA concept as an oral health standard can be questionable from the patients' point of view, even if it is biologically reasonable. Furthermore, because the health insurance system covers removable partial dentures (RPDs) for all citizens in Japan, SDA patients seem to prefer to receive prosthetic treatment to replace the missing teeth. However, there were few field surveys to investigate the usage rate of RPDs in Japan. The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rate of RPDs in older Japanese subjects and to investigate the factors related to the usage of RPDs. Partially edentate participants (n = 390) were included in this study. Oral examinations were conducted to record several indices. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to evaluate the relationship between the number of missing teeth and the usage rate of RPDs. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the factors related to the usage rate of RPDs. Usage of RPDs had a significantly positive association with the number of missing distal extension teeth and bilaterally missing teeth. The usage rate of RPDs increased as the number of missing distal extension teeth increased (P for trend < 0·001). The conclusion of this study was that participants with missing distal extension teeth had higher usage rates of RPDs than other participants, and the usage rate increased as the number of missing distal extension teeth increased. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Benefit Analysis for Geothermal Log Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, F.A.

    1980-12-16

    Formation evaluation is of great importance in geothermal development because of the high capital costs and the fact that successful exploration will only pay off through a subsequent decision to construct a power plant or other utilization facility. Since much formation data is available from well logging, development of new techniques of log interpretation for application to geothermal wells is called for. An analysis of potential nearterm benefits from this program and the types of formation data called for is discussed. Much useful information can be developed by adaptation of techniques used in oil and gas reservoirs, but the different demands of geothermal development from hydrocarbon production also open up new data requirements.

  15. Perfil logístico de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Maglioni, María Victoria; Lozano Suarez, María Goretty

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Colombia con la finalidad de dar a conocer el estado de arte de las ciudades, puertos e infraestructura principal para facilitar la toma de decisiones de los empresarios. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se determinaron a partir de un análisis competitivo del país; las principales ciudades y puertos; logrando establecer un inventario de maquinaria y equipo e infraestructura logística; enmarcados en retos ya establecidos en las ...

  16. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  17. Logística humanitaria: seguridad agroalimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Goyes Lesmes, Jessica Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Actualmente la relación que existe entre la logística humanitaria y la seguridad agroalimentaria es muy estrecha, estos dos conceptos constituyen un elemento sumamente importante en situaciones que se presentan hoy en día a nivel mundial, como por ejemplo en los diferentes tipos de desastres naturales como terremotos, tsunamis, sequías, hambrunas, entre otros, o simplemente, en zonas de alta pobreza. La logística humanitaria es hoy en día un concepto novedoso que nace de la necesidad de p...

  18. Perfil logístico de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Johanna Marcela

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Portugal, abarcando diferentes aspectos que afectan la competitividad y el desempeño de la cadena logística de un país, con la finalidad de conocer a uno de los socios comerciales con los cuáles Colombia se encuentra negociando, en este caso Portugal, uno de los 28 países que hace parte del reciente tratado de libre comercio aprobado con la Unión Europea, es preciso estudiar las ventajas competitivas que poseen dichos socios, a l...

  19. RAYSAW: a log sawing simulator for 3D laser-scanned hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning of hardwood logs provides detailed high-resolution imagery of log surfaces. Characteristics such as sweep, taper, and crook, as well as most surface defects, are visible to the eye in the scan data. In addition, models have been developed that predict interior knot size and position based on external defect information. Computerized processing of...

  20. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...