U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...
Smith, Michelle K.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Tyler, Mary
Many institutions require candidates for faculty positions to present a teaching demonstration as part of the interview process. To help job candidates prepare for this and to assist departments in planning how to structure this portion of the interview, we surveyed biology faculty from community and liberal arts colleges and master's- and PhD-granting institutions concerning how their departments assess teaching potential. We also asked survey respondents to share advice on how candidates can prepare for teaching demonstrations. Here we report on the survey results and offer suggestions based on comments from respondents. PMID:23463224
Brody, Harvey; Sinkford, Jeanne C.
A survey investigated the status of a program that simultaneously encourages minority health occupations graduates to pursue teaching and helps repay their student loans. The federal program, with 16 schools and 35 students participating, has been instrumental in recruiting teachers, but has not resolved financial difficulties for some…
deVries, Susann; Kelly, Robert; Storm, Paula M.
A traditional mixed methods research model of citation analysis, a survey, and interviews was selected to determine if the Bruce T. Halle Library at Eastern Michigan University owned the content that faculty cited in their research, if the collection was being utilized, and what library services the faculty used. The combination of objective data…
Ongena, Yfke P.; Dijkstra, Wil
Interaction analysis of question–answer sequences from a telephone survey shows that so-called mismatch answers, i.e. answers that do not correspond to the required answering format, are the most frequently occurring problematic verbal behavior. They also are likely to trigger suggestive interviewer
I’m an assistant professor of Computer Science, a member of the Center for Human-Computer Interaction, a fellow of the Institute for Creativity, Arts, and Technology, and a faculty affiliate in Human Centered Design, all at Virginia Tech. My teaching and research focus on human–computer interaction (HCI), social computing, and crowdsourcing. I build and study systems that leverage the Internet to connect geographically distributed people with diverse skills and backgrounds. These social t...
Creswell, John W.; And Others
It is proposed that numerous national surveys of faculty since the late 1960s provide institutional researchers and others with rich sources of descriptive data to help address the shifting national issues and institutional concerns related to faculty resources. An annotated list of 12 major faculty surveys is appended. (MSE)
Full Text Available This section presents interviews held with two eminent engineers who have graduated from the Faculty of Engineering. Marcelo Riveros and Alberto Mayor interviewed the distinguished engineer Guillermina Uribe who was the first woman to graduate from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Faculty of Engineering whilst Antonio Mejía and Alberto Mayor interviewed José Fernando Isaza Delgado, mathematician, businessman, columnist, teacher and rector of Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, who graduated as an electrical engineer from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Faculty of Engineering. These interviews represent the work of illustrious men and women who have been involved in the development of engineering in Colombia.
Creswell, John W.
Faculty at a state university were asked how they felt about the workload survey administered on campus and whether the NCHEMS' factors were related to their acceptance of the survey. Results upheld one NCHEMS relationship: that a positive attitude toward a survey is related to perceived value of the data for allocating faculty resources and…
van der Zouwen, J.; Smit, J.H.
Purpose - In survey interviews information is transferred to the researchers via a communication process between interviewers and respondents. This process is controlled directly by the interviewers, and indirectly by the researchers who constructed the questionnaire and instructed and supervised
Carver, Lara; Candela, Lori; Gutierrez, Antonio P
To describe organizational commitment and generational differences in nursing faculty. The study provides new knowledge on generational differences in organizational commitment among nursing faculty with regard to work values, perceived organizational support, perceived person-organization fit, developmental experiences, and global job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used with random stratified sampling procedures. Surveys measuring organizational commitment and related constructs were sent electronically to 4886 faculty, yielding a 30% response rate. Significant differences were noted between generations of faculty regarding organizational commitment and related measures. Include specific strategies for fostering commitment from each generation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...
Full Text Available This study investigates how an onscreen virtual agent's dialog capability and facial animation affect survey respondents' comprehension and engagement in face-to-face interviews, using questions from US government surveys whose results have far-reaching impact on national policies. In the study, 73 laboratory participants were randomly assigned to respond in one of four interviewing conditions, in which the virtual agent had either high or low dialog capability (implemented through Wizard of Oz and high or low facial animation, based on motion capture from a human interviewer. Respondents, whose faces were visible to the Wizard (and videorecorded during the interviews, answered 12 questions about housing, employment, and purchases on the basis of fictional scenarios designed to allow measurement of comprehension accuracy, defined as the fit between responses and US government definitions. Respondents answered more accurately with the high-dialog-capability agents, requesting clarification more often particularly for ambiguous scenarios; and they generally treated the high-dialog-capability interviewers more socially, looking at the interviewer more and judging high-dialog-capability agents as more personal and less distant. Greater interviewer facial animation did not affect response accuracy, but it led to more displays of engagement—acknowledgements (verbal and visual and smiles—and to the virtual interviewer's being rated as less natural. The pattern of results suggests that a virtual agent’s dialog capability and facial animation differently affect survey respondents' experience of interviews, behavioral displays, and comprehension, and thus the accuracy of their responses. The pattern of results also suggests design considerations for building survey interviewing agents, which may differ depending on the kinds of survey questions (sensitive or not that are asked.
Fottler, M D; Crawford, M A; Quintana, J B; White, J B
High turnover rates among hospital nurses demand rigorous and valid processes of research to determine the reasons motivating such attrition. In most hospitals, the exit interview often provides the only relevant data. The case study reported here examines the relative effectiveness of exit interviews and an employee attitude survey in generating data that are useful in managing nurse retention. The conclusion reached is that the attitude survey generates more data and higher-quality data. Further, the study shows that the use of open-ended questions can provide useful information and probably should be the starting point in developing or supplementing an attitude survey for nurses. Recommendations for improving the usefulness and validity of nurse attitude surveys and exit interviews in managing nurse retention are provided.
Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard
, economically and logistically, and further enables eventual reproduction of similar empirical data. The DUS research project is related to the general research focus found within the Urban Design section at Institute of Architecture, Design and Media Technology (AD:MT), Aalborg University (AAU...... with additional and more detailed qualitative data on these young people’s use of urban space in Aalborg. In the interviews the respondents are asked about their use of urban space in relation to attractiveness, gender, protection against violence and crime, the internet, atmosphere and, finally, green urban...
Huhn, D; Junne, F; Zipfel, S; Duelli, R; Resch, F; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C
Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties' perceived problems nor of the offered support exists. All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1.) The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2.) The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3.) The offers for non-German students; and 4.) The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis. Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology. Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential.
Morin, Courtnie; Stanley, Candace
Building upon Kuh's (2008) research on high-impact educational practices, the authors interviewed Dr. Aaron Thompson to discuss effective implementation of these teaching and learning initiatives and the advancement of faculty development programming to support them. Dr. Thompson is the Interim President of Kentucky State University and Council on…
Huhn, D.; Junne, F.; Zipfel, S.; Duelli, R.; Resch, F.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.
Introduction: Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties’ perceived problems nor of the offered support exists. Method: All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1.) The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2.) The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3.) The offers for non-German students; and 4.) The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis. Results: Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology. Discussion: Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential. PMID:25699112
Sugarbaker, Larry; Coray, Kevin E.; Poore, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to receive customer feedback and to understand data and information requirements for The National Map. This report provides results and findings from interviews and surveys and will guide policy and operations decisions about data and information requirements leading to the development of a 5-year strategic plan for the National Geospatial Program. These findings are based on feedback from approximately 2,200 customers between February and August 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted more than 160 interviews with 200 individuals. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and the International Map Trade Association (IMTA) surveyed their memberships and received feedback from over 400 members. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) received feedback from over 1,600 of its U.S.-based software users through an online survey sent to customers attending the ESRI International User Conference in the summer of 2008. The results of these surveys were shared with the USGS and have been included in this report.
Full Text Available Background: There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods: At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results: The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion: This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.
Wagner, Markus; Zeglovits, Eva
Voter assessments of party competence have become a key explanation of electoral decision-making. However, there are at least three important aspects to understanding responses to questions on issue-specific party competence: comprehension difficulties; a lack of well-formed attitudes and relevant information; and the use of response heuristics. We used 20 cognitive interviews carried out in Austria in 2011 to test competence questions. The interviews show us how respondents explain their responses. We find evidence that many people (1) may hold only weak opinions and have little information on issue-specific party competence and (2) may make use of distinct but related concepts, particularly salience and position, when answering questions about competence. We provide recommendations for researchers and survey designers based on our findings.
Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence
To identify predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty members. A comprehensive Web-based survey of all faculty members in an academic department of family medicine. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with job satisfaction. The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario and its 15 affiliated community teaching hospitals and community-based teaching practices. All 1029 faculty members in the Department of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete the survey. Faculty members' demographic and practice information; teaching, clinical, administration, and research activities; leadership roles; training needs and preferences; mentorship experiences; health status; stress levels; burnout levels; and job satisfaction. Faculty members' perceptions about supports provided, recognition, communication, retention, workload, teamwork, respect, resource distribution, remuneration, and infrastructure support. Faculty members' job satisfaction, which was the main outcome variable, was obtained from the question, "Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?" Of the 1029 faculty members, 687 (66.8%) responded to the survey. Bivariate analyses revealed 26 predictors as being statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction, including faculty members' ratings of their local department and main practice setting, their ratings of leadership and mentorship experiences, health status variables, and demographic variables. The multivariable analyses identified the following 5 predictors of job satisfaction: the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment; being born in Canada; the overall quality of mentorship that was received being rated as very good or excellent; and teamwork being rated as very good or excellent. The findings from this study show that job satisfaction among academic
Li, Bihong; Tu, Yangjun
Faculty plays a critical role in the growing trend of internationalization in higher education. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that drive faculty members to get involved in internationalization. Employing structural equation model with data gathered from questionnaire, this study attempts to explore how faculty engagement in…
Bruck, Aaron D.; Towns, Marcy
This work reports the development of a survey for laboratory goals in undergraduate chemistry, the analysis of reliable and valid data collected from a national survey of college chemistry faculty, and a synthesis of the findings. The study used a sequential exploratory mixed-methods design. Faculty goals for laboratory emerged across seven…
Fritz, Hermann M.; Martinez, Claudio; Salado, Juan; Rivera, Wagner; Duarte, Leoncio
On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the north-eastern shore of Hispaniola Island resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field, tsunami waves were recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes reported in the Caribbean since colonial times. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from the eastern most tip at Punta Cana to La Isabela some 70 km from the border with Haiti. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, sea-level drawdown, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field
Nagelhout, G.E.; Willemsen, M.C.; Thompson, M.E.; Fong, G.T.; van den Putte, B.; de Vries, H.
Background: Web interviewing is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because it has several advantages over telephone interviewing such as lower costs and shorter fieldwork periods. However, there are also concerns about data quality of web surveys. The aim of this study was to compare the
Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend
Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....
Molluzzo, John C.; Lawler, James; Manneh, Jerry
Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of faculty on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a survey distributed to faculty in all schools of the university, the authors learn of high…
American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010
Plainly, part-time/adjunct faculty members now play a vital role in educating the nation's college students. Even so, the data and research on part-time/adjunct faculty members have tended to be pretty spotty. This survey, conducted by Hart Research Associates on behalf of the American Federation of Teachers, is one of the first nationwide…
Meyer, Katrina A.; Murrell, Vicki S.
This article presents the results of a national study of 39 higher education institutions that collected information about their evaluation procedures and outcome measures for faculty development for online teaching conducted during 2011-2012. The survey results found that over 90% of institutions used measures of the faculty person's…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether training affected the job satisfaction reported by online faculty members. A convenience sample of 492 Iowa Community College Online Consortium (ICCOC) faculty members were invited to participate in a quantitative survey, and 148 responded. Overall Job Satisfaction was operationalized through the…
Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac
The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…
This study investigated the mentoring assessment needs of faculties of the University of Education, Winneba, UEW; a public university in Ghana. The study was exploratory, and used survey, focus groups and semi-structured interviews in collecting data from 102 participants. The survey consisted of a 13-item 5-point ...
Turnwald, G H; Spafford, M M; Bohr, J D
A study of veterinary school admission interview practices across the USA and Canada was conducted in 1999. All 31 schools responded. INTERVIEW USE: Eighty-four percent of the veterinary schools interview applicants. Veterinary schools are more likely to interview resident than non-resident applicants (62% interviewed >or=49% of their resident applicants, while 77% interviewed interview weight in the selection process (mean weight is 28%). INTERVIEW PURPOSE AND CONTENT: The most common purposes for conducting a veterinary admission interview are to gather information, to measure non-cognitive/humanistic skills, and to clarify information on the written application (>or=77%). The five most common characteristics and skills the veterinary admission interview is intended to assess are communication skills, maturity, motivation for and interest in veterinary medicine, interpersonal skills, and knowledge of the veterinary profession (>or=92%). The least common characteristic or skill the veterinary admission interview is intended to assess is academic performance (23%). INTERVIEW FORMAT: Veterinary schools are most likely to offer one interview to a candidate (83%). A panel interview with between two and three interviewers is the predominant format employed (92%). The interview is of 20-45 minutes duration (88%), most commonly 30 minutes (50%). Interview questions most often address experiences in veterinary medicine, general background, and strengths and weaknesses (>or=85%). The level of interview structure is low to moderate (73%). The cold or blind interview (where interviewers are denied access to all or part of the written application) is employed by 50% of the interviewing veterinary schools. INTERVIEWERS: Interviewing veterinary schools assign interviewing to faculty veterinarians (100%). Some level of interviewer training is usually provided (87%); the most common mode of training is distribution of printed material (86%). SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The
Bruno, Jeffrey J; Ellis, Jeffrey J
Use of herbal products among the elderly is an important concern for healthcare professionals. The presence of polypharmacy and multiple comorbidities places the elderly at high risk for herb-drug and herb-disease interactions. Limited data exist regarding herbal use among the US elderly population. To evaluate the incidence of and attitudes toward herbal use in a nationally representative sample of US elderly patients >/=65 years of age. We performed a descriptive analysis of public domain data collected in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Statistical analyses were conducted through use of SUDAAN software with Taylor series linearization for variance estimation. Analysis of weighted data revealed that 12.9% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SE) of US elderly people had used an herbal supplement within the past 12 months. Use was greatest among individuals 65-69 years of age, females, Hispanic and non-Hispanic ethnic minorities, and respondents with a greater income, higher education level, or more positive self-reported health status. Among elderly people purchasing over-the-counter and prescription drugs, herbal use was 13.9% +/- 0.6% and 12.8% +/- 0.6%, respectively. Glucosamine, echinacea, and garlic supplements represented the most common herbals used. Benefit from combined herbal and conventional therapy was the most common reason cited for use; however, 50.9% +/- 2.2% of users did not discuss herbal therapy with a medical professional. Several theoretical herb-disease interactions were identified. The use of herbal products among the US elderly has risen over the past 5 years, whereas discussion of such use with medical professionals remains suboptimal.
Sarah C. Williams
Full Text Available In spring 2013, the Life Sciences Data Services Librarian at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign gave a data management presentation to early-career, agricultural faculty members participating in a selective program designed to help them succeed in the tenure process. After the presentation, the participants were invited to complete an online survey that included questions on how well informed and prepared they feel about funding agencies’ data requirements, what data challenges they face, and how the library can help with new or improved services in this area. The presentation discussion and survey responses suggested value in offering data training specifically for agricultural graduate students and research assistants and compiling examples of data management plans from successful grant proposals. Despite the small number of participants, the feedback provides an interesting glimpse into data management from the perspective of early-career faculty.
Mathews, Kiernan Robert
College and university administrators frequently survey their faculty to inform decisions affecting the academic workplace. Higher education researchers, too, rely heavily on survey methodologies in their scholarly work. Survey response rates, however, have been declining steadily for decades, and when nonrespondents and respondents systematically…
Thompson Mary E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Web interviewing is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because it has several advantages over telephone interviewing such as lower costs and shorter fieldwork periods. However, there are also concerns about data quality of web surveys. The aim of this study was to compare the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands web and telephone samples on demographic and smoking related variables to assess differences in data quality. Methods Wave 1 of the ITC Netherlands Survey was completed by 1,668 web respondents and 404 telephone respondents of 18 years and older. The two surveys were conducted in parallel among adults who reported smoking at least monthly and had smoked at least 100 cigarettes over their lifetime. Results Both the web and telephone survey had a cooperation rate of 78%. Web respondents with a fixed line telephone were significantly more often married, had a lower educational level, and were older than web respondents without a fixed line telephone. Telephone respondents with internet access were significantly more often married, had a higher educational level, and were younger than telephone respondents without internet. Web respondents were significantly less often married and lower educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Telephone respondents were significantly less often married and higher educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Web respondents used the "don't know" options more often than telephone respondents. Telephone respondents were somewhat more negative about smoking, had less intention to quit smoking, and had more self efficacy for quitting. The known association between educational level and self efficacy was present only in the web survey. Conclusions Differences between the web and telephone sample were present, but the differences were small and not consistently favourable for either web or telephone interviewing. Our study findings suggested sometimes a better data
Wood, Jeffrey; Barbieri, Damon M; Rutkauskas, John S; Seewoester, Sarah
This survey's purpose was to: (1) assess the status of the pediatric dentistry academic workforce; (2) determine if the current workforce is sufficient for pediatric and general dentistry education requirements; (3) address other workforce issues; and (4) explore factors influencing this faculty shortage, thereby narrowing the focus of other surveys. In 2004, 130 pediatric dentistry faculty members completed a Web-based survey regarding workforce issues. Questions were asked regarding: (1) faculty characteristics; (2) job history prior to academics; (3) academic career longevity/motivators for change; and (4) private practice participation. Twenty-four percent indicated academic involvement for over 25 years, followed by 20% indicating 1- to 4-year involvement. Eighty-two percent of chairpersons had educators leave within the last 5 years, with 38% of positions remaining unfilled. Motivators for leaving included location (25%), family (19%), and faculty (12%). Twenty-three percent identified salary as an influential factor when considering an institution change, and 74% felt clinical tracks would aid in recruiting/retaining faculty. The majority of full-time faculty members maintained a part-time practice. Survey results indicate that pediatric dentistry mirrors the national dental faculty member shortage. Most troubling is the loss of educators after 5 and 10 years of teaching, perhaps due to salary disparities with private practice, tenure requirements, and family.
Feldman, Mitchell D.; Arean, Patricia A.; Marshall, Sally J.; Lovett, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patricia
Background To determine the characteristics associated with having a mentor, the association of mentoring with self-efficacy, and the content of mentor–mentee interactions at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), we conducted a baseline assessment prior to implementing a comprehensive faculty mentoring program. Method We surveyed all prospective junior faculty mentees at UCSF. Mentees completed a web-based, 38-item survey including an assessment of self-efficacy and a needs assessment. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to determine the association between having a mentor and gender, ethnicity, faculty series, and self-efficacy. Results Our respondents (n=464, 56%) were 53% female, 62% white, and 7% from underrepresented minority groups. More than half of respondents (n=319) reported having a mentor. There were no differences in having a mentor based on gender or ethnicity (p≥0.05). Clinician educator faculty with more teaching and patient care responsibilities were statistically significantly less likely to have a mentor compared with faculty in research intensive series (pmentor was associated with greater satisfaction with time allocation at work (pmentor, 5.33 (sd = 1.35, pmentors, but rated highest requiring mentoring assistance with issues of promotion and tenure. Conclusion Findings from the UCSF faculty mentoring program may assist other health science institutions plan similar programs. Mentoring needs for junior faculty with greater teaching and patient care responsibilities must be addressed. PMID:20431710
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Access to Care Dialysis Pilot Survey and Interview); Activity... improve access to dialysis care for Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Access to Care Dialysis Pilot Survey and Interview)'' in any...
Howlett, Owen; McKinstry, Carol; Lannin, Natasha A
Allied health professionals frequently use surveys to collect data for clinical practice and service improvement projects. Careful development and piloting of purpose-designed surveys is important to ensure intended measuring (that respondents correctly interpret survey items when responding). Cognitive interviewing is a specific technique that can improve the design of self-administered surveys. The aim of this study was to describe the use of the cognitive interviewing process to improve survey design, which involved a purpose-designed, online survey evaluating staff use of functional electrical stimulation. A qualitative study involving one round of cognitive interviewing with three occupational therapists and three physiotherapists. The cognitive interviewing process identified 11 issues with the draft survey, which could potentially influence the validity and quality of responses. The raised issues included difficulties with: processing the question to be able to respond, determining a response to the question, retrieving relevant information from memory and comprehending the written question. Twelve survey amendments were made following the cognitive interviewing process, comprising four additions, seven revisions and one correction. The cognitive interviewing process applied during the development of a purpose-designed survey enabled the identification of potential problems and informed revisions to the survey prior to its use. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Gulliksen, Marte S.; Hjardemaal, Finn R.
The study is aimed at generating knowledge on how faculty teachers reflect and justify their choice of subject content logic in teacher education, exemplified by a concurrent pre-service Subject Teacher Education in design, art, and crafts. Focus-group interviews generated data. Three topics were discussed: too many choices, different logics, and…
Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the user study, conducted in 1998, among the users of the Osijek Faculty of Education Library. The objective of the study was to determine the scope of library usage, the degree of users’ dis/satisfaction with library services, holdings and the staff. The results indicate that there are differences in library usage between two main user groups – students and teachers. They differ, among other things, in the objectives of library visits, the scope of library usage, the degree of satisfaction with the library and its services, the familiarisation and the level of usage of information technology.Differences in behaviour between these two groups indicate the necessity of a different approach by the library personnel, e.g. intensified work on students’ education.The analysis of the questionnaire leads to the following conclusions:1. Two main user groups of the Faculty of Education Library differ in their requests and needs.2. The degree of dis/satisfaction depends on the group the user belongs to.3. Library users from the fields of arts and humanities, and natural sciences, use information technology to the same degree.
Cheung, Ngai Fen; Mander, Rosemary; Cheng, Linan; Chen, Vivian Yan; Yang, Xiu Qun; Qian, Hong Ping; Qian, Jie Yan
While studying caesarean decision-making in China, the increasing popularity of 'zuoyuezi' emerged. This paper addresses this development, the reasons and implications. We tape-recorded semi-structured interviews in three industrial cities in China. The three groups of informants comprised women in the first-week after caesarean, women eight months after caesarean and health-workers/others. Mandarin or local dialects were used. The data were transcribed and analysed in Chinese and then selected quotes were translated into English. We found that the re-emergence and social modification of zuoyuezi is closely associated with the rising caesarean rate. This custom has been regarded as a crucial rite-of-passage for the woman's recovery and transition to motherhood after childbirth. Its particular importance after caesarean became apparent in this study. Conclusions are drawn about the place of ritual and tradition in 21st century China.
Binstock, Judith; Junsanto-Bahri, Tipsuda
.... Preclinical osteopathic medical students and their basic science and OMM faculty from 3 colleges of osteopathic medicine were surveyed about the importance of specific science concepts, laboratories...
Marhatta, Asha; Messina, Dino; Petrini, Joann R; Lecaj, Ariana; Ahmadi, Ramin
The published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones represent a novel method of evaluation of trainees in graduate medical education. We surveyed agroup of teaching faculty and residents, regarding the new ACGME milestones project. We obtained their input on the expected timeline for the developmental milestones and compared their responses to the ACGME recommendations. A 42-item survey questionnaire, derived from the original 142 item publication, was completed by 26 internal medicine teaching faculty and 34 internal medicine residents. We found statistically significant differences in the responses given by residents and faculty compared to those in the standard recommendations. The differences were more pronounced with the residents than with the faculty. The results of our survey showed significantly different responses as compared to the standard recommended timelines. Since this is a novel evaluation process, substantial faculty development and resident education regarding the process can help improve its implementation. Future studies should focus on how learners might better understand and refine the milestone evaluation process.
Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G; Awadallah, M; Zizi, F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I
.... We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score...
Solnosky, Ryan; Fairchild, Joshua
Many engineering faculty have limited skills and/or assessment tools to evaluate team dynamics in multidisciplinary team-based capstone courses. Rapidly deployable tools are needed here to provide proactive feedback to teams to facilitate deeper learning. Two surveys were developed based on industrial and organizational psychology theories around…
Hoyt, Jeff E.; Howell, Scott L.; Eggett, Dennis
The purpose of this research study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument for assessing the satisfaction of part-time faculty teaching in continuing higher education at Brigham Young University (BYU). This article describes the reliability and validity of the instrument that may be used by other administrators and researchers…
Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.
A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…
Raymond, Bruce C.; Kannan, Vijay R.
The human resources management literature offers considerable evidence that mentoring programs can positively influence a variety of measures of both individual and organizational performance. This study examines the use and effectiveness of faculty mentoring programs at business schools in the United States. A survey of 118 schools accredited by…
Cusker, Jeremy; Rauh, Anne E.
Discussions of the potential of open access publishing frequently must contend with the skepticism of research authors regarding the need to pay author fees (also known as publication fees). With that in mind, the authors undertook a survey of faculty, postdocs, and graduate students in physical science, mathematics, and engineering fields at two…
Eychmüller, Steffen; Forster, M; Gudat, H; Lütolf, U M; Borasio, G D
BACKGROUND In 2007, a first survey on undergraduate palliative care teaching in Switzerland has revealed major heterogeneity of palliative care content, allocation of hours and distribution throughout the 6 year curriculum in Swiss medical faculties. This second survey in 2012/13 has been initiated as part of the current Swiss national strategy in palliative care (2010 - 2015) to serve as a longitudinal monitoring instrument and as a basis for redefinition of palliative care learning obje...
Henry Rebecca C
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a pilot survey of faculty involved in medical education. The questionnaire focuses on their understanding of IRB policies at their institution, specifically in relation to the use of student assessment and curriculum evaluation information for scholarship. Methods An anonymous survey was distributed to medical educators in a variety of venues. Two brief scenarios of typical student assessment or curriculum evaluation activities were presented and respondents were asked to indicate their likely course of action related to IRB approval. The questionnaire also asked respondents about their knowledge of institutional policies related to IRB approval. Results A total of 121 completed surveys were obtained; 59 (50% respondents identified themselves as from community-based medical schools. For the first scenario, 78 respondents (66% would have contact with the IRB; this increased to 97 respondents (82% for the second scenario. For both scenarios, contact with the IRB was less likely among respondents from research-intensive institutions. Sixty respondents (55% were unsure if their institutions had policies addressing evaluation data used for scholarship. Fifty respondents (41% indicated no prior discussions at their institutions regarding IRB requirements. Conclusion Many faculty members are unaware of IRB policies at their medical schools related to the use of medical student information. To the extent that policies are in place, they are highly variable across schools suggesting little standardization in faculty understanding and/or institutional implementation. Principles to guide faculty decision-making are provided.
Ekholm, Ola; Hesse, Ulrik; Davidsen, Michael
AIMS: The Danish National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark has carried out national representative health interview surveys among adult Danes in 1987, 1994, 2000 and 2005. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the design, including the response rate...... to the Danish population. However, these surveys are essential, as the information collected cannot be gathered by means of official statistical registers. Hence, efforts to increase the response rate will be important in the forthcoming surveys....
Arah, Onyebuchi A; Hoekstra, Joost B L; Bos, Albert P; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H
Tools for the evaluation, improvement and promotion of the teaching excellence of faculty remain elusive in residency settings. This study investigates (i) the reliability and validity of the data yielded by using two new instruments for evaluating the teaching qualities of medical faculty, (ii) the instruments' potential for differentiating between faculty, and (iii) the number of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to reliably use the instruments. Multicenter cross-sectional survey among 546 residents and 629 medical faculty representing 29 medical (non-surgical) specialty training programs in The Netherlands. Two instruments--one completed by residents and one by faculty--for measuring teaching qualities of faculty were developed. Statistical analyses included factor analysis, reliability and validity exploration using standard psychometric methods, calculation of the numbers of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to achieve reliable assessments and variance components and threshold analyses. A total of 403 (73.8%) residents completed 3575 evaluations of 570 medical faculty while 494 (78.5%) faculty self-evaluated. In both instruments five composite-scales of faculty teaching qualities were detected with high internal consistency and reliability: learning climate (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85 for residents' instrument, 0.71 for self-evaluation instrument, professional attitude and behavior (0.84/0.75), communication of goals (0.90/0.84), evaluation of residents (0.91/0.81), and feedback (0.91/0.85). Faculty tended to evaluate themselves higher than did the residents. Up to a third of the total variance in various teaching qualities can be attributed to between-faculty differences. Some seven residents' evaluations per faculty are needed for assessments to attain a reliability level of 0.90. The instruments for evaluating teaching qualities of medical faculty appear to yield reliable and valid data. They are feasible for use in medical residencies, can
Lash, David Benjamin; Barnett, Mitchell J; Parekh, Nirali; Shieh, Anita; Louie, Maggie C; Tang, Terrill T-L
To identify differences among faculty members in various health professional training programs in perceived benefits and challenges of implementing interprofessional education (IPE). A 19-item survey using a 5-point Likert scale was administered to faculty members across different health disciplines at a west coast, multicollege university with osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, and physician assistant programs. Sixty-two of 103 surveys (60.2%) were included in the study. Faculty members generally agreed that there were benefits of IPE on patient outcomes and that implementing IPE was feasible. However, group differences existed in belief that IPE improves care efficiency (p=0.001) and promotes team-based learning (p=0.001). Program divergence was also seen in frequency of stressing importance of IPE (p=0.009), preference for more IPE opportunities (p=0.041), and support (p=0.002) within respective college for IPE. Despite consensus among faculty members from 3 disciplines that IPE is invaluable to their curricula and training of health care students, important program level differences existed that would likely need to be addressed in advance IPE initiatives.
Lindfelt, Tristan A; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J
U.S. pharmacy school faculty were surveyed to assess their career satisfaction, lifestyle, and stress levels. A 48-item survey, administered through Qualtrics (Provo, UT), was sent to current members of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and included questions regarding respondents' academic institution and appointment status; lifestyle traits; career satisfaction; work-life balance; neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses; use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; and stress levels. of the 4787 faculty invited to participate in the survey, 811 usable surveys were collected (16.9% response rate). Nearly all respondents (95.0%) reported working 40 or more hours per week. The majority had an average daily one-way commute of less than 30 minutes (64.2%), slept 5.5-7.5 hours per night (74.8%), and exercised for no more than 120 minutes per week (61.8%). A majority of respondents (63.7%) reported being very or extremely satisfied with their current position in academia. Only 36.9% reported being very or extremely satisfied with their work-life balance. Mean perceived stress scores were near those found in the general adult population. Although most respondents reported seeing a primary care provider and dentist annually, other findings regarding preventive health measures were not as encouraging. A survey of pharmacy faculty in the United States revealed high levels of job satisfaction among respondents, but lower levels of satisfaction with work-life balance and comparable levels of stress to the general population were found. Administrators and stakeholders should explore options to improve lifestyle factors to decrease potential burnout among faculty. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Morgan C. MacDonald
Full Text Available The investigation of multiple sources in household water management is considered overly complicated and time consuming using paper and pen interviewing (PAPI. We assess the advantages of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI in Pacific Island Countries (PICs. We adapted an existing PAPI survey on multiple water sources and expanded it to incorporate location of water use and the impacts of extreme weather events using SurveyCTO on Android tablets. We then compared the efficiency and accuracy of data collection using the PAPI version (n = 44 with the CAPI version (n = 291, including interview duration, error rate and trends in interview duration with enumerator experience. CAPI surveys facilitated high-quality data collection and were an average of 15.2 min faster than PAPI. CAPI survey duration decreased by 0.55% per survey delivered (p < 0.0001, whilst embedded skip patterns and answer lists lowered data entry error rates, relative to PAPI (p < 0.0001. Large-scale household surveys commonly used in global monitoring and evaluation do not differentiate multiple water sources and uses. CAPI equips water researchers with a quick and reliable tool to address these knowledge gaps and advance our understanding of development research priorities.
Sonnino, Roberta E; Reznik, Vivian; Thorndyke, Luanne A; Chatterjee, Archana; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Mylona, Elza; Nelson, Kathleen G; Weisman, Carol S; Morahan, Page S; Wadland, William C
To determine how U.S. MD-granting medical schools manage, fund, and evaluate faculty affairs/development functions and to determine the evolution of these offices between 2000 and 2010. In December 2010, the authors invited faculty affairs designees at 131 U.S. MD-granting medical schools to complete a questionnaire developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges Group on Faculty Affairs, based on a 2000 survey. Schools were asked about core functions, budget, staffing, and performance metrics. The authors analyzed the data using descriptive statistics. A total of 111 schools (84.7%) responded. Fifty percent of the offices were established since 2000. Seventy-eight percent reported their top core function as administrative support for appointments, promotions, and tenure, as in 2000. Faculty policies, appointments, databases, governance support, grievance proceedings, management issues, and annual trend analyses continued as major functions. All 11 core functions identified in 2000 remain predominantly provided by central offices of faculty affairs, except support of major leadership searches. Web site communication emerged as a new core function. Similar to 2000, several other offices were responsible for some faculty development functions. Office size and budget correlated positively with size of the faculty and age of the office (P < .05 for all). Thirty-five schools (31.5%) reported formally evaluating their faculty affairs office. The number of faculty affairs offices and their responsibilities have substantially increased since 2000. Most major core functions have not changed. These offices are now an established part of the central administration of most medical schools.
Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; McKenna, Hugh; Ketefian, Shake; Park, So Hyun; Klopper, Hester; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Gregg, Misuzu F; Daly, John; Coetzee, Siedine; Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Murashima, Sachiyo; Keeney, Sinead; Khan, Shaheen
This study aimed to compare the findings of the quality of nursing doctoral education survey across seven countries and discuss the strategic directions for improving quality. No comparative evaluation of global quality of nursing doctoral education has been reported to date despite the rapid increase in the number of nursing doctoral programmes. A descriptive, cross-country, comparative design was employed. Data were collected from 2007-2010 from nursing schools in seven countries: Australia, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Thailand, UK and USA. An online questionnaire was used to evaluate quality of nursing doctoral education except for Japan, where a paper version was used. Korea and South Africa used e-mails quality of nursing doctoral education was evaluated using four domains: Programme, Faculty (referring to academic staff), Resource and Evaluation. Descriptive statistics, correlational and ordinal logistic regression were employed. A total of 105 deans/schools, 414 faculty and 1149 students/graduates participated. The perceptions of faculty and students/graduates about the quality of nursing doctoral education across the seven countries were mostly favourable on all four domains. The faculty domain score had the largest estimated coefficient for relative importance. As the overall quality level of doctoral education rose from fair to good, the resource domain showed an increased effect. Both faculty and students/graduates groups rated the overall quality of nursing doctoral education favourably. The faculty domain had the greatest importance for quality, followed by the programme domain. However, the importance of the resource domain gained significance as the overall quality of nursing doctoral education increased, indicating the needs for more attention to resources if the quality of nursing doctoral education is to improve. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Association of College and Research Libraries developed information literacy standards and associated performance indicators for undergraduate psychology students. A survey of tenure-track faculty members and full-time lecturers in the Psychology Department at Eastern Michigan University was conducted to discover how those professors viewed…
Abele, Misoo; Brown, Julie; Ibrahim, Hicham; Jha, Manish K
The authors report on the current status of motivational interviewing education and training director attitudes about providing it to psychiatry residents. Training directors of general, child/adolescent and addiction psychiatry training programs were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Of the 333 training directors who were invited to participate, 66 of 168 (39.3%) general, 41 of 121 (33.9%) child/adolescent, and 19 of 44 (43.2%) addiction psychiatry training directors completed the survey. The authors found that 90.9% of general, 80.5% of child/adolescent, and 100% of addiction psychiatry training programs provided motivational interviewing education. Most programs used multiple educational opportunities; the three most common opportunities were didactics, clinical practice with formal supervision, and self-directed reading. Most training directors believed that motivational interviewing was an important skill for general psychiatrists. The authors also found that 83.3% of general, 87.8% of child/adolescent, and 94.7% of addiction psychiatry training directors reported that motivational interviewing should be taught during general psychiatry residency. Motivational interviewing skills are considered important for general psychiatrists and widely offered by training programs. Competency in motivational interviewing skills should be considered as a graduation requirement in general psychiatry training programs.
..., and human papillomavirus. Additionally, CHIS is designed to be comparable to the National Health... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Module (CHIS-CCM) 2011 (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of...
..., diet, physical activity, obesity, and human papillomavirus. Additionally, CHIS is designed to be...] [FR Doc No: 2010-28648] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; California Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Module (CHIS-CCM) 2011 (NCI...
Lee, David J; Gómez-Marín, Orlando; Lam, Byron L; Zheng, D Diane; Jané, Dulce M
To assess 10-year trends in reported visual impairment. The National Health Interview Survey is a continuous multistage area probability survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population living at addressed dwellings. Adults within randomly selected households were administered a chronic conditions list that included questions about visual impairment. Proxy information on these conditions was obtained when household members were unavailable for interview. Complete data were available on 132 860 adults 18 years or older in survey years 1986 to 1995. Prevalence rates were adjusted for age and sample survey design. Annual age-adjusted rates of some visual impairment ranged from 3.6% to 4.6%. Rates of severe bilateral visual impairment ranged from 0.2% to 0.4%. There was some evidence for increasing rates of visual impairment among younger adults 18 to 39 years of age (annual increase, 0.03%; P =.03). However, there were no significant changes in reported visual impairment rates in older adults stratified into 10-year age groups. Data from the National Health Interview Survey provide no evidence that reported visual impairment rates are declining in the US noninstitutionalized population from 1986 to 1995. Additional treatment advances, greater use of existing treatments, including correcting refractive errors, and further reductions in risk factors for disabling eye diseases may be necessary before population-level reductions in visual impairment rates can be achieved.
Snowdon, Anne; Rothman, Linda; Slater, Morgan; Kolga, Carol; Hussein, Abdul; Boase, Paul; Howard, Andrew
To compare the differences in Canadian national estimates of correct child restraint use obtained using the standard roadside observation method compared to a detailed parking lot interview. A multi-stage stratified survey design was used to conduct roadside observational and interview data collection at 182 randomly selected sites across Canada. For each site, a roadside intersection location and a parking lot location were used for the roadside observational survey and the interview respectively. Weighted estimates of correct restraint use from both locations were compared. Estimates of correct restraint use were significantly higher for all children under the age of 9 in the parking lot sample. The largest discrepancy between the two samples was in booster seat aged children (ages 4-8) where 29.1% versus 67.8% of children were observed to be correctly restrained using the roadside and the parking lot methodology respectively. There was a 67% participation refusal rate in the parking lot survey. There are specific advantages and limitations to both survey designs. The purpose of the data collection must be considered when selecting the methodology. Parking lot surveys provide richer data regarding restraint use/misuse. Estimates of correct restraint use must be approached with caution due to the effect of consent bias resulting in over inflation of estimates. Roadside observation is adequate and appropriate for providing national estimates of correct restraint use. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cifra, Christina L; Balikai, Shilpa S; Murtha, Tanya D; Hsu, Benson; Riley, Carley L
To determine the perceptions of current pediatric critical care medicine fellows and junior faculty regarding the extent and quality of career development support received during fellowship training. Web-based cross-sectional survey open from September to November 2015. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pediatric critical care medicine fellowship programs. Pediatric critical care medicine fellows (second yr or higher) and junior faculty (within 5 yr of completing a pediatric critical care medicine fellowship program). None. There were 129 respondents to the survey, representing 63% of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pediatric critical care medicine fellowship programs. Respondents were evenly divided between fellows and junior faculty. Nearly, half (49%) of respondents reported that their pediatric critical care medicine fellowship program provided a formal career development curriculum. Ideal career tracks chosen included academic clinician educator (64%), physician-scientist (27%), community-based (nonacademic) clinician (11%), and administrator (11%). There was a disparity in focused career development support provided by programs, with a minority providing good support for those pursuing a community-based clinician track (32%) or administrator track (16%). Only 43% of fellows perceived that they have a good chance of obtaining their ideal pediatric critical care medicine position, with the most common perceived barrier being increased competition for limited job opportunities. Most respondents expressed interest in a program specific to pediatric critical care medicine career development that is sponsored by a national professional organization. Most pediatric critical care medicine fellows and junior faculty reported good to excellent career development support during fellowship. However, important gaps remain, particularly for those pursuing community-based (nonacademic) and administrative tracks
Leggett Laura E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Technology Reassessment (HTR is a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, social, ethical and economic effects of a technology currently used in the health care system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. Little is known about current international HTR practices. The objective of this research was to summarize experience-based information gathered from international experts on the development, initiation and implementation of a HTR program. Methods A mixed methods approach, using a survey and in-depth interviews, was adopted. The survey covered 8 concepts: prioritization/identification of potentially obsolete technologies; program development; implementation; mitigation; program championing; stakeholder engagement; monitoring; and reinvestment. Members of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA formed the sampling frame. Participation was solicited via email and the survey was administered online using SurveyMonkey. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To gather more in-depth knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted among organizations with active HTR programs. Interview questions were developed using the same 8 concepts. The hour-long interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results Ninety-five individuals responded to the survey: 49 were not discussing HTR, 21 were beginning to discuss HTR, nine were imminently developing a program, and 16 participants had programs and were completing reassessments. The survey results revealed that methods vary widely and that although HTR is a powerful tool, it is currently not being used to its full potential. Of the 16 with active programs, nine agreed to participate in follow-up interviews. Interview participants identified early and extensive stakeholder
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SPEAKS- faculty/staff dataset contains individual level information from a sample of faculty and staff on GLS funded campuses. These data include faculty...
Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William; Ranney, Richard R; Vargas, Adriana; Cardenas, Lina; Rose, William; Ross, Ridley; Funk, Edward
This report is the third in a series of articles on the dental school work environment commissioned by the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education. The report is based on the most extensive research to date on faculty satisfaction in the dental school environment. The purpose of the study was to assess faculty perceptions and recommendations related to work environment, sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and professional development needs. More broadly, the study intends to provide insight into the "change readiness" of dental schools to move forward with curricular improvements and innovations. Findings are based on 1,748 responses from forty-nine U.S. dental schools obtained during the time frame of February to April 2007. The total number of respondents constituted 17 percent of all U.S. dental school faculty. The average response rate per school was thirty-six (21 percent). To elucidate the data in terms of issues related to the quality of faculty work-life based on demographics, the authors compared perceptions of various aspects of the work culture in academic dentistry among faculty with different academic ranks and academic degrees and by other variables such as age and gender, tenure versus non-tenure appointments, and full- versus part-time status. Quantitative and qualitative analyses show that the majority of faculty members described themselves as very satisfied to satisfied with their dental school overall and with their department as a place to work. Tenured associate professors expressed the greatest level of dissatisfaction. Opportunities for and support of professional development emerged as an area requiring substantially more attention from dental schools. The authors of the study suggest that dental school leaders use these findings to assess their individual dental school's work environment and to plan changes as needed.
Goud, Manjunatha; Pamidi, Narendra; Devi, Oinam S; Nayal, Bhavn; Kamath, Ullas; Raghuveer
The physical activity in teaching faculties is an important aspect to maintain good health. This not only prevents the various non - communicable diseases but also has role in secondary prevention of diseases. It is also proven that the growing epidemic of obesity mostly in children is linked to recent decline in physical activity levels both in home, school and working places. Social class is thought to have a bearing on physical activity. On basis of this, the survey was done to assess the physical activity levels in higher social class population i.e. on teaching faculty of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India. Questionnaire study was implemented in 2010 as the design of this research without any manual intervention. No experiment was conducted in the research. Questions were specific and related to the physical activities in home and also in working environment. The study found that in medical college the lifestyle is restricted mostly to sedentary and moderate work. Most of faculties were using bike and cars to reach there working place and also we found the physical activities in the form of exercise and sports activity were lacking. In addition to the importance of a physical activity professional's potential influence on others as a model, engaging in a physically active lifestyle is very important for personal reasons. Achieving and maintaining a health-enhancing level of physical fitness is one of the basic standards for good teaching and maintaining good health. Physical activity in professionals leads to both personal health benefits, and improve job satisfaction. Infrastructure improvements such as sports activity in colleges among faculties, combined with regular exercise provide additional physical activity that would help reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases.
Purpose — The paper is analysing the effect of adding a web survey to a traditional telephone-based national travel survey by asking the respondents to check in on the web and answer the questions there (Computer Assisted Web Interview, CAWI). If they are not participating by web they are as usual...... — The analyses show that web interviews are saving money, even though a more intensive post-processing is necessary. The analyses seem to show that the CAWI is resulting in a more careful answering which results in more trips reported. A CAWI is increasing the participation of children in the survey...... and of highly educated. And it is offering a higher flexibility to answer after a couple of days off. The CATI is on the other hand more useful for the elderly. In addition, the CATI survey proved to be more useful for busy people and people not willing to participate in a survey at all. Young people and people...
Onyebuchi A Arah
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tools for the evaluation, improvement and promotion of the teaching excellence of faculty remain elusive in residency settings. This study investigates (i the reliability and validity of the data yielded by using two new instruments for evaluating the teaching qualities of medical faculty, (ii the instruments' potential for differentiating between faculty, and (iii the number of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to reliably use the instruments. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Multicenter cross-sectional survey among 546 residents and 629 medical faculty representing 29 medical (non-surgical specialty training programs in The Netherlands. Two instruments--one completed by residents and one by faculty--for measuring teaching qualities of faculty were developed. Statistical analyses included factor analysis, reliability and validity exploration using standard psychometric methods, calculation of the numbers of residents' evaluations needed per faculty to achieve reliable assessments and variance components and threshold analyses. RESULTS: A total of 403 (73.8% residents completed 3575 evaluations of 570 medical faculty while 494 (78.5% faculty self-evaluated. In both instruments five composite-scales of faculty teaching qualities were detected with high internal consistency and reliability: learning climate (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85 for residents' instrument, 0.71 for self-evaluation instrument, professional attitude and behavior (0.84/0.75, communication of goals (0.90/0.84, evaluation of residents (0.91/0.81, and feedback (0.91/0.85. Faculty tended to evaluate themselves higher than did the residents. Up to a third of the total variance in various teaching qualities can be attributed to between-faculty differences. Some seven residents' evaluations per faculty are needed for assessments to attain a reliability level of 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: The instruments for evaluating teaching qualities of medical faculty appear to yield reliable and
Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop
Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual user...
Schmidt, S; Bergelt, C; Deck, R; Krischak, G; Morfeld, M; Michel, M; Schwarzkopf, S R; Spyra, K; Walter, S; Mau, W
To ascertain the current development of the rehabilitation-related medical teaching in the interdisciplinary subject Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment (Q12) regarding its execution, content, exams and evaluation of teaching at the Medical Faculties the German Society of Rehabilitation Science conducted another faculty survey in 2015. Representatives of all degree courses of human medicine in German Universities (n=41) received a pseudonymised standardised questionnaire in summer 2015. The response rate was 76% (n=31). Half of the faculties (48%) stated that they had a teaching and research unit for at least 1 of the 3 subjects of the interdisciplinary Q12. The Q12-teaching of faculties including these units partially differed from the other faculties. Model medical education programmes provide on average 2 semesters more for Q12-teaching in comparison to the traditional programmes. More than 3 quarters of the traditional programmes and all other courses include other medical professionals besides physicians as lecturers. Multiple choice questions still constitute the most common examination type (94%). Nearly all Medical Faculties evaluate the rehabilitation-related teaching but only half of all them have implemented a financial gratification based on the evaluation results. Even 10 years after the implementation of Q12, major variations were demonstrated regarding the execution, content and methods of medical education in rehabilitation. In the future the influence of the National Competence Based Catalogues of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education on the Q12-development and the Q12-teaching in medical university education in Germany with foreign qualification will be of particular interest. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Guéguen, Nicolas; Martin, Angélique
Several studies have shown that people photographed wearing eyeglasses were perceived more positively as to intelligence and honesty. However, the effect of wearing glasses on behavior and in real face-to-face relationships has never been examined. In two studies, interviewers wearing or not wearing eyeglasses were instructed to ask people in the…
Dölle, R; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Stolzenberg, H
In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), comprehensive, nationwide representative data on the state of health of children and adolescents were collected for the first time. During the 3-year data collection phase of the survey, 17,641 subjects were examined and interviewed and approx. 1,500 items were recorded. Data management was not limited to survey data collection, administration and quality assurance alone, but also comprised the provision of tools for the management and control of process data, as well as for managing survey-specific business processes. In the context of the KiGGS study, numerous components for supporting the extensive and complex processes were developed for the study staff. Here the primary focus was on subject and sample point administration, scheduling, sampling, reporting, field logistics and laboratory data management. Thanks to the computer-based processing of routine tasks involved in the organisation of the field work, ease of work and project progress control were enhanced significantly. To some extent, KiGGS-specific components have already been used in other studies and only minor adaptations were needed for the transfer. The main emphasis with regards to survey data management was on the standardisation of methods for data processing, data control and data cleaning. Here, a wealth of previous experiences was available as a starting point. The established quality assurance methods were standardised to a large extent and partly automated and complemented by data base tools for the management and documentation of survey instruments and quality assurance measures. All these measures combined made it possible to provide data users with a controlled and cleaned final data set, including a detailed documentation.
Mansholt, Barbara A.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Corber, Lance G.; Stites, John S.
Objective: Scientific literature applicable to chiropractic practice proliferates in quantity, quality, and source. Chiropractic is a worldwide profession and varies in scope between states or provinces and from country to country. It is logical to consider that the focus and emphasis of chiropractic education varies between programs as well. This original research study endeavored to determine “essential literature” recommended by chiropractic faculty. The purpose of this article is (1) to share our results and (2) to promote discussion and explore means for future collaboration of chiropractic faculty through a worldwide platform. Methods: A 2-phase recruitment occurred initially at the institutional level and subsequently at the faculty level. A Web-based survey used qualitative data collection methods to gather bibliographic citations. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographics, and citation responses were ranked per number of recommendations, grouped into categories, and tabulated per journal source and publication date. Results: Forty-one chiropractic programs were contacted, resulting in 30 participating chiropractic programs (16 US and 14 international). Forty-five faculty members completed the entire survey, submitting 126 peer-reviewed publications and 25 additional citations. Readings emphasized clinical management of spine pain, the science of spinal manipulation, effectiveness of manual therapies, teaching of chiropractic techniques, outcomes assessments, and professional issues. Conclusion: A systematic approach to surveying educators in international chiropractic institutions was accomplished. The results of the survey provide a list of essential literature for the chiropractic profession. We recommend establishing a chiropractic faculty registry for improved communication and collaboration. PMID:28768114
Robles, A; Goldman, N
Because hospital records rarely exist for a representative sample of the population in developing countries, researchers frequently rely on birthweight data from surveys. Yet, the quality of these data has rarely been evaluated. This study explores the accuracy of birthweight information in six demographic and health surveys in Latin America conducted in the early 1990s: two in Guatemala, and one each in Bolivia, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Peru. The quality of the birthweight reports is assessed by examining the plausibility of estimates of the proportion of newborns reported to have been weighed and estimates derived from the numerical weights, by characteristics of the delivery and maternal education. The estimates suggest that a substantial proportion of women whose newborns were probably never weighed report a birthweight. For all of the surveys, with the possible exception of Costa Rica, the average birthweights appear to be too high, and the estimates of the prevalence of low birthweight too low. In addition, the data reveal anomalous patterns, such as higher birthweights for home as compared with hospital deliveries. These findings suggest that estimates of low birthweight derived from surveys in developing countries are likely to portray an overly optimistic picture of children's and women's health status. More information about the underlying source of these data are needed not only to provide additional insight into the degree of error characterizing existing estimates, but also to improve data collection strategies in future health interview surveys.
Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Hayakawa, Akira; Terazawa, Koichi
Fostering the specialists of forensic pathology has become a worldwide problem. In Japan, factors such as government budget cuts, the introduction of initial postgraduate clinical training system, as well as national policy on increasing autopsy rates, may deter young graduates from entering this specialty. The aim of this study was to look for clues to promote the training of young forensic pathologists. We selected and interviewed five forensic pathologists, with each interview lasting approximately 60 minutes, and picked up common views among them. The interviews topic, based on a prior survey, was: "What do you believe forensic pathologists require to promote the training of their successors." We selected common views on the three themes listed below; 1) standardization of minimum requirements to be independent forensic pathologists, 2) balancing forensic pathologists' time among autopsy practice, research, and education, and 3) preparing positions for younger forensic pathologists. These opinions were the same as those of previous studies conducted overseas and must be discussed at academic conferences in the future, where both junior and senior forensic pathologists participate.
Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T
Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Lampert, T; Kroll, L; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H
Socioeconomic status (SES) constitutes a central analysis category of epidemiological research and health reporting. As part of the German cardiovascular disease prevention study 1984-1991, a multi-dimensional aggregated index was developed for the purpose of measuring SES. This index continues to be used in numerous studies to this day. For the purpose of health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the index was fundamentally revised following critical assessment. This article describes the basic concepts underlying the revision and how they were implemented in relation to the "German health interview and examination survey for adults" (DEGS1). In addition, the results of the age and sex-specific distribution of the values of the revised SES index and those relating to the connection with other measurements of socioeconomic status are reported. The results are based on the data of DEGS1 2012 and the German national health interview and examination survey 1998 (GNHIES98). An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Burger, Martina; Mensink, Gert B M
To analyse the alcohol consumption behaviour of the German adult population, with a focus on the characteristics of persons drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL) of 10-12 g day(-1) for healthy adult women and 20-24 g day(-1) for healthy adult men. For the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998, a representative sample of free-living adults was drawn. A total of 7124 participants were interviewed comprehensively about their sociodemographic background, lifestyle and eating habits including alcohol consumption. A sub-sample of 4030 women and men, 18-79 years old, who were involved in the integrated German Nutrition Survey. About 16% of women and 31% of men had mean alcohol consumption above the TUAL. Among other factors, the inclination to exceed the TUAL was related to middle-age, high socio-economic status, smoking and use of soft drugs. Among both women and men, a high proportion of persons drinking above the TUAL was observed among those consuming low amounts of soft drinks, fruit, poultry, milk products, bread and cake/biscuits. Women preferred to drink wine, whereas men preferred to drink beer. Many Germans have an alcohol consumption level above the TUAL and thus are supposed to be at increased risk for alcohol-associated diseases.
Finch, J. Howard; Allen, Richard S.; Weeks, H. Shelton
One of the most important aspects of growing and improving business education is replacing departed faculty members. As the baby-boom generation approaches retirement, the supply of available replacement faculty members is diminishing. The result is a competitive market for replacement faculty that features increasing starting salary levels. In…
Stewart, John R.; Williams, Yolanda Y.; Vu, Kinh T.; Collins, Tracey R.; Clementson, Casey J.; Berberick, David M.
The purpose of this study was to explore what motivates faculty and student involvement in this educational environment and how student participation in music coursework contributes to current musical endeavors. The research team utilized a modified explanatory sequential mixed methods design to collect survey data and focus group data from…
Data collected on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are coded as frequency and time unit - times per day, week, or month. The data contain some values that are very unlikely.
Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods.
Comparable survey data on Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are highly sought after by policymakers to inform policies aimed at closing ethnic socio-economic gaps. However, collection of such data is compromised by group differences in socio-economic status and cultural norms. We use data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and multiple-membership multilevel regression models that allow for individual and interviewer effects to examine differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in approximate measures of the quality of the interview process. We find that there are both direct and indirect ethnic effects on different dimensions of interview process quality, with Indigenous Australians faring worse than non-Indigenous Australians in all outcomes ceteris paribus . This indicates that nationwide surveys must feature interview protocols that are sensitive to the needs and culture of Indigenous respondents to improve the quality of the survey information gathered from this subpopulation. PMID:26091283
Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M
We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98...
Ward, Bryan K; Agrawal, Yuri; Hoffman, Howard J; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C
Profound bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) causes disabling oscillopsia, chronic disequilibrium, and postural instability, but little is known about its epidemiology and impact. To assess prevalence and functional impact of BVH in the US adult population. National cross-sectional survey using a national database and corollary validation study. Adult respondents to the 2008 Balance and Dizziness Supplement to the US National Health Interview Survey (N = 21 782). Prevalence of BVH, socioeconomic and quality-of-life impact of BVH, and fall risk. Criteria for the survey-based diagnosis of BVH included all of the following: presence of visual blurring with head movement; unsteadiness; difficulty walking in darkness or unsteady surfaces and in a straight path; and symptoms being at least "a big problem" and present for at least 1 year, in the absence of other neurologic conditions or eye pathologic conditions affecting vision. Adjusted national estimates from this survey indicate the prevalence of BVH in 2008 was 28 per 100 000 US adults (64 046 Americans). Of the participants with BVH, 44% reported changing their driving habits because of their symptoms, 56% reported reduced participation in social activities, and 58% reported difficulties with activities of daily living. Respondents with BVH had a 31-fold increase in the odds of falling in multivariate analyses compared with all respondents, with 25% reporting a recent fall-related injury. As estimated by the presence of specific symptoms in a nationally representative survey, BVH has considerable socioeconomic and quality-of-life impacts and significantly increases fall risk. These data support the need for new therapeutic strategies for BVH, including vestibular rehabilitation and implantable vestibular prostheses.
Full Text Available Quantway is a quantitative reasoning-based pathway for developmental math that has been developed as an alternative to the traditional remedial algebra sequence. To explore the experiences of faculty involved with Quantway, we interviewed eight individuals who have taught the course in the past year to survey their attitudes and opinions about students in their classes, the materials and pedagogies in use, and the collegial interaction of networked faculty. Faculty were selected with the intention of gathering a broad set of opinions resulting from differences of location, experience, and other factors. In this paper, we summarize those interviews by identifying common themes reported by the faculty that highlight strengths and challenges of teaching Quantway. Themes include perceptions about changes in student engagement and attitudes as well as changes in their own mindset; the evolution of teaching strategies and materials used inside and outside the classroom; and the relevance of connections between faculty at different institutions involved in the project.
Lee, Nicolette; Horsfall, Briony
In this study we explored faculty and student experiences of accelerated learning. We conducted interviews with faculty members who had delivered the same course in 12 and 6-week timeframes, and we analysed a student survey. Students reported overall positive experiences in the accelerated courses, particularly in the social aspects of learning,…
Fritz, H. M.; Martinez, C.; Salado, J.; Rivera, W.
On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the northeastern shore of Hispaniola resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field the tsunami was recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes ever reported in the Caribbean. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from La Isabela to Punta Cana. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field data points measured in 2014 and 2016 were corrected for predicted astronomical tide levels at the time of tsunami arrival
Mai, Phuong L; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas; Breen, Nancy; McNeel, Timothy S; Wideroff, Louise; Graubard, Barry I
Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000-2005 and 2005-2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (ptesting in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chen, Li Hui; Warner, Margaret; Fingerhut, Lois; Makuc, Diane
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) provides estimates of nonfatal, medically attended injuries and poisonings occurring in the United States. The objectives of this report are to 1) document changes in the injury and poisoning section of NHIS from 1997 through 2007; 2) provide guidance on summarizing data across the 11-year study period; and 3) present detailed national estimates of nonfatal injury and poisoning episodes for the time period. NHIS samples the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States living in households. NHIS data from the years 1997-2007 were used in this report. Some questions related to injury and poisoning episodes were modified in 2000 and 2004. During the period 1997-2004, many NHIS injury and poisoning questions were improved as a result of cognitive interviewing, data analysis, and feedback from interviewers and data users. Revisions to the NHIS injury and poisoning section pose some difficulties for trend analysis. However, some questions remained the same during the 11-year period, despite the questionnaire revisions. The injury and poisoning section has not been revised since 2004 and, where possible, analyses should be limited to 2004 and beyond. For analyses that require a longer time period, this report provides information on changes to questions and statistics that illustrate the effect of these changes on injury estimates. in 2007, the medically attended injury and poisoning episode rate among the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population was 115.7 per 1,000 population. Despite differences in some questions during the period 1997-2007, NHIS data for these years show falls as the leading cause of injury and the home as the leading place that injury occurred.
Full Text Available This paper examined the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2007 and explored acupuncture users sociodemographics characteristics, reasons and the nature of acupuncture use, and the relationship of such use with conventional medical care. All individuals who completed adults core interviews (N = 23,393 were included. Three subsets of samples (nonuser, former user, and recent user were used in the analysis performed in Stata. Our findings revealed that ever acupuncture user (including former and recent user increased from 4.2% to 6.3% of the population, representing 8.19 million and 14.01 million users in 2002 and 2007, respectively. We expected this trend to continue. People not only used acupuncture as a complementary and alternative approach to conventional treatment for a specific health condition, but also used it as a preventive means to promote general health. Effectiveness and safety appeared not to be the main predictors of acupuncture use; rather, awareness, cost, and insurance coverage played a bigger role in decision making.
Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. Methods A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. After two mail contacts, non-respondents were randomly assigned to either a reminder telephone call or a telephone interview. Average cost per completed interview and response rates were compared between the two experimental conditions. Results The response rate in the reminder group and the interview did not differ where we considered both a completed survey and a signed form a complete (24% vs. 29%, p = 0.08. However, if such a signed form was not required, there was a substantial advantage to completing the interview over the phone (24% vs. 43%, p Conclusions The additional cost of completing an interview is worth it when an additional signed form is not required of the respondent. However, when such a signed form is required, offering an interview instead of a reminder phone call as a follow up to non-respondents does not increase response rates enough to outweigh the additional costs.
Full Text Available Aim: Using the data from graduate surveys, this study aims to analyze which factors related to teaching and learning at the Freiburg Faculty of Medicine can influence study success.Background: Study success and the factors influencing it have long been the subject of investigation, with study success being measured in terms of easily quantifiable indicators (final grades, student satisfaction, etc.. In recent years, it has also frequently been assessed in terms of graduate competency levels. Graduate surveys are considered suitable instruments for measuring these dimensions of study success.Method: Data from three Freiburg graduate surveys conducted one and a half years after graduation were drawn upon for the analysis.Study success was operationalized using four indicators: results on the written section of the M2 exam, self-assessment of medical expertise and scientific expertise, and student satisfaction. Using multiple regression analyses, the predictive power was calculated for selected variables, also measured by the graduate surveys, for the different study success indicators.Results: It was possible to identify models that contribute slightly or moderately to the prediction of study success. The score earned on the university entrance qualification demonstrated itself to be the strongest predictor for forecasting the M2 written exam: R is between 0.08 and 0.22 for the three surveys. Different variables specific to degree program structure and teaching are helpful for predicting medical expertise (R=0.04-0.32 and student satisfaction (R=0.12-0.35. The two variables, and , show themselves to be significant, sample-invariant predictors (β-weight=0.21-0.58, β-weight=0.27-0.56. For scientific expertise, no sample-independent predictors could be determined.Conclusion: Factors describing teaching hardly provide any assistance when predicting the written M2 exam score, which makes sense to the extent that teaching goes far beyond the heavily
Biller, Silke; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne
Aim: Using the data from graduate surveys, this study aims to analyze which factors related to teaching and learning at the Freiburg Faculty of Medicine can influence study success. Background: Study success and the factors influencing it have long been the subject of investigation, with study success being measured in terms of easily quantifiable indicators (final grades, student satisfaction, etc.). In recent years, it has also frequently been assessed in terms of graduate competency levels. Graduate surveys are considered suitable instruments for measuring these dimensions of study success. Method: Data from three Freiburg graduate surveys conducted one and a half years after graduation were drawn upon for the analysis. Study success was operationalized using four indicators: results on the written section of the M2 exam, self-assessment of medical expertise and scientific expertise, and student satisfaction. Using multiple regression analyses, the predictive power was calculated for selected variables, also measured by the graduate surveys, for the different study success indicators. Results: It was possible to identify models that contribute slightly or moderately to the prediction of study success. The score earned on the university entrance qualification demonstrated itself to be the strongest predictor for forecasting the M2 written exam: R2 is between 0.08 and 0.22 for the three surveys. Different variables specific to degree program structure and teaching are helpful for predicting medical expertise (R2=0.04-0.32) and student satisfaction (R2=0.12-0.35). The two variables, structure and curricular sequencing of the degree program and combination of theory and practice, show themselves to be significant, sample-invariant predictors (β-weightStructure=0.21-0.58, β-weightCombination=0.27-0.56). For scientific expertise, no sample-independent predictors could be determined. Conclusion: Factors describing teaching hardly provide any assistance when
Asfaw, Abay G; Chang, Chia C; Ray, Tapas K
This study examined the association between workplace mistreatment and occurrence, duration, and costs of sickness absenteeism. We used the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and considered 13,807 employed adult respondents. We used a zero-inflated negative binomial (zinb) model to examine the association between exposure to workplace mistreatment and the occurrence and number of workdays missed due to illness/injury in the preceding 12 months. In 2010, 7.6% of US workers employed at the time of the survey reported having been mistreated at their workplace. Both occurrence and duration of sickness absence were higher for mistreated than for non-mistreated workers. The zinb results showed that being mistreated was associated with a 42% increase in the number of missed workdays, controlling for covariates. The marginal effect analysis showed that lost workdays differed by 2.45 days between mistreated and non-mistreated workers. This implies that workplace mistreatment was associated with $4.1 billion, or 5.5%, of sickness absenteeism costs in 2010. Workplace mistreatment is associated with sickness absence in the United States. While a causal relationship could not be established due to the cross-sectional design of the study, this study reveals the economic importance of developing workplace mistreatment prevention strategies. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Sarwar, Evangel; Arias, Devin; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa Bhattacharya
Studies show that Asian-American subgroups do not always meet dietary recommendations and are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of our research is to illustrate the various sociodemographic correlates of dietary habits for six subgroups of Asian-Americans in California. The 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) was utilized. A total of 3772 Asian-Americans were included in this study, with the largest subgroup being Chinese (n = 1280; N = 913,798). The outcome variable for this study was dietary behavior defined as consuming five or more fruits and vegetables per day (5-a-day), provided by CHIS. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted accounting for complex survey design. Being a female (Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese), not being married (Chinese), not being a college graduate (Chinese), living in poverty (South Asian), and speaking only English language at home (Chinese and Japanese) were associated with higher odds of not meeting a 5-a-day requirement. Results highlighted several sociodemographic correlates to not meeting 5-a-day requirement among six Asian-American subgroups. Targeted health promotion measures for such at-risk groups should be implemented to improve dietary practices.
Background Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job performance (JP), it remains unclear whether this relationship is appropriate for faculty members at Chinese universities. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the correlation between POS andJP; (b) identify the predictors of POS, including demographic and organizational characteristics among faculty members at a Chinese university; (c) investigate the influence of mediating factors between POS and JP; and (d) compare the findings of this study with related studies. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to 700 faculty members who were randomly selected from all faculty members at six universities. A total of 581 questionnaires were obtained. A statistical model for JP was developed based on the literature review. Results The analysis results indicated that the relationship between POS and JP was mediated by job satisfaction (JS), positive affectivity (PA), and affective commitment (AC). In addition, procedural and distributive justice contribute to POS. Conclusions The study concludes that the relationship between POS and JP is mediated by JS, PA, and AC and is influenced by POS. These results can provide evidence for university administrators to improve POS and increase the JP of faculty members at universities. PMID:24624932
Hortos, Kari; Corser, William; Church, Brandy; Rohrer, Jonathan; Waarala, Kirsten
As graduate medical education evolves under the single accreditation system, osteopathic residency programs and consortia strive for sustainable ways to achieve and support the Osteopathic Recognition (OR) designation. To determine whether differences existed in perceived importance of OR from 3 cohorts of osteopathic stakeholders: students, residents, and faculty. A nonexperimental quantitative cross-sectional online survey was administered during February and March 2016 to osteopathic medical students at Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine and residents and faculty from the affiliated Statewide Campus System. After examining final working dataset patterns, a series of Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to identify statistically significant differences in perceived OR importance response categories across sample subgroups, including program specialty and primary vs non-primary care specialty. The final analytic sample comprised 278 osteopathic medical students, 359 residents, and 94 faculty members. Of 728 respondents, 497 (67.9%) indicated that OR was "somewhat important," "important," or "very important." The overall perceived importance category patterns varied significantly across students, residents, and faculty cohort respondents (, Posteopathic stakeholder groups, but significant differences may exist between different types of students, residents, and faculty. Pre- and postgraduate educational support structures designed to reduce barriers to OR implementation may help to sustain osteopathic principles and practice in the single accreditation system.
Guan, Xin; Sun, Tao; Hou, Yan; Zhao, Liang; Luan, Yi-Ze; Fan, Li-Hua
Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job performance (JP), it remains unclear whether this relationship is appropriate for faculty members at Chinese universities. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the correlation between POS andJP; (b) identify the predictors of POS, including demographic and organizational characteristics among faculty members at a Chinese university; (c) investigate the influence of mediating factors between POS and JP; and (d) compare the findings of this study with related studies. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to 700 faculty members who were randomly selected from all faculty members at six universities. A total of 581 questionnaires were obtained. A statistical model for JP was developed based on the literature review. The analysis results indicated that the relationship between POS and JP was mediated by job satisfaction (JS), positive affectivity (PA), and affective commitment (AC). In addition, procedural and distributive justice contribute to POS. The study concludes that the relationship between POS and JP is mediated by JS, PA, and AC and is influenced by POS. These results can provide evidence for university administrators to improve POS and increase the JP of faculty members at universities.
Dragon, Christina N; Laffan, Alison M; Erdem, Erkan; Cahill, Sean R; Kenefick, Daniel; Ye, Jiahui; Haffer, Samuel C
Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were pooled for increased sample size, and established research methods were followed as recommended by prior NHIS sexual orientation studies. We conducted descriptive analyses on the differences between SM and heterosexual groups, aged 65 years and older, for 12 health indicators. Four out of the 12 health indicators were significantly different for sexual minorities, and three out of those four indicated positive health outcomes or behaviors when compared with heterosexuals. Sexual minorities were more than three times as likely to receive HIV testing as heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination, and much more likely to report excellent or very good health, than their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more than twice as likely to report binge drinking, which is consistent with prior research for adult sexual minorities. This analysis is the first to examine national data on health indicators for sexual minorities, aged 65 years and older, using NHIS data. As more surveys begin to collect SMdata and more years of data are collected by NHIS, a clearer picture of the health of older adult sexual minorities should emerge.
Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Papí Gálvez, Natalia; Carbrera Ruiz, Virginia; Ruiz Martínez, Ana; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos
To analyze the Spanish National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from a gender perspective, with special emphasis on gender division of labor. We analyzed the 2003 Spanish NHIS from the perspective of the levels of gender observation, with gender understood as: a) the basis of social norms (responsibilities by sex, health risks, and problems related to masculine/feminine roles); b) the organizer of the social structure: gender division of labor, work overload, vertical/horizontal segregation, time spent in activities according to social times, access to resources), and c) a component of individual identity (conflicts due to multiple roles, body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, self-perceived recognition of the work performed, assimilation of the sexual gender role, sex differences in health conditions). The Spanish NHIS is centered on the main provider, referred to in masculine grammatical form. Gender division of domestic labor is identified only by a general question. When using the concept of main activity for productive or reproductive work, the survey requires respondents to evaluate them and select only one, thus losing information and hampering analysis of the impact of an overload of work on health. Information on time used for reproductive work and leisure is not solicited. Assaults (intentional) and accidents (non-intentional) are combined in the same question, thus preventing research on gender-related violence. The Spanish NHIS includes the variable of sex, but its more descriptive than analytic focus limits gender analysis. The survey allows specific circumstances of employment-related inequalities between sexes to be measured, but does not completely allow other indicators of gender inequalities, such as the situation of housewives or work overload, to be measured.
Nagao, Yumiko; Chibo, Itsuo; Sata, Michio
At present, in Japan, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by blood transfusion rarely happens. However, according to the national survey, outbreak of sporadic acute hepatitis B and C is reported every year and viral hepatitis induced by iatrogenic infection is also reported. We think that education and enlightenmen for measures of infection control for hepatitis virus in dentisal medical care are important. Therefore, we carried out a questionnaire survey about measures of an infection control including hepatitis B and C for 352 students of a certain faculty of dentistry and a dental hygienist school. 35.5% of the total students thought the defense of oneself against infection was more important than defense of cross infection. Furthermore, the prevalence of the student who thought to permit recycle of a disposer glove and a disposer cartridge of a local anesthesia was 13.1% (46/352), 14.8% (52/352), respectively. The prevalence of students who recognized that HCV and HBV were detected from not only blood but also body fluid such as saliva remained in 65.3%. Consequently, the reality that knowledge of hepatitis virus and understanding about sterilization and disinfection of instruments were low became clear. In conclusion, immediate making of the guideline that aimed at standardization of prevention of hospital infection in domestic dental treatment and education to introduce the curriculum with a high regard for risk management of infection for students of dentistry will be required. In addition, it is an important problem to spread thoughts of standard precautions for dentistry.
Ozcan, Kenan; Balyer, Aydin; Servi, Tayfun
As members of academic team, faculty behaviors have vital influence on students' lives at universities. This study purposes to discover students' perceptions about faculty behaviors concerning their professional responsibilities, dating/sexual harassment, behaviors inside and behaviors outside the classroom and relationship based on self-interest.…
Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren
The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.
Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y; Burmeister, Kelly R; Harris, Ann; Holubar, Stefan D; Beebe, Timothy J
Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. After two mail contacts, non-respondents were randomly assigned to either a reminder telephone call or a telephone interview. Average cost per completed interview and response rates were compared between the two experimental conditions. The response rate in the reminder group and the interview did not differ where we considered both a completed survey and a signed form a complete (24% vs. 29%, p = 0.08). However, if such a signed form was not required, there was a substantial advantage to completing the interview over the phone (24% vs. 43%, p offering an interview instead of a reminder phone call as a follow up to non-respondents does not increase response rates enough to outweigh the additional costs.
Full Text Available Azizi A Seixas,1 Joao V Nunes,2 Collins O Airhihenbuwa,3 Natasha J Williams,1 Seithikurippu Ratnas Pandi-Perumal,1 Caryl C James,4 Girardin Jean-Louis11Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, Division of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 2Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City College of New York, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA; 4Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaObjective: The objective of the study was to examine the independent association of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep duration (defined as <7 or >8 hours.Methods: Data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, a cross-sectional household survey, were analyzed to investigate the associations of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep durations, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health risks, and chronic diseases through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis.Participants: A total of 27,731 participants (age range 18–85 years from the NHIS 2009 dataset were interviewed.Measures: Unhealthy sleep duration is defined as sleep duration <7 or >8 hours, whereas healthy sleep is defined as sleep duration lasting for 7–8 hours. Emotional distress is based on the Kessler 6 Non-Specific Distress Battery, which assesses the frequency of feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, and burdened, over a 30-day period.Results: Of the sample, 51.7% were female; 83.1% were white and 16.9% were black. Eleven percent experienced emotional distress and 37.6% reported unhealthy sleep. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with emotional distress had 55% greater odds of reporting unhealthy sleep (odds ratio [OR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.42, 1.68, P<0.001.Conclusion: Emotional distress, an important proxy for
Russell, Connie Adelle
Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science
Zielinski, Dianne E.
This study explored how faculty members implemented constructivist teaching methods after training. The student-centered teaching methods were interactions and collaborations, authentic learning and real-world experiences, linking material to previously learned information, and using technology in the classroom. Seven faculty members trained in…
Walitt, Brian; Nahin, Richard L.; Katz, Robert S.; Bergman, Martin J.; Wolfe, Frederick
Background Most knowledge of fibromyalgia comes from the clinical setting, where healthcare-seeking behavior and selection issues influence study results. The characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population have not been studied in detail. Methods We developed and tested surrogate study specific criteria for fibromyalgia in rheumatology practices using variables from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the modification (for surveys) of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) preliminary fibromyalgia criteria. The surrogate criteria were applied to the 2012 NHIS and identified persons who satisfied criteria from symptom data. The NHIS weighted sample of 8446 persons represents 225.7 million US adults. Results Fibromyalgia was identified in 1.75% (95% CI 1.42, 2.07), or 3.94 million persons. However, 73% of identified cases self-reported a physician’s diagnosis other than fibromyalgia. Identified cases had high levels of self-reported pain, non-pain symptoms, comorbidity, psychological distress, medical costs, Social Security and work disability. Caseness was associated with gender, education, ethnicity, citizenship and unhealthy behaviors. Demographics, behaviors, and comorbidity were predictive of case status. Examination of the surrogate polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) of the 2010 ACR criteria found fibromyalgia symptoms extending through the full length of the scale. Conclusions Persons identified with criteria-based fibromyalgia have severe symptoms, but most (73%) have not received a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The association of fibromyalgia-like symptoms over the full length of the PSD scale with physiological as well as mental stressors suggests PSD may be a universal response variable rather than one restricted to fibromyalgia. PMID:26379048
Rathore, Farooq Azam; Waqas, Ahmed; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha
Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach's alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum.
Farooq Azam Rathore
Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan.Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis.Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52% female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years. One fifth of the students (19.7% trained in medical writing (19.7%, research ethics (25.2% or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%. Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66 or assistant professors (20 with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68, research ethics (64 and were currently involved in medical writing (64. Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1 and 48.4 (5.9 respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided.Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum.
Rathore, Farooq Azam; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha
Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum. PMID:26157615
Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Civian, Janet T; Vasiliou, Vasilia; Coplit, Lisa D; Gillum, Linda H; Gibbs, Brian K; Brennan, Robert T
The aims of this study were to (1) describe the quantity and quality of mentoring faculty in US academic health centers (AHCs), (2) measure associations between mentoring and 12 dimensions that reflect the culture of AHCs, and (3) assess whether mentoring predicts seriously contemplating leaving one's institution. During 2007-2009, our National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C - Change) conducted a cross-sectional study of faculty from 26 representative AHCs in the United States using the 74-item C - Change Faculty Survey to assess relationships of faculty characteristics and various aspects of the institutional culture (52% response rate). Among the 2178 eligible respondents (assistant, associate, and full professors), we classified their mentoring experience as either inadequate, neutral, or positive. In this national sample, 43% of the 2178 respondents had inadequate mentoring; only 30% had a positive assessment of mentoring. There was no statistical difference by sex, minority status, or rank. Inadequate mentoring was most strongly associated with less institutional support, lower self-efficacy in career advancement, and lower scores on the trust/relationship/inclusion scale. The percent of faculty who had seriously considered leaving their institution was highest among those who had inadequate mentoring (58%), compared to those who were neutral (28%) or had positive mentoring (14%) (all paired comparisons, p mentoring was frequently inadequate and this was associated with faculty contemplating leaving their institutions. Positive mentoring, although less prevalent, was associated with many other positive dimensions of AHCs. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R
Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities; however, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of disability among obese adults in the United States. We analyzed pooled data from sample adult modules of the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type, and obesity by using 30 questions that screened for activity limitations, vision and hearing impairment, and cognitive, movement, and emotional difficulties. We stratified disability prevalence by category of body mass index (BMI, measured as kg/m(2)): underweight, less than 18.5; normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9; overweight, 25.0 to 29.9; and obese, 30.0 or higher. Among the 25.3% of adult men and 24.6% of women in our pooled sample who were obese, 35.2% and 46.9%, respectively, reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of men and 26.8% women of normal weight reported a disability. Disability was much higher among obese women than among obese men (46.9% vs 35.2%, P body mass index. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs.
Davis, R M; Boyd, G M; Schoenborn, C A
The tobacco industry recommends "common courtesy" as the solution to potential conflicts over smoking in public places and as an alternative to policies that restrict or ban smoking. Specifically, the industry suggests that nonsmokers "mention annoyances in a pleasant and friendly manner" and that smokers ask others, "Do you mind if I smoke?" We analyzed data for 22,000 adults who responded to the 1987 National Health Interview Survey of Cancer Epidemiology and Control to determine if common courtesy is being used in passive-smoking situations. Almost half (47%) of smokers said they light up inside public places without asking if others mind. When someone lights up a cigarette inside a public place, only 4% of nonsmokers ask the person not to smoke despite the fact that most nonsmokers consider secondhand smoke harmful and annoying. We compared these data with similar data collected by the Roper Organization in the 1970s and found that smokers today are less likely to smoke inside public places. However, nonsmokers' actions in response to secondhand smoke have changed very little. These findings show that the common courtesy approach endorsed by the tobacco industry is unlikely, by itself, to eliminate exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Though no one would oppose the use of common courtesy, we conclude that legislative or administrative mechanisms are the only effective strategies to eliminate passive smoking.
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H
Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p gender and distinct health risk patterns for men and women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes.
Alves, Joana; Kunst, Anton E; Perelman, Julian
Southern European countries were traditionally characterized by a higher prevalence of smoking among high socioeconomic groups. Though, recent studies show a reversal of inequalities in Italy and Spain, for example. We investigated whether this evolution also applied to Portugal by describing the evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking between 1987 and 2006. We used data from the four Portuguese national health interview surveys (N = 120,140) carried out so far. Socioeconomic status was measured by the educational and income levels of respondents. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured through Odds Ratios (OR), Relative Inequality Indexes (RII), and Concentration Indexes (CI) on being current, ever, and former smoker, adjusting for sex and age. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, and for different birth cohorts. Among men, smoking was initially more concentrated in high-socioeconomic status individuals (RII = 0.84, 95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI] 0.76-0.93, 1987) but this pattern reversed in the last survey (RII = 1.49, 95% CI 1.34-1.65, 2005/6). Indeed, higher cessation rates were observed among high-socioeconomic groups among all respondents (RII = 0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.95), coupled with higher initiation rates among the worse-off in younger cohorts (RII = 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.31, for youngest generation, 2005/6). Among women, the richer and more educated smoked more in all surveys (RII = 0.21, 95% CI 0.16-0.27, 2005/6), despite being also more likely to quit (RII = 0.41, 95% CI 0.30-0.55). The pattern among women evolved towards a reduction of inequality, which however remained favourable to the worse-off. Inequalities have been increasingly unfavourable to the worse-off in Portugal, although better-off women are still more likely to smoke. Worrisome inequality trends have been observed among the youngest generations, which call for the rapid implementation of equity-oriented tobacco control policies.
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation, conditional on contact. We take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers' behaviour and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. Previous studies of the association between doorstep behaviour and co-operation have not directly addressed the role of personality traits and inter-personal skills and most have been based on small samples of interviewers. We use a large sample of 842 face-to-face interviewers working for a major survey institute and analyse co-operation outcomes for over 100,000 cases contacted by those interviewers over a 13-month period. We find evidence of effects of experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills on co-operation rates. Several of the effects of attitudes and inter-personal skills are explained by differences in experience, though some independent effects remain. The role of attitudes, personality and skills seems to be greatest for the least experienced interviewers.
Gwenyth R Wallen
Full Text Available Establishing the validity of health behavior surveys used in community-based participatory research (CBPR in diverse populations is often overlooked. A novel, group-based cognitive interviewing method was used to obtain qualitative data for tailoring a survey instrument designed to identify barriers to improved cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, DC. A focus group–based cognitive interview was conducted to assess item comprehension, recall, and interpretation and to establish the initial content validity of the survey. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts yielded 5 main themes for which participants (n = 8 suggested survey modifications, including survey item improvements, suggestions for additional items, community-specific issues, changes in the skip logic of the survey items, and the identification of typographical errors. Population-specific modifications were made, including the development of more culturally appropriate questions relevant to the community. Group-based cognitive interviewing provided an efficient and effective method for piloting a cardiovascular health survey instrument using CBPR.
Frey, James H.; Oishi, Sabine Mertens
The nine-volume Survey Kit is designed to help readers prepare and conduct surveys and become better users of survey results. All the books in the series contain instructional objectives, exercises and answers, examples of surveys in use, illustrations of survey questions, guidelines for action, checklists of "dos and don'ts," and…
James H. Thompson
Attaining tenure is a goal of every faculty member. Indeed, at the beginning of every faculty member’s career, there is concern regarding the process of earning tenure. Many factors enter into the tenure decision, but most universities place weight on three primary factors: teaching effectiveness, research activity, and demonstration of service to the university and beyond. The relative importance of these three factors varies, but most universities expect “satisfactory” performance in all th...
Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10, Number 249. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 2011-1577
Pleis, J. R.; Ward, B. W.; Lucas, J. W.
Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented…
Freund, Karen M; Raj, Anita; Kaplan, Samantha E; Terrin, Norma; Breeze, Janis L; Urech, Tracy H; Carr, Phyllis L
Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated gender differences in salaries within academic medicine. No research has assessed longitudinal compensation patterns. This study sought to assess longitudinal patterns by gender in compensation, and to understand factors associated with these differences in a longitudinal cohort. A 17-year longitudinal follow-up of the National Faculty Survey was conducted with a random sample of faculty from 24 U.S. medical schools. Participants employed full-time at initial and follow-up time periods completed the survey. Annual pretax compensation during academic year 2012-2013 was compared by gender. Covariates assessed included race/ethnicity; years since first academic appointment; retention in academic career; academic rank; departmental affiliation; percent effort distribution across clinical, teaching, administrative, and research duties; marital and parental status; and any leave or part-time status in the years between surveys. In unadjusted analyses, women earned a mean of $20,520 less than men (P = .03); women made 90 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts. This difference was reduced to $16,982 (P = .04) after adjusting for covariates. The mean difference of $15,159 was no longer significant (P = .06) when adjusting covariates and for those who had ever taken a leave or worked part-time. The continued gender gap in compensation cannot be accounted for by metrics used to calculate salary. Institutional actions to address these disparities include both initial appointment and annual salary equity reviews, training of senior faculty and administrators to understand implicit bias, and training of women faculty in negotiating skills.
Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M; Kobau, Rosemarie; Helmers, Sandra L
This study aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of selected health behavior-alcohol use, cigarette smoking, physical activity, and sufficient sleep-between people with and without a history of epilepsy in a large, nationally representative sample in the United States. We used data from the 2010 cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to compare the prevalence of each health behavior for people with and without epilepsy while adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. We also further categorized those with epilepsy into active epilepsy and inactive epilepsy and calculated their corresponding prevalences. The percentages of adults with a history of epilepsy (50.1%, 95% CI=45.1%-55.2%) and with active epilepsy (44.4%, 95% CI=37.6%-51.5%) who were current alcohol drinkers were significantly lower than that of those without epilepsy (65.1%, 95% CI=64.2%-66.0%). About 21.8% (95% CI=18.1%-25.9%) of adults with epilepsy and 19.3% (95% CI=18.7%-19.9%) of adults without epilepsy were current smokers. Adults with active epilepsy were significantly less likely than adults without epilepsy to report following recommended physical activity guidelines for Americans (35.2%, 95% CI=28.8%-42.1% vs. 46.3%, 95% CI=45.4%-47.2%) and to report walking for at least ten minutes during the seven days prior to being surveyed (39.6%, 95% CI=32.3%-47.4% vs. 50.8%, 95% CI=49.9%-51.7%). The percentage of individuals with active epilepsy (49.8%, 95% CI=42.0%-57.7%) who reported sleeping an average of 7 or 8h a day was significantly lower than that of those without epilepsy (61.9%, 95% CI=61.2%-62.7%). Because adults with epilepsy are significantly less likely than adults without epilepsy to engage in recommended levels of physical activity and to get the encouraged amount of sleep for optimal health and well-being, promoting more safe physical activity and improved sleep quality is necessary among adults with epilepsy. Ending tobacco use and maintaining low
Drieskens, Sabine; Demarest, Stefaan; D'Hoker, Nicola; Ortiz, Barbara; Tafforeau, Jean
The aim of this study is to assess if a Health Interview Survey (HIS) targeting the general population is an appropriate tool to collect valid data on domestic violence. Studying item non-response on the question on domestic violence and its association with socio-demographic and health characteristics compared with victims of domestic violence can contribute to this. Cross-sectional data from the Belgian HIS 2013 were analysed. A question whether the perpetrator of a violent event was a member of the respondents' household was embedded in a general topic on violence in the self-administered questionnaire. This study is limited to people aged 15+ that at least completed the first question of this topic. Socio-demographic characteristics of item non-respondents and of victims of domestic violence were explored and the association with health status was assessed through ORs calculated via logistic regression. The year prevalence of domestic violence is 1.1%. Although the question on domestic violence yields a high level of non-response (62%), this does not hinder the further completion of the questionnaire. When compared with victims of domestic violence, those not responding on the question on the perpetrator have better (mental) health. When compared with those not being victim of domestic violence, victims report poorer physical and mental health. An HIS can be an appropriate tool to assess domestic violence in the general population and its association with health. However, a solution should be found for the high item non-response on the question on the perpetrator of the violent event.
This paper analyze the association between height and chronic diseases in Portugal and the extent to which this relationship is mediated by education. The sample upon which the analysis is based comprised those participants in the 2005/2006 Portuguese National Health Interview Survey (n=28,433) aged 25-79. Logistic regressions measured the association of height with ten chronic diseases, adjusting for age, lifestyle, education, and other socioeconomic factors. Among women, an additional centimeter in stature significantly decreased the prevalence of asthma, chronic pain, and acute cardiac disease, by 0.057, 0.221, and 0.033 percentage points, respectively. Also, mental disorders were significantly less prevalent in the last quartile of height. Among men, an additional centimeter in height was associated with a 0.074 lower prevalence of asthma, and men in the last quartile of height were significantly less at risk of acute cardiovascular disease. There was no significant association between height and the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, and pulmonary diseases. As for the impact of education, women with a tertiary level were on average 5.3cm taller than those with no schooling; among men, the difference was almost 9cm. Adjusting for education reduced the height-related excess risk of ill health by 36% on average among men, and by 7% among women. The analysis indicates that there is a significant association of height with several chronic conditions, and that education plays a mediating role in the height-health connection. By emphasizing the role of height and education as determinants of chronic conditions, this paper also highlights the role of conditions related to childhood health and socioeconomic background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shankar, Anoop; Charumathi, Sabanayagam; Kalidindi, Sita
Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to consistently predict overall mortality and cardiovascular mortality in several population-based studies across the world. Similarly sleep duration have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. However, relatively few studies have examined the association between sleep duration and SRH, and the results have not been consistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study of n = 20,663 National Health Interview Survey 2008 participants ≥ 18 years of age (56.2% women). Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and ≥ 9 h. The main outcome interest was fair/poor SRH (n = 3043). We found both short and long sleep duration to be independently associated with fair/poor SRH, independent of age, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, physical activity, depression, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and CVD. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h (referent), the multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of fair/poor SRH was 2.29 (1.86-2.83), 1.68 (1.42-2.00), 1.38 (1.18-1.61), and 1.98 (1.63-2.40) for sleep duration ≤ 5, 6, 8, and ≥ 9 h. This association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, race-ethnicity, and body mass index categories. Compared with sleep duration of 7 h, there was a positive association between both shorter and longer sleep duration and fair/poor self-rated health in a representative sample of US adults.
Isong, Inyang A; Soobader, Mah-J; Fisher-Owens, Susan A; Weintraub, Jane A; Gansky, Stuart A; Platt, Larry J; Newacheck, Paul W
Research that has repeatedly documented marked racial/ethnic disparities in US children's receipt of dental care at single time points or brief periods has lacked a historical policy perspective, which provides insight into how these disparities have evolved over time. Our objective was to examine the im-pact of national health policies on African American and white children's receipt of dental care from 1964 to 2010. We analyzed data on race and dental care utilization for children aged 2 to 17 years from the 1964, 1976, 1989, 1999, and 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Dependent variables were as follows: child's receipt of a dental visit in the previous 12 months and child's history of never having had a dental visit. Primary independent variable was race (African American/white). We calculated sample prevalences, and χ(2) tests compared African American/white prevalences by year. We age-standardized estimates to the 2000 US Census. The percentage of African American and white children in the United States without a dental visit in the previous 12 months declined significantly from 52.4% in 1964 to 21.7% in 2010, whereas the percentage of children who had never had a dental visit declined significantly (P children's dental utilization rates, whereas large and statistically significant in 1964, attenuated and became nonsignificant by 2010. We demonstrate a dramatic narrowing of African American/white disparities in 2 measures of children's receipt of dental services from 1964 to 2010. Yet, much more needs to be done before persistent racial disparities in children's oral health status are eliminated.
Akinseye, Oluwaseun A; Ojike, Nwakile I; Akinseye, Leah I; Dhandapany, Perundurai S; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R
Habitual sleep duration is increasingly being recognized as an important risk factor for stroke. We sought to describe the association between sleep duration and stroke in a cohort of individuals with diabetes. Data from the National Health Interview Survey for the years 2004-2013 were used. Only those answering "yes" to the question "Have you EVER been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have diabetes or sugar diabetes?" were included in the analysis. Sleep duration was categorized as short (≤6 hours), normal (7-8 hours), or long (≥9 hours). Self-reported diagnosis of stroke was the main outcome of interest. A total number of 26,364 self-reported diabetic individuals provided data for analysis. Stroke was reported in 9.1% of short sleepers, 16.1% of long sleepers, and 8.3% of normative sleepers (P sleep and stroke became nonsignificant after multivariate adjustment (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: .95-1.40, P = .16) except in white participants. The association between long sleep duration and stroke persisted (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.16-1.84, P = .01), especially in males (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.14-2.28) and in white participants (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.47-2.65). In diabetic patients, abnormal sleep duration was associated with increased risk of stroke, and this association varied among different sex and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact on response quantity and quality of a diary- and booklet-based survey of using different interview methods and lottery prizes. In addition to a conventional questionnaire the survey included time-diaries for household members and a expenditure booklet for recording the previous month's spending by the household. The respondents could choose to use either CATI (Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing or web-based CAPI (Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing for the different parts of the survey. Lottery prizes varied during the survey period, and the prizes were doubled if they had used only the CAPI method. The response rate was significantly affected by the size of the lottery prizes, and the doubling of these prizes for using the web had a high impact on the number of respondents choosing this method. The implication was that also the response quality increased as a result of the impact on the number of web interviews, because this method was found to yield a significantly higher quality for the diary, booklet and questionnaire information.
Mohangoo, A.D.; Linden, M.W. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Raat, H.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare prevalence estimates of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) derived from self-report in a health interview survey and from general practitioners' (GPs') medical records, and to explain any differences. METHODS: the presence of
Stefan, Jordy; Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas
Studies have shown that restaurant waitresses with hair ornamentation receive higher tips than waitresses without ornaments. However, the effect of such ornamentation on other behaviors has never been explored. In this study, the effect of a female interviewer's hair ornamentation on compliance with a survey request was examined. Male and female…
Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y; Burmeister, Kelly R; Harris, Ann; Holubar, Stefan D; Beebe, Timothy J
Abstract Background Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. Methods A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the provisions of the Health Act 2006, NHS acute Trusts had to become smoke-free by July 2007. Mental health Trusts were granted a further year before all indoor smoking areas have to be removed. This study was carried out to determine the extent of smoke-free policy implementation in English NHS acute and mental health Trusts, and to explore challenges and impacts related to policy implementation. Methods Questionnaire-based survey of all English NHS acute and mental health hospital settings, supplemented by semi-structured telephone interviews with 22 respondents and direct observation at a sample of 15 Trusts (22 different sites. Human Resources Directors of all 245 English NHS Trusts providing acute and/or mental health inpatient care were identified as potential study participants. Main outcome measures comprised the proportions of Trusts reporting smoke-free policy implementation; whether these relate to buildings only or to whole premises including grounds; most frequently reported exemptions; reported and observed frequencies of policy breaches. Results Smoke-free policies were reported to be implemented in all mental health and 98% of acute settings studied. They applied to whole premises including grounds in 84% of acute, and 64% of mental health settings. However, exemptions were granted by 50% of acute and 78% of mental health settings, typically for bereaved relatives or psychiatric patients, in sheltered outdoor areas and smoking rooms. Reported challenges included policy enforcement and related risks of abuse, and litter on premises and adjacent public grounds. Nearly two thirds of acute and over a third of mental health trusts reported that policy infringements occurred on a daily basis. Indeed, patients and visitors were observed smoking at 94% of acute sites visited and staff smoking at 35% of them. Conclusion NHS hospitals should play an exemplary role in making a smoke-free environment the
Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Mi Kang; Tangkawanich, Thitiarpha
Although many nursing programs use simulation as a teaching-learning modality, there are few systematic approaches to help nursing educators learn this pedagogy. This study evaluates the effects of a simulation pedagogy nursing faculty development program on participants' learning perceptions using a retrospective pre-course and post-course design. Sixteen Thai participants completed a two-day nursing faculty development program on simulation pedagogy. Thirteen questionnaires were used in the final analysis. The participants' self-perceived learning about simulation teaching showed significant post-course improvement. On a five-point Likert scale, the composite mean attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control scores, as well as intention to use a simulator, showed a significant post-course increase. A faculty development program on simulation pedagogy induced favorable learning and attitudes. Further studies must test how faculty performance affects the cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions of learning in a simulation-based learning domain. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Binstock, Judith; Junsanto-Bahri, Tipsuda
The relevance of current standard medical school science prerequisites is being reexamined. (1) To identify which science prerequisites are perceived to best prepare osteopathic medical students for their basic science and osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) coursework and (2) to determine whether science prerequisites for osteopathic medical school should be modified. Preclinical osteopathic medical students and their basic science and OMM faculty from 3 colleges of osteopathic medicine were surveyed about the importance of specific science concepts, laboratories, and research techniques to medical school coursework. Participants chose responses on a 5-point scale, with 1 indicating "strongly disagree" or "not important" and 5 indicating "strongly agree" or "extremely important." Participants were also surveryed on possible prerequisite modifications. Student responses (N=264) to the general statement regarding prerequisites were "neutral" for basic science coursework and "disagree" for OMM coursework, with mean (standard deviation [SD]) scores of 3.37 (1.1) and 2.68 (1.2), respectively. Faculty responses (N=49) were similar, with mean (SD) scores of 3.18 (1.1) for basic science coursework and 2.67 (1.2) for OMM coursework. Student mean (SD) scores were highest for general biology for basic science coursework (3.93 [1.1]) and physics for OMM coursework (2.5 [1.1]). Student mean (SD) scores were lowest for physics for basic science coursework (1.79 [1.2]) and organic chemistry for OMM coursework (1.2 [0.7]). Both basic science and OMM faculty rated general biology highest in importance (mean [SD] scores, 3.73 [0.9] and 4.22 [1.0], respectively). Students and faculty rated biochemistry high in importance for basic science coursework (mean [SD] scores of 3.66 [1.2] and 3.32 [1.2], respectively). For basic science coursework, students and faculty rated most laboratories as "important," with the highest mean (SD) ratings for general anatomy (students, 3.66 [1
Stubbs, Barbara; Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola
To collect information about the types, frequency, importance, and quality of mentorship received among academic family medicine faculty, and to identify variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. Web-based survey of all faculty members of an academic department of family medicine. The Department of Family and Community Medicine of the University of Toronto in Ontario. All 1029 faculty members were invited to complete the survey. Receiving mentorship rated as very good or excellent in 1 or more of 6 content areas relevant to respondents' professional lives, and information about demographic and practice characteristics, faculty ratings of their local departments and main practice settings, teaching activities, professional development, leadership, job satisfaction, and health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. The response rate was 66.8%. Almost all (95.0%) respondents had received mentorship in several areas, with informal mentorship being the most prevalent mode. Approximately 60% of respondents rated at least 1 area of mentoring as very good or excellent. Multivariate logistic regression identified 5 factors associated with an increased likelihood of rating mentorship quality as very good or excellent: positive perceptions of their local department (odds ratio [OR] = 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.54, P < .001); positive ratings of practice infrastructure (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.80, P = .003); increased frequency of receiving mentorship (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.59 to 4.89, P < .001); fewer years in practice (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.12, P = .007); and practising in a family practice teaching unit (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27, P = .040). With increasing emphasis on distributed education and community-based teachers, family medicine faculties will need to develop strategies to support effective mentorship across a range of settings and career stages. Copyright© the College
A Naghizadeh Baghi
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The most obvious indicators of a country's growth and development are technological capabilities and its scientific research . Therefore, any attempt to clarify the status of research and facing obstacles is important. The aim of this study is to investigate the problems and obstacles of knowledge from the viewpoint of faculty members of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In a descriptive and survey study, sample contains 126 faculty members in Ardabil University of Medical Sciences were selected using Morgan and Krejcie table of sample size determination. The instrument used in this study was a questionnaire with two parts, i.e. demographic information and the Questionnaire of Research Barriers by Sotoodehasl et al. (2014 including 39 items on a 5 point Likert Scale continuum. A One-Sample T-Test, an independent samples T-Test, and an ANOVA test were used for the data analysis. Results: The mean of the area of problems related to preparation of research project and development was 2.86 which is less than the conceptual mean but is not statistically significant (p=0.056. However in the other three areas, i.e. the means of problems in the implementation of the project, administrative and managerial problems, and individual problems were greater than the conceptual mean and the differences were statistically significant (p≤0.05. The mean of questions in the four areas was 3.23 which is greater than the conceptual mean and the difference is also significant (p=0.001. Conclusion: In the investigation of areas, the most important problems and research barriers from the viewpoint of faculty members are weak teamwork at the university, large bulk of work and different expectations from the faculty members and lack of proper research environment.
Colonel Jai Prakash (Retd
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition intervention is a component of first step therapy for many common diseases including Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity and its role in health promotion, disease-prevention & treatment of chronic diseases is well recognized. Rationale: Nutrition knowledge plays an important role in public health and also interfaces significantly and relevantly with every field of medicine. However physicians’ knowledge on this issue is not very satisfactory. Objective: The objective of present study was to assess nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices pertaining to eating habits among medical faculty of a medical college of South India and also their feedback on present medical curriculum at MBBS level dealing with dietary issues. Material & Methods : It was a cross-sectional study conducted among almost all faculty members (150 participated in the study voluntarily. Faculty members were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about KAP and dietary habits through multiple-choice questions based on balanced diet, containing a variety of food in quantities and proportion, derived from green leafy vegetables, fresh fruits, milk, curd, egg, pulse, rice and cereals. Results: Nutritional knowledge was 70 % (mean score of correct answers, 78% scored 60-80% marks & 20% scored less than 60% and majority (79.4% of them have healthy eating habits. 40% faculty members were over weight (BMI 23-24.9 and 40% were obese (BMI >25. Most of the members replied that the medical curriculum was inadequate or just adequate in dealing with the dietary issues; 68.6% of them were of the opinion that comprehensive nutrition curriculum is needed; 66% suggested a separate nutrition department. Conclusion: A total 150 members participated in the survey voluntarily. Their nutritional knowledge was found to be 70 % and majority (70.4% of them have healthy eating habit. Most of the members replied that the medical curriculum is
Hofmann, Bjørn; Helgesson, Gert; Juth, Niklas; Holm, Søren
As we need knowledge about the prevalence of scientific dishonesty, this study investigates the knowledge of, experiences with, and attitudes toward various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD students at the main medical faculties in Sweden and Norway. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all post-graduate research students attending basic PhD courses at the medical faculties in Stockholm and Oslo during the fall 2014. The responding doctoral students reported to know about various forms of scientific dishonesty from the literature, in their department, and for some also through their own experience. Some forms of scientific misconduct were considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was a high level of willingness to report misconduct but little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the effects which some factors could have on articles publication regarding survey interviewer characteristics. For this, the author studied the existing literature from the various fields in which articles on survey interviewer characteristics has been published and which can be found in online articles database. The analysis was performed on 243 articles achieved by researchers in the time period 1949-2012. Using statistical software R and applying multilevel regression model, the results showed that the time period when the studied articles are made and the interaction between the number of authors and the number of pages affect the most their publication in journals with a certain level of impact factor.
SHAUKAT, Sadia; SIDDIQUAH, Aishah; PELL, Anthony WILLIAM
Problem statement: Gender disparity is a worldwide phenomenon. This disparity is not only with respect to opportunities and resources but also in rewards, and exists in all regions and classes. Gender disparity exists in the field of education as well. Females experience overt and subtle gender discrimination to some extent nearly at every stage of their career. Males represent the majority of the faculty of higher education institutes across the globe. Managerial positions are usually held b...
Full Text Available The article presents the essential issues and algorithm of the methodology of a four-step transportation model, which was constructed in order to carrying out a household interview survey. The results of this research are source data for determining the travel behaviour of the users of transportation systems, including intelligent transport systems (ITS. The presented issues regarding the survey methodology also concern the specifics of the study area, an urban agglomeration area. The examples particularly relate to an urban agglomeration with the nature of a conurbation, namely, the Upper Silesian Agglomeration in Poland.
Smith, William G.
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between online survey non-response and various demographic factors, including gender. Studies have shown that trends exist with regard to who responds to surveys, at least with regard to traditional modes of survey administration. Reports suggest that many demographic and other correlates…
On the other hand, %59.5 of the students believed that the results of the evaluation were not considerably taken into account. They believed that evaluation forms were not suitable evaluative means for teaching. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that most of faculty members and students are not optimistic about evaluation plan. Therefore, assuring students and teachers of the effectiveness of evaluation regarding the improvement of educational condition will result in more responsibility in students and more motivation in their teachers.
Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret
This paper offers a qualitative thematic analysis of the impacts of cyberbullying on post-secondary students, faculty, and administrators from four participating Canadian universities. These findings were drawn from data obtained from online surveys of students and faculty, student focus groups, and semi-structured interviews with faculty members and university administrators. The key themes discussed include: negative affect, impacts on mental and physical health, perceptions of self, impact...
Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.
Kjøller, Mette; Thoning, Henrik
admissions. RESULTS: Non-response increased from 20.0% in 1987 to 22.6% in 1994. Four combinations of background variables characterized the non-response: gender and age; gender and civil status; county of residence and age; survey year and age. Non-respondents and respondents had identical gender- and age...
Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje; Hölling, Heike; Lange, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Dahm, Stefan; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Fuchs, Judith; Hapke, Ulfert; Heidemann, Christin; Knopf, Hildtraud; Laussmann, Detlef; Mensink, Gert B M; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Richter, Almut; Sass, Anke-Christine; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria
The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18-79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18-79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008-2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18-79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes
Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1 extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98 at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.
student parents in school to discuss problems related with students and school. h. Make comparative study School principal, in order to increase ...contains information on the First and Second Malaysian Family Life Surveys conducted in 1976-1977 and in 1988-1989. Subsequent information about the...pressure ? 2. History of diabetes ? 3. History of heart disease ? 4. Any hereditary disease ? 5. Do you smoke
Fuller, Thomas; Pearson, Mark; Peters, Jaime; Anderson, Rob
To identify and understand, through data from multiple sources, some of the factors that affect authors' and editors' decisions to use reporting guidelines in the publication of health research. Mixed methods study comprising an online survey and semi-structured interviews with a sample of authors (online survey: n = 56; response rate = 32%; semi-structured interviews: n = 5) and journal editors (online survey: n = 43; response rate = 27%; semi-structured interviews: n = 6) involved in publishing health and medical research. Participants were recruited from an earlier study examining the effectiveness of the TREND reporting guideline. Four types of factors interacted to affect authors' and editors' likelihood of reporting guideline use; individual (e.g., having multiple reasons for use of reporting guidelines); the professional culture in which people work; environmental (e.g., policies of journals); and, practical (e.g., having time to use reporting guidelines). Having multiple reasons for using reporting guidelines was a particularly salient factor in facilitating reporting guidelines use for both groups of participants. Improving the completeness and consistency of reporting of research studies is critical to the integrity and synthesis of health research. The use of reporting guidelines offers one potentially efficient and effective means for achieving this, but decisions to use (or not use) reporting guidelines take many factors into account. These findings could be used to inform future studies that might, for example, test the factors that we have identified within a wider theoretical framework for understanding changes in professional practices. The use of reporting guidelines by senior professionals appears to shape the expectations of what constitutes best practice and can be assimilated into the culture of a field or discipline. Without evidence of effectiveness of reporting guidelines, and sustained, multifaceted efforts to improve reporting, little
José Luis Fernández-Alemán
Full Text Available Objective. This work sought to analyze the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and social networks among the university nursing faculty staff in Spain. Methodology. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on ICT skills designed to comply with the research objective, which was evaluated by experts and which was subjected to exploratory analysis of principal components; the reliability of this instrument measured with Cronbach's alpha was 0.85. The information technology tool used to publish the questionnaire on line was Limesurvey. The sample comprised 165 professors from 25 Nursing Faculties and Schools from universities in Spain. Results. Seventy one percent of the total surveyed used internet services to look for information, 63% used the internet as a means for formation and learning, and 72% used it as a communication platform (e-mail and virtual platforms like Sakai and Moodle. Although 51% of the teaching staff surveyed had more than 120 students registered in their courses, hypothesis testing revealed that the number of students in class is not a determining factor for the teaching staff to have greater interest to update its knowledge in ICTs. Younger professors use new technologies more profusely and the most-valued advantage of using ICTs was quick access to information. Professors perceive that after the Bologna Declaration, which requires modifying their teaching-learning processes through the new teaching methodologies, a drop has been produced in their performance and that of their peers in their area of knowledge. Conclusion. The nursing teaching staff is making strong efforts to confront the new challenges posed by ICTs to train the professionals of the 21st century. It is fundamental to pay special attention to improving the university teaching staff's skills in managing ICTs, promoting the implementation of the knowledge acquired.
Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Sánchez García, Ana Belén; López Montesinos, María José; Marqués-Sánchez, Pilar; Bayón Darkistade, Enrique; Pérez Rivera, Francisco Javier
This work sought to analyze the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and social networks among the university nursing faculty staff in Spain. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on ICT skills designed to comply with the research objective, which was evaluated by experts and which was subjected to exploratory analysis of principal components; the reliability of this instrument measured with Cronbach's alpha was 0.85. The information technology tool used to publish the questionnaire on line was Limesurvey. The sample comprised 165 professors from 25 Nursing Faculties and Schools from universities in Spain. Seventy one percent of the total surveyed used internet services to look for information, 63% used the internet as a means for formation and learning, and 72% used it as a communication platform (e-mail and virtual platforms like Sakai and Moodle). Although 51% of the teaching staff surveyed had more than 120 students registered in their courses, hypothesis testing revealed that the number of students in class is not a determining factor for the teaching staff to have greater interest to update its knowledge in ICTs. Younger professors use new technologies more profusely and the most-valued advantage of using ICTs was quick access to information. Professors perceive that after the Bologna Declaration, which requires modifying their teaching-learning processes through the new teaching methodologies, a drop has been produced in their performance and that of their peers in their area of knowledge. The nursing teaching staff is making strong efforts to confront the new challenges posed by ICTs to train the professionals of the 21st century. It is fundamental to pay special attention to improving the university teaching staff's skills in managing ICTs, promoting the implementation of the knowledge acquired.
Schneider, Antonius; Karsch-Völk, Marlies; Rupp, Alica; Fischer, Martin R; Drexler, Hans; Schelling, Jörg; Berberat, Pascal
Germany is witnessing an increasing shortage of general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to determine predictors of the job-related motivation of medical students of three medical faculties with different institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline. Medical students were surveyed with a standardised questionnaire about their attitudes towards general practice and their motivation to work as a GP in different working conditions. Predictors for positive attitudes and motivation were calculated using logistic regression models. 940 (15.2%) out of 6182 medical students from three Bavarian medical faculties participated in an online survey. 585 (62.7%) were female, and the average age was 25.0 (standard deviation 3.7). The average grade of a university-entrance diploma was 1.6 (standard deviation 0.5). 718 (76.4%) could imagine working as a GP. However, they favoured being employed within another organisation and not having their own private practice (65.5% vs. 35.1%). "Presence of a professorship of general practice" was associated with a positive attitude towards general practice (OR 1.57; 95%CI 1.13-2.417). Motivation for working as a GP was associated with "being female" (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.80-3.56) and "presence of a professorship of general practice" (OR 1.68; 95%CI 1.14-2.46). Having a lower grade for one's university-entrance diploma was associated with a higher preference to work in one's own practice (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.02-1.90). A high amount of medical students were open-minded towards general practice. However, they favoured employment within an organization over working in their own practice. Institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline might be of importance to gain positive attitudes towards general practice and motivate medical students to work as a GP.
Gleberzon, Brian; Statz, Rachel; Pym, Matthew
Background: The purpose of this study was to survey a group of female chiropractors and inquire as to whether or not they had been sexually harassed by their patients. Methods: An online questionnaire was emailed via Survey Monkey to 47 female faculty members at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC). Respondents were asked if they had been sexual harassed and, if so, the characteristics of the incident(s), their response to it, how serious they perceived the problem to be and whether or not they felt prepared to deal with it. Results: Nineteen of 47 questionnaires were completed and returned. Of these 19, eight respondents reported being sexually harassed by a patient (all male), most commonly within the first 5 years of practice and most commonly involving a ‘new’ patient. It was rarely anticipated. The nature of the harassment varied and respondents often ignored the incident. Most respondents perceive this to be a problem facing female chiropractors. Discussion: Although this is the first survey of its kind, this is a significant problem facing other healthcare professionals. Conclusions: Among this group of respondents, sexual harassment by patients was a common occurrence. More training on how to handle it, during either a student’s chiropractic education or offered as a continuing education program, may be warranted. PMID:26136603
Gleberzon, Brian; Statz, Rachel; Pym, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to survey a group of female chiropractors and inquire as to whether or not they had been sexually harassed by their patients. An online questionnaire was emailed via Survey Monkey to 47 female faculty members at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC). Respondents were asked if they had been sexual harassed and, if so, the characteristics of the incident(s), their response to it, how serious they perceived the problem to be and whether or not they felt prepared to deal with it. Nineteen of 47 questionnaires were completed and returned. Of these 19, eight respondents reported being sexually harassed by a patient (all male), most commonly within the first 5 years of practice and most commonly involving a 'new' patient. It was rarely anticipated. The nature of the harassment varied and respondents often ignored the incident. Most respondents perceive this to be a problem facing female chiropractors. Although this is the first survey of its kind, this is a significant problem facing other healthcare professionals. Among this group of respondents, sexual harassment by patients was a common occurrence. More training on how to handle it, during either a student's chiropractic education or offered as a continuing education program, may be warranted.
Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie
Using interview-based recall surveys to estimate cod Gadus morhua and eel Anguilla anguilla harvest in Danish recreational fishing. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 323–330.Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity in Denmark, practised by both anglers and passive gear fishers...... with the mandatory Danish fishing licence. The second survey was designed to identify those who fish without a licence. It was estimated that 1231 t of cod were harvested in 2009, corresponding to 4.8% of the entire Danish cod yield (recreational harvest + commercial landings). Area differences were found, and...... to 19% of the entire Danish eel yield. The inclusion of the harvest taken by fishers without a valid licence was important and added almost 20% to the estimated harvest....
Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Kim, Yeonju; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol
Since 2000, thyroid cancer has been increasing most rapidly in Korea. Although the cause of the increase is not clear, thyroid cancer screening could be identified as one of its causes. The purpose of this study was to examine the screening rate of thyroid cancer and its related factors using nationwide data. The study population was derived from the 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. A total of 2,000 Korean adults participated. The screening method of thyroid cancer was restricted to thyroid ultrasonography. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with undergoing thyroid cancer screening. Of all participants, 13.2% (8.4% men and 16.4% women) underwent thyroid ultrasonography. On multiple analyses, age, residence, belief in cancer screening, regular health check-ups, smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise were associated with thyroid cancer screening. Subjects who underwent other cancer screening, such as gastric, colorectal, breast, or cervical, were more likely to have had a thyroid ultrasonogram that those who did not get screened. We presented the number and characteristics of examinees utilized ultrasonography as a thyroid screening tool in Korea. Although these results revealed that cancer screening might play a major role in the increase of thyroid cancer incidence, further research is needed to determine causes of the rapidly increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea.
Watts, Susan H; Promes, Susan B; Hockberger, Robert
he objective was to report the results of a survey conducted jointly by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the Association of Academic Chairs in Emergency Medicine (AACEM) of faculty salaries, benefits, work hours, and department demographics for institutions sponsoring residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine (RRC-EM). Data represent information collected for the 2009-2010 academic year through an electronic survey developed by SAEM and AACEM and distributed by the Office for Survey Research at the University of Michigan to all emergency department (ED) chairs and chiefs at institutions sponsoring accredited residency programs. Information was collected regarding faculty salaries and benefits; clinical and nonclinical work hours; sources of department income and department expenses; and selected demographic information regarding faculty, EDs, and hospitals. Salary data were sorted by program geographic region and faculty characteristics such as training and board certification, academic rank, department title, and sex. Demographic data were analyzed with regard to numerous criteria, including ED staffing levels, patient volumes and length of stay, income sources, salary incentive components, research funding, and specific type and value of fringe benefits offered. Data were compared with previous SAEM studies and the most recent faculty salary survey conducted by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Ninety-four of 155 programs (61%) responded, yielding salary data on 1,644 faculty, of whom 1,515 (92%) worked full-time. The mean salary for all faculty nationwide was $237,884, with the mean ranging from $232,819 to $246,853 depending on geographic region. The mean salary for first-year faculty nationwide was $204,833. Benefits had an estimated mean value of $48,915 for all faculty, with the mean ranging from $37,813 to $55
The incidence of hypertension and its risk factors in the German adult population: results from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011.
Diederichs, Claudia; Neuhauser, Hannelore
To analyze incident hypertension and its risk factors based on 11.9 years follow-up of a recent National Examination Survey cohort in Germany. Out of 7124 participants of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), 640 had died at follow-up 2008-2011 and 3045 were reexamined as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Baseline and follow-up included standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements. Hypertension was defined as BP of at least 140/90 mmHg or intake of antihypertensive medication in participants with known hypertension. Out of 2231 GNHIES98-DEGS1 participants aged 18-79 years without hypertension in 1998, 26.2% developed hypertension within a mean of 11.9 (range 10.0-14.1) years (men 29.0%, women 23.4%). In univariate analysis, hypertension incidence was positively associated with age, BMI, initial BP levels, pulse pressure, and alcohol consumption. Comorbidities such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia increased the chance to develop hypertension. In the multivariate model, initial SBP and DBP levels had the strongest influence on the development of future hypertension (7% increase in men and 5% in women per mmHg SBP). The percentage of aware, treated, and controlled hypertensive patients were 75.8, 62.1, and 50.3% in men and 83.8, 73.3, and 59.0% in women. The high 11.9-year incidence in all age groups points to the lifelong potential for prevention of hypertension.
Stockman, Ida J; Boult, Johanna; Robinson, Gregory C
To describe the instructional strategies reported for multicultural/multilingual issues (MMI) education at programs in speech-language pathology and audiology and the perceived ease and effectiveness of doing so. A 49-item questionnaire elicited anonymous responses from administrators, faculty, and teaching clinical supervisors at educational programs accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in the United States. The data were provided by 731 respondents from 79.6% of 231 accredited U.S. programs. They included instructors who taught courses dedicated to MMI and those who did not. Respondents were generally committed to multicultural instruction, but they varied in their reported instructional practices and perceived levels of preparedness, effectiveness, and needs. General curricular infusion without an MMI-dedicated course was the most common instructional model used. Students were judged to be at least modestly prepared to deal with diversity issues as a result of their multicultural instruction, although current instructional approaches were not viewed as optimal. More positive outcomes were reported by instructors of MMI-dedicated than MMI-nondedicated courses. The instructional models and strategies used for MMI education vary, and programs are challenged by multiple issues in complying with the mandate for MMI curricular infusion.
Erens, Bob; Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J
Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web panels provided appreciably biased estimates. The
Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J
Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web
Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.
A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…
Cronley, Courtney; Madden, Elissa; Davis, Jaya; Preble, Kathleen
The current study (N = 209) explored service-learning utilization in social work education by examining the influence of personal and institutional characteristics, perceived barriers, and beliefs about service-learning outcomes. Results of an online survey of social work educators showed that neither personal nor institutional characteristics…
Ekecrantz, Stefan; Schwieler, Elias
In this article, results from an international survey on the experiences of educational developers' experiences of teachers' attitudes, emotions, and normative values in higher education are presented. Teacher-student relationships have a substantial impact on student learning and the general learning climate, but have still received relatively…
Malok, Malok N.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…
Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Pare, Sharath; Pradeep Kumar, Ar; Lakshmi Narayanan, L
Irrigation protocol is the most critical step during the disinfection of an infected root canal system. The purpose of this study was to determine the root canal irrigation trends being practiced among the endodontic teaching faculty and post-graduate students in the dental colleges present in India. A postal invitation to participate in this national survey was sent to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontic of 294 Dental Colleges present in India. A total of 2389 forms were successfully delivered out of which 794 duly filled forms were received back. Survey participants were asked about their irrigant selection, irrigant concentration, smear layer removal protocol, and use of adjuncts during irrigation. This survey elicited a positive response rate of 33.23%. Our data indicated that 92.8% of respondents use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as the primary endodontic irrigant, with 26 gauge needle being most preferred for syringe irrigation, with 49.3% of them using it at a concentration of 2.6-4.0%. 68% of our respondents aim to remove the smear layer during the endodontic treatment while 47% reported using ultrasonic activation as an adjunct during their irrigation protocol. The findings of this survey are that the majority of teaching institutions in India are employing NaOCl (2.6-4.0%) as the primary endodontic irrigant. The concept of smear layer removal is high (68%), and there is a general trend (78%) to modify the irrigation protocol according to the status of the pulp, status of the periapex and in retreatment cases.
Phillips Carl V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokeless tobacco (ST use has played a major role in the low smoking prevalence among Swedish men, there is little information at the population level about ST as a smoking cessation aid in the U.S. Methods We used the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to derive population estimates for the number of smokers who had tried twelve methods in their most recent quit attempt, and for the numbers and proportions who were former or current smokers at the time of the survey. Results An estimated 359,000 men switched to smokeless tobacco in their most recent quit attempt. This method had the highest proportion of successes among those attempting it (73%, representing 261,000 successful quitters (switchers. In comparison, the nicotine patch was used by an estimated 2.9 million men in their most recent quit attempt, and almost one million (35% were former smokers at the time of the survey. Of the 964,000 men using nicotine gum, about 323,000 (34% became former smokers. Of the 98,000 men who used the nicotine inhaler, 27,000 quit successfully (28%. None of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became former smokers. Forty-two percent of switchers also reported quitting smoking all at once, which was higher than among former smokers who used medications (8–19%. Although 40% of switchers quit smoking less than 5 years before the survey, 21% quit over 20 years earlier. Forty-six percent of switchers were current ST users at the time of the survey. Conclusion Switching to ST compares very favorably with pharmaceutical nicotine as a quit-smoking aid among American men, despite the fact that few smokers know that the switch provides almost all of the health benefits of complete tobacco abstinence. The results of this study show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.
Ward, Bryan K; Agrawal, Yuri; Hoffman, Howard J.; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C.
Objective Profound bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) causes disabling oscillopsia, chronic disequilibrium and postural instability. Our aim was to assess prevalence and functional impact of BVH in the U.S. adult population. Study Design National cross-sectional survey and corollary validation study. Setting National database Patients Adult participants in the 2008 Balance and Dizziness Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), (n=21,782). Intervention Survey-based diagnosis of BVH, all of the following: presence of visual blurring with head movement, unsteadiness, difficulty walking in darkness/unsteady surfaces and in a straight path, symptoms being at least “a big problem” and present for at least 1 year, in the absence of other neurologic conditions or eye pathology affecting vision. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of BVH, socioeconomic and quality-of-life impact of BVH, and fall risk. Results Adjusted national estimates from this survey indicate the prevalence of BVH in 2008 was 28/100,000 U.S. adults (64,046 Americans). 44% of participants with BVH reported changing their driving habits because of their symptoms, 56% reported reduced participation in social activities, and 58% reported difficulties with activities of daily living. Respondents with BVH had a 31-fold increase in the odds of falling in multivariate analyses compared to all respondents, with 25% reporting a recent fall-related injury. Conclusions BVH, as estimated by the presence of specific symptoms in a nationally representative survey, has considerable socioeconomic and quality-of-life impacts and significantly increases fall risk. These data support the need for new therapeutic strategies for BVH, including vestibular rehabilitation and implantable vestibular prostheses. PMID:23949355
Lindfelt, Tristan; Ip, Eric J; Gomez, Alejandra; Barnett, Mitchell J
Border-Crossing theory suggests work-life balance and career satisfaction are inter-related and disappointment in work-life balance may predict changes in one's career path. Application of this theory to health profession faculty is plausible but has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to examine factors related to reported career change intention among United States pharmacy school faculty and to determine if Border-Crossing theory fits these observations. Results from a national web-based survey administered via Qualtrics® to American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) members were utilized. Bivariate analyses were conducted to compare differences among faculty stating an intention to stay or leave academia. A logistic multivariate model was used to determine if work-life balance remains significant when controlling for other variables and if survey results support the Border-Crossing theory. Nearly all (seven hundred of 811 responders, or 86.3%) stated a desire to stay in academia. Faculty with higher work-life balance were more likely to report an intent to remain in academia. Male, older, full-professor and non-pharmacy practice faculty (social or administrative science, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and others) were more likely to state an intention to remain in academia relative to their counterparts. Lower stress, as measured by the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores, was seen among faculty stating a desire to remain in academia. Work-life balance remained significantly inversely related to career change intention after controlling for all other factors. A significant factor related to pharmacy faculty's stated intention to remain in academia was work-life balance. Other factors such as gender, age, rank, stress level and department may also play a role. These results support the application of the Border-Crossing theory in health profession faculty and may provide pharmacy school administrators and stakeholders
Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.
This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of…
Smock, Carissa; Alemagno, Sonia
The purpose of this study is to understand health care provider barriers to referring patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities within an affiliated teaching hospital system using referral of diabetic services as an example. The aims of this study include: (1) to assess health care providers' awareness and use of facilities, (2) to determine barriers to referring patients to facilities, (3) identify current and needed resources and/or changes to increase referral to facilities. A 20-item electronic survey and requests for semi-structured interviews were administered to hospital system directors and managers (n = 51). Directors and managers instructed physicians and staff to complete the survey and interviews as applicable. Perceived barriers, knowledge, utilization, and referral of patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities were collected and examined. Descriptive statistics were generated regarding practice characteristics, provider characteristics, and referral. Of the health care providers surveyed and interviewed (n = 25) 40% indicated verbally suggesting use of facilities, 24% provided a flyer about the facilities. No respondents indicated that they directly referred patients to the facilities. However, 16% referred patients to other locations for physical activity - including their own department's management and prevention services. 20% do not refer to Medical Fitness Center Facilities or any other lifestyle programs/locations. Lack of time (92%) and lack of standard guidelines and operating procedures (88%) are barriers to referral. All respondents indicated a strong ability to refer patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities if given education about referral programs available as well as standard clinical guidelines and protocol for delivery. The results of this study indicate that, although few healthcare providers are currently referring patients to Medical Fitness Center Facilities, health care providers with an affiliated Medical Fitness
Us Centers For Disease Control And Prevention Epilepsy Program
We estimated US national prevalences of Internet use and looking up health information online among adults with epilepsy and those without, overall (age-standardized) and by three age groups (18-44, 45-59, and ≥60years) using the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Results showed that both overall and across all age groups, a significantly lower percentage of adults with active epilepsy reported using the Internet compared with that of adults without epilepsy. However, among Internet users, the percentage of looking up health information online did not differ by epilepsy status or age. Ensuring access to the Internet and encouraging use of quality, secure, and easy-to-access resources and e-tools might help adults with epilepsy to optimize their self-management and improve their quality of life. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Baltic seals are recovering after a population decline. The increasing seal stocks cause notable damage to fisheries in the Baltic Sea, with an unknown number of seals drowning in fishing gear every year. Thus, sustainable seal management requires updated knowledge of the by-catch of seals--the number of specimens that die in fishing gear. We analyse the by-catch of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus in Finland, Sweden, and Estonia in 2012. We collect data with interviews (35 in Finland, 54 in Sweden, and 72 in Estonia and analyse them with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The model accounts for variability in seal abundance, seal mortality and fishing effort in different sub-areas of the Baltic Sea and allows us to predict the by-catch in areas where interview data was not available. We provide a detailed description of the survey design and interview methods, and discuss different factors affecting fishermen's motivation to report by-catch and how this may affect the results. Our analysis shows that the total yearly by-catch by trap and gill nets in Finland, Sweden and Estonia is, with 90% probability, more than 1240 but less than 2860; and the posterior median and mean of the total by-catch are 1550 and 1880 seals, respectively. Trap nets make about 88% of the total by-catch. However, results also indicate that in one of the sub-areas of this study, fishermen may have underreported their by-catch. Taking the possible underreporting into account the posterior mean of the total by-catch is between 2180 and 2380. The by-catch in our study area is likely to represent at least 90% of the total yearly grey seal by-catch in the Baltic Sea.
Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J
The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans.
Prokopy, L. S.; Carlton, S.; Dunn, M.
Understanding U.S. agricultural stakeholder views about the existence of climate change and what influences these views is central to developing communication in support of adaptation and mitigation. It has been postulated in the literature that extreme weather events can shape people's climate change beliefs and adaptation attitudes. In this presentation, we use data from pre- and post-extreme event surveys and interviews to examine the effects of the 2012 Midwestern US drought on agricultural advisors' climate change beliefs, adaptation attitudes, and risk perceptions. We found that neither climate change beliefs nor attitudes toward adaptation changed significantly as a result of the drought. Risk perceptions did change, however, with advisors becoming more concerned about risks from drought and pests and less concerned about risks related to flooding and ponding. Qualitative interviews revealed that while advisors readily accept the occurrence of extreme weather as a risk, the irregularity and unpredictability of extreme events for specific localities limits day-to-day consideration in respect to prescribed management advice. Instead, advisors' attention is directed towards planning for short-term changes encompassing weather, pests, and the market, as well as planning for long-term trends related to water availability. These findings provide important insights for communicating climate change in this critical sector while illustrating the importance of social science research in planning and executing communication campaigns.
Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae are major global health problems. This study was conducted to investigate the association between factors related to socioeconomic status and HBV vaccination in the general population of women in Korea. Data from annual nationwide cross-sectional interview surveys conducted between 2005 and 2008 were reviewed. These surveys included representative samples of cancer-free people and 4350 women interviewed within the study period were included in the present report. Polychotomous logistic regression was used in the analysis. The complete HBV coverage rate was 39.8%. Older age, lower household income and lower education level showed significant unfavorable influences on the completion of the HBV vaccine series (P-trend job were also associated with a lower complete vaccination rate (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.84; OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.38-0.82, respectively), whereas living in an urban area was related to a higher rate (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37). Older age, lower education level, and not having private insurance were associated with incomplete vaccination compared with unvaccination (P-trend 0.001, education level, household income, and occupation. Significant disparities in vaccination status according to socioeconomic status, as indicated by the combination of household income and education level, were seen (P-trend <0.001). The most common reason for unvaccination was lack of knowledge about the necessity for HBV vaccination. Considering that vertical transmission is the most common source of HBV infection, vaccination of women is important to prevent HBV transmission to newborn infants. Therefore governmental strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities related to the completion of the HBV vaccine series among women should be implemented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hargis, Jace; Gilbertson, Phil
This paper describes an innovative approach to retaining happy and healthy faculty members in a collegial, productive teaching and learning environment. A major portion of the paper shares how the Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning plays a significant role in the faculty interview process, new faculty orientation, and subsequent mentoring of…
Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, Niels K R
AIMS: To investigate the relationship between potential explanatory factors (socio-economic factors and health) and non-response in two general population health interview surveys (face-to-face and telephone), and to compare the effects of the two interview modes on non-response patterns. METHODS...... generally associated with non-response in both modes of interview. The non-response rate was high among persons with low socio-economic position. No significant associations between health and non-response were found. CONCLUSIONS: Health status does not play a systematic role for non-response rates...... in health interview surveys, but the non-response rate is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Analyses of non-response should be performed to understand the implications of survey findings....
Majima, Takashi; Ohara, Hiroshi
The scope of pharmaceutical education in Japan has been expanding, and with it an awareness of the importance of team medical care. However, pharmaceutical education still gives little attention to the psychosocial aspects of care, instead focusing on the structures and functions of drugs. In contrast, nursing education emphasizes the fact that medical care involves patients' family and significant others as much as the patients themselves, and thus nursing students are taught the basic needs and developmental stages of those people requiring care alongside their practical nursing skills. In this study, we examined the effect of incorporating certain aspects of introductory nursing education into pharmaceutical education on the self-efficacy of pharmaceutical students. We thus ran an introduction to nursing education course for fourth-year pharmaceutical students (n=86). After the course had finished, we surveyed students about the course. Approximately 94.2% of the students became more interested in team medical care and nearly all (98.8%) thought that what they had learned in the course would be useful in their career. The results indicated that the introduction to nursing education course offered students an opportunity to acquire different viewpoints on clinical situations because the lectures were given by a pharmacist with a nurse license and they were based on his clinical experiences. We therefore propose that more facets of introductory nursing education be incorporated into pharmaceutical education to help students develop their ability to consider patients' psychosocial backgrounds.
Powell, John; Inglis, Nadia; Ronnie, Jennifer; Large, Shirley
Most households in the United Kingdom have Internet access, and health-related Internet use is increasing. The National Health Service (NHS) Direct website is the major UK provider of online health information. Our objective was to identify the characteristics and motivations of online health information seekers accessing the NHS Direct website, and to examine the benefits and challenges of the health Internet. We undertook an online questionnaire survey, offered to users of the NHS Direct website. A subsample of survey respondents participated in in-depth, semistructured, qualitative interviews by telephone or instant messaging/email. Questionnaire results were analyzed using chi-square statistics. Thematic coding with constant comparison was used for interview transcript analysis. In total 792 respondents completed some or all of the survey: 71.2% (534/750 with data available) were aged under 45 years, 67.4% (511/758) were female, and 37.7% (286/759) had university-level qualifications. They sought information for themselves (545/781, 69.8%), someone else (172/781, 22.0%), or both (64/781, 8.2%). Women were more likely than men to seek help for someone else or both themselves and someone else (168/509 vs 61/242, χ(2) (2) = 6.35, P = .04). Prior consultation with a health professional was reported by 44.9% (346/770), although this was less common in younger age groups (anonymity. Various challenges were discussed but no prominent theme emerged. Navigating online health information and determining what to trust was regarded as a "common sense" activity, and brand recognition was important. Specific comments about NHS Direct included the perception that the online service was integrated with traditional service provision. This study supports a model of evolutionary rather than revolutionary change in online health information use. Given increasing resource constraints, the health care community needs to seek ways of promoting efficient and appropriate health
Tsai, Kun-Wei; Lin, Shih-Chun; Koo, Malcolm
Previous studies have shown that depressive symptoms in middle-aged women were associated with a number of factors such as climacteric symptoms. Nevertheless, studies based on population-based data with a wide range of potential correlates are still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of depressive symptoms in late middle-aged Taiwanese women using data from a nationally-representative, population-based survey. Women aged 50.0-65.0 years were identified from the dataset of the 2009 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. The outcome measure was depressive symptoms in the past week, evaluated using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10) with a cut-off score of 10 or greater. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlates of depressive symptoms. The mean age of the 533 respondents was 56.7 years. Depressive symptoms were present in 53 respondents (9.9%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that an education level of elementary school or below (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.19, P = 0.003), nulliparity (AOR = 8.10, P = 0.001), living alone (AOR = 5.47, P = 0.003), never having worked (AOR = 4.14, P = 0.008), lack of regular exercise (AOR = 3.01, P = 0.003), a perceived health status of fair or bad (AOR = 4.34, P depressive symptoms in late middle-aged Taiwanese women. Findings from this secondary analysis of a population-based survey suggested independent associations of somatic climacteric symptoms, and a number of socio-demographic and health-related factors with depressive symptoms in late middle-aged Taiwanese women.
Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi
Full Text Available Background and objectives : Considering the importance of process improvement and support system, we tried to take a step to clarify logistics’ processes and initiate quality improvement in health and nutrition faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences using process mapping and decision making matrix. Material and Methods : This study is qualitative and was conducted in 2012. The data were gathered by interview with the participation of the individuals involving in the process and researchers’ direct observation. In this study, we clarified logistics’ processes of financial and administration deputy using block diagram and detailed flowchart. After clarifying the process, research team analyzed the data and proposed an improved way for process as a suggestive detailed flowchart. At the next stage, we compared the processes in decision making matrix and finally, the best option for intervention was chose among 10 worst functioning processes in decision making matrix of prioritization. Results : In this study, 35 processes were documented using process mapping in general affairs, personnel affairs, secretariat, archive deputy, storage department, accounting, properties, services, supply and financial department. The accounting documenting process had the worst function according to comparison matrix and the purchase and supply process was selected as the best option of intervention. Conclusion : The results of this study showed that most of the processes in this deputy have problems in theory and practice and system improvement is in need of reforming which will improve quality and prevent organization sources to be wasted. Due to the multi-department function of the processes, the unity of departments and a qualified management is required for better reform.
Burns, Shari; Merchant, Christine; Appelt, Erin
The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) provides an opportunity for clinician faculty to learn, share, and execute research studies aimed at improving teaching and learning. Knowledge of faculty knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding SoTL provide a framework to advance SoTL on health science campuses. However, clinicians generally…
Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Bos, Albert P.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
Tools for the evaluation, improvement and promotion of the teaching excellence of faculty remain elusive in residency settings. This study investigates (i) the reliability and validity of the data yielded by using two new instruments for evaluating the teaching qualities of medical faculty, (ii) the
Dottin, Erskine S.
A study investigated the attitudes, feelings, and perceptions of faculty members at the University of West Florida toward the larger workplace (the organization) and, in particular, their immediate work setting (climate). The two primary questions to be answered were: (1) do faculty perceive their departments as promoting or restricting workplace…
Milton, Alyssa C; Ellis, Louise A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B
Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item's susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression analysis showed respondents who were male
Lu, Peng-jun; Williams, Walter W; Li, Jun; Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Kepka, Deanna; Dunne, Eileen F
In 2009, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in men/boys aged 9-26 years. In 2009, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) provided a permissive recommendation allowing HPV vaccine administration to this group. To assess HPV vaccination initiation and coverage, evaluate awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine, and identify factors independently associated with such awareness among men aged 18-26 years. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed in 2011. In 2010, HPV vaccination initiation among men aged 18-26 years was 1.1%. Among the 1741 men interviewed in this age group, nearly half had heard of HPV (51.8%). Overall, about one third of these men had heard of the HPV vaccine (34.8%). Factors independently associated with a higher likelihood of awareness of both HPV and HPV vaccine among men aged 18-26 years included having non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity; a higher education level; a U.S. birthplace; more physician contacts; private health insurance; received other vaccines; and reported risk behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. HPV vaccination initiation among men aged 18-26 years in 2010 was low. HPV and HPV vaccine awareness were also low, and messages in this area directed to men are needed. Since ACIP published a recommendation for routine use of HPV4 among men/boys in December 2011, continued monitoring of HPV vaccination uptake among men aged 18-26 years is useful for evaluating the vaccination campaigns, and planning and implementing strategies to increase coverage. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Thurman, David J.; Kobau, Rosemarie; Luo, Yao-Hua; Helmers, Sandra L.; Zack, Matthew M.
Introduction Community-based and other epidemiologic studies within the United States have identified substantial disparities in health care among adults with epilepsy. However, few data analyses addressing their health-care access are representative of the entire United States. This study aimed to examine national survey data about adults with epilepsy and to identify barriers to their health care. Materials and methods We analyzed data from U.S. adults in the 2010 and the 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, multistage probability samples with supplemental questions on epilepsy. We defined active epilepsy as a history of physician-diagnosed epilepsy either currently under treatment or accompanied by seizures during the preceding year. We employed SAS-callable SUDAAN software to obtain weighted estimates of population proportions and rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Results Compared to adults reporting no history of epilepsy, adults reporting active epilepsy were significantly more likely to be insured under Medicaid (RR = 3.58) and less likely to have private health insurance (RR = 0.58). Adults with active epilepsy were also less likely to be employed (RR = 0.53) and much more likely to report being disabled (RR = 6.14). They experience greater barriers to health-care access including an inability to afford medication (RR = 2.40), mental health care (RR = 3.23), eyeglasses (RR = 2.36), or dental care (RR = 1.98) and are more likely to report transportation as a barrier to health care (RR = 5.28). Conclusions These reported substantial disparities in, and barriers to, access to health care for adults with active epilepsy are amenable to intervention. PMID:26627980
Gómez-Marín, O; Fleming, L E; Lee, D J; LeBlanc, W; Zheng, D; Ma, F; Jané, D; Pitman, T; Caban, A
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a multipurpose household survey of the U.S. civilian non-institutionalized population conducted annually since 1957. From 1986 to 1994, over 450,000 U.S. workers, age 18 years and older, participated in a probability sampling of the entire non-institutionalized U.S. population; variables collected included a range of measures of acute and chronic disability. The objective of the present study was to assess predictors of health status, and acute and chronic disability for farmers and pesticide applicators (pesticide-exposed workers) compared to all other U.S. workers using the 1986-1994 NHIS. After adjustment for sample weights and design effects using SUDAAN, several measures of acute and chronic disability and health status were modeled with multiple logistic regression. Farmers (n = 9576) were significantly older compared to all other U.S. workers (n = 453,219) and pesticide applicators (n = 180). Farmers and pesticide applicators had a higher proportion of males, whites, and Hispanics and were less educated. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, and education, compared to all other workers, farmers were significantly less likely to report acute and chronic disability and health conditions, while pesticide applicators were more likely to report chronic disability, health conditions, and poor health. Given the cross-sectional nature of the data and the significant job demands of farming, both leading to a relative healthy worker effect, the present results indicate that at any point in time, farmers report less acute and chronic disability, compared to other U.S. workers, whereas pesticide applicators report similar or poorer health.
Boruff, Jill T; Storie, Dale
The research investigated the extent to which students, residents, and faculty members in Canadian medical faculties use mobile devices, such as smartphones (e.g., iPhone, Android, Blackberry) and tablet computers (e.g., iPad), to answer clinical questions and find medical information. The results of this study will inform how health libraries can effectively support mobile technology and collections. An electronic survey was distributed by medical librarians at four Canadian universities to medical students, residents, and faculty members via departmental email discussion lists, personal contacts, and relevant websites. It investigated the types of information sought, facilitators to mobile device use in medical information seeking, barriers to access, support needs, familiarity with institutionally licensed resources, and most frequently used resources. The survey of 1,210 respondents indicated widespread use of smartphones and tablets in clinical settings in 4 Canadian universities. Third- and fourth-year undergraduate students (i.e., those in their clinical clerkships) and medical residents, compared to other graduate students and faculty, used their mobile devices more often, used them for a broader range of activities, and purchased more resources for their devices. Technological and intellectual barriers do not seem to prevent medical trainees and faculty from regularly using mobile devices for their medical information searches; however, barriers to access and lack of awareness might keep them from using reliable, library-licensed resources. Libraries should focus on providing access to a smaller number of highly used mobile resources instead of a huge collection until library-licensed mobile resources have streamlined authentication processes.
Boruff, Jill T.; Storie, Dale
Objectives: The research investigated the extent to which students, residents, and faculty members in Canadian medical faculties use mobile devices, such as smartphones (e.g., iPhone, Android, Blackberry) and tablet computers (e.g., iPad), to answer clinical questions and find medical information. The results of this study will inform how health libraries can effectively support mobile technology and collections. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed by medical librarians at four Canadian universities to medical students, residents, and faculty members via departmental email discussion lists, personal contacts, and relevant websites. It investigated the types of information sought, facilitators to mobile device use in medical information seeking, barriers to access, support needs, familiarity with institutionally licensed resources, and most frequently used resources. Results: The survey of 1,210 respondents indicated widespread use of smartphones and tablets in clinical settings in 4 Canadian universities. Third- and fourth-year undergraduate students (i.e., those in their clinical clerkships) and medical residents, compared to other graduate students and faculty, used their mobile devices more often, used them for a broader range of activities, and purchased more resources for their devices. Conclusions: Technological and intellectual barriers do not seem to prevent medical trainees and faculty from regularly using mobile devices for their medical information searches; however, barriers to access and lack of awareness might keep them from using reliable, library-licensed resources. Implications: Libraries should focus on providing access to a smaller number of highly used mobile resources instead of a huge collection until library-licensed mobile resources have streamlined authentication processes. PMID:24415916
Jacobs, Jesse C; Guralnick, Michael L; Sandlow, Jay I; Langenstroer, Peter; Begun, Frank P; See, William A; O'Connor, Robert Corey
Applicant interviews for urology residency positions are a stressful and costly process for students, faculty, and staff. We conducted a prospective survey to better determine what urology applicants perceive as an ideal interview process to gain sufficient knowledge about a training program. A questionnaire was anonymously completed by all urology residency applicants interviewing at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2007 to 2013. Questionnaire subject headings included "ideal interview format," "factors contributing to understanding the residency program," and "factors contributing to final rank list order." Questionnaires were distributed to and completed by 221 senior medical students applying for a urology residency position. Most respondents (>80%) reported they would prefer to partake in 5 to 7 faculty interviews in an office setting with the total interview process spanning half to three-fourths of the workday. Spending time with current residents was considered the most valuable tool to acquire knowledge about a residency program. The most important criteria when ranking a program were resident satisfaction, resident operative experience, and perceived strength of faculty. Academic urology programs may wish to consider applicant ideals when organizing residency interviews. Interaction with current residents appears to be the most valuable resource allowing applicants to garner knowledge about a urology training program. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V
We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.
Lampert, T; Kroll, L E; von der Lippe, E; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H
The analysis focuses on the connection between socioeconomic status (SES) and five health outcomes in the 18 to 79-year-old population of Germany. It uses data from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) which the Robert Koch Institute conducted in the period from 2008 to 2011 (n=8152). Socioeconomic status is recorded via a multidimensional index which includes information on education attainment, occupational status and household income. The results show that persons with a low socioeconomic status have a self-rated health status which is worse than that of persons with a medium or high socioeconomic status, and that they have diabetes more frequently. They also have a higher risk of depressive symptoms, obesity and physical inactivity. The results illustrate that health chances and the risk of illness are still very socially uneven distributed, thus emphasising the significance of political interventions to reduce health inequalities. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Borrell, Luisa N
I estimated the association between race and self-reported hypertension among Hispanics and non-Hispanics and determined whether this association was stronger among non-Hispanics. With data from the 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey, I used logistic regression to estimate the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and self-reported hypertension among US adults. The overall prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 24.5%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (16.7%) than among non-Hispanics (25.2%; P < .01). Blacks, regardless of ethnicity, had the highest prevalence. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks had 48% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 1.55) greater odds of reporting hypertension; Hispanic Whites had 23% (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.76, 0.88) lower odds. There was no difference in the strength of the association between race and self-reported hypertension observed among non-Hispanics (OR for Blacks = 1.47) and among Hispanics (OR for Blacks = 1.20; for interaction, P = 0.43). The previously reported hypertension advantage of Hispanics holds for Hispanic Whites only. As Hispanics continue their rapid growth in the United States, race may have important implications on their disease burden, because most US health disparities are driven by race and its socially patterned experiences.
Watkins, Daphne C; Johnson, Natasha C
Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites). Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14) and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97) experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05) and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95). Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.
Monideepa B. Becerra
Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans (N=665,195 were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (OR=3.05, 95% CI=1.55, 5.98 and monolingual (English only Vietnamese (OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.58, 5.70, especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only, not being current married (South Asian only, and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians. Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults.
Siantz, Elizabeth; Wu, Brian; Shiroishi, Mark; Vora, Hita; Idos, Gregory
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-specific death in the USA. Evidence suggests people with mental illness are less likely to receive preventive health services, including cancer screening. We hypothesized that mental illness is a risk factor for non-adherence to colorectal cancer-screening guidelines. We analyzed results of the 2007 California Health Interview Survey to test whether mental illness is a risk factor for non-adherence to colorectal cancer-screening recommendations among individuals age 50 or older (N = 15,535). This cross-sectional dataset is representative of California. Screening was defined as either fecal occult blood testing during the preceding year, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy during the preceding 5 years. Mental illness was identified using the Kessler K6 screening tool. Associations were evaluated using weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Mental illness was not associated with colorectal cancer-screening adherence (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.63-1.25). Risk factors for non-adherence included being female (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.09-1.44), delaying accessing health care during the previous year (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.56-2.29). Unlike previous studies, this study did not find a relationship between mental illness and colorectal cancer-screening adherence. This could be due to differences in study populations. State-specific healthcare policies involving care coordination for individuals with mental illness could also influence colorectal cancer-screening adherence in California.
Utz Rebecca L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS show a larger-than-expected increase in mean BMI between 1996 and 1997. Proxy-reports of height and weight were discontinued as part of the 1997 NHIS redesign, suggesting that the sharp increase between 1996 and 1997 may be artifactual. Methods We merged NHIS data from 1976–2002 into a single database consisting of approximately 1.7 million adults aged 18 and over. The analysis consisted of two parts: First, we estimated the magnitude of BMI differences by reporting status (i.e., self-reported versus proxy-reported height and weight. Second, we developed a procedure to correct biases in BMI introduced by reporting status. Results Our analyses confirmed that proxy-reports of weight tended to be biased downward, with the degree of bias varying by race, sex, and other characteristics. We developed a correction procedure to minimize BMI underestimation associated with proxy-reporting, substantially reducing the larger-than-expected increase found in NHIS data between 1996 and 1997. Conclusion It is imperative that researchers who use reported estimates of height and weight think carefully about flaws in their data and how existing correction procedures might fail to account for them. The development of this particular correction procedure represents an important step toward improving the quality of BMI estimates in a widely used source of epidemiologic data.
McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Davis, Shane P.; Dube, Shanta R.
Objectives. We estimated smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts among US adults with selected diagnosed lifetime mental illnesses. Methods. We used data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey on 23 393 noninstitutionalized US adults to obtain age-adjusted estimates of smoking prevalence, frequency, intensity, and cessation attempts for adults screened as having serious psychological distress and persons self-reporting bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity, dementia, or phobias or fears. Results. The age-adjusted smoking prevalence of adults with mental illness or serious psychological distress ranged from 34.3% (phobias or fears) to 59.1% (schizophrenia) compared with 18.3% of adults with no such illness. Smoking prevalence increased with the number of comorbid mental illnesses. Cessation attempts among persons with diagnosed mental illness or serious psychological distress were comparable to attempts among adults without mental illnesses or distress; however, lower quit ratios were observed among adults with these diagnoses, indicating lower success in quitting. Conclusions. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among persons with mental illnesses than among adults without mental illnesses. Our findings stress the need for prevention and cessation efforts targeting adults with mental illnesses. PMID:20966369
Full Text Available Accounting professionals, business college accrediting bodies, and even accounting academics themselves acknowledge that there is a disconnect between academe and the rigors and requirements of the accounting profession. Among the suggestions proposed in the literature to reduce this gap is the faculty internship, where accounting faculty members work within the field as accountants. Heretofore, individual case studies report benefits of such internships that accrue to a variety of stakeholder groups beyond just the faculty intern and include the academic institution, students, and accounting profession through faculty internships. This research seeks wider support for these benefits. This descriptive study involved surveying a sample of accounting faculty members to get their opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of faculty internships, and to determine the level of use of faculty internships in accounting. In all, 128 usable responses were obtained, representing a 14.6% response rate. The results of this study reveal that although most faculty members acknowledge the benefits cited in the literature, too few take advantage of faculty internships.
Sala, Emanuela; Uhrig, S.C. Noah; Lynn, Peter
The study of interviewer-respondent interaction that occurs during an interview can give very useful insights into the cognitive process of answering questions, the social dynamics that develop in an interview context and the way these dynamics ultimately impact data quality. Behaviour coding is a technique used to code such interactions. Despite its long-standing use, little is written about the procedures to be followed while developing a coding scheme. This paper provides a practical backg...
Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid
The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.
Finger, Jonas D; Tafforeau, Jean; Gisle, Lydia; Oja, Leila; Ziese, Thomas; Thelen, Juergen; Mensink, Gert B M; Lange, Cornelia
A domain-specific physical activity questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) was developed in the framework of the second wave of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS). This article presents the EHIS-PAQ and describes its development and evaluation processes. Research institutes from Belgium, Estonia and Germany participated in the Improvement of the EHIS (ImpEHIS) Grant project issued by Eurostat. The instrument development process comprised a non-systematic literature review and a systematic HIS/HES database search for physical activity survey questions. The developed EHIS-PAQ proposal was reviewed by survey experts. Cognitive testing of the EHIS-PAQ was conducted in Estonia and Germany. The EHIS-PAQ was further tested in a pilot survey in Belgium, Estonia and Germany in different modes of data collection, face-to-face paper and pencil interview (PAPI) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The EHIS-PAQ is a rather pragmatic tool aiming to evaluate how far the population is physically active in specific public health relevant settings. It assesses work-related, transport-related and leisure-time physical activity in a typical week. Cognitive testing revealed that the EHIS-PAQ worked as intended. The pilot testing showed the feasibility of using the EHIS-PAQ in an international health interview survey setting in Europe. It will be implemented in all 28 European Union Member States via European Union implementing regulation in the period between 2013 and 2015. This will be a first opportunity to get comparable data on domain-specific physical activity in all 28 EU MS and to publish indicators at the EU level. The EHIS-PAQ is a short, domain-specific PA questionnaire based on PA questions which have been used in large-scale health interview surveys before. It was designed by considering the respondents' perspective in answering PA questions.
Giduthuri, Joseph G.; Maire, Nicolas; Joseph, Saju; Kudale, Abhay; Schaetti, Christian; Sundaram, Neisha; Schindler, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.
Background Mobile electronic devices are replacing paper-based instruments and questionnaires for epidemiological and public health research. The elimination of a data-entry step after an interview is a notable advantage over paper, saving investigator time, decreasing the time lags in managing and analyzing data, and potentially improving the data quality by removing the error-prone data-entry step. Research has not yet provided adequate evidence, however, to substantiate the claim of fewer errors for computerized interviews. Methodology We developed an Android-based illness explanatory interview for influenza vaccine acceptance and tested the instrument in a field study in Pune, India, for feasibility and acceptability. Error rates for tablet and paper were compared with reference to the voice recording of the interview as gold standard to assess discrepancies. We also examined the preference of interviewers for the classical paper-based or the electronic version of the interview and compared the costs of research with both data collection devices. Results In 95 interviews with household respondents, total error rates with paper and tablet devices were nearly the same (2.01% and 1.99% respectively). Most interviewers indicated no preference for a particular device; but those with a preference opted for tablets. The initial investment in tablet-based interviews was higher compared to paper, while the recurring costs per interview were lower with the use of tablets. Conclusion An Android-based tablet version of a complex interview was developed and successfully validated. Advantages were not compromised by increased errors, and field research assistants with a preference preferred the Android device. Use of tablets may be more costly than paper for small samples and less costly for large studies. PMID:25233212
Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin
The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most effective survey interview method for measuring risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic. Methods: 1200 young adults were randomized to one of four different survey interview methods: two interviewer-assisted methods [face-to-face interview (FTFI, and computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI], and two self-administered methods [self-administered interview (SAI, and audio computer-assisted, self-administered interview (ACASI]. Youth were asked about a wide range of youth-specific risk behaviors, including violence, substance use, as well as sexual and reproductive health. Quality of data collected was examined by looking at how the survey was administered, including identifying two sources of errors that typically threaten data quality11 This study assumes that bias does not change with sample size. In order to increase the sample size, the data collection period was extended, leaving everything else unchanged. It is, therefore, assumed that the decreasing effects of the learning curve are negligible.: (i errors at the individual level with regards to survey methodology performance and cognitive difficulties [measured with the Response Consistency Index (RCI]; and (ii errors at the aggregate level (how desirability bias, interviewer gender, and interview privacy settings affect responses. Results: No statistically significant differences in participant non-response rates were found at the individual level across all survey interview methods. At the individual question level, self-completion methods generated higher non-response and error rates than assisted methods. The SAI method showed the poorest performance of all four methods in terms of non-response rate (1.6%22 Percentage of data with non-response values at the question level. and RCI (83.0%.At the aggregate level, the prevalence of several key risk indicators was statistically significant between methods. Using means-adjustment for
Zoellner, Kate; Hines, Samantha; Keenan, Teressa; Samson, Sue
Understanding faculty work practices can translate into improved library services. This study documents how education and behavioral science faculty locate, retrieve, and use information resources for research and writing and how they publish and store their research materials. The authors interviewed twelve professors using a structured interview…
Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M
We investigated the associations between education and leisure-time, occupational, sedentary and total physical-activity levels based on data from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98). The roles of income level, occupational status and other mediating variables for these associations were also examined. The total study sample of the GNHIES98 comprised 7,124 participants between the ages of 18 and 79. Complete information was available for 6,800 persons on leisure-time, sedentary and total physical-activity outcomes and for 3,809 persons in regular employment on occupational activity outcomes. The associations between educational level and physical activity (occupational, sedentary, leisure-time and total physical activity) were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of educational level on physical-activity outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region, occupation, income and other mediating variables. After adjusting for age and region, a higher education level was associated with more leisure-time activity - with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) for men with secondary education and 2.1 (1.7-2.7) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.3 (1.1-1.6) and 1.7 (1.2-2.4), respectively. Higher education was associated with a lower level of vigorous work activity: an OR of 6.9 (4.6-10.3) for men with secondary education and 18.6 (12.0-27.3) for men with primary education compared to men with tertiary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 2.8 (2.0-4.0) and 5.8 (4.0-8.5), respectively. Higher education was also associated with a lower level of total activity: an OR of 2.9 (2.2-3.8) for men with secondary education and 4.3 (3.3-5.6) for men with tertiary education compared to men with primary education. The corresponding ORs for women were 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.6 (1.2-2.1), respectively
Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou
Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in
Arah, O.A.; Hoekstra, J.B.L.; Bos, A.P.; Lombarts, K.M.J.M.H.
Background: Tools for the evaluation, improvement and promotion of the teaching excellence of faculty remain elusive in residency settings. This study investigates (i) the reliability and validity of the data yielded by using two new instruments for evaluating the teaching qualities of medical
Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore faculty's perceptions of quality management activities (QMA) within their departments, attention being paid to relevant quality aspects and whether quality management contributes to control or improvement of higher education. Furthermore, it examines differences between departments and relationships…
C Pusineri; J Kiszka; M Quillard; S Caceres
The status of dugongs Dugong dugon around Mayotte in the Mozambique Channel was assessed from interviews with artisanal fishers conducted in 2007, along with the collation of opportunistic sighting...
Haislup, Brett D; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Baweja, Rishi; McCarty, Eric C; Mulcahey, Mary K
Over the past few decades, there has been a trend toward an increasing subspecialization in orthopaedic surgery, with orthopaedic sports medicine being one of the most competitive subspecialties. Information regarding the application and interview process for sports medicine fellowships is currently lacking. To survey orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship program directors (PDs) to better define the structure of the sports medicine fellowship interview and to highlight important factors that PDs consider in selecting fellows. Cross-sectional study. A complete list of accredited programs was obtained from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website. An anonymous survey was distributed to fellowship PDs of all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited orthopaedic sports medicine fellowships in the United States. The survey included 12 questions about the fellowship interview and selection process. Of the 95 orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship PDs surveyed, 38 (40%) responded. Of these, 16 (42.1%) indicated that they interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year. Eleven of the 38 fellowship programs (28.9%) have only 1 fellow per year at their respective program. Most programs (27/37, 73%) reported that between 0 and 5 faculty members interview applicants, and 29 of the 38 programs (76.3%) arrange for applicants to have ≥4 interviews during their interview day. Large group interviews are conducted at 36 of 38 (94.7%) sports medicine fellowship programs, and most programs (24/38, 63.2%) hold individual interviews that last between 5 and 15 minutes. The most important applicant criterion taken into account by PDs was the quality of the interview, with an average score of 8.68 of 10. The most significant factor taken into account by PDs when deciding how to rank applicants was the quality of the interview. Many orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year
Morgan, Robin K.
This study investigated the incidence of faculty stalking by students in a large university system (eight campuses). A subsample of stalked faculty members was interviewed. Results are discussed in relation to categorization schemes for stalking, faculty-student interaction, changes in teaching methods, and the unique problems engendered by…
Levin, John S.; Haberler, Zachary; Walker, Laurencia; Jackson-Boothby, Adam
This investigation examines and explains the ways in which community college faculty of color construct their understandings of institutional culture. We investigate four community colleges in California through interviews with 31 full-time faculty of color. This faculty group expresses identity conflicts between their professional roles and their…
Commodore?Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Okosun, Ike S.
Background Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Methods and Results Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010?2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length o...
Ye Chun-Yuan; Hwang Tsorng-Chyi; Lee Jie-Min; Chen Sheng-Hong
Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of ciga...
Mahfoud, Ziyad; Ghandour, Lilian; Ghandour, Blanche; Mokdad, Ali H.; Sibai, Abla M.
Findings on the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the use of cellular phones vis-à-vis face-to-face interviews in investigating health behaviors and conditions are presented for a national epidemiological sample from Lebanon. Using self-reported responses on identical questions, percentage agreement, ? statistics, and McNemar's test were used…
Pieters, J.J.P.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Smits, A.P.T.
OBJECTIVE: Incidental findings in prenatal diagnostic testing may or may not have clear prognostic significance for the phenotype. We studied experts' opinions of the benefit and disadvantage of an incidental prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SCA). METHODS: We interviewed 16
Kellam, N. N.; Maher, M. A.; Peters, W. H.
This research effort examined current mechanical engineering educational programmes in America and Australia to determine the degree of holistic, systems thinking of each programme. Faculty from ten American universities and ten Australian universities participated in online surveys and interviews. Resulting data analysis and interpretation…
Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret
This paper offers a qualitative thematic analysis of the impacts of cyberbullying on post-secondary students, faculty, and administrators from four participating Canadian universities. These findings were drawn from data obtained from online surveys of students and faculty, student focus groups, and semi-structured interviews with faculty members and university administrators. The key themes discussed include: negative affect, impacts on mental and physical health, perceptions of self, impacts regarding one's personal and professional lives, concern for one's safety, and the impact of authorities' (non) response. Students reported primarily being cyberbullied by other students, while faculty were cyberbullied by both students and colleagues. Although students and faculty represent different age levels and statuses at the university, both groups reported similar impacts and similar frustrations at finding solutions, especially when their situations were reported to authorities. It is important that universities pay greater attention to developing effective research-based cyberbullying policies and to work towards fostering a more respectful online campus culture.
Eells, Walter Crosby; Cleveland, Austin Carl
A study of 16,837 faculty members at 219 colleges and universities in 42 states found great variation in the extent to which faculties were hiring their own institution's graduates as teachers. Six institutions showed no such "inbreeding," whereas seven had over 60% inbreeding. (Originally published in 1935) (MSE)
Seebregts, Christopher J; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Mathews, Catherine; Fairall, Lara; Flisher, Alan J; Seebregts, Clive; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Klepp, Knut-Inge
Handheld computers (personal digital assistant, PDA) have the potential to reduce the logistic burden, cost, and error rate of paper-based health research data collection, but there is a lack of appropriate software. The present work describes the development and evaluation of PDACT, a Personal Data Collection Toolset (www.healthware.org/pdact/index.htm) for the Palm Pilot handheld computer for interviewer-administered and respondent-administered data collection. We developed Personal Data Collection Toolkit (PDACT) software to enable questionnaires developed in QDS Design Studio, a Windows application, to be compiled and completed on Palm Pilot devices and evaluated in several representative field survey settings. The software has been used in seven separate studies and in over 90,000 interviews. Five interviewer-administered studies were completed in rural settings with poor communications infrastructure, following one day of interviewer training. Two respondent-administered questionnaire studies were completed by learners, in urban secondary schools, after 15min training. Questionnaires were available on each handheld in up to 11 languages, ranged from 20 to 580 questions, and took between 15 and 90min to complete. Up to 200 Palm Pilot devices were in use on a single day and, in about 50 device-years of use, very few technical problems were found. Compared with paper-based collection, data validation and cleaning times were reduced, and fewer errors were found. PDA data collection is easy to use and preferred by interviewers and respondents (both respondent-administered and interviewer-administered) over paper. Data are compiled and available within hours of collection facilitating data quality assurance. Although hardware increases the setup cost of the first study, the cumulative cost falls thereafter, and converges on the cumulative cost of paper-based studies (four, in the case of our interviewer-administered studies). Handheld data collection is an
Ward, Brian W; Nugent, Colleen N; Blumberg, Stephen J; Vahratian, Anjel
This study, measuring the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), examined (1) whether a single survey question asking explicitly about diagnosed COPD is sufficient to identify US adults with COPD and (2) how this measure compares with estimating COPD prevalence using survey questions on diagnosed emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis and all 3 survey questions together. We used data from the 2012-2014 National Health Interview Survey to examine different measures of prevalence among 7211 US adults who reported a diagnosed respiratory condition (ie, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD). We estimated a significantly higher prevalence of COPD by using a measure accounting for all 3 diagnoses (6.1%; 95% CI, 5.9%-6.3%) than by using a measure of COPD diagnosis only (3.0%; 95% CI, 2.8%-3.1%) or a measure of emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis diagnoses (4.7%; 95% CI, 4.6%-4.9%). This pattern was significant among all subgroups examined except for non-Hispanic Asian adults. The percentage difference between measures of COPD was larger among certain subgroups (adults aged 18-39, Hispanic adults, and never smokers); additional analyses showed that this difference resulted from a large proportion of adults in these subgroups reporting a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis only. With the use of self- or patient-reported health survey data such as the National Health Interview Survey, it is recommended that a measure asking respondents only about COPD diagnosis is not adequate for estimating the prevalence of COPD. Instead, a measure accounting for diagnoses of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and/or COPD may be a better measure. Additional analyses should explore the reliability and validation of survey questions related to COPD, with special attention toward questions on chronic bronchitis.
IKEDA, Hiroki; KAYASHIMA, Kotaro; Sasaki, Takeshi; KASHIMA, Sachiko; KOYAMA, Fumihiko
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between sleep disturbances and depression in daytime workers using a structured interview. A total of 1,184 daytime workers were enrolled. We evaluated difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and global insomnia scores (ISs) in all participants. As a result, the prevalences of DIS, DMS, and EMA were 16%, 46%, and 22%, respectively. IS was significantly correlated with depression...
Mauz, Elvira; von der Lippe, Elena; Allen, Jennifer; Schilling, Ralph; Müters, Stephan; Hoebel, Jens; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Lange, Cornelia
Population-based surveys currently face the problem of decreasing response rates. Mixed-mode designs are now being implemented more often to account for this, to improve sample composition and to reduce overall costs. This study examines whether a concurrent or sequential mixed-mode design achieves better results on a number of indicators of survey quality. Data were obtained from a population-based health interview survey of adults in Germany that was conducted as a methodological pilot study as part of the German Health Update (GEDA). Participants were randomly allocated to one of two surveys; each of the surveys had a different design. In the concurrent mixed-mode design ( n = 617) two types of self-administered questionnaires (SAQ-Web and SAQ-Paper) and computer-assisted telephone interviewing were offered simultaneously to the respondents along with the invitation to participate. In the sequential mixed-mode design ( n = 561), SAQ-Web was initially provided, followed by SAQ-Paper, with an option for a telephone interview being sent out together with the reminders at a later date. Finally, this study compared the response rates, sample composition, health indicators, item non-response, the scope of fieldwork and the costs of both designs. No systematic differences were identified between the two mixed-mode designs in terms of response rates, the socio-demographic characteristics of the achieved samples, or the prevalence rates of the health indicators under study. The sequential design gained a higher rate of online respondents. Very few telephone interviews were conducted for either design. With regard to data quality, the sequential design (which had more online respondents) showed less item non-response. There were minor differences between the designs in terms of their costs. Postage and printing costs were lower in the concurrent design, but labour costs were lower in the sequential design. No differences in health indicators were found between
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...... of the timeline should not lead the nterviewer or the interviewee to assume linearity and coherence; it is an rganising principle for the events. It provides an opportunity for linking the story with the wider social, political and environmental context during the interview. hile the method is very suitable...
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Schober, Michael F; Conrad, Frederick G; Antoun, Christopher; Ehlen, Patrick; Fail, Stefanie; Hupp, Andrew L; Johnston, Michael; Vickers, Lucas; Yan, H Yanna; Zhang, Chan
..., administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews...
Weiss, Carol H.
Researchers who conducted 194 interviews surveys of low income populations returned mail questionnaires about their experiences; the results are interpreted as bearing upon both the ease or difficulty of interviewing poor people and how advisable it may be to employ interviewers matched to respondents by class and race/ethnicity in surveys of the…
Shoemaker, Meredith L; White, Mary C; Hawkins, Nikki A; Hayes, Nikki S
To describe smoking and obesity prevalence among male and female cancer survivors in the United States. . Cross-sectional survey. . Household interviews. . 9,753 survey respondents who reported ever having a malignancy, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers. . Data from the National Health Interview Survey (2008-2012) were used to calculate weighted smoking status prevalence estimates. Cross-tabulations of smoking and weight status were produced, along with Wald chi-square tests and linear contrasts. . Cancer history, smoking status, obesity status, gender, age, and age at diagnosis. . Seventeen percent of cancer survivors reported current smoking. Female survivors had higher rates of current smoking than males, particularly in the youngest age category. Male survivors who currently smoked had lower obesity prevalence rates than males who previously smoked or never smoked. Among female survivors, 31% were obese and no significant differences were seen in obesity prevalence by smoking status for all ages combined. . The findings highlight the variation in smoking status and weight by age and gender. Smoking interventions may need to be targeted to address barriers specific to subgroups of cancer survivors. . Nurses can be instrumental in ensuring that survivors receive comprehensive approaches to address both weight and tobacco use to avoid trading one risk for another.
Byrne, Ben E; Pinto, Anna; Aylin, Paul; Bottle, Alex; Faiz, Omar D; Vincent, Charles A
Wide variation in the outcomes of colorectal surgery persists, despite a well-established evidence-base to inform clinical practice. This variation may be attributed to differences in quality of care, but we do not know what this means in practical terms of care delivery. This telephone interview study aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics in the organisation of care among colorectal units with the best length of stay results in England. Ten English National Health Service hospitals were identified with the shortest length of stay after elective colonic surgery between January 2011 and December 2012. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a senior colorectal surgeon and ward nurse, who were not informed of their performance, at each site. Audio recordings were professionally transcribed and thematically analysed for similarities and differences in practice between units. All ten short length of stay units approached agreed to participate, and 19 of 20 interviews were recorded. These units standardised clinical care based upon an Enhanced Recovery Program. Beyond this, they organised the clinical team to efficiently and reliably deliver this package of care, with the majority of day-to-day care delivered by consultants and nurses. Patients were closely monitored for postoperative deterioration, using a combination of early warning scores, nurses' clinical judgement and regular senior medical review. Of note, operative volume and laparoscopy rates in these units were not statistically significantly different from the national average (p = 0.509 and p = 0.131, respectively). The postoperative analgesic strategy varied widely between units, from routine epidural use to local anaesthetic infiltration or patient-controlled analgesia. The Enhanced Recovery Program may be seen as necessary but not sufficient to achieve the best length of stay results. In the study units, consultants and nurses led and delivered the majority of patient
Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria
The BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents is the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The cross-sectional KiGGS survey collected comprehensive data on the health status of 17,641 children and adolescents, aged 0-17 years, living in Germany. The survey included physical examinations and tests, questionnaires filled in by parents and equivalent questionnaires for children aged 11 years or older. A computer-assisted personal interview was conducted by study physicians, and various laboratory tests, e.g. on blood and urine samples, were performed. The longitudinal BELLA study collected initial cross-sectional data from a representative KiGGS sub-sample of families with children aged 7-17 years. Of the 4,199 randomly selected families invited to participate in the BELLA study, 2,863 took part. A total of 48.5% of the participating children and adolescents were girls, 51.5% were boys. Within the BELLA study, trained interviewers conducted standardised telephone interviews with one parent and also the child, if it was at least 11 years old. Afterwards the families received additional questionnaires. The interviews and questionnaires included various standardised and ICD-10-oriented instruments examining overall mental health problems and associated burden, depression, anxiety, attention deficit-/hyperactivity and conduct disorders. Furthermore they covered a broad spectrum of aspects related to mental health and well-being, such as risk and protective factors and health-related quality of life. An analysis of the non-responders showed that the families who agreed to participate form a representative sample with respect to the German population. The sample deviated only slightly from the KiGGS sample structure regarding socioeconomic status and regarding parent-reported mental health problems. No such difference was observed for the children's self-reported mental
Heidemann, C; Du, Y; Schubert, I; Rathmann, W; Scheidt-Nave, C
The first wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1, 2008-2011) allows for up-to-date, representative prevalence estimates of known diabetes amongst the 18- to 79-year-old resident population of Germany. Temporal trends can be shown by comparing the survey findings with those of the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98). The definition of known diabetes was based on self-reports in physician-administered interviews that asked respondents if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes by a doctor or were on anti-diabetic medication. Overall, diabetes had been diagnosed in 7.2 % of the adults (7.4 % of the women; 7.0 % of the men). The prevalence increased substantially with advancing age and was higher in persons of low than of high socioeconomic status. Prevalence varied depending on the type of health insurance held and was highest amongst those insured with AOK health insurance funds. In comparison with GNHIES98, there was a 38 % increase in prevalence, of which approximately one third is to be attributed to demographic ageing. In the context of other nationwide studies, the results indicate a figure of at least 4.6 million 18- to 79-year-olds having been diagnosed with diabetes at some point. Planned analyses of undiagnosed diabetes will contribute to the interpretation of the observed increase in the prevalence of known diabetes. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.
Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen
Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.
El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Labeeb, Shokria; Stock, Christiane
This study examined the relationships between perceived stress and a range of self reported symptoms and health complaints in a representative sample of students at one university in Egypt. The data (3,271 students) was collected during the academic year 2009-2010 at eleven faculties at the university of Assiut city, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured health complaints (22 symptoms) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were also collected. Factor analysis generated four groups of health complaints: psychological, circulatory/breathing, gastrointestinal, and pains/aches, and the internal consistency of each group of symptoms was computed using reliability analyses (Cronbach's alpha). Perceived stress was categorized into four levels based on quartiles. Multiple binomial or multinomial logistic regression analyses analysed the relationship between each of the four groups of symptoms and other students' general characteristics adjusted for the effect of all other groups of symptoms. The symptoms most often reported as having occurred sometimes/very often in the last 12 months were fatigue (85.3%), difficulties to concentrate (78.1%), headache (77.9%), and mood swings (74.5%), while nervousness/anxiety (63.2%) and sleep disorder (63.7%) affected many students. Multinominal logistic regression revealed a clear association and a linear trend between increasing level of stress and a higher frequency of psychological symptoms that remained significant after adjustment for other groups of symptoms. There were no associations between perceived stress and circulatory/breathing symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or for pains/aches. Poor health was consistently associated with higher frequency of symptoms across all symptom groups except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Higher health awareness was associated with lower frequency of psychological and circulatory/breathing symptoms but not for the other two symptom groups. Better
Pernar, Luise I M; Beleniski, Florencia; Rosen, Heather; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hafler, Janet; Breen, Elizabeth
To determine the effectiveness of spaced education as a faculty development tool designed to improve teaching skills in a surgery department. Faculty members were randomized to receive either weekly spaced education e-mails with content designed to improve teaching skills (group A) or no e-mails (group B). Using qualitative and quantitative surveys, we assessed both medical students' perception of faculty members' teaching effectiveness and faculty members' perception of the usefulness of the spaced education e-mails. Academic medical center. Twenty-nine surgery faculty members with teaching responsibility for medical students in their Core Surgery Clerkship. All 41 medical students who rotated through the Core Surgery Clerkship rated the quality of teaching for each faculty members; 172 online rating surveys were completed. Overall, faculty members received high ratings on the teaching skills included on the surveys. Additionally, no significant differences were found between the perceived skill level of the faculty members who received the weekly e-mails and those who did not. Specifically, 53.8% and 54% (p = 0.47) of the faculty were felt to deliver feedback more than three times per week; 87.1% and 89.9% (p = 0.15) of faculty were felt to deliver useful feedback; 89.2% and 90.8% (p = 0.71) of faculty were perceived to encourage student autonomy; and 78.1% and 81.9% (p = 0.89) of faculty were felt to set clear learning expectations for students. Postprogram comments from faculty revealed they did not find the e-mails useful as a faculty development tool. Students perceived high levels of teaching skills among the clinical faculty. Faculty members who received e-mail-based spaced education-based faculty development were not rated to be more effective teachers on the student surveys. Electronically based faculty development does not satisfy faculty expectations. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the psychological, socio-cultural and economic consequences of infertility on couples' life. The purpose of this research is to improve knowledge about the potentially serious implications of infertility in the South of Vietnam. Methods This study included 118 infertile couples who filled in questionnaires and 28 men and women who were interviewed. Results Data of the questionnaire show men and women do not differ in their responses and attitudes towards infertility. Almost one-third of the participants require psychological support. Interviewees experience secrecy, social pressure and economic hardship. Conclusion Offspring are very important to Vietnamese couples. Their future depends on children. Family plays an important role in the experiences of the infertile couple. Economic consequences are a particular distressing factor. There is a need for psychological counselling in the treatment of infertile couples in the South of Vietnam. It should be realised that in developing countries, despite overpopulation, unwanted childlessness is an important social and economical burden that needs attention.
Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik
This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.
Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert
Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Julian Diaz Fraga
Full Text Available Background: Standard interviews are used by most residency programs in the United States for assessment of aptitude of the non-cognitive competencies, but variability of interviewer skill, interviewer bias, interviewer leniency or stringency, and context specificity limit reliability. Aim: To investigate reliability and acceptability of five-station multiple mini-interview (MMI model for resident selection into an internal medicine residency program in the United States. Setting: One independent academic medical center. Participants: Two hundred and thirty-seven applicants and 17 faculty interviewers. Program description: Five, 10-min MMI stations with five different interviewers blinded to the candidate's records and one traditional 20-min interview with the program director. Candidates were rated on two items: interpersonal and communication skills, and overall performance. Program evaluation: Generalizability data showed that the reliability of our process was high (>0.9. The results of anonymous surveys demonstrated that both applicants and interviewers consider the MMI as a fair and more effective tool to evaluate non-cognitive traits, and prefer the MMI to standard interviews. Discussion: The MMI process for residency interviews can generate reliable interview results using only five stations, and it is acceptable and preferred over standard interview modalities by the applicants and faculty members of one US residency program.
Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.
A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…
Lamichhane, Babu Ram; Subedi, Naresh; Pokheral, Chiranjibi Prasad; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Pradhan, Narendra Man Babu; Smith, James L. David; Malla, Sabita; Thakuri, Bishnu Singh; Yackulic, Charles B.
Understanding how wide-ranging animals use landscapes in which human use is highly heterogeneous is important for determining patterns of human–wildlife conflict and designing mitigation strategies. Here, we show how biological sign surveys in forested components of a human-dominated landscape can be combined with human interviews in agricultural portions of a landscape to provide a full picture of seasonal use of different landscape components by wide-ranging animals and resulting human–wildlife conflict. We selected Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nepal to illustrate this approach. Asian elephants are threatened throughout their geographic range, and there are large gaps in our understanding of their landscape-scale habitat use. We identified all potential elephant habitat in Nepal and divided the potential habitat into sampling units based on a 10 km by 10 km grid. Forested areas within grids were surveyed for signs of elephant use, and local villagers were interviewed regarding elephant use of agricultural areas and instances of conflict. Data were analyzed using single-season and multi-season (dynamic) occupancy models. A single-season occupancy model applied to data from 139 partially or wholly forested grid cells estimated that 0.57 of grid cells were used by elephants. Dynamic occupancy models fit to data from interviews across 158 grid cells estimated that monthly use of non-forested, human-dominated areas over the preceding year varied between 0.43 and 0.82 with a minimum in February and maximum in October. Seasonal patterns of crop raiding by elephants coincided with monthly elephant use of human-dominated areas, and serious instances of human–wildlife conflict were common. Efforts to mitigate human–elephant conflict in Nepal are likely to be most effective if they are concentrated during August through December when elephant use of human-dominated landscapes and human–elephant conflict are most common.
Nguyen, Kimberley; Mackenzie, Penny; Allen, Angela; Dreosti, Marcus; Morgia, Marita; Zissiadis, Yvonne; Lamoury, Gilian; Windsor, Apsara
This patterns of practice study was conducted on behalf of the RANZCR Breast Interest Group in order to document current radiotherapy practices for breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand. The survey identifies variations and highlights potential contentious aspects of radiotherapy management of breast cancer. A fifty-eight question survey was disseminated via the Survey Monkey digital platform to 388 Radiation Oncologists in Australia and New Zealand. In total, 156 responses were received and collated. Areas of notable consensus among respondents included hypofractionation (77.3% of respondents would 'always' or 'sometimes' consider hypofractionation in the management of ductal carcinoma in-situ and 99.3% in early invasive breast cancer); margin status in early breast cancer (73.8% believe a clear inked margin is sufficient and does not require further surgery) and use of bolus in post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) (91.1% of participants use bolus in PMRT). Areas with a wider degree of variability amongst respondents included regional nodal irradiation and components of radiotherapy planning and delivery (examples include the technique used for delivery of boost and frequency of bolus application for PMRT). The results of these patterns of practice survey informs radiation oncologists in Australia and New Zealand of the current clinical practices being implemented by their peers. The survey identifies areas of consensus and contention, the latter of which may lead to a development of research trials and/or educational activities to address these areas of uncertainty. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.
Craig, Paul A
It will always remain a goal of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to engage students hands-on in a wide range of biochemistry laboratory experiences. In 2006, our research group initiated a project for in silico prediction of enzyme function based only on the 3D coordinates of the more than 3800 proteins "of unknown function" in the Protein Data Bank, many of which resulted from the Protein Structure Initiative. Students have used the ProMOL plugin to the PyMOL molecular graphics environment along with BLAST, Pfam, and Dali to predict protein functions. As young scientists, these undergraduate research students wanted to see if their predictions were correct and so they developed an approach for in vitro testing of predicted enzyme function that included literature exploration, selection of a suitable assay and the search for commercially available substrates. Over the past two years, a team of faculty members from seven different campuses (California Polytechnic San Luis Obispo, Hope College, Oral Roberts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, St. Mary's University, Ursinus College, and Purdue University) have transferred this approach to the undergraduate biochemistry teaching laboratory as a Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience. A series of ten course modules and eight instructional videos have been created (www.promol.org/home/basil-modules-1) and the group is now expanding these resources, creating assessments and evaluating how this approach helps student to grow as scientists. The focus of this manuscript will be the logistical implications of this transition on campuses that have different cultures, expectations, schedules, and student populations. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):426-436, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Bygren, L. O.; Konlaan, B. B.; Johansson, S. E.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. DESIGN: A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. SETTING: Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. SUBJECTS: 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. RESULTS: 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). CONCLUSION: Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start. PMID:8990990
Andrykowski, Michael A
Little research has identified the physical and mental health status of survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses. By using data from the population-based 2009 National Health Information Survey, 154 survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses, 1427 survivors of a single cancer diagnosis, and 25,004 individuals without a history of cancer diagnosis were identified. The multiple cancer group was compared with the single cancer and no cancer groups with regard to physical and mental health status using analysis of covariance and binary logistic regression. Relative to the no cancer group, the multiple cancer group reported significantly poorer mental health status, greater lifetime, recent, and current prevalence of a variety of medical conditions and comorbidities, and more health-related disability. Although observed group differences between the multiple cancer and single cancer groups were less pronounced than those between the multiple cancer and no cancer groups, a consistent pattern was also evident; the multiple cancer group reported significantly poorer status relative to the single cancer group across a range of mental and physical health and illness-related disability indices. Diagnosis of 2 or more primary cancers (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) is associated with increased risk for poorer physical and mental health status over and above that associated with diagnosis of a single primary cancer. Survivors of multiple and single primary cancer diagnoses should be considered as distinct subgroups, and increased attention should be devoted to the unique status and needs of survivors of multiple primary cancer diagnoses. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
The Undergraduate Education Assessment (assessment) was launched to upgrade faculty's performance, but it also tends to intensify their job stress. Considering the little empirical research on the influence of stress on performance in the assessment and the confounded findings in literature, the study collected data with a survey and interviews to…
Bär, P R
This text is based on three long interviews in Utrecht University's Faculty Club, and on almost 40 years of working together in the same city, the same department, the same university. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BÉHANZIN, Luc; DIABATÉ, Souleymane; MINANI, Isaac; LOWNDES, Catherine M.; BOILY, Marie-Claude; LABBÉ, Annie-Claude; ANAGONOU, Séverin; ZANNOU, Djimon Marcel; BUVÉ, Anne; ALARY, Michel
Objectives During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. Methods In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during the PBS.. Pearson chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Results Overall, respondents reported more stigmatized behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of both married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. Conclusion Polling booth surveys are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance. PMID:23723251
In the theoretical part of the thesis I am going to focus on the theoretical problems of teaching practice at universities and its role in the preparation of future teachers. In the practical part I will use questionnaires and interviews to seek features of a good faculty school, and try to specify areas that demand more support to faculty schools from the Faculty of Education. The practical part will be supplemented by case study. KEYWORDS Faculty school, university faculty school, universit...
Hawk, Cheryl; Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard
To make a preliminary assessment of the potential role of the most frequently used licensed or certified United States complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers in chronic disease prevention and health promotion. This was a secondary analysis of the 2007 United States National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the most recent to include CAM use. The Adult Core Sample, Person and Adult Complementary and Alternative Medicine data files were included. NHIS's complete survey design structure (strata, cluster and survey weights) was applied in generating national population estimates for CAM usage. Chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (8.4%) and massage (8.1%) were most commonly used; acupuncture was used by 1.4% and naturopathy by 0.3% of respondents. Substantial proportions of respondents reported using CAM for wellness and disease prevention, and informed their medical physician of use. Fifty-four percent were overweight or obese, 22.0% physically inactive, and 17.4% smokers; 18.0% reported hypertension, 19.6% high cholesterol, and 9.1% prediabetes or diabetes. CAM users present with risk factors which are priority public health issues. This implies a need to train CAM providers in evidence-based health promotion counseling. CAM encounters may provide opportunities to coordinate health promotion and prevention messages with patients' primary care providers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geller, Anne Ellen
This article draws on a survey of 64 self-identified multilingual faculty from across the disciplines who currently teach with writing in English at the undergraduate and graduate level. The survey asked faculty about their linguistic experiences from childhood through the present and thus offers insights about the complexity of multilingual…
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Mercader, Hannah Faye G; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Katuruba, David Tumusiime; Hobbs, Amy J; Brenner, Jennifer L
High maternal and child mortality continues in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Measurement of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) coverage indicators often involves an expensive, complex, and lengthy household data collection process that is especially difficult in less-resourced settings. Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) has been proposed as a cost-effective and efficient alternative to traditional paper-and-pencil interviewing (PAPI). However, the literature on respondent-level acceptance of CAPI in LMIC has reported mixed outcomes. This is the first study to prospectively examine female respondent acceptance of CAPI and its influencing factors for MNCH data collection in rural Southwest Uganda. Eighteen women aged 15-49 years were randomly selected from 3 rural villages to participate. Each respondent was administered a Women's Questionnaire with half of the survey questions asked using PAPI techniques and the other half using CAPI. Following this PAPI/CAPI exposure, semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) assessed respondent attitudes towards PAPI versus CAPI. FGD data analysis involved an immersion/crystallization method (thematic narrative analysis). The sixteen FGD respondents had a median age of 27 (interquartile range: 24.8, 32.3) years old. The majority (62.5%) had only primary level education. Most respondents (68.8%) owned or regularly used a mobile phone or computer. Few respondents (31.3%) had previously seen but not used a tablet computer. Overall, FGDs revealed CAPI acceptance and the factors influencing CAPI acceptability were 'familiarity', 'data confidentiality and security', 'data accuracy', and 'modernization and development'. Female survey respondents in our rural Southwest Ugandan setting found CAPI to be acceptable. Global health planners and implementers considering CAPI for health coverage survey data collection should accommodate influencing factors during survey planning in order to maximize and
Rocheleau Carissa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%. The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6, though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%. Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%. Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders. Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies.
Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hendricks, Scott A.; Jamal, Ahmed
Objective To examine trends in age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults by industry and occupation during 2004–2012, and to project those prevalences and compare them to the 2020 Healthy People objective (TU-1) to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence to ≤12%. Methods We analyzed the 2004–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. Respondents were aged ≥18 years working in the week prior to the interview. Temporal changes in cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed using logistic regression. We used the regression model to extrapolate to the period 2013–2020. Results Overall, an estimated 19.0% of working adults smoked cigarettes: 22.4% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2012. The largest declines were among workers in the education services (6.5%) industry and in the life, physical, and social science (9.7%) occupations. The smallest declines were among workers in the real estate and rental and leasing (0.9%) industry and the legal (0.4%) occupations. The 2020 projected smoking prevalences in 15 of 21 industry groups and 13 of the 23 occupation groups were greater than the 2020 Healthy People goal. Conclusions During 2004–2012, smoking prevalence declined in the majority of industry and occupation groups. The decline rate varied by industry and occupation groups. Projections suggest that certain groups may not reach the 2020 Healthy People goal. Consequently, smoking cessation, prevention, and intervention efforts may need to be revised and strengthened, particularly in specific occupational groups. PMID:25239956
Béhanzin, Luc; Diabaté, Souleymane; Minani, Isaac; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Anagonou, Séverin; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Buvé, Anne; Alary, Michel
During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during PBS. Pearson χ2 or Fisher's exact test was used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Overall, respondents reported more stigmatised behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. PBS are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance.
Jung, Insung; Hong, Seongyoun
This study aimed to investigate and classify faculty members' instructional priorities for adopting OER. In-depth interview data were collected from 10 faculty members from different regions and analyzed with NVivo 10. The original supposition was that the well-established instructional priorities, effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal would…
Bittner, Nancy Phoenix; Bechtel, Cynthia Francis
The purpose of this project was to address factors contributing to the nurse faculty shortage. There is a demonstrated need to sustain and stabilize faculty currently in the workforce to avoid exacerbating the current and future faculty shortage in nursing. Recommendations of previous studies focus on strategies for recruitment, retention, and ongoing faculty development. A survey was employed to identify and describe the workload of nurse faculty and identify the impact of retirement and other retention issues. Findings showed an aging and nondiverse nursing faculty with increased and variable workload. There was no standard means of calculating workload. With identification of increased workload, faculty are considering retirement at a higher than projected rate. Four primary areas to address the nursing faculty shortage include focus on diversity balance, development of collaborative positions (joint appointments), and clear identification of nursing faculty workload.
Jegathesan, Mithila; Vitberg, Yaffa M; Pusic, Martin V
Intelligence theory research has illustrated that people hold either "fixed" (intelligence is immutable) or "growth" (intelligence can be improved) mindsets and that these views may affect how people learn throughout their lifetime. Little is known about the mindsets of physicians, and how mindset may affect their lifetime learning and integration of feedback. Our objective was to determine if pediatric physicians are of the "fixed" or "growth" mindset and whether individual mindset affects perception of medical error reporting. We sent an anonymous electronic survey to pediatric residents and attending pediatricians at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Respondents completed the "Theories of Intelligence Inventory" which classifies individuals on a 6-point scale ranging from 1 (Fixed Mindset) to 6 (Growth Mindset). Subsequent questions collected data on respondents' recall of medical errors by self or others. We received 176/349 responses (50 %). Participants were equally distributed between mindsets with 84 (49 %) classified as "fixed" and 86 (51 %) as "growth". Residents, fellows and attendings did not differ in terms of mindset. Mindset did not correlate with the small number of reported medical errors. There is no dominant theory of intelligence (mindset) amongst pediatric physicians. The distribution is similar to that seen in the general population. Mindset did not correlate with error reports.
Human Resources Department
Annex II, page 1, Section 3 of the Administrative Circular no. 26 (Rev. 5) states that "The annual interview shall usually take place between 15 November of the reference year and 15 February of the following year." Following the meeting of the Executive Board on 7 December 2004 and the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 19 January 2005, it has been decided, for the advancement exercise of 2005, to extend this period until 15 March 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566
Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff
Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.
Shin, Jinah K; Poltavskiy, Eduard; Kim, Tae Nyun; Hasan, Abdullah; Bang, Heejung
To investigate patterns of and factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or serious psychological distress (SPD). The analysis was conducted with the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012 of 40,803 adults. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between the multiple facilitating/preventing factors and outcome, guided by the Andersen's Health Care Utilization Model. The prevalence of DM and SPD were 10.9% and 3.4%, respectively, among participants in the survey. The participants with DM were more likely to experience SPD than those without DM (OR 1.46, 95% CI=1.11-1.91, p=0.006). Participants with combined DM and SPD, the most underserved, were less likely to perceive the need for mental health services and less likely to seek help, compared to those with only SPD. Need factors (SPD status and perceived need) were significantly associated with help-seeking behaviors for mental health, along with predisposing factors (age, gender, obesity, race, and employment), and enabling factors (insurance, English proficiency). Perceptions about need for seeking help seem to play an important role in receiving mental health services in addition to other predisposing or enabling factors. Identification of these factors may improve clinical outcomes related to DM and SPD. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of residents as educators is increasingly recognized, since it impacts residents, interns, medical students and other healthcare professionals. A widespread implementation of resident-as-teacher courses in developed countries' medical schools has occurred, with variable results. There is a dearth of information about this theme in developing countries. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM Faculty of Medicine has more than 50% of the residency programs' physician population in Mexico. This report describes a needs assessment survey for a resident as teacher program at our institution. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive survey was developed based on a review of the available literature and discussion by an expert multidisciplinary committee. The goal was to identify the residents' attitudes, academic needs and preferred educational strategies regarding resident-as-teacher activities throughout the residency. The survey was piloted and modified accordingly. The paper anonymous survey was sent to 7,685 residents, the total population of medical residents in UNAM programs in the country. Results There was a 65.7% return rate (5,186 questionnaires, a broad and representative sample of the student population. The residents felt they had knowledge and were competent in medical education, but the majority felt a need to improve their knowledge and skills in this discipline. Most residents (92.5% felt that their role as educators of medical students, interns and other residents was important/very important. They estimated that 45.5% of their learning came from other residents. Ninety percent stated that it was necessary to be trained in teaching skills. The themes identified to include in the educational intervention were mostly clinically oriented. The educational strategies in order of preference were interactive lectures with a professor, small groups with a moderator, material available in a website for
Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Graue-Wiechers, Enrique L; Ruiz-Pérez, Leobardo C; García-Durán, Rocío; Durante-Montiel, Irene
The role of residents as educators is increasingly recognized, since it impacts residents, interns, medical students and other healthcare professionals. A widespread implementation of resident-as-teacher courses in developed countries' medical schools has occurred, with variable results. There is a dearth of information about this theme in developing countries. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine has more than 50% of the residency programs' physician population in Mexico. This report describes a needs assessment survey for a resident as teacher program at our institution. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was developed based on a review of the available literature and discussion by an expert multidisciplinary committee. The goal was to identify the residents' attitudes, academic needs and preferred educational strategies regarding resident-as-teacher activities throughout the residency. The survey was piloted and modified accordingly. The paper anonymous survey was sent to 7,685 residents, the total population of medical residents in UNAM programs in the country. There was a 65.7% return rate (5,186 questionnaires), a broad and representative sample of the student population. The residents felt they had knowledge and were competent in medical education, but the majority felt a need to improve their knowledge and skills in this discipline. Most residents (92.5%) felt that their role as educators of medical students, interns and other residents was important/very important. They estimated that 45.5% of their learning came from other residents. Ninety percent stated that it was necessary to be trained in teaching skills. The themes identified to include in the educational intervention were mostly clinically oriented. The educational strategies in order of preference were interactive lectures with a professor, small groups with a moderator, material available in a website for self-learning, printed material for self-study and
Schmidt, Robert L; Chute, Deborah J; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; James, Daniel S; Karp, Julie K; Miller, Douglas C; Milner, Danny A; Smock, Kristi J; Sutton, Ann T; Walker, Brandon S; White, Kristie L; Wilson, Andrew R; Wojcik, Eva M; Yared, Marwan A; Factor, Rachel E
-Statistical literacy can be defined as understanding the statistical tests and terminology needed for the design, analysis, and conclusions of original research or laboratory testing. Little is known about the statistical literacy of clinical or anatomic pathologists. -To determine the statistical methods most commonly used in pathology studies from the literature and to assess familiarity and knowledge level of these statistical tests by pathology residents and practicing pathologists. -The most frequently used statistical methods were determined by a review of 1100 research articles published in 11 pathology journals during 2015. Familiarity with statistical methods was determined by a survey of pathology trainees and practicing pathologists at 9 academic institutions in which pathologists were asked to rate their knowledge of the methods identified by the focused review of the literature. -We identified 18 statistical tests that appear frequently in published pathology studies. On average, pathologists reported a knowledge level between "no knowledge" and "basic knowledge" of most statistical tests. Knowledge of tests was higher for more frequently used tests. Greater statistical knowledge was associated with a focus on clinical pathology versus anatomic pathology, having had a statistics course, having an advanced degree other than an MD degree, and publishing research. Statistical knowledge was not associated with length of pathology practice. -An audit of pathology literature reveals that knowledge of about 12 statistical tests would be sufficient to provide statistical literacy for pathologists. On average, most pathologists report they can interpret commonly used tests but are unable to perform them. Most pathologists indicated that they would benefit from additional statistical training.
Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John; Maloney, Stephen
Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. The aim of this study was to explore health researchers' and clinicians' current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the participants (449/842, 53.3%) felt they had a
Wood, J. Luke; Newman, Christopher B.
This research focuses on factors predicting faculty-student engagement for Black male collegians. In this study, the authors investigated whether students' perceptions of racial/gender stereotypes had a moderating effect on the determinants of engagement with faculty. The sample population was derived from 16 urban community colleges located…
Baker, William M.; Lusk, Edward J.; Neuhauser, Karyn L.
The authors investigated faculty and student perceptions regarding the use of cell phones and other electronic devices in the classroom. Students differed markedly from faculty, with students exhibiting much greater acceptance of in-class use of technology. Among students, the authors found that gender affected perceptions. Specifically, male…
Costa, Anthony J; Labuda Schrop, Susan; McCord, Gary; Ritter, Christian
Depression among family medicine faculty may contribute to decreased effectiveness in patient care, decreased effectiveness in teaching, and career changes. The present study determined the nationwide prevalence of depression and related risk factors among family medicine residency program faculty. All full-time US family medicine faculty, program directors, and behavioral scientists listed as members of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine in October 2000 were surveyed. The survey included demographics, clinical practice characteristics, the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), and a scale to measure stress within the residency program. Surveys were completed by 1,418 faculty members. Seven percent of survey respondents scored mildly depressed, and 5% scored moderately to severely depressed. Seven percent of respondents scored highly stressed on the SRRS. Significant predictors of depression scores included being single, being a member of an underrepresented minority group, having increased stress scores, and having a greater amount of time devoted to teaching. Program directors and department chairs need to be aware of the prevalence of depression among faculty, since it may affect their performance of patient care and teaching responsibilities.
Gomes, Barbara; McCrone, Paul; Hall, Sue; Riley, Julia; Koffman, Jonathan; Higginson, Irene J
The evaluation of end of life care via bereaved relatives is increasingly common. We aimed to improve the measurement of health outcomes and care utilisation at the end of life with this population. A cross-sectional study of 20 bereaved relatives of cancer patients was conducted. In phase I, nine underwent a cognitive interview for 65-150 min using five measures: Client Service Receipt Inventory, Life Before Death survey care satisfaction items, Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS), EQ-5D and Core Bereavement Items (CBI). In phase II, items/scales were revised and tested with a further 11 participants. Content analysis explored information processing and errors. All 20 participants understood most questions despite finding them demanding and intense. Judging the accuracy of information and formulating final answers posed more difficulties than recalling facts. Uncertainty and missing data on care utilisation were often due to estimating averages; consequently categories were introduced. Participants perceived the care satisfaction rating scale to be positively biased; a very poor category was added. POS was seen to ask relevant but sometimes difficult questions, whilst the EQ-5D produced fewer missing data but lacked intermediate categories. CBI had terms that participants felt were unfamiliar, unrealistic, unclear or too strong; hence, we changed to the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (with no problems identified). Cognitive interviewing helped select measures and make changes that improved the measurement of health outcomes and care utilisation at the end of life with bereaved relatives. The use of both generic and specific health measures and cost measurement in bereavement is encouraged.
Bluestein, Stephanie A.
This paper highlights the results of a study on the effects of student-faculty interaction on academic dishonesty; the results were used to develop an explanatory model showing how faculty's classroom demeanor and attitude can impact the likelihood of cheating. Individual, confidential interviews pertaining to student-faculty interaction and…
Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos
Longitudinally following patients requires a full-time employee (FTE)-dependent data inflow infrastructure. There are efforts to capture patient-reported outcomes (PROs) by the use of non-FTE-dependent methodologies. In this study, we set out to assess the reliability of PRO data captured via FTE-dependent compared with non-FTE-dependent methodologies. A total of 119 adult patients (65 men) who underwent 1-and 2-level lumbar fusions at Duke University Medical Center were enrolled in this prospective study. Enrollment criteria included available demographic, clinical, and PRO data. All patients completed 2 sets of questionnaires--the first a phone interviews and the second a self-survey. There was at least a 2-week period between the phone interviews and self-survey. Questionnaires included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the visual analog scale for back pain (VAS-BP), and the visual analog scale for leg pain (VAS-LP). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the reliability of baseline PRO data captured. A total of 39.49% of patients were smokers, 21.00% had diabetes, and 11.76% had coronary artery disease; 26.89% reported history of anxiety disorder, and 28.57% reported history of depression. A total of 97.47% of patients had a high-school diploma or General Education Development, and 49.57% attained a 4-year college degree or postgraduate degree. We observed a high correlation between baseline PRO data captured between FTE-dependent versus non-FTE dependent methodologies (ODI: r = -0.89, VAS-BP: r = 0.74, VAS-LP: r = 0.70). There was no difference in PROs of baseline pain and functional disability between FTE-dependent and non-FTE-dependent methodologies: baseline ODI (FTE-dependent: 47.73 ± 16.77 [mean ± SD] vs. non-FTE-dependent: 45.81 ± 12.11, P = 0.39), VAS-LP (FTE-dependent: 6.13 ± 2.78 vs. non-FTE-dependent: 6.46 ± 2.79, P = 0.36) and VAS-BP (FTE-dependent: 6.33 ± 2.90 vs. non-FTE-dependent: 6.53 ± 2.48, P = 0.57). Our study
Walitt, Brian; Katz, Robert S; Bergman, Martin J; Wolfe, Frederick
Although fibromyalgia criteria have been in effect for decades, little is known about how the fibromyalgia diagnosis is applied and understood by clinicians and patients. We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the prevalence of self-reported clinician diagnosed fibromyalgia and then compared demographics, symptoms, disability and medical utilization measures of persons with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia that did not meet diagnostic criteria (false-positive or prior [F/P] fibromyalgia) to persons with and without criteria-positive fibromyalgia. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected information about both clinical diagnosis and symptoms of fibromyalgia that was appropriately weighted to represent 225,726,257 US adults. Surrogate NHIS diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were developed based on the level of polysymptomatic distress (PSD) as characterized in the 2011 modified American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR) for fibromyalgia. Persons with F/P fibromyalgia were compared with persons who do not have fibromyalgia and those meeting surrogate NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. Of the 1.78% of persons reporting a clinical diagnosis, 73.5% did not meet NHIS fibromyalgia criteria. The prevalence of F/P fibromyalgia is 1.3%. F/P fibromyalgia is associated with a mild degree of polysymptomatic distress (NHIS PSD score 6.2) and characterized by frequent but not widespread pain and insomnia. Measures of work disability and medical utilization in F/P fibromyalgia were equal to that seen with NHIS criteria positive fibromyalgia and were 6-7x greater in F/P fibromyalgia than in non-fibromyalgia persons. F/P fibromyalgia was best predicted by being female (Odds Ratio [OR] 8.81), married (OR 3.27), and white (OR 1.96). In contrast, being a white, married woman was only modestly predictive of NHIS (criteria positive) fibromyalgia (OR 2.1). The majority of clinically diagnosed fibromyalgia cases in the US do not reach levels of
Casale, Katherine R
The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to explore the relationship between the frequency of interfaculty incivility among nurses in academia and observed levels of resonant leadership of immediate supervisors. Despite mandates to address incivility in health care, nurse faculty report high levels of horizontal incivility among their peers. No known quantitative research has measured the relationship between nurse faculty-to-faculty incivility and resonant leadership traits of leaders. Nursing faculty from 17 universities (n = 260) were emailed an anonymous link to answer survey questions about horizontal peer incivility and leaders' management styles. There was a significant inverse relationship (Pearson's r, -.560) between the frequency of experienced faculty-to-faculty incivility and the level of observed resonant leadership behaviors of participants' immediate supervisors. Resonant supervisory behaviors inversely correlated with nurse faculty peer incivility, with potential to impact satisfaction, recruitment, and retention.
Eliason, Michele J; Radix, Asa; McElroy, Jane A; Garbers, Samantha; Haynes, Suzanne G
Terminology related to sexuality and gender is constantly evolving, and multiple factors are at play when individuals answer questions on surveys. We examined patterns of responding to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) sexual identity questions in a multisite health intervention study for lesbian and bisexual women aged 40 to 84 years. Of 376 participants, 80% (n = 301) chose "lesbian or gay," 13% (n = 49) selected "bisexual," 7% (n = 25) indicated "something else," and 1 participant chose "don't know the answer." In response to the follow-up question for women who said "something else" or "don't know," most (n = 17) indicated that they were "not straight, but identify with another label." One participant chose "transgender, transsexual, or gender variant," five chose "You do not use labels to identify yourself," and three chose "you mean something else." Lesbian, bisexual, and "something else" groups were compared across demographic and health-related measures. Women who reported their sexual identity as "something else" were younger, more likely to have a disability, more likely to be in a relationship with a male partner, and had lower mental health quality of life than women who reported their sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Respondents who answer "something else" pose challenges to analysis and interpretation of data, but should not be discarded from samples. Instead, they may represent a subset of the community that views sexuality and gender as fluid and dynamic concepts, not to be defined by a single label. Further study of the various subsets of "something else" is warranted, along with reconsideration of the NHIS question options. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Yu, Sheng-Tsung; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yao, Kai-Ping; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Hurng, Baai-Shyun
The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) using a nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) through comparison with short-form 36 (SF-36). Data for this study came from the 2009 NHIS in Taiwan. The study sample was the 4007 participants aged 20-64 years who completed the survey. We used SUDAAN 10.0 (SAS-Callable) to carry out weighed estimation and statistical inference. The EQ index was estimated using norm values from a Taiwanese study as well as from Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). The SF-36 score was standardized using American norm values. In terms of concurrent validity, the EQ-5D met the five hypotheses. The results did not fulfill hypothesis that women would have lower visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) scores. In terms of discriminant validity, the EQ-5D fulfilled two hypotheses. Our results approached but did not fulfill hypothesis that there would be a weak association between the physical and psychological dimensions of the EQ-5D and the mental component summary score of the SF-36. Results were comparable regardless of whether the Japanese or UK norm value sets were used. We were able to fulfill many, not all of our validity hypotheses regardless of whether the established Japanese or UK norm value sets or the Taiwanese norm values were used. The EQ-5D is an effective and simple instrument for assessing health-related quality of life of general population in Taiwan.
Koo, Malcolm; Lu, Ming-Chi; Lin, Shih-Chun
The Internet is an increasingly important source of health information for the general population. Both preventive health behavior and Internet use are known to be different between men and women. However, few studies have compared predictors of Internet use for health information between the sexes. To investigate the prevalence and predictors of Internet use for health information among male and female adult Internet users using data from a population-based survey in Taiwan. Respondents between the ages of 20-65 years were identified from the dataset of the 2009 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. The outcome variable of the study, the utilization of the Internet for health information, was ascertained by asking whether the respondent had ever used the Internet to search for health information or obtain health services. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for men and women to evaluate factors associated with the use of Internet for health information. Of the 2741 adults aged 20-65 years who had ever used the Internet, 1766 (64.4%) of them had used it for health information or services. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that a higher educational level (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.60, Phealth status of extremely good, very good, or good (AOR=1.34, P=0.022), and had used Western medicine services in the past month (AOR=1.51, P=0.005) were significantly associated with health information use in male Internet users. On the other hand, age between 20-44.9 years (AOR=1.87, PInternet users. This secondary data analysis of a representative sample of Taiwan population revealed that a similar but not identical set of independent factors was associated with the use of Internet for health information between male and female Internet users. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Muntaner, Carles; Hadden, Wilbur C; Kravets, Nataliya
Occupational social class has become a leading indicator of social inequalities in health. In the US, economic sectors are distinct with respect to wages, benefits, job security, promotion ladders and working conditions. The growing economic sector of self-employed workers is characterized by lower wages and benefits, and greater job insecurity. Little attention has been given to the association between economic sector measures of social class and all-cause mortality, and there have been no studies of mortality among the self-employed. To determine risk of death associated with economic sector social class, this study entails a longitudinal analysis of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual household survey representative of the US population for the period 1986-1994 (n = 377,129). The sample includes 201,566 men and 175,563 women, aged 24-65 years of age, in the civilian labor force. Non- professionals are at higher risk of death than professionals across all sectors and self-employed professionals are at higher risk of death than professionals employed in government and production. Additional social class differences are accounted for by age, race, gender and marital status. Results are also partially explained by income. After controlling for income, Black professionals did not show a lower risk of death than Black non-professionals and self-employed Hispanic professionals had a higher risk of death than Hispanic professionals employed in the private sector. Given the growth of self-employment in the US, the noted increased risk of death among self-employed professionals merits further investigation and monitoring.
Stolzenberg, H; Kahl, H; Bergmann, K E
In the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a number of anthropometric parameters were assessed in a standardised way in 17,641 boys and girls. To this end, body weight and height, head circumference and upper arm length, as well as two skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular) were measured for the entire age range (0-12 years); starting from 6 years of age, elbow breadth and from 11 years of age waist and hip circumference were measured in addition. For all parameters, means with confidence intervals are reported per age (in years) and gender. Median graphs depict the changes with increasing age according to gender for each body measurement. The complex age-related anthropometric developments along with significant gender specificity show the full range of the dynamic physical development in boys and girls. Based on skinfold measurement data, the body fat percentage was estimated. Thickness and location of the skinfolds, as well as the calculated waist-to-hip ratio is used as an indicator for gender-specific fat distribution. Using the frame index, it is attempted to estimate skeletal robustness. For the anthropometric parameters studied, hardly any regional differences were found. However, head circumference, frame index and all parameters strongly associated with body fat show a significant social status gradient. Children and adolescents with migration background have on average a lower height, larger waist circumference and higher percentage of body fat.
Hassoun, Lina; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Hapke, Ulfert; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Meyer, Thomas
The magnitude of the contribution of psychosocial stressors to the development of hypertension remains controversial. Using data from the population-based, nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, we investigated the relationship between objectively measured and subjectively perceived stressors and blood pressure (BP). The study sample comprised 3352 participants not taking antihypertensive medication, for whom data on stress exposure and resting BP measurements were available. The Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress screening scale (TICS-SSCS) was used as a measurement of self-perceived chronic stress, and work-related stress was assessed using the recently developed occupational Overall Job Index. On the basis of bivariate tests, TICS-SSCS was negatively associated with both systolic (β-coefficient [B] = -0.16, standard error = 0.03, p stress is associated with higher BP levels, whereas the exposure to objective stressors was unrelated to BP. These findings suggest that stress perception and objective stressors influence BP regulation via different biobehavioral pathways.
Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram; Keppens, Gil
To investigate how social support relates to mental health problems for Belgian late adolescents and young adults 15-25 years of age. Additionally, we examine changes in mental health problems between 2008 and 2013 and investigate gender differences. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate (1) psychological distress, (2) anxiety and (3) depression among 713 boys and 720 girls taken from two successive waves (2008 and 2013) of a representative sample of the Belgian population (Belgian Health Interview survey). Psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, anxiety and depression by the Symptom Check-List-90-Revised. Gender differences were found for psychological distress, anxiety and depression with girls reporting significantly higher scores than boys. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that adolescents who are dissatisfied with their social contacts and experience poor social support reported more psychological distress, anxiety and depression. In addition, young adult boys (20-25 years of age) were more likely to experience psychological distress when compared to late adolescent boys (15-19 years of age). Finally, the prevalence of anxiety and depression increased substantially between 2008 and 2013 for girls and to a lesser extent for boys. Especially girls and young people with poor social support experience mental health problems more frequently than boys and those with strong social support. Improving social support among young people may serve as a protective buffer to mental health problems.
Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S
Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Guerrero, Alma D; Ponce, Ninez A; Chung, Paul J
We examined obesogenic dietary practices among Latino and Asian subgroups of children living in California. We analyzed 2007, 2009, and 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data to examine the differences in dietary practices among Mexican and non-Mexican Latino children and 7 ethnic subgroups of Asian children. We used multivariable regression to examine the sociodemographic factors associated with specific dietary practices. Latino subgroups of children had few differences in obesogenic dietary practices, whereas Asian subgroups of children exhibited significant differences in several obesogenic dietary practices. Korean and Filipino children were more likely than Chinese children to consume fast food and have low vegetable intake. Filipino children, followed by Japanese children, had the most obesogenic dietary practices compared with Chinese children, who along with South Asian children appeared to have the least obesogenic dietary practices. In general, income, education, and acculturation did not explain the dietary differences among Asian groups. Our findings suggest the need to disaggregate dietary profiles of Asian and Latino children and to consider nontraditional sociodemographic factors for messaging and counseling on healthy dietary practices among Asian populations.
McGruder, Henraya E; Greenlund, Kurt J; Malarcher, Ann M; Antoine, Theresa L; Croft, Janet B; Zheng, Zhi-Jie
Heart attacks are more prevalent among Hispanics and Blacks than among Whites. Bystanders must be able to recognize heart attack symptoms and activate the emergency response system in order to receive time-dependent therapies that increase survival. This study estimated racial/ethnic disparities in awareness of heart attack symptoms in a sample of the US population. We evaluated data from 33,059 adult participants in the 2001 National Health Interview Survey. Respondents indicated their awareness of five heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911 in the presence of such symptoms. Hispanics and Blacks were less likely to recognize each heart attack symptom than were Whites (Pheart attack symptoms and report that they would call 911 than were Whites (45.8%), Blacks (36.1%), respondents aged 45-64 years (47.7%) and >65 years (43.9%), and those with a high school education (41.0%) or more (45.6%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, Blacks (OR .73, 95% CI .66-.80) and Hispanics (OR .49, 95% CI .45-.54) were less likely than were Whites to recognize all five heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911 if someone had these symptoms. One Healthy People 2010 goal is to eliminate health disparities. Racial/ethnic disparities exist in knowledge of heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911. Special educational efforts should focus on Black and Hispanic populations and highlight the importance of symptoms and time-dependent therapies.
Research evaluating the relation of workplace psychosocial factors to mental health among U.S. women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds is limited. This study investigated the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and mental health among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White women using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Independent variables of interest included job insecurity, workplace harassment, and work-family conflict (WFC). Multiple Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between the outcome and independent variables. The prevalence of unfavorable mental health was highest among non-Hispanic Black women (36%) compared to Hispanic (34%) and non-Hispanic White (30%) women. A higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black women reported WFC compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (χ(2) = 15.50, p workplace harassment did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. Odds of unfavorable mental health were significantly higher for women reporting psychosocial work factors. Unexpectedly, a greater association between psychosocial work factors and unfavorable mental health was observed among non-Hispanic White women compared to non-White women; however, caution should be taken in interpreting these cross-sectional results. Future studies should investigate temporal associations and additional psychosocial variables that were not available for use in the current study.
Falci, Laura; Shi, Zaixing; Greenlee, Heather
More than 25% of American adults report having 2 or more chronic conditions. People with chronic conditions often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for self-care and disease management, despite a limited evidence base. Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 33,557) were analyzed to assess associations between presence of multiple chronic conditions (n = 13) and CAM use, using multivariable relative risk and linear regressions weighted for complex NHIS sampling. CAM use was defined as self-reported use of one or more of 16 therapies in the previous 12 months. Chronic conditions were common. US adults reported one (22.3%) or 2 or more (33.8%) conditions. Many used at least one form of CAM. Multivitamins, multiminerals, or both (52.7%); vitamins (34.8%); and minerals (28.4%) were the most common. Compared with adults with no conditions, adults with 2 or more conditions were more likely to use multivitamins or multiminerals or both, vitamins, minerals, nonvitamins or herbs, mind-body therapies, chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, massage, movement therapies, special diets, acupuncture, naturopathy, or some combination of these therapies (P <.003). People with multiple chronic conditions have a high prevalence of CAM use. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the association between CAM use and chronic disease prevention and treatment.
Ocak, Mehmet Akif
This paper describes the findings of an exploratory, qualitative case study and examines problems and impediments faculty members encountered in blended learning environments in Turkish Higher Education system. A total of 117 faculty members from 4 universities responded to 8 interview questions. Findings were based on content analyses of…
Gonzales, Gilbert; Przedworski, Julia; Henning-Smith, Carrie
Previous studies identified disparities in health and health risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults, but prior investigations have been confined to samples not representative of the US adult population or have been limited in size or geographic scope. For the first time in its long history, the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey included a question on sexual orientation, providing health information on sexual minorities from one of the nation's leading health surveys. To compare health and health risk factors between LGB adults and heterosexual adults in the United States. Data from the nationally representative 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey were used to compare health outcomes among lesbian (n = 525), gay (n = 624), and bisexual (n = 515) adults who were 18 years or older and their heterosexual peers (n = 67 150) using logistic regression. Self-rated health, functional status, chronic conditions, psychological distress, alcohol consumption, and cigarette use. The study cohort comprised 68 814 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 46.8 (11.8) years, and 51.8% (38 063 of 68 814) were female. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, gay men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% CI, 1.55-5.14), heavy drinking (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.08-3.58), and moderate smoking (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.39-2.81) than heterosexual men; bisexual men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.77-12.52), heavy drinking (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.22-8.16), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.08-4.10) than heterosexual men; lesbian women were more likely to report moderate psychological distress (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76), poor or fair health (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.24-2.95), multiple chronic conditions (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.22), heavy drinking (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.54-4.50), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36-3.88) than
Grossman, Amanda M.; Johnson, Leigh R.
The perceptions of faculty members, who design and evaluate online accounting coursework content, are an important consideration in determining the quality inherent in such content. This study reports the results of a survey which examines accounting faculty members' attitudes towards online education (measured as their willingness to accept…
Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Bell, Alli
Building on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of individuals and their work settings to organizational commitment (OC) and citizenship behavior, this study considers why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. Analyses of survey data collected from a state system of higher education suggest that job characteristics,…
Schlack, R; Rüdel, J; Karger, A; Hölling, H
Violence is of considerable relevance to Public Health. It was the aim of the violence screening implemented as part of the"German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) to assess data on physical and psychological violence in various social environments (partnership, family, workplace, public space). For the first time as part of a nationally representative health survey, the data was collected from the perspective of victim and perpetrator both among women and men. The study population was comprised of 5939 participants aged between 18 and 64 years. Approximately every 20th participant reported being the victim of physical violence in the preceding 12 months, men significantly more frequently than women. With regard to the frequency of being the perpetrator of physical violence (overall prevalence 3.7 %) there were no significant differences between the sexes. Psychological victimisation was reported by every fifth participant and overall perpetrating psychological violence was reported by every tenth. Women tended to be more frequent the victims but they were also significantly more frequently the perpetrators of both physical and psychological violence in the domestic area (partnership, family). In contrast, men more frequently report being both the perpetrator and the victim of violence in the workplace and in the public space. Young adults between 18 and 29 years as well as persons of low socioeconomic status were consistently more frequently affected by violence although there were exceptions with regard to psychological violent victimisation. More than three-quarters of the victims of physical violence reported being greatly or extremely affected in their well-being by the violence and in the case of psychological violence the rate was about approximately 60%. Overall, the traumatic experience as a consequence of experiencing physical and psychological violence was considerably higher, especially in the case of domestic violence
Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to provide new evidence of health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, and to examine their associations with lifestyle-related risk factors across the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic groups. Methods: The analysis included a randomized population sample of 68,321 subjects aged ≥18 years old who participated in the U.S. 2012 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys. Hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and DM were classified according to participants’ self-report of physician diagnosis. Assessments of risk factors were measured using standard survey instruments. Associations of risk factors with hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM were analyzed using univariable and multivariable analysis methods. Results: Non-Hispanic (NH-Blacks had significantly higher odds of hypertension, stroke and DM, while NH-Asians and Hispanics had significantly lower odds of stroke and higher odds of stroke and higher odds of DM than NH-Whites (p<0.001. NH-Whites had higher odds of CHD than NH-Black, NH-Asians and Hispanics (p<0.001. Increased body weight, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity were significantly associated with increased odds of hypertension, CHD, stroke and DM (p<0.001. However, the strengths of associations between lifestyle-related factors and the study outcomes were different across racial and ethnic groups. NH-Asians with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had the highest odds ratios (OR, 95%CI for hypertension (5.37, 4.01-7.18, CHD (2.93, 1.90-4.52 and stroke (2.23, 1.08-4.61, and had the second highest odd ratios for DM (3.78, 2.68-5.35 than NH-Whites, NH-Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion: CVD and DM disproportionately affect the U.S. multi-racial and ethnic population. Although lifestyle-related risk factors are significantly associated with increased odds of CVD and DM, the impacts of risk factors on the study outcomes are different by race and ethnicity.
Willinsky, John; Maggio, Lauren
Background In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandated open access for publications resulting from NIH funding (following a 12-month embargo). The large increase in access to research that will take place in the years to come has potential implications for evidence-based practice (EBP) and lifelong learning for health personnel. Objective This study assesses health personnel’s current use of research to establish whether grounds exist for expecting, preparing for, and further measuring the impact of the NIH Public Access Policy on health care quality and outcomes in light of time constraints and existing information resources. Methods In all, 14 interviews and 90 surveys of health personnel were conducted at a community-based clinic and an independent teaching hospital in 2010. Health personnel were asked about the research sources they consulted and the frequency with which they consulted these sources, as well as motivation and search strategies used to locate articles, perceived level of access to research, and knowledge of the NIH Public Access Policy. Results In terms of current access to health information, 65% (57/88) of the health personnel reported being satisfied, while 32% (28/88) reported feeling underserved. Among the sources health personnel reported that they relied upon and consulted weekly, 83% (73/88) reported turning to colleagues, 77% (67/87) reported using synthesized information resources (eg, UpToDate and Cochrane Systematic Reviews), while 32% (28/88) reported that they consulted primary research literature. The dominant resources health personnel consulted when actively searching for health information were Google and Wikipedia, while 27% (24/89) reported using PubMed weekly. The most prevalent reason given for accessing research on a weekly basis, reported by 35% (31/88) of survey respondents, was to help a specific patient, while 31% (26/84) were motivated by general interest in research. Conclusions
Greenlee, Heather; Shi, Zaixing; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Rundle, Andrew; Tsai, Wei Yann
Obesity after a diagnosis of specific cancers has been associated with worse prognosis. We examined the trend in obesity prevalence among cancer survivors in the United States in the past two decades and compared trends with those of adults without a history of cancer. This was a population-based nationally representative sample of 538,969 noninstitutionalized US adults 18 to 85 years old with and without a history of cancer who participated in annual cross-sectional National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2014. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) for non-Asians and body mass index ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2) for Asians. Among 32,447 cancer survivors identified, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (n = 6,948), prostate (n = 3,984), and colorectal (n = 2,546). From 1997 to 2014, the prevalence of obesity increased from 22.4% to 31.7% in cancer survivors and from 20.9% to 29.5% in adults without a history of cancer (P for trend obesity prevalence was higher in women and men with a history of cancer compared with those without a history of cancer (all P for interaction obesity prevalence was 3.1% in female and 3.7% in male colorectal cancer survivors, 3.0% in breast cancer survivors, and 2.1% in prostate cancer survivors (all P obesity burden were colorectal cancer survivors, breast cancer survivors, and non-Hispanic blacks. From 1997 to 2014, obesity increased more rapidly among adult cancer survivors compared with the general population. Colorectal and breast cancer survivors and non-Hispanic blacks were identified as being at the highest risk for obesity. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K
Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS. Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%. Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78. The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56. No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75. BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.
Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R
The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents.
Kaul, Sapna; Avila, Jaqueline C; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Russell, Heidi; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Schwartz, Cindy L
The current study was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental distress among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer and a comparison group. A total of 875 AYA cancer survivors who were diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years and who were at least 5 years from their initial diagnosis were identified from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys. A comparison group was created. The Kessler nonspecific mental/psychological distress scale was used to examine none/low, moderate, and severe distress. The issues of whether individuals talked to mental health professionals within the previous year and if they could afford mental health care also were examined. Variables (ie, demographics, behavioral [eg, smoking status], comorbidity, and mental health visits) associated with distress among the 2 groups were identified using multinomial logistic regressions. Survivors reported mental distress more often than the comparison group (moderate: 23.2% vs 16.9%; and severe: 8.4% vs 3.0% [Pmental health care more often (6.4% vs 2.3%; P = .002). Moreover, 74.7% and 52.2% of survivors, respectively, with moderate and severe distress had not talked to a mental health professional. Contrary to the comparison group, survivors who were current smokers reported severe distress more often compared with nonsmokers (relative risk, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-8.84 [P = .01]). Having public and no insurance versus private insurance and report of sleep-related trouble within the previous week were found to be associated with greater distress among survivors. AYA cancer survivors are more likely to demonstrate mental distress than individuals without cancer. Nevertheless, few survivors may be receiving professional mental health services. Survivors need greater access to mental health screening and counseling to address the current gaps in care delivery. Cancer 2017;123:869-78. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American
Pabon-Nau, Lina P; Cohen, Amy; Meigs, James B; Grant, Richard W
Despite their diverse cultural origins, Hispanics in the US are generally studied as a single ethnic group. 1) Assess demographic and disease-related differences among U.S. Hispanics by country of origin, and 2) Examine the mediating roles of socioeconomic status and acculturation on disease prevalence in these subgroups. Using data from the 2000-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we compared characteristics of Mexican-Americans with Hispanics originally from: Mexico, Puerto Rico, Central/South America, Cuba, and Dominican Republic (n = 31,240). We stratified the analysis by foreign versus US-born Hispanic subgroups and modeled hypertension and diabetes prevalence, adjusting for demographic and acculturation differences. The six Hispanic subgroups were significantly diverse in all measured variables. Prevalence of hypertension (32%) and diabetes (15%) was highest in foreign-born Puerto Ricans. After adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, socioeconomic status and acculturation in foreign-born Hispanics, Puerto Ricans (OR = 1.76 [95% CI: 1.23, 2.50], p = 0.002) and Dominicans (OR = 1.93 [1.24, 3.00], p = 0.004), had higher prevalence of hypertension relative to Mexican-Americans. Adjusted diabetes prevalence among foreign-born Hispanics was half or less in Cubans (OR = 0.42 [0.25, 0.68] p diabetes prevalence compared to Mexican-Americans in adjusted models. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes varies significantly among Hispanics by country of origin. Health disparities research should include representation from all Hispanic subgroups.
Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha J; Sarpong, Daniel; Pandey, Abhishek; Youngstedt, Shawn; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Epidemiologic studies show a curvilinear relationship between inadequate sleep ( 8 hours) and obesity (Body Mass Index > 30 kg/m2), which have enormous public health impact. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, an ongoing nationally representative cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults (≥18 years) (1977 through 2009), we examined the hypothesis that inadequate sleep is independently related to overweight/obesity, with adjustment for socio-demographic, health risk, and medical factors. Self- reported data on health risks, physician-diagnosed medical conditions, sleep duration, and body weight and height were used. Prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 31.2% to 36.9% and 10.2% to 27.7%, respectively. Whereas prevalence of very short sleep (sleep (5-6 hours) has increased from 1.7% to 2.4% and from 19.7% to 26.7%, it decreased from 11.6% to 7.8% for long sleep. According to multivariate-adjusted multinomial regression analyses, odds of overweight and obesity associated with very short sleep and short sleep increased significantly from 1977 to 2009. Odds of overweight and obesity conferred by long sleep did not show consistent and significant increases over the years. Analyses based on aggregated data showed very short sleepers had 30% greater odds of being overweight or were twice as likely to be obese, relative to 7-8 hour sleepers. Likewise, short sleepers had 20% greater odds of being overweight or 57% greater odds of being obese. Long sleepers had 20% greater odds of being obese, but no greater odds of being overweight. Our findings support the hypothesis that prevalence of very short and short sleep has gradually increased over the last 32 years. Inadequate sleep was associated with overweight and obesity for each available year.
Mincey, Krista D.; Ackermann, Nicole; Milam, Laurel; Goodman, Melody S.; Colditz, Graham A.
Introduction We examined racial/ethnic heterogeneity in self-reported diabetes prevalence over 15 years. Methods We used National Health Interview Survey data for 1997 through 2012 on 452,845 adults aged 18 years or older. Annual self-reported diabetes prevalence was estimated by race/ethnicity and education. We tested for trends over time by education and race/ethnicity. We also analyzed racial/ethnic and education trends in average annual prevalence. Results During the 15 years studied, diabetes prevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity (P < .001) and by Hispanic subgroup (P < .001). Among participants with less than a high school education, the 5-year trend in diabetes prevalence was highest among Cubans and Cuban Americans (β5YR = 4.8, P = .002), Puerto Ricans (β5YR = 2.2, P = .06), non-Hispanic blacks (β5YR = 2.2, P < .001), and non-Hispanic whites (β5YR = 2.1, P < .001). Among participants with more than a high school education, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest average annual prevalence (5.5%) and Puerto Ricans had the highest 5-year trend in annual diabetes prevalence (β5YR = 2.6, P = .001). Conclusions In this representative sample of US adults, results show ethnic variations in diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes is higher among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic whites, unevenly distributed across Hispanic subgroups, and more pronounced over time and by education. Findings support disaggregation of data for racial/ethnic populations in the United States to monitor trends in diabetes disparities and the use of targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to prevent diabetes. PMID:26796518
Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard; Hawk, Cheryl; Walker, Clark
The aim of this study was to describe use of chiropractic and/or osteopathic manipulation by children in the United States along with the specific health conditions for which they sought care. The study was a secondary data analysis of the National Health Interview Survey 2007, Child Alternative Medicine file as well as the Child Core Sample. National population estimates were generated for reported use of chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (C/OM) by children for specific health conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated from binary logistic regression models that assessed the likelihood that children of specific characteristics would use this therapy. National estimates indicated that 2.3 million children (2.3%) in the United States had used C/OM in 2007. C/OM was the most common complementary and alternative medicine procedure. Children aged 12-18 years were more likely to have seen these providers than were younger age groups (OR=3.4 [95% CI, 2.1-5.5]). Homeopathy (1.2%), massage (1.0), and naturopathy (0.3%) were the next most common procedures. The most common complaints were back and neck pain. Other conditions for which children were seen included other musculoskeletal conditions, sinusitis, allergies, and nonmigraine headaches. Racial categories did not differ significantly regarding use of manipulation, but those children with both mother and father in the household were more likely to have used this form of care (OR=1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.6]). C/OM is primarily used for back and neck pain, which is increasing in prevalence in children. Teens are more likely to use it than are younger children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.
Bardenheier Barbara H
Full Text Available Abstract Background While many Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM practitioners do not object to immunization, some discourage or even actively oppose vaccination among their patients. However, previous studies in this area have focused on childhood immunizations, and it is unknown whether and to what extent CAM practitioners may influence the vaccination behavior of their adult patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vaccination coverage levels of adults aged ≥ 18 years according to their CAM use status and determine if there is an association between CAM use and adult vaccination coverage. Methods Data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, limited to 30,617 adults that provided at least one valid answer to the CAM supplement, were analyzed. Receipt of influenza vaccine during the past 12 months, pneumococcal vaccine (ever, and ≥ 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine was self-reported. Coverage levels for each vaccine by CAM use status were determined for adults who were considered high priority for vaccination because of the presence of a high risk condition and for non-priority adults. Multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between CAM users and vaccination status, adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization characteristics. Results Overall, 36% were recent CAM users. Among priority adults, adjusted vaccination coverage levels were significantly different between recent and non-CAM users for influenza (44% vs 38%; p-value Conclusion Vaccination coverage levels among recent CAM users were found to be higher than non-CAM users. Because CAM use has been increasing over time in the U.S., it is important to continue monitoring CAM use and its possible influence on receipt of immunizations among adults. Since adult vaccination coverage levels remain below Healthy People 2010 goals, it may be beneficial to work with CAM practitioners to promote adult vaccines as preventive services in
Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L
An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Yong Seok; Oh, Dong Keun; Kim, Myungun; Lee, Yoon Seong; Shin, Jwa Seop
To adapt to rapid and turbulent changes in the field of medicine, education, and society, medical school faculties need appropriate leadership. To develop leadership competencies through education, coaching, and mentoring, we need a leadership competency model. The purpose of this study was to develop a new leadership competency model that is suitable for medical school faculties in Korea. To collect behavioral episodes with regard to leadership, we interviewed 54 subjects (faculties, residents, nurses) and surveyed 41 faculties with open-ended questionnaires. We classified the behavioral episodes based on Quinn and Cameron's leadership competency model and developed a Likert scale questionnaire to perform a confirmatory factor analysis. Two hundred seven medical school faculties responded to the questionnaire. The competency clusters that were identified by factor analysis were professionalism, citizenship, leadership, and membership to an organization. Accordingly, each cluster was linked with a dimension: self, society, team (that he/she is leading), and organization (to which he/she belongs). The clusters of competencies were: professional ability, ethics/morality, self-management, self-development, and passion; public interest, networking, social participation, and active service; motivating, caring, promoting teamwork, nurturing, conflict management, directing, performance management, and systems thinking; organizational orientation, collaboration, voluntary participation, and cost-benefit orientation. This competency model that fits medical school faculties in Korea can be used to design and develop selection plans, education programs, feedback tools, diagnostic evaluation tools, and career plan support programs.
Varkey, Prathibha; Peloquin, Joanna; Reed, Darcy; Lindor, Keith; Harris, Ilene
Leaders in medicine have called for transformative changes in healthcare to address systems challenges and improve the health of the public. The purpose of this study was to elicit the perspectives of students, faculty physicians and administrators regarding the knowledge and competencies necessary in an undergraduate leadership curriculum. A mixed-methods study was conducted using focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with faculty physicians and administrative leaders, as well as a written survey of medical student leaders. Twenty-two faculties participated in focus groups and interviews; 21 medical students responded to the written survey. Participants identified emotional intelligence, confidence, humility and creativity as necessary qualities of leaders; and teamwork, communication, management and quality improvement as necessary knowledge and skills. Students perceived themselves as somewhat or fully competent in communication (90%), conflict resolution (70%) and time management (65%), but reported minimal or no knowledge or competence in coding and billing (100%), writing proposals (90%), managed care (85%) and investment principles (85%). Both faculty and students believed that experiential training was the most effective for teaching leadership skills. Study participants identified the necessary qualities, knowledge and skills to serve as goals for an undergraduate leadership curriculum. Future studies should address optimal methods of teaching and assessing leadership skills among medical students.
DeAngelo, Linda; Mason, Jessica; Winters, Dana
Faculty-student interaction is critical for quality undergraduate education. Faculty mentorship provides concrete benefits for students, faculty members, and institutions. However, little is known about the effect of institutional context on mentorship. Using data from interviews of 98 faculty at five different California State University…
Perry, Heather Brodie
Academic librarians need reliable information on the needs of faculty teaching undergraduates about seeking and using information. This study describes information gathered from semistructured interviews of teaching faculty in the sciences from several Boston-area colleges. The interview results provided insight into science faculty attitudes…
María Teresa Ruiz Cantero
Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS desde la perspectiva de géneros, con especial énfasis en la división sexual del trabajo. Métodos: Análisis del contenido de la ENS-2003 desde la perspectiva del género, entendiéndolo como: a base de normas sociales: responsabilidades por sexo, riesgos y problemas de salud según los roles masculinos/femeninos; b organizador de la estructura social: división sexual del trabajo, doble carga, segregación horizontal/vertical, dedicación (horas a tareas según tiempos sociales, acceso a recursos, y c componente de la identidad individual: conflictos por múltiples roles, insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, autoestima, autopercepción, reconocimiento del trabajo, asimilación sexual de género, problemas de salud por diferencias sexuales. Resultados: La ENS gira alrededor del sustentador principal, en masculino. La división sexual del trabajo doméstico se identifica con sólo una pregunta general. Al utilizar el concepto «actividad principal para empleo o trabajo reproductivo», la encuesta induce a valorarla, jerarquizarla y seleccionar una; en consecuencia, se pierde información, lo que dificulta el análisis del impacto de la doble carga en la salud. No se pregunta por horas de trabajo reproductivo y ocio. En una misma pregunta se mezclan agresiones (intencionales y accidentes (no intencionales lo que imposibilita el estudio de la violencia de género. Conclusiones: La ENS recoge la variable sexo, pero su enfoque, más descriptivo que explicativo, limita su perspectiva de género. Se pueden medir situaciones concretas de desigualdad entre hombres y mujeres relativas al trabajo remunerado, pero no es posible determinar completamente otros indicadores de desigualdad social entre ambos sexos, como la situación de las amas de casa y de doble jornada.Objective: To analyze the Spanish National Health Interview Survey (NHIS from a gender perspective, with special emphasis on gender
Amante, Daniel J; Hogan, Timothy P; Pagoto, Sherry L; English, Thomas M; Lapane, Kate L
The insurance mandate of the Affordable Care Act has increased the number of people with health coverage in the United States. There is speculation that this increase in the number of insured could make accessing health care services more difficult. Those who are unable to access care in a timely manner may use the Internet to search for information needed to answer their health questions. The aim was to determine whether difficulty accessing health care services for reasons unrelated to insurance coverage is associated with increased use of the Internet to obtain health information. Survey data from 32,139 adults in the 2011 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) were used in this study. The exposure for this analysis was reporting difficulty accessing health care services or delaying getting care for a reason unrelated to insurance status. To define this exposure, we examined 8 questions that asked whether different access problems occurred during the previous 12 months. The outcome for this analysis, health information technology (HIT) use, was captured by examining 2 questions that asked survey respondents if they used an online health chat room or searched the Internet to obtain health information in the previous 12 months. Several multinomial logistic regressions estimating the odds of using HIT for each reported access difficulty were conducted to accomplish the study objective. Of a survey population of 32,139 adults, more than 15.90% (n=5109) reported experiencing at least one access to care barrier, whereas 3.63% (1168/32,139) reported using online health chat rooms and 43.55% (13,997/32,139) reported searching the Internet for health information. Adults who reported difficulty accessing health care services for reasons unrelated to their health insurance coverage had greater odds of using the Internet to obtain health information. Those who reported delaying getting care because they could not get an appointment soon enough (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.5), were
Murdoch-Kinch, C A; Duff, R E; Ramaswamy, V; Ester, T V; Sponseller, S A; Seeley, J A
The aim of this study was to assess the culture and climate for diversity and inclusion and the humanistic learning environment for students, faculty, and staff at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. From July 2014 to June 2015, two committees of 16 faculty members, staff members, and students, in partnership with trained program evaluators, used a participatory program evaluation (PPE) process to conduct the assessment using key informant interviews, surveys, and focus groups. The topics addressed were humanistic environment, learning environment, diversity and inclusion, microaggressions and bullying, and activities and space. All staff members, all faculty members (both full- and part-time), and all students in all four years were invited to participate in the parallel but distinctive versions of the survey from November 10 to 25, 2014. Response rates for each group were as follows: 50% (318/642) for students, 68% (217/320) for staff, and 40% (147/366) for faculty; numbers responding to individual items varied. Among the respondents, the majority (76% faculty, 67% staff, 80% students) agreed that the environment fostered learning and personal growth and that a humanistic environment was important (97% faculty, 95% staff, 94% students). Many reported having experienced/witnessed a micro-aggression or bullying. Many also reported having "ever had" dissatisfaction with the learning environment (44% faculty, 39% staff, 68% students). The students sought better relationships with the faculty; the staff and faculty members sought opportunities for professional development and mentoring. Recommendations included cultural sensitivity training, courses for interpersonal skills, leadership and team-building efforts, addressing microaggressions and bullying, creating opportunities for collaboration, and increasing diversity of faculty, staff, and students. These recommendations were incorporated into the school's strategic plan. In this study, a utilization
Michael F Schober; Frederick G Conrad; Christopher Antoun; Patrick Ehlen; Stefanie Fail; Andrew L Hupp; Michael Johnston; Lucas Vickers; H Yanna Yan; Chan Zhang
..., administered either by a human interviewer or by an automated interviewing system. 10 interviewers from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center administered voice and text interviews...
Do differentials in the support and advice available at UK schools and colleges influence candidate performance in the medical school admissions interview? A survey of direct school leaver applicants to a UK medical school.
Lambe, Paul; Waters, Catherine; Bristow, David
To our knowledge, nothing is known about whether differentials in support and advice during preparation for the interview influence candidate performance and thereby contribute to bias in selection for medical school. To assess if differences in advice and support with preparation for the medical school admissions interview given type of school last attended influence interview score achieved by direct school leaver applicants to study on an undergraduate UK medical degree course. Confidential self-completed on-line questionnaire survey. Interview performance was positively related to whether a teacher, tutor or career advisors at the School or College last attended had advised a respondent to prepare for the interview, had advised about the various styles of medical interview used and the types of questions asked, and what resources were available to help in preparation. Respondents from Private/Independent schools were more likely than those from State schools to have received such advice and support. Differentials in access to advice on and support with preparation for the medical school interview may advantage some candidates over others. This inequity would likely be ameliorated by the provision of an authoritative and comprehensive guide to applying to medical school outlining admission requirements and the preparation strategy applicants should use in order to best meet those requirements. The guide could be disseminated to the Principals of all UK schools and colleges and freely available electronic versions signposted in medical school prospectuses and the course descriptor on the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service.
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.
This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…
Gidman, Lori Kathleen
The leadership style of academic leaders was studied through the eyes of faculty members. This empirical study looked at faculty perceptions of academic leadership with the use of a numerical survey as the basis for observation. Faculty members at six private liberal arts institutions completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) in…
Gmelch, Walter H.; Wilke, P. Kay
Residential instructional faculty in various disciplines report similar types of stressors in national and international studies. To determine whether this pattern holds for librarians, department chairs, cooperative extension faculty and others, a survey was conducted of the sources of stress across all faculty classifications in one university.…
Tower, Leslie E.; Bowen, Elaine; Alkadry, Mohamad G.
This article provides a snapshot of the perceptions of workplace climate of Extension faculty at a land-grant, research-high activity university, compared with the perceptions of non-Extension faculty at the same university. An online survey was conducted with a validated instrument. The response rate for university faculty was 44% (968); the…
Nahin Richard L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall prevalence of complementary medicine (CM use among adults in the United States with diabetes has been examined both in representative national samples and in more restricted populations. However, none of these earlier studies attempted to identify predictors of CM use to treat diabetes among the populations sampled, nor looked for a relationship between CM use and diabetes severity. Methods Combining data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, we constructed a nationally representative sample of 3,978 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years with self-reported diabetes. Both the 2002 and 2007 NHIS contained extensive questions on the use of CM. We used logistic regression to examine the association between diabetes severity and overall CM use, as well as the use of specific categories of CM. Results In adults with type-2 diabetes, 30.9% used CM for any reason, but only 3.4% used CM to treat or manage their type-2 diabetes versus 7.1% of those with type-1 diabetes. Among those using CM to treat/manage their type-2 diabetes, 77% used both CM and conventional prescription medicine for their diabetes. The most prevalent types of CM therapies used were diet-based interventions (35.19%, S.E. 5.11 and non-vitamin/non-mineral dietary supplements (33.74%, S.E. 5.07. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we found that, based on a count of measures of diabetes severity, persons with the most severe diabetes had nearly twice the odds of using CM as those with less severe disease (OR=1.9, 95%CI 1.2-3.01. Persons who had diabetes 10 years or more (OR=1.66, 95%CI 1.04-3.66 and those that had a functional limitation resulting from their diabetes (OR=1.74, 95%CI 1.09-2.8 had greater odds of using CM than those not reporting these measures. No significant associations were observed between overall CM use and other individual measures of diabetes severity: use of diabetic medications, weak or failing kidneys
Yang, Haiou; Haldeman, Scott; Lu, Ming-Lun; Baker, Dean
Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence of low back pain, to investigate associations between low back pain and a set of emerging workplace risk factors and to identify worker groups with an increased vulnerability for low back pain in the US. Methods The data used for this study came from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was designed to collect data on health conditions and related risk factors obtained from the US civilian population. The variance estimation method was used to compute weighted data for prevalence of low back pain. Multivariable logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and age were performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for low back pain. The examined work-related psychosocial risk factors included work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity. Work hours, occupation and other work organizational factors (non-standard work arrangements and alternative shifts) were also examined. Results The prevalence rate of self-reported low back pain in previous three months among workers in the U.S. was 25.7% in 2010. Female or older workers were at increased risk of experiencing low back pain. We found significant associations between low back pain and a set of psychosocial factors, including work-family imbalance (OR 1.27, CI 1.15–1.41), exposure to hostile work (OR 1.39, CI 1.25–1.55), and job insecurity (OR 1.44, CI 1.24–1.67), while controlling for demographic characteristics and other health related factors. Older workers who had non-standard work arrangements were more likely to report low back pain. Females who worked 41–45 hours per week and younger workers who worked over 60 hours per week had an increased risk for low back pain. Workers from several occupation groups, including, male healthcare practitioners, female and younger healthcare support workers, and female farming, fishing and forestry workers had
Bennett, Linda Rae; Wiweko, Budi; Hinting, Aucky; Adnyana, I B Putra; Pangestu, Mulyoto
Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Indonesia is imperative. The principle objectives of this article are to improve our understanding of infertility patients' patterns of health seeking behaviour and their patterns of access to infertility treatment in Indonesia, in order to highlight the possibilities for improving access. An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 212 female infertility patients recruited through three Indonesian infertility clinics between July and September 2011. Participants were self-selected and data was subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Patients identified a number of barriers to access, including: low confidence in infertility treatment and high rates of switching between providers due to perceived treatment failure; the number and location of clinics; the lack of a well established referral system; the cost of treatment; and patients also experienced fear of receiving a diagnosis of sterility, of vaginal examinations and of embarrassment. Women's age of marriage and the timing of their initial presentation to gynaecologists were not found to be barriers to timely access to infertility care. The findings based on the responses of 212 female infertility patients indicated four key areas of opportunity for improving access to infertility care. Firstly, greater patient education about the nature and progression of infertility care was required among this group of women. Secondly, increased resources in terms of the number and distribution of infertility clinics would
Background Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Indonesia is imperative. The principle objectives of this article are to improve our understanding of infertility patients’ patterns of health seeking behaviour and their patterns of access to infertility treatment in Indonesia, in order to highlight the possibilities for improving access. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 212 female infertility patients recruited through three Indonesian infertility clinics between July and September 2011. Participants were self-selected and data was subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Results Patients identified a number of barriers to access, including: low confidence in infertility treatment and high rates of switching between providers due to perceived treatment failure; the number and location of clinics; the lack of a well established referral system; the cost of treatment; and patients also experienced fear of receiving a diagnosis of sterility, of vaginal examinations and of embarrassment. Women’s age of marriage and the timing of their initial presentation to gynaecologists were not found to be barriers to timely access to infertility care. Conclusions The findings based on the responses of 212 female infertility patients indicated four key areas of opportunity for improving access to infertility care. Firstly, greater patient education about the nature and progression of infertility care was required among this group of women. Secondly, increased resources in terms of the number and
Zhang, Yan; Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Olaniran, Bolanle; Cook, Ronald; Adams, Jon
Health information technology (HIT) is utilized by people with different chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, there has been no comparison of HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs). The aim of the study was to assess the difference in HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and with MCCs, to describe the characteristics of HIT use among those with chronic conditions and to identify the predictors of HIT use of the persons with one chronic condition and MCCs. A secondary data analysis was conducted in spring 2017 using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2012 Family Core and Sample Adult Core datasets that yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included overall HIT use (ie, any use of the following five HIT on the Internet: seeking health information, ordering prescription, making appointment, emailing health provider, and using health chat groups), as well as sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Sociodemographic and health characteristics were compared between HIT users and nonusers among those who reported having at least one chronic condition using chi-square tests. Independent predictors of HIT use were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses for those with one chronic condition, with MCCs, and without a chronic condition. Analyses were weighted and performed at significance level of .005. In 2012, adults with one health chronic condition (raw count 4147/8551, weighted percentage 48.54%) was significantly higher than among those with MCCs (3816/9637, 39.55%) and those with none of chronic condition (7254/16,337, 44.40%, P<.001). Seeking health information was the most prevalent HIT use. Chi-square tests revealed that among adults with chronic conditions, those who used HIT were significantly different from their counterpart peers who did not use HIT
Harrison, Brenda LaJoyce
This study explored the issues of student-faculty interaction and faculty caring as experienced by Black students attending a Predominantly White Institution in a Mid-western urban city. Specifically, the study reviewed the questions related to student-faculty engagement as posed on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This study used…
Flynn, Natalie P.
This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their
Markert, Ronald J.; Shores, Jay H.
The reliability and difficulty level of faculty interviewing of applicants to the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine are assessed. An index is proposed for classifying interviewers, along with a point system for assuring fairness in assigning interviewers. Tabular data are included. (MSE)
Parham, E S; Benes, B A
To determine the development needs of foodservice management (FSM) faculty originally prepared in other fields. Application of qualitative research methodologies to description and comparison of the perspective of three groups: faculty themselves, leaders in foodservice industry, and educators in advanced-degree programs. Purposive sampling of organization directories was used to recruit faculty members for two surveys (142 and 62 respondents) and four focus groups; 15 representatives from industry, professional organizations, and education (through an advisory committee); and 11 foodservice administration advanced-degree programs (through survey and study of program catalogs). Faculty competencies needed were compared from the three perspectives. Descriptive statistics plus chi 2 determinations were used to make comparisons. All three sources identified needs that could be classified into one of three groups: acquisition of theory, mastery of applications, and personal qualities. Theoretical groundwork needed included food science/quantity food production, financial and personnel management, marketing, customer satisfaction, and use of computer and other technologies. Although only 44% of faculty respondents had advanced degrees in FSM, their graduate study in other areas was applicable in meeting many of the competencies. Almost all faculty had some FSM industry experience-a high priority from all perspectives. Most faculty were involved in development activities and reported success in acquiring knowledge and application competence. The faculty members' lack of identification with FSM and their feelings of isolation were more problematic.
Blizard, Lida Marie
This mixed methods study was conducted at a Canadian University in 2012, using an online survey and individual interviews to explore faculty members’ perceived experiences of having aggressive, intimidating, defaming, or threatening message(s) sent to them or about them by students via electronic media. Limited empirical research on this issue within the context of higher education led the researcher to draw from literature on workplace bullying, academic bullying, and K-12 sector cyberbullyi...
Elif Bugra KUZU DEMIR; MERCIMEK, Baris; DULKADIR YAMAN, Nihal; H. Ferhan ODABASI
This paper focuses on the findings of an exploratory, qualitative phenomenological study and investigates opinions and evaluations of faculty members about trolls encountered in social media and mass medium. The research was carried out in Anadolu University in Turkey. A total of 18 faculty members from 9 faculties in 12 different departments responded to 4 interview questions. Faculty members' views on trolls were elicited through 2 rounds of semi-structured focus group interviews. Find...
Full Text Available The structure of the interview day affects applicant interactions with faculty and residents, which can influence the applicant’s rank list decision. We aimed to determine if there was a difference in matched residents between those interviewing on a day on which didactics were held and had increased resident and faculty presence (didactic day versus an interview day with less availability for applicant interactions with residents and faculty (non-didactic day. This was a retrospective study reviewing interview dates of matched residents from 2009-2015. Forty-two (61.8% matched residents interviewed on a didactic day with increased faculty and resident presence versus 26 (38.2% on a non-didactic interview day with less availability for applicant interactions (p = 0.04. There is an association between interviewing on a didactic day with increased faculty and resident presence and matching in our program.
Spijkerman, R.; Knibbe, R.A.; Knoops, K.; Mheen, H. van de; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den
Aims Rather than using the traditional, costly method of personal interviews in a general population sample, substance-use prevalence rates can be derived more conveniently from data collected among members of an online access panel. To examine the utility of this method, we compared the outcomes of
Dr. Myra C. Britiller
Full Text Available The study determined the predictors of job satisfaction of faculty members of Al Ghad International College for Health Sciences. Demographic characteristics such as age, civil status, educational attainment and length of experience and the level of job satisfaction in terms of intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors and general factors were assessed. Significant correlation between these variables and predictors of the level of job satisfactions were identified. This study is a descriptive correlational survey involving faculty members from female Dammam, KSA campus who have stayed in the said college for one year. Intrinsic, Extrinsic and General Job Satisfaction Scale of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ and open-ended interview were the primary tools utilized for data collection. The results of the study revealed educational attainment as the demographic characteristic significant to all job satisfaction scale: intrinsic, extrinsic and general factors. The predictors of the level of job satisfaction of faculty members are the intrinsic factors focused on meaningful use of time at work, collegial relationship, work values, chances and opportunities and work independence. The study concluded the importance of work cohesion and collaboration, work independence and values among faculty members. Salary and quality of tasks performed is regarded as essential components of the overall satisfaction of faculty members. Managerial implications were also endorsed defining the importance of involvement of the human resource department.
Cassidy, Wanda; Jackson, Margaret
This paper offers a qualitative thematic analysis of the impacts of cyberbullying on post-secondary students, faculty, and administrators from four participating Canadian universities. These findings were drawn from data obtained from online surveys of students and faculty, student focus groups, and semi-structured interviews with faculty members and university administrators. The key themes discussed include: negative affect, impacts on mental and physical health, perceptions of self, impacts regarding one’s personal and professional lives, concern for one’s safety, and the impact of authorities’ (non) response. Students reported primarily being cyberbullied by other students, while faculty were cyberbullied by both students and colleagues. Although students and faculty represent different age levels and statuses at the university, both groups reported similar impacts and similar frustrations at finding solutions, especially when their situations were reported to authorities. It is important that universities pay greater attention to developing effective research-based cyberbullying policies and to work towards fostering a more respectful online campus culture. PMID:28786941
Doyle, Nancy; Jacobs, Karen; Ryan, Cathryn
E-mentoring is a viable option for mentoring students in occupational therapy educational programs. The objective of this study was to investigate faculty perspectives of faculty-to-student e-mentoring in an online post-professional doctor of occupational therapy program. In a retrospective mixed-method design, nine faculty members described features and outcomes of e-mentoring 48 doctoral students. Online survey results were analysed quantitatively for descriptive statistics; transcripts from structured interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that successful, satisfactory e-mentoring is student-centered, flexible, frequent, academically and psychosocially supportive; faculty members must be skilled in adapting e-mentoring to the needs and objectives of each mentee; e-mentoring provides opportunities for faculty members and students to achieve academic and professional objectives and growth. The findings suggest that implementation of e-mentoring may be a useful model in other occupational therapy programs. There is a need for future studies with broader participant pool, observable measures of e-mentoring, standardized measures of satisfaction and success and comparison between e-mentoring with and without web camera. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thawabieh, Ahmad M.
This study aimed to investigate how students evaluate their faculty and the effect of gender, expected grade, and college on students' evaluation. The study sample consisted of 5291 students from Tafila Technical University Faculty evaluation scale was used to collect data. The results indicated that student evaluation of faculty was high (mean =…
Amos, Kimberly S.
In recent years, nursing faculty incivility has been a searing topic of research. Nursing research included studies on incivility among nursing students, incivility between nursing students and nursing faculty, and incivility in the clinical setting. However, literature specifically on nursing faculty incivility was limited. This descriptive,…
Kennedy, James E.
A survey of the tenure status of clinical dental faculty, faculty turnover rates, sources of new faculty, and future projections are discussed. Projections indicate a lower turnover rate, increased tenure denial, more stringent application of criteria, and the development of dual tracks for clinical dental faculty. (MLW)
Banks, James W., III; Mainous, Arch G., III
A survey of 248 University of Kentucky medical school faculty investigated attitudes toward American Medical Association policy concerning gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. Faculty generally agreed with the guidelines but felt gifts did not influence prescribing behaviors. PhD faculty favored more prescriptive policy than did MD faculty.…
Tran, Clara Y.; Lyon, Jennifer A.
This cross-sectional survey focused on faculty use and knowledge of author identifiers and researcher networking systems, and professional use of social media, at a large state university. Results from 296 completed faculty surveys representing all disciplines (9.3% response rate) show low levels of awareness and variable resource preferences. The…
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.
A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…
The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine faculty perceptions on international students with respect to benefits and challenges of having them in a liberal arts university located in Istanbul, Turkey. The research data were collected through evaluation of pertinent documents of the school and interviews with sixteen faculty members…
Neal-Barnett, Angela; Mitchell, Michelle; Boeltar, Christina
Describes a program called the Psychology Group, in which faculty of color assist students of color in preparing for the graduate application and interview process, utilizing coaching and mentoring. Focuses on the pilot project and the project outcomes. (CMK)
Charissa K. Eaton, PhD
Full Text Available Research has commonly suggested that adequate and appropriate mentoring and faculty perception of support for a work-life balance are important factors in the recruitment, development, and retention of university faculty. To better understand the role of these factors in faculty job performance at teaching universities, faculty from such a university were surveyed about their experiences with these forms of support and the factors that influenced their perception of the ability to do their job well. Results indicate that faculty mentoring was an important predictor for support at the department level. Additionally, perceived work-life balance was a significant factor at the college and university levels.
Evaluating measurement invariance across assessment modes of phone interview and computer self-administered survey for the PROMIS measures in a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors.
Wang, Mian; Chen, Ronald C; Usinger, Deborah S; Reeve, Bryce B
To evaluate measurement invariance (phone interview vs computer self-administered survey) of 15 PROMIS measures responded by a population-based cohort of localized prostate cancer survivors. Participants were part of the North Carolina Prostate Cancer Comparative Effectiveness and Survivorship Study. Out of the 952 men who took the phone interview at 24 months post-treatment, 401 of them also completed the same survey online using a home computer. Unidimensionality of the PROMIS measures was examined using single-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models. Measurement invariance testing was conducted using longitudinal CFA via a model comparison approach. For strongly or partially strongly invariant measures, changes in the latent factors and factor autocorrelations were also estimated and tested. Six measures (sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, diarrhea, illness impact-negative, illness impact-positive, and global satisfaction with sex life) had locally dependent items, and therefore model modifications had to be made on these domains prior to measurement invariance testing. Overall, seven measures achieved strong invariance (all items had equal loadings and thresholds), and four measures achieved partial strong invariance (each measure had one item with unequal loadings and thresholds). Three measures (pain interference, interest in sexual activity, and global satisfaction with sex life) failed to establish configural invariance due to between-mode differences in factor patterns. This study supports the use of phone-based live interviewers in lieu of PC-based assessment (when needed) for many of the PROMIS measures.
Narayan, Aditee P; Whicker, Shari A; Benjamin, Robert W; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A
Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non-tablet-based teaching modalities. We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non-tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value.
Fisher, Amy K; Mackey, Tomiko D; Langendoen, Carol; Barnard, Marie
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of child race and interviewer race on forensic interviewing outcomes. The results of the regression analysis indicated that child race and interviewer race had a significant effect on interview outcome category (no findings, inconclusive, or findings consistent with sexual abuse). Furthermore, the results indicate that the interaction of child and interviewer race had predictive value for rates of findings consistent with sexual abuse but not in the direction predicted. Cross-race dyads had significantly higher rates of interview outcomes consistent with sexual abuse. These findings suggest that more research into the effect of race on disclosure of child sexual abuse is needed.
Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014
The Center for Community College Student Engagement encourages colleges to hold focus groups with part-time and full-time faculty to learn about differences in the faculty and their experience at their college and to complement survey data. Survey responses tell the "what" about faculty's experiences; through conducting focus groups,…
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Smith, Deborah B; Overman, Pamela R; Bunce, Larry
Most dental school faculty members arrive on campus with a wealth of clinical experience but little to no teacher training. For the past two decades, there has been a call for schools to educate their faculty on a wide variety of topics including educational methodology and cutting-edge educational techniques through faculty development programs. Drawing on theories of general program evaluation as well as evaluation specific to educational programming, the aim of this study was to investigate outcomes of the Faculty Development Program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry between 2007 and 2014. A mixed-methods research design gathered quantitative data via email survey sent to all eligible teaching faculty members; it received an overall response rate of 54% (N=51). Qualitative data came from open-ended survey questions and a focus group with seven volunteer faculty participants. The survey data suggested that the stated outcomes of faculty development were being met for all stakeholder groups with varying degrees of success. Focus group results indicated a need for a more formal new faculty orientation and better communication with all about the specific charge of faculty development within the school. Evaluation of faculty development activities in academic dental institutions is a necessary component of the ongoing improvement of dental education. Suggestions for future evaluations include the idea of collaborating with other dental schools to increase sample sizes, which would increase participants' perception of the level of confidentiality and make statistical analyses more robust.
Anne M. Casey
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories (IRs provide colleges and universities a way to ensure stability of access to and dissemination of digital scholarly communications. Yet, many institutions report that faculty willingness to contribute to IRs is often limited. This study investigates faculty attitudes about IR contributions by tenure status and category of material. METHODS Two focus group interviews were conducted in the spring of 2009 among English department faculty at a large Midwestern university. One group consisted of tenured faculty and the other of tenure-track and adjunct faculty. RESULTS Both groups recognize the benefit of open access to research materials but expressed concern about their intellectual property rights. Untenured faculty spoke more about nonprint research. Both groups also shared concerns about contributing instructional materials, primarily in regard to plagiarism and outdated materials. In regard to faculty service, the tenured group discussed many items they would contribute, while the untenured faculty mentioned very little. DISCUSSION Some minor differences emerged related to experience and tenure status in regard to contributing research and instructional artifacts, but the major variation was the strong support tenured participants gave for contributing service items, compared to the untenured faculty, who did not view this category positively. Tenured faculty viewed the IR as a way to document their own service activities, investigate those of colleagues, and had fewer concerns about plagiarism or other negative effects in the service category. CONCLUSION Promoting faculty contribution of service-related items to an IR may be a way to encourage larger numbers to participate.
Arving, Cecilia; Wadensten, Barbro; Johansson, Birgitta
Purpose of the research was to describe registered nurses' (RNs) (n = 53) thoughts on the blended learning format in a 'specialist nursing programme in cancer care'. The study was conducted in autumn 2007 and 2008. A content analysis of answers to open-ended questions in a web-based questionnaire and a focus group interview were carried out. The analysis revealed that the RNs appreciated blended learning. The web lectures facilitated learning and gave RNs access to the education at any time. However, according to the RNs, knowledge is gained through interaction between RNs and teachers, and this aspect needed to be improved. The RNs also thought that the content of the seminars on campus should focus on evidence-based nursing knowledge and practical skills, not just taught as stable facts and procedures. The result from the present study could help to improve the design and content of advanced nursing courses using a blended learning format.
Mack, Michael R.; Towns, Marcy H.
We report the results of a phenomenographic analysis of faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching upper-division physical chemistry courses in the undergraduate curriculum. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to recruit a diverse group of faculty for interviews. Collectively, the participating faculty regularly teach or have taught…
Full Text Available This article analyzes 21 in-depth interviews of engineering and atmospheric science faculty at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC to determine faculty data management practices and needs within the context of their research activities. A detailed literature review of previous large-scale and institutional surveys and interviews revealed that researchers have a broad awareness of data-sharing mandates of federal agencies and journal publishers and a growing acceptance, with some concerns, of the value of data-sharing. However, the disciplinary differences in data management needs are significant and represent a set of challenges for libraries in setting up consistent and successful services. In addition, faculty have not yet significantly changed their data management practices to conform with the mandates. The interviews focused on current research projects and funding sources, data types and format, the use of disciplinary and institutional repositories, data-sharing, their awareness of university library data management and preservation services, funding agency review panel experiences, and struggles or challenges with managing research data. In general, the interviews corroborated the trends identified in the literature. One clear observation from the interviews was that scientists and engineers take a holistic view of the research lifecycle and treat data as one of many elements in the scholarly communication workflow. Data generation, usage, storage, and sharing are an integrated aspect of a larger scholarly workflow, and are not necessarily treated as a separate entity. Acknowledging this will allow libraries to develop programs that better integrate data management support into scholarly communication instruction and training.
Full Text Available This study focused on the factors that affect motivation of faculty in Saudi Arabia. It included two surveys and open-ended queries to a focus group of five academic managers and 25 faculty members of varying nationalities, rank, and institutes in Saudi Arabia. The research showed that the faculties in Saudi Arabia’s higher education industry feel disconnected from the program development. The faculty members did not feel motivated to participate in the development and improvement of the academic program due to: (a lack of monetary and non-monetary incentives, (b management not involving faculty in decision-making, and (c lack of recognition and moral support. However, the faculties were intrinsically motivated to perform their best within the confines of the classroom. The results of the study indicated that there was a greater interest in intrinsic motivation as a personal measure for success inside the classroom, but extrinsic motivation was a factor that needed greater improvement from the management of the universities for faculty to partake in development of the program. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i4.211
Full Text Available To design and deliver meaningful professional development programs for faculty who teach online, the unit responsible for these activities should have a clear idea of what content participants might find most beneficial to their practice, as well as what can improve instructor and student satisfaction. Using an online survey, this study explored the perceptions of 314 faculty members at a mid-southern university as they relate to the online environment and institutional factors, personal factors, and student engagement and active learning. Faculty reported high levels of satisfaction with the accessibility of their courses and the technical support they receive, but reported lower levels of satisfaction with the effectiveness of online communication tools. The results also revealed a significant difference in how faculty rated their satisfaction with student engagement and active learning based on their level of experience, indicating that alternative approaches to faculty development might be necessary for those new to online teaching and learning.
Kennerly, S M
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among administrative leadership behaviors, organizational characteristics, and faculty job satisfaction in baccalaureate nursing programs of private colleges. A two-part survey technique included 1) the collection of organizational data from the dean/chair of each nursing program, and 2) the rating of leadership behavior of the dean/chair and faculty job satisfaction by nurse faculty. Fifty-three percent of eligible programs and 77% of nurse faculty participated in the study. The findings indicated that the leadership behaviors of consideration and initiating structure were positively related to nurse faculty job satisfaction. The number of nurse faculty and the number of students in the college were identified as variables moderating the relationship between leadership behavior and job satisfaction. The emergence of a unique pattern of high consideration and high initiating structure leadership behaviors provides a basis for reexamining alternatives to promote the overall job satisfaction of nurse faculty.
Results of a survey of academic faculty in a large urban university indicate that drug use does not appear to differ compared with the general population. Faculty use slightly more alcohol and marijuana. (Author)
Turnwald, G H; Spafford, M M; Edwards, J C
be health care faculty members (e.g., veterinarians at a veterinary school). Interviewers receive limited training. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCREASING INTERVIEW RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY: The purpose(s) of the interview must be clearly articulated so that the interview and interviewer training can be designed to achieve that purpose. Interview structure should be increased by developing a "job analysis" set of questions that is posed to all candidates and scored using behavioral anchors. Interviewers should receive more training in rater bias, listening skills, and interview structure. Panel interviews should be used to increase reliability. Interviewers should not have access to the candidate's application unless the interview is used to verify information. To increase the utility of the interview in the selection process, the weight of the interview in relation to other selection components should be determined.
MacLennan, Steven; Bekema, Hendrika J; Williamson, Paula R; Campbell, Marion K; Stewart, Fiona; MacLennan, Sara J; N'Dow, James M O; Lam, Thomas B L
Prostate cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. The management of localised prostate cancer is controversial. It is unclear which of several surgical, radiotherapeutic, ablative, and surveillance treatments is the most effective. All have cost, process and recovery, and morbidity implications which add to treatment decision-making complexity for patients and healthcare professionals. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal because of uncertainty as to what constitutes important outcomes. Another issue hampering evidence synthesis is heterogeneity of outcome definition, measurement, and reporting. This project aims to determine which outcomes are the most important to patients and healthcare professionals, and use these findings to recommend a standardised core outcome set for comparative effectiveness trials of treatments for localised prostate cancer, to optimise decision-making. The range of potentially important outcomes and measures will be identified through systematic reviews of the literature and semi-structured interviews with patients. A consultation exercise involving representatives from two key stakeholder groups (patients and healthcare professionals) will ratify the list of outcomes to be entered into a three round Delphi study. The Delphi process will refine and prioritise the list of identified outcomes. A methodological substudy (nested RCT design) will also be undertaken. Participants will be randomised after round one of the Delphi study to one of three feedback groups, based on different feedback strategies, in order to explore the potential impact of feedback strategies on participant responses. This may assist the design of a future core outcome set and Delphi studies. Following the Delphi study, a final consensus meeting attended by representatives from both stakeholder groups will determine the final recommended core outcome set. This study will inform clinical practice and future trials of interventions of
Parker, Loran Carleton; Gleichsner, Alyssa M; Adedokun, Omolola A; Forney, James
Transformation of research in all biological fields necessitates the design, analysis and, interpretation of large data sets. Preparing students with the requisite skills in experimental design, statistical analysis, and interpretation, and mathematical reasoning will require both curricular reform and faculty who are willing and able to integrate mathematical and statistical concepts into their life science courses. A new Faculty Learning Community (FLC) was constituted each year for four years to assist in the transformation of the life sciences curriculum and faculty at a large, Midwestern research university. Participants were interviewed after participation and surveyed before and after participation to assess the impact of the FLC on their attitudes toward teaching, perceived pedagogical skills, and planned teaching practice. Overall, the FLC had a meaningful positive impact on participants' attitudes toward teaching, knowledge about teaching, and perceived pedagogical skills. Interestingly, confidence for viewing the classroom as a site for research about teaching declined. Implications for the creation and development of FLCs for science faculty are discussed. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):517-525, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Wise, Nancy; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah
This focus group study was undertaken as part of a larger investigation of how the demand for increased production of nurses with doctorates affects doctoral faculty's scholarly productivity. This study provided a basis for development of the national survey questionnaire. Two focus groups that included 29 faculty teaching in doctor of philosophy and/or doctor of nursing practice programs took place at one of two national conferences. The focus group interviews were transcribed and content analyzed for the identification of themes; all members of the research team reached consensus. The three major themes were the demands of teaching, the importance of institutional structure and climate, and the sustainability of one's self, the institution, and the discipline. Participants identified strategies for enhancing scholarly productivity. Findings are limited by the small sample size and the voluntary participation of conference attendees. The strength of emotion that participants revealed underscores the need for nursing leaders to address the increasing academic expectations for faculty. If the profession does not address the needs of its current and future faculty, goals explicated by the Institute of Medicine in The Future of Nursing cannot be achieved, and the health of the nation will suffer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K
Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.
Faculty activism is an integral part of shared governance in higher education institutions, yet little is known about the dynamics that underlie this activism. Using oral history interviews with 30 faculty members working to secure lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-supportive policies on their respective campuses, this article identifies reasons the faculty members became involved in this advocacy, types of advocacy in which they engaged, factors associated with engaging in advocacy, and challenges facing these faculty advocates. Specific dynamics facing LGBT faculty are discussed, and predictions are made for the future of faculty advocacy on LGBT campus policy issues.
Thiesen, Guilherme; de Ara?jo, Telma Martins; Freitas, Maria Perp?tua Mota; da Motta, Alexandre Trindade Sim?es
It gives me great pleasure to interview Dr. Hyeon-Shik Hwang, an innovative orthodontist who has developed many creative techniques over his career. Dr. Hwang was born in Korea and received his DDS and PhD degrees from Yonsei University in Seoul. He is professor and chairman of the Department of Orthodontics at Chonnam National University School of Dentistry, Gwangju, Korea. Dr. Hwang, as a faculty at the university hospital, has maintained a successful clinical practice for more than 25 year...
This report describes and explores the impact of a series of faculty-led faculty development programs underpinned by principles of distributed educational leadership. We aimed to prepare faculty for their roles as facilitators and assessors in a newly implemented problem-based (PBL) graduate entry medical program. We asked participants attending a series of faculty development programs to evaluate workshops attended using an in-house designed survey. Overall descriptive statistics for all workshops and qualitative feedback for PBL workshops alone were examined. It was concluded that clinical faculty who are not specialized in medical education can offer high-quality, well-accepted training for their peers. Faculty development, underpinned by a distributed leadership approach which supports learning organization tenets, imaginative, flexible and democratic approaches to developing and nurturing expertise at all levels of the organization, is likely to lead to improvements in medical education. Despite the limitations of the survey approach to evaluation of faculty development programs, the information provided is useful both as a basis for decision making and program improvement.
Bataille, Gretchen M.
In this article, the author asserts that a one-size-fits-all approach to hiring and retaining faculty members is no longer acceptable. She argues that the key to successful economic recovery is adapting to the needs of a new generation of faculty while still addressing those of current professors. Universities have the means and creativity to find…
Criswell, John R., II; Zhu, Hao
The internationalization of higher education has been the subject of a substantial body of research. However, few studies have examined how faculty members, significant implementers of internationalization, think about internationalization priorities. This article presents the results of a questionnaire which was sent to faculty members at three…
Van Ummersen, Claire; Duranleau, Lauren; McLaughlin, Jean
It has been almost ten years since the American Council on Education (ACE) began to raise awareness of the importance of workplace flexibility in faculty careers and to encourage colleges and universities to support faculty in better integrating their professional and personal lives. With the generous support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ACE…
Gazza, Elizabeth A; Shellenbarger, Teresa
Hiring part-time nursing faculty may impact students, faculty careers, and the institution. Yet, little has been studied, particularly in nursing, regarding the experiences of these faculty. This hermeneutic phenomenological study seeks to understand the lived experience of being a part-time faculty member in a baccalaureate nursing program. Through purposive and snowball sampling, nine nursing faculty in part-time positions in northeastern baccalaureate nursing programs participated in in-depth personal interviews. Four themes were uncovered during data analysis, including achieving the dream, a group divided, for the love of the students, and jump in and figure it out. Results of the study seem to indicate that the experience of being a part-time faculty differs in several ways from being a full-time faculty. Understanding part-time faculty experiences provides insight into faculty needs, issues, and concerns while facilitating the development of research-based recruitment and retention strategies. Recommendations for those involved in nursing education, including nursing faculty and administrators, are provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Evaluation plays a central role in teaching in that physician-faculty theoretically use evaluations from clinical learners to inform their teaching. Knowledge about how physician-faculty access and internalize feedback from learners is sparse and concerning given its importance in medical training. This study aims to broaden our understanding. Using multiple data sources, this cross-sectional qualitative case study conducted in Spring of 2014 explored the internalization of learner feedback among physician-faculty teaching medical students, residents and fellows at a southwest academic medical center. Twelve one-on-one interviews were triangulated with observation notes and a national survey. Thematic and document analysis was conducted. Results revealed that the majority accessed and reviewed evaluations about their teaching. Most admitted not using learner feedback to inform teaching while a quarter did use them. Factors influencing participants use or disuse of learner feedback were the a reporting metrics and mechanisms, and b physician-faculty perception of learner credibility. Physician-faculty did not regard learners’ ability to assess and recognize effective teaching skills highly. To refine feedback for one-on-one teaching in the clinical setting, recommendations by study participants include: a redesigning of evaluation reporting metrics and narrative sections, and b feedback rubric training for learners.
Dankoski, Mary E; Palmer, Megan M; Nelson Laird, Thomas F; Ribera, Amy K; Bogdewic, Stephen P
Many faculty in today's academic medical centers face high levels of stress and low career satisfaction. Understanding faculty vitality is critically important for the health of our academic medical centers, yet the concept is ill-defined and lacking a comprehensive model. Expanding on previous research that examines vital faculty in higher education broadly and in academic medical centers specifically, this study proposes an expanded model of the unique factors that contribute to faculty vitality in academic medicine. We developed an online survey on the basis of a conceptual model (N = 564) and used linear regression to investigate the fit of the model. We examined the relationships of two predictor variables measuring Primary Unit Climate and Leadership and Career and Life Management with an overall Faculty Vitality index comprised of three measures: Professional Engagement, Career Satisfaction, and Productivity. The findings revealed significant predictive relationships between Primary Unit Climate and Leadership, Career and Life Management, and Faculty Vitality. The overall model accounted for 59% of the variance in the overall Faculty Vitality Index. The results provide new insights into the developing model of faculty vitality and inform initiatives to support faculty in academic medical centers. Given the immense challenges faced by faculty, now more than ever do we need reliable evidence regarding what sustains faculty vitality.
Pastore, Donna L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the merit and applicability of the mid-career faculty development model proposed by Baldwin and Chang (2006). A total of 7 associate and 10 full professors participated in semi-structured interviews. Categories were developed from an inductive analysis. The results showed positive support for the model…
Corbin, Saladin K. T.
This study examined the role perceptions of full-time faculty members at a large mid-Atlantic community college, focusing on role conflicts and levels of job satisfaction. One hundred and seventy-seven faculty members responded to surveys, and 20 participated in four focus groups organized according to race and gender, which yielded descriptive…
Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie
The current study developed when new faculty members spontaneously reported discrete emotions during focus groups exploring the factors affecting their success. Qualitative analysis using the framework of Pekrun's control-value theory of emotions revealed 18 different emotions with varying frequencies. A follow-up survey of 79 new faculty members…
Black, Laurel Johnson; Wygonik, Mindy L.; Frey, Barbara A.
The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and seriousness of disruptive student behaviors and the effective strategies used by educators to manage these classroom behaviors. At a mid-sized state university, 228 of 780 faculty members (29.2%) completed a 76-item survey. Results indicated that as faculty members' participation in…
This study examines results from a survey of architecture faculty across the United States investigating information-seeking behavior and perceptions of library services. Faculty were asked to rank information sources they used for research, teaching, and creativity within their discipline. Sources were ranked similarly across these activities,…
Walter, Katherine Ott; Paulo, Jonathan R.; Polacek, Georgia N. L. J.
Alcohol use among college students continues to be a major public health threat to our nation. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in alcohol education and prevention. The researchers adapted the Core Faculty and Staff Environmental Alcohol and Other Drug Survey to include only questions…
Molluzzo, John C.; Lawler, James P.
Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents continue to be featured frequently in the news. The authors of this study compare the perceptions of faculty and students on cyberbullying at an urban university. From the findings of surveys distributed to faculty and students in all schools of the university,…
Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Syed, Makhdoom Ali; Rahman, Farah
This paper was aimed to investigate the levels of satisfaction among faculty members in higher education in Pakistan. Five hundred faculty members were surveyed from leading public and private universities through an instrument developed by the authors and 450 were completed and returned. Percentage method was used to analyze and interpret data.…
Bigatti, Sylvia M.; Gibau, Gina Sanchez; Boys, Stephanie; Grove, Kathy; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie; Khaja, Khadiji; Springer, Jennifer Thorington
As college graduates face an increasingly globalized world, it is imperative to consider issues of multicultural instruction in higher education. This study presents qualitative and quantitative findings from a survey of faculty at a large, urban, midwestern university regarding perceptions of multicultural teaching. Faculty were asked how they…
Matier, Michael W.
A review and synthesis of the literature on factors influencing faculty decisions to leave an institution are presented. From this review, Lazarsfeld and Rosenberg's "empirical analysis of action" methodology was selected as the foundation for a survey of 37 Arts and Sciences faculty, for whom the response rate was 51%. Each received a…
Blau, Gary; Kunkle, Matthew; Mittal, Neha; Rivera, Michael; Ozkan, Bora
Dealing with academic dishonesty remains an ongoing issue for business school faculty. In this study, using an online survey, the authors examined responses of 233 business school faculty from a Tier 1 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited university and measured their perceptions of undergraduate cheating and reporting…
Braxton, John M.; Lyken-Segosebe, Dawn
This chapter describes the findings from a national survey of community college faculty. With the lens of Boyer's Domains of Scholarship applied to these findings, a more fine-grained and accurate assessment of the engagement of community college faculty members in scholarship emerges.
LaPan, Chantell; Hodge, Camilla; Peroff, Deidre; Henderson, Karla A.
The number of women in higher education is growing. Yet, challenges exist for female faculty in the academy. The purpose of this study is to examine the strategies used by female faculty in parks, recreation, sport, tourism,and leisure programs as they negotiate their careers in higher education. Data were collected using an online survey that was…
Enders, Felicity; West, Colin P.; Dyrbye, Liselotte; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff
Burnout is increasingly recognized as a problem in the workplace--30% to 50% of physicians experience burnout, but no assessment of burnout has been done among healthcare research faculty. A cross-sectional survey of burnout, quality of life, and related factors was sent to all doctoral-level faculty in a large department of healthcare research.…
Chen, Yining; Nixon, Mary R.; Gupta, Ashok; Hoshower, Leon
This study surveyed 367 accounting faculty members from AACSB accredited Colleges of Business to examine (1) their research productivity and (2) the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to conduct research. Wide differences in research productivity were observed in the faculty associated with doctoral vs. non-doctoral granting programs. There were…
Curtis, John W.; Mahabir, Cynthia; Vitullo, Margaret Weigers
The large majority of faculty members teaching in community colleges are employed on a part-time basis, yet little is known about their working conditions and professional engagement. This article uses data from a recent national survey of faculty members teaching sociology in community colleges to provide this information, with particular…
Full Text Available Background: Although low back pain (LBP represents a significant occupational problem for hospital nurses, few investigations target nurses for low back pain and its association with the personal and work-related factors in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on 245 nursing personnel (registered nurses, nursing aides, operating room technicians, anesthesiology technicians working full time for at least 1 month at 4 hospitals. Data were collected by modified Nordic questionnaire and interview followed by clinical examination. c2, Mantel and logistic regression statistical tests were used. Results: The 12-month period-prevalence of LBP was 49.9 % (95%CI 43-55/8. In this study 51(21/7% males and 184(78/3% females participated that mean age of them was 32 years .The prevalence of back pain increased with increasing age. There was no differences between the sexes, but more prevalence was observed in the married ones than singles. Odds ratio of LBP was increased 2/2 times with BMI higher than 27kg/m2. In this study the relationship between cumulative duration of employment in nursing job, duration of employment in present ward and manual handling and back pain was significant statistically. Conclusion: LBP is high among nurses. For prevention of LBP, ergonomic program, lifting team, correct lifting technique and wider research with taking into account LBP psychosocial factors and work task are suggested.
Berent, Georgine R; Anderko, Laura
Researchers have explored reasons why nurse faculty leave academia, but few have focused on factors that encourage them to stay. Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory, an online cross-sectional survey was completed by 1,171 tenured nurse faculty nationwide. Factor analysis revealed that the most significant factor influencing retention was professional satisfaction with faculty identity, including the ability to shape nursing practice. Academia may benefit by considering these factors to promote nurse faculty retention. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
S. B. McKagan
Full Text Available The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS is a 12-question survey of students’ conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included observations of students, a review of previous literature and textbooks and syllabi, faculty and student interviews, and statistical analysis. We also discuss issues in the development of specific questions, which may be useful both for instructors who wish to use the QMCS in their classes and for researchers who wish to conduct further research of student understanding of quantum mechanics. The QMCS has been most thoroughly tested in, and is most appropriate for assessment of (as a posttest only, sophomore-level modern physics courses. We also describe testing with students in junior quantum courses and graduate quantum courses, from which we conclude that the QMCS may be appropriate for assessing junior quantum courses, but is not appropriate for assessing graduate courses. One surprising result of our faculty interviews is a lack of faculty consensus on what topics should be taught in modern physics, which has made designing a test that is valued by a majority of physics faculty more difficult than expected.
Petersen, Kit Stender
do not merely refer to passive entities but must be understood as matter that matters. To illustrate my points I will analyse how bringing a puppet with me to interviews with 4-6 year old children seemed to interfere with the interview situation creating unforeseen diversions in ways that influenced......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...
Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people
Zazulia, Allyson R; Goldhoff, Patricia
Technological advances have diminished reliance on classroom attendance for mastering preclinical medical school course content, but nonattendance may have unintended consequence on the learning environment. Perceptions among educators and students regarding the value of attendance and implications of nonattendance have not been systematically studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in medical student and faculty attitudes regarding preclinical classroom attendance and the impact of nonattendance on educators and the learning environment. Using Internet-based surveys, we assessed attitudes about preclinical classroom attendance among medical students and teaching faculty at Washington University School of Medicine. Our primary hypothesis was that students would be less likely than faculty to place societal value on attendance and relate it to professionalism. A total of 382 (79%) of 484 eligible students and 248 (64%) of 387 eligible faculty completed the survey. Both groups recognized a negative impact of poor attendance on faculty enthusiasm for teaching (students 83%, faculty 75%), but faculty were significantly more likely to endorse a negative impact on effectiveness of lectures (75% vs. 42%, pclass for research and community service activities (70% vs. 14%, pclass-going primarily as a tool for learning factual material, whereas many faculty viewed it as serving important functions in the professional socialization process. In this single-center cohort, medical student and teaching faculty attitudes differed regarding the importance of classroom attendance and its relationship to professionalism, findings that were at least partially explained by differing expectations of the purpose of the preclinical classroom experience.
Pickard, A Simon
The objective of this study was to assess the need for research support, faculty development, and topics of interest to clinical track pharmacy faculty that would facilitate scholarship in research. A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy practice-based faculty at University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) completed via the web in November 2005. Of 39 clinical track faculty respondents (48% response rate), 100% indicated they were interested in being co-investigator or 77% lead investigator on a research grant proposal. The majority of respondents expressed "a lot" or "extreme" interest in receiving methodological guidance and administrative support in order to pursue research interests. The greatest interest in research support services related to sample size calculations, selection of appropriate statistical tests, grant writing, and writing for journals. Barriers to research cited by faculty included lack of confidence in ability, the need for balancing responsibilities, and reward for efforts. Suggestions included the creation of specific research interest groups, research seminars, formal mentoring and statistical support services. Clinical-track faculty are interested in research-related scholarship but typically lack the confidence or skills to lead research. While this study was limited to UIC clinical faculty, UIC faculty are attracted from Colleges of Pharmacy across North America and it is notable that such barriers can be quickly identified using a brief web-based survey in order to inform a plan that provides resources and support for research by clinical pharmacy faculty.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the need for research support, faculty development, and topics of interest to clinical track pharmacy faculty that would facilitate scholarship in research.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy practice-based faculty at University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC completed via the web in November 2005.Results: Of 39 clinical track faculty respondents (48% response rate, 100% indicated they were interested in being co-investigator or 77% lead investigator on a research grant proposal. The majority of respondents expressed “a lot” or “extreme” interest in receiving methodological guidance and administrative support in order to pursue research interests. The greatest interest in research support services related to sample size calculations, selection of appropriate statistical tests, grant writing, and writing for journals. Barriers to research cited by faculty included lack of confidence in ability, the need for balancing responsibilities, and reward for efforts. Suggestions included the creation of specific research interest groups, research seminars, formal mentoring and statistical support services.Conclusions: Clinical-track faculty are interested in research-related scholarship but typically lack the confidence or skills to lead research. While this study was limited to UIC clinical faculty, UIC faculty are attracted from Colleges of Pharmacy across North America and it is notable that such barriers can be quickly identified using a brief web-based survey in order to inform a plan that provides resources and support for research by clinical pharmacy faculty.
[Relationship between physical activity and health in children and adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the "Motorik-Modul" (MoMo)].
Krug, S; Jekauc, D; Poethko-Müller, C; Woll, A; Schlaud, M
The question of whether physical activity is associated with positive aspects of health becomes increasingly more important in the light of the health status in today's children and adolescents and due to the changing lifestyle with respect to everyday activity. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) collected the first set of nationwide representative cross-sectional data to examine the relationship between health and physical activity. Taking sociodemographic parameters into consideration, the results suggest a positive association between self-estimated general health and several types of physical activity. The results vary with respect to gender and type of physical activity. For methodological reasons, causal conclusions can only be drawn after longitudinal data of the second wave of KiGGS are available.
Fontana, Joyce S
Student academic dishonesty was examined using a qualitative critical method to determine the effects of this experience on nurse educators. Twelve faculty members were interviewed about confronting and reporting academic misconduct. Results indicated that educators perceived significant personal and professional risks associated with addressing academic dishonesty, including damage to their relationships with students and colleagues. Participants identified their primary responsibility as gatekeepers of the profession and therefore noted their willingness to bear the burden of being the accuser.
Welch, Julie; Sawtelle, Stacy; Cheng, David; Perkins, Tony; Ownbey, Misha; MacNeill, Emily; Hockberger, Robert; Rusyniak, Daniel
Mentoring is considered a fundamental component of career success and satisfaction in academic medicine. However, there is no national standard for faculty mentoring in academic emergency medicine (EM) and a paucity of literature on the subject. The objective was to conduct a descriptive study of faculty mentoring programs and practices in academic departments of EM. An electronic survey instrument was sent to 135 department chairs of EM in the United States. The survey queried faculty demographics, mentoring practices, structure, training, expectations, and outcome measures. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare metrics of mentoring effectiveness (i.e., number of publications and National Institutes of Health [NIH] funding) across mentoring variables of interest. Thirty-nine of 135 departments completed the survey, with a heterogeneous mix of faculty classifications. While only 43.6% of departments had formal mentoring programs, many augmented faculty mentoring with project or skills-based mentoring (66.7%), peer mentoring (53.8%), and mentoring committees (18%). Although the majority of departments expected faculty to participate in mentoring relationships, only half offered some form of mentoring training. The mean number of faculty publications per department per year was 52.8, and 11 departments fell within the top 35 NIH-funded EM departments. There was an association between higher levels of perceived mentoring success and both higher NIH funding (p = 0.022) and higher departmental publications rates (p = 0.022). In addition, higher NIH funding was associated with mentoring relationships that were assigned (80%), self-identified (20%), or mixed (22%; p = 0.026). Our findings help to characterize the variability of faculty mentoring in EM, identify opportunities for improvement, and underscore the need to learn from other successful mentoring programs. This study can serve as a basis to share mentoring practices and stimulate
Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.
A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)
Zayim, Neşe; Yıldırım, Soner; Saka, Osman
Despite large investment by higher education institutions in technology for faculty and student use, instructional technology is not being integrated into instructions in the higher education institutions, including medical education institutions. While diffusion of instructional technologies has been reached a saturation point with early adopters of technology, it has remained limited among mainstream faculty. This study explored technology adoption patterns and perceptions of medical faculty about barriers and incentives to technology adoption in teaching.Complete data was obtained from 155 participants by using survey methodology and analyzed on the basis of theories of diffusion of innovation.Findings provided evidence for limited adoption of relatively new tools associated with instruction into mainstream faculty. Inadequate hardware for students and faculty, lack of reward structure, insufficient traing oppurtunites were identified as major barriers to faculty technology adoption.
Patients’ values and preferences of the expected efficacy of hip arthroscopy for osteoarthritis: a protocol for a multinational structured interview-based study combined with a randomised survey on the optimal amount of information to elicit preferences
Zhang, Yuqing; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Agoritsas, Thomas; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Alexander, Paul; Imam, Maha; Yoo, Daniel; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Thabane, Lehana; Schünemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H
Introduction Symptomatic hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling condition with up to a 25% cumulative lifetime risk. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is effective in relieving patients’ symptoms and improving function. It is, however, associated with substantial risk of complications, pain and major functional limitation before patients can return to full function. In contrast, hip arthroscopy (HA) is less invasive and can postpone THA. However, there is no evidence regarding the delay in the need for THA that patients would find acceptable to undergoing HA. Knowing patients’ values and preferences (VP) on this expected delay is critical when making recommendations regarding the advisability of HA. Furthermore, little is known on the optimal amount of information regarding interventions and outcomes needed to present in order to optimally elicit patients’ VP. Methods and analysis We will perform a multinational, structured interview-based survey of preference in delay time for THA among patients with non-advanced OA who failed to respond to conservative therapy. We will combine these interviews with a randomised trial addressing the optimal amount of information regarding the interventions and outcomes required to elicit preferences. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either a short or a long format of health scenarios of THA and HA. We will determine each patient's VP using a trade-off and anticipated regret exercises. Our primary outcomes for the combined surveys will be: (1) the minimal delay time in the need for THA surgery that patients would find acceptable to undertaking HA, (2) patients’ satisfaction with the amount of information provided in the health scenarios used to elicit their VPs. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HIREB13-506). We will disseminate our study findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and make them
Full Text Available The Internet and computer technology have altered the education landscape. Online courses are offered throughout the world. Learning about the experiences of faculty members is important to guide practitioners and administrators. Using qualitative research methodology, this study investigated the experiences of faculty members teaching online courses. A convenience sampling was used to select the instructional technology faculty members to investigate their experiences in online courses. Semi-structured interviews with faculty members teaching online courses were used as the primary source to collect data about the experiences of faculty members in online courses. Results of the study showed that faculty members' interest in using technology and the amount of time available to them for online course design affected the quality of online courses. The findings of this study also indicated that design quality of online courses is affected by the interest of faculty members to use the technology and the time that they can devote to planning, designing, and developing online courses. The poor design of existing online courses, high learning expectations of ndividuals from these courses, and the future of online courses are the concerns of faculty members. Higher education institutions should support workshops and trainings to increase the skills and interests of non-instructional design faculty members to design and develop online courses.
Full Text Available Dartmouth’s Critical Moments project is designed to promote discussions among faculty and graduate students about the retention of students, particularly women and minorities, in science, math, and engineering (SME disciplines. The first phase of the ongoing project has been the development of four case stories, which are fictionalized composites drawn from surveys and interviews of real Dartmouth students. The surveyed population was 125 students in general chemistry. Of the 77 who agreed to be interviewed, 61 reported having experienced a critical moment – i.e., a positive or negative event or time that had a significant impact on the student’s academic life. Leading critical moments were a poor grade on an exam; challenge from group work; excitement from an internship; and falling in love with a non-SME discipline from other coursework. Interviews of 13 students who had negative critical moments led to the development of case stories for: Antoinetta ’09, who had a disappointing group experience; Dalila ’08, who was poorly prepared; Greg ’09, who got in over his head in his first year; and Michelle ’08, who was shocked by her result in the first exam. The case stories are being discussed by graduate students, TA and faculty in various workshops at the Dartmouth Center for the Advancement of Learning.
Full Text Available Online instruction provides a rich integrated environment, as recent innovative educational technologies are changing lives of both students and faculty staff. This research aims to investigate e-readiness and willingness of Business faculty staff towards online instruction, and whether their experience in using educational technologies influences their attitude. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of Business faculty staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 479 full- time Faculty staff, and only 456 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. Results showed that faculty attitude toward online instruction is positive, which reflect their e-readiness and willingness to include online instruction, but experience in using educational technology did not significantly predict their attitude towards online instruction. The result of this research has significant implications to HEI when they plan, develop, and adopt online instruction strategies.
Lee, Barbara A.
Matching faculty with projected staffing needs requires creation of a broad-based inventory of faculty talents and interests, but such a database also suggests a number of faculty placement alternatives, including more productive faculty use, increased industry outplacement, and combining academic and nonacademic employment or administrative…
Watson, Nicole; Wilkins, Roger
Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) offers many attractive benefits over paper-and-pencil interviewing. There is, however, mixed evidence on the impact of CAPI on interview "length," an important survey outcome in the context of length limits imposed by survey budgets and concerns over respondent burden. In this article,…
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...... of a time line for making life story interviews. I decided that the lack of authoritative literature should not omit me from teaching my students how to make a time line interview. After an introduction, they had to use the tool for making an interview each other concerning their learning journey to DPU...
Scaringe, John G.
A descriptive case study design using a cross-sectional quantitative survey method was used to investigate the impact of faculty development programs on teaching effectiveness perceived by faculty teaching at chiropractic colleges in the United States. The availability of faculty development programs related to teaching and student learning was…
Guarino, Cassandra M.; Borden, Victor H.
This paper investigates the amount of academic service performed by female versus male faculty. We use 2014 data from a large national survey of faculty at more than 140 institutions as well as 2012 data from an online annual performance reporting system for tenured and tenure-track faculty at two campuses of a large public, Midwestern University.…
Berry, Nanette L.
This study investigates how the impact of part-time faculty status and full-time faculty status influences pedagogical practices and the incorporation of student services in developmental courses. Data from the 2014 Community College Faculty Survey of Student Engagement [CCFSSE] by the Center for Community College Student Engagement [CCCSE] was…
Brown, Sonia; Blount, Stacye; Dickinson, Charles A.; Better, Alison; Vitullo, Margaret Weigers; Tyler, Deidre; Kisielewski, Michael
This article evaluates the reasons for career choice and job satisfaction among community college faculty who teach sociology, in relation to a social justice motivation for teaching. Using closed- and open-ended response data from a 2014 national survey of community college sociology faculty, this study finds that a preponderance of faculty do…
YouTube's accessibility, ease of use, and depth of content are strong lures for music students. But do music teaching faculty and librarians encourage this and do they use it in their own research, teaching, and work? This study surveyed over 9,000 music faculty and over 300 music librarians in the United States. It discovered that faculty rank is…
Kramer, Allison L.; Gloeckner, Gene W.; Jacoby, Daniel
Are part-time faculty members satisfied with their roles in higher education? Data from part-time faculty responses regarding their experiences in higher education vary. Valadez and Antony (2001) analyzed data from 6,811 part-time faculty collected from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) 1992-1993 National Survey of Postsecondary…
Cashwell, Allison L.
How do part-time faculty members in community colleges view their roles? Data from part-time faculty responses regarding their experiences in higher education vary. Valadez and Antony (2001) analyzed data from 6,811 part-time faculty collected from the National Center for Education Statistics' (NCES) 1992-1993 National Survey of Postsecondary…
Sneed, Don; And Others
A study examined the perceptions of journalism educators regarding ethical conduct in the faculty recruitment process of journalism faculty. Data were gathered by means of a mail survey to a national sample of journalism faculty. Questionnaires were mailed to 490 journalism and mass communication educators with 407 responding. Every third name was…
Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.; Brodnax, Thomas
The views of college of business faculty were sought to determine their perception on the extent of undeserved authorship in business journals and their impact on the faculty reward system. Six hundred ninety-eight faculty members responded to an electronic survey conducted through Zoomerang. A total of 80% of the respondents indicated that they…
Brunner, Brigitta R.; Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood
Nearly 700 U.S. journalism and mass communication faculty reported their perceptions of student e-mail use via a Web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on content of e-mail received by faculty and made comparisons based on faculty gender. Nearly half of the respondents reported that they occasionally receive e-mails from students before a…
Shim, Minsuk K.; Shim, Sung J.
Examined faculty's perceptions toward the potential benefits of and barriers to mobile computing in higher education based on a survey of faculty at a university that is planning to adopt campus-wide mobile computing. Also examined the role of three moderating variables associated with faculty's current use of technology. (Author/LRW)
Wilson, Robert C.; And Others
A survey of the faculty of six colleges and universities indicates that interaction of faculty and students outside the classroom is dependent on accessibility of faculty and that teaching practices are an indicator of accessibility. Data suggesting the consequences of such interaction is also presented. (Author/JH)
CERN Video productions
An Interview with Terry Doyle, Director of Corporate Development, Nokia. This is part of a series of interviews organized by the SMS Interest Group of Strategy Practice, as part of the preparation for the 2013 SMS Special conference at Lake Geneva which is co-sponsored by ATLAS/CERN. For more information: http://geneva.strategicmanagement.net The purpose of the interviews is to provide input for academics, business practitioners and consultants about fundamental questions of strategy in enterprises.
Manduca, C. A.; Iverson, E. A.; Czujko, R.; Macdonald, H.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; McLaughlin, J.; Sanford, C.; Greenseid, L.; Luxenberg, M.
Transforming STEM education from a dominantly lecture-based format focused on facts to classrooms where students engage with the process of understanding the world through science is a primary goal of faculty development. On the Cutting Edge seeks to support this transformation by using workshops and a website to build a community of geoscience faculty who learn from one another. In order to assess the impact of the On the Cutting Edge program, we surveyed 5917 U.S. geoscience faculty in 2009 and received 2874 completed responses (49% response rate). We looked at the differences in responses between workshop participants who also use the website, website users who have not attended a Cutting Edge workshop, and survey respondents who had neither attended a Cutting Edge workshop nor used the Cutting Edge website. The number of respondents who had attended a Cutting Edge workshop and had not used the website was too small to analyze. Courses described by Cutting Edge workshop participants make significantly less use of lecture and more use of small group discussion and in-class activities. While all faculty respondents routinely update their courses, workshop participants are more likely to have changed their teaching methods in the two years leading up to the survey. When making changes to their teaching methods, workshop participants are more likely than other populations to seek information about teaching on the web, consult journal articles about teaching, and seek advice from colleagues outside their department and from nationally known leaders in geoscience education. Workshop participants are also more likely to tell a colleague when they do something that is particularly successful in class. End-of-workshop survey and follow-up interview data indicate that participants leave workshops reinvigorated, with a new or renewed commitment to student-centered teaching, and that they make use of the website as they implement ideas for changing their teaching following
Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....
Zhang, Xiaofei; Yu, Songlin; Wheeler, Krista; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun
Millions of foreign-born workers are employed in the US. Population-based surveys have value in describing the non-fatal work-related injuries that these workers suffer. Using data from the 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey, we compared the rates of non-fatal work-related injuries among foreign-born and US-born adult workers. Logistic regression was used to produce work-related injury odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) by nativity and years of residence while controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, family size, insurance status, delayed medical care, and alcohol use. Industry-specific rates were also compared. Foreign-born workers reported a lower rate of work-related injuries than US-born workers, 50 per 10,000 foreign-born workers versus 89 per 10,000 US-born workers (P foreign-born workers as compared to US-born workers was 0.50 (95% CI = 0.38-0.66). The construction, agriculture/forestry and fisheries, and manufacturing industries had the highest work-related injury rates for both groups of workers. Foreign-born workers had a lower overall rate of work-related injury when compared to US-born workers. Both US-born and foreign-born workers face significant injury risks, especially in certain industries. Interventions tailored with ethnic and cultural differences in mind are still warranted. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Cianciolo, Anna T; Kidd, Bryan; Murray, Sean
Near-peer and faculty staff tutors may facilitate problem-based learning (PBL) through different means. Near-peer tutors are thought to compensate for their lack of subject matter expertise with greater adeptness at group facilitation and a better understanding of their learners. However, theoretical explanations of tutor effectiveness have been developed largely from recollections of tutor practices gathered through student evaluation surveys, focus groups and interviews. A closer look at what happens during PBL sessions tutored by near-peers and faculty members seems warranted to augment theory from a grounded perspective. We conducted an observational study to explore interactional practices during PBL tutorials at our medical school, at which near-peer tutoring of Year 2 students is an established practice. Between October 2014 and May 2015, video-recordings were made of nine purposively sampled tutor groups using three tutor types (near-peer, clinical faculty and basic science faculty staff) across three systems-based units. An investigator team comprising a Year 2 student, a Year 4 student and a behavioural scientist independently analysed the videos until their observations reached saturation and then met face to face to discuss their detailed field notes. Through constant comparison, narratives of tutor practices and group dynamics were generated for each of the nine tutor groups, representing the collective impressions of the members of the investigator team. Variation was greater within than across tutor types. Tutors' practices idiosyncratically and sometimes substantially diverged from PBL principles, yet all tutors attempted to convey authority or 'insider' status with respect to the short- and long-term goals of medical education. Students prompted these status demonstrations by expressing gratitude, asking questions and exhibiting analogous status demonstrations themselves. Understanding the socio-cognitive nature of tutoring from a grounded
Russ, Christiana M; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Marangu, Diana; Silverman, Melanie; Kija, Edward; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Laving, Ahmed
Investments in faculty exchanges to build physician workforce capacity are increasing. Little attention has been paid to the expectations of host institution faculty and trainees. This prospective qualitative research study explored faculty and resident perspectives about guest faculty in paediatric departments in East Africa, asking (1) What are the benefits and challenges of hosting guest faculty, (2) What factors influence the effectiveness of faculty visits and (3) How do host institutions prepare for faculty visits? We recruited 36 faculty members and residents from among four paediatric departments in East Africa to participate in semistructured interviews which were audio recorded and transcribed. Data were qualitatively analysed using principles of open coding and thematic analysis. We achieved saturation of themes. Benefits of faculty visits varied based on the size and needs of host institutions. Emergent themes included the importance of guest faculty time commitment, and mutual preparation to ensure that visit goals and scheduling met host needs. We documented conflicts that developed around guest emotional responses and ethical approaches to clinical resource limitations, which some hosts tried to prepare for and mitigate. Imbalance in resources led to power differentials; some hosts sought partnerships to re-establish control over the process of having guests. We identified that guest faculty can assist paediatric institutions in building capacity; however, effective visits require: (1) mutually agreed on goals with appropriate scheduling, visit length and commitment to ensure that the visits meet the host's needs, (2) careful selection and preparation of guest faculty to meet the host's goals, (3) emotional preparation by prospective guests along with host orientation to clinical work in the host's setting and (4) attention to funding sources for the visit and mitigation of resulting power differentials.
Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes; Hernandez, Edwin I.; Pena, Milagros; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos
Little progress has been made to increase Latina/o faculty representation in theological education. In this study, 33 interviews with Latina/o theological faculty identify supports and challenges to their scholarly development. Latino critical theory guides the analysis. Narratives reveal faculty experiences with oppression, challenging dominant…
This study sought to discover job satisfaction factors of African American faculty at a historically black university and a predominantly white institution. Data were gathered through the use of semi-structured interviews of 6 faculty members from a historically black university and 5 faculty from a predominantly white institution. Several themes…
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning...
White, Marilyn Domas
Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…
Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos
Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer.......Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer....
Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny
Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…
Informational interviews are valuable tools for improving writing, editing, and interviewing skills, and they are also extremely valuable in improving the soft skills that are valued by employers, such as confidence, adaptability, the ability to set and keep deadlines, the ability to manage risk, and so on. These soft skills, this article argues,…
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...
Adams, Traci; Newton, Chad; Patel, Hetal; Sulistio, Melanie; Tomlinson, Andrew; Lee, Won
Near-peer teaching is effective in graduate medical education, but it has not been compared with faculty member teaching in resident simulation. In this study, we sought to compare debriefing sessions of internal medicine (IM) intern simulation sessions led by academic faculty doctors with those led by senior IM residents in order to measure the effectiveness of near-peer teaching in this setting. Near-peer teaching is effective in graduate medical education, but has not been compared with faculty member teaching in resident simulation METHOD: Internal medicine interns participated in four simulation cases, two of which were debriefed by faculty members and two of which were debriefed by residents. Pre-simulation knowledge assessment was completed prior to the case. Following each debriefing, interns completed a Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare (DASH) survey. Post-simulation knowledge assessments were completed 6 months after simulation. Debriefings were recorded and transcribed. Each statement made during debriefing was classified as either correct or erroneous by blinded reviewers. Fifty interns participated in simulation, and the response rate on the DASH survey was 88%. There was no difference between DASH scores (p = 0.13), post-simulation knowledge assessments or error rates during debriefing (p = 0.31) for faculty member and resident instructors. Our study suggests that residents and faculty members provide a similar quality of simulation instruction based on qualitative and quantitative evaluation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Mehmet A Ocak
This study examined faculty members’ perceptions of blended teaching from several perspectives. A total of 73 faculty members in Turkish Higher Education context participated in the study by completing an online survey that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on a data analysis, the faculty members’ perceptions were sorted into six categories: (a) satisfaction with blended teaching, (b) perceived impact on the role of the faculty, (c) perceived impact on student learning, ...
Powers, Kevin J
A total of 326 programs are represented in the data collected. Based on the average number of full- and part-time faculty members reported per program, this survey represents more than 1500 faculty positions. Based on the forecast of retirement and career change for all faculty members, there will be a turnover of 700 to 800 positions over the next 5 to 10 years. Part-time/adjunct faculty vacancies are expected to create the greatest number of opportunities for technologists to make the transition to education, with approximately one third of current part-time/adjunct educators planning on leaving radiologic sciences education within 5 years. To encourage retention of part-time/adjunct educators, annual evaluations should be modified to recognize the important educational role these instructors play. There is a need to create enthusiasm and interest in education as a career pathway for radiologic technologists. Resources are needed that help radiologic technologists make the transition to teaching. Finally, the retention of educators must be emphasized. Program applicant trends indicate radiologic technology students are older, have prior postsecondary education experience or are making a career change. This data emphasizes the need for educators, both full time and part time, to understand the characteristics and needs of the adult learner. Adult learners bring a wealth of education, experience and life skills that create both opportunities and challenges in the classroom and clinical setting. All categories of respondents indicated that their current salaries were greater than those of program graduates in their firstjob. Of interest is that 1 in 5 (20%) of part-time/adjunct educators indicated the opposite--that program graduates earn more in their firstjob than educators earn. When asked about salaries if working full time in clinical practice, the majority of all groups indicated their salary would be about the same or would decrease. Only 20% of program
From a total of 33 submissions, four pilot sites for the Faculty of Emergency Nursing have now been announced by the RCN A&E Nursing Association. They are the University of Hospital Wales, Cardiff, Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Neville Hall, Abergavenny, and Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant (linked with University of Wales College of Medicine); City Hospital, Sunderland, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead and Dryburn Hospital, Durham (linked with University of Sunderland); Altnagalvin Hospital Health and Social Services Trust, Belfast City Hospital, Craigavon Area Hospitals Trust, Royal Hospitals Trust, Belfast and Ulster Community and Hospitals Trust (linked with University of Ulster); and Bart's and London NHS Trust, Newham Healthcare and Homerton Hospital NHS Trust (linked with City University). Rob Crouch, Chair, Faculty Project Management Group said 'This is an exciting step for the Faculty concept where we can begin to turn the work of the last five years into reality'.
Adams, Brooke N; Kirkup, Michele L; Willis, Lisa H; Reifeis, Paul E
At Indiana University School of Dentistry, a New Clinical Faculty Training (NCFT) program was created with the primary goals of informing new part-time faculty members of clinical policies and assessment guidelines and thus developing qualified and satisfied faculty members. The aim of this study was to determine if participation in the training program improved the participants' satisfaction and competence in comparison to their colleagues who did not participate in the program. Two cohorts were compared: a control group of part-time faculty members who did not receive formal training when they were hired (n=21; response rate 58.3%); and the intervention group, who had participated in the NCFT program (n=12; response rate 80%). A survey of faculty members in the control group gathered information on their experiences when initially hired, and a pretest was administered to measure their knowledge of clinical policies. After the control group was given an overview of the program, their feedback was collected through post surveys, and a posttest identical to the pretest was given that found statistically significant increases on questions one (p=0.003) and four (p=0.025). In February 2014, 15 new faculty members participated in the pilot implementation of the NCFT program. Of those 15, 12 (the intervention group) completed follow-up surveys identical to the pre survey used with the control group. Statistically significant differences were found for the factors clinical teaching (p=0.005) and assessment training (p=0.008) with better responses for the NCFT group. These results suggest that participation in the program was associated with improved clinical teaching knowledge and job satisfaction.
Rivard, Jillian Rowback; Schreiber Compo, Nadja
In child sexual abuse investigations, forensic interviewers within the Child Advocacy Center (CAC) model serve as neutral fact-finders for a team of professionals tasked with investigating and intervening in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Although empirical evidence has led to the development of best-practice techniques and protocols, there is currently no universally adopted protocol in the field. The present research gathered detailed information from a national sample of real-world child forensic interviewers about their training and current practices, with a specific focus on assessing the information interviewers typically review prior to conducting child forensic interviews. Most notably, the survey revealed a lack of uniformity in interviewing protocols adopted and pre-interview preparation practices. Although rare, some interviewers reported using an allegation-blind interviewing approach, highlighting the need for future research on this and other under-studied techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The critical incident technique (CIT) was used to explore faculty experiences with uncivil nursing students. Twenty-one nursing faculty with various years of experience in teaching were interviewed to ascertain what they considered critical incidents of uncivil encounters with nursing students and what effect those encounters had on them. Thirty-six encounters were described by the faculty. Of the 36 encounters, 33 occurred with individual students and 3 occurred with groups of students. Twenty-three encounters occurred in the context of poor student performance requiring constructive criticism or resulting in course failure. A battlefield metaphor is used to describe the incidents, their antecedents, and their consequences. The encounters were precipitated by a period of escalating tensions and effort by the faculty to diffuse the situation. The faculty were surprised and caught off guard by the encounters, which ranged in severity from mild to highly aggressive. The faculty often perceived significant threats to well-being of self, loved ones, job security, and/or possessions. The aftermath of the encounters included physical and emotional tolls on faculty, decreased self-esteem and loss of confidence in teaching ability, significant time expenditures, and negative consequences to the educational process. Three of the faculty left teaching in part due to encounters with students.
Scarbecz, Mark; Russell, Cynthia K; Shreve, Robert G; Robinson, Melissa M; Scheid, Cheryl R
There has been increasing interest at health science centers in improving the education of health professionals by offering faculty development activities. In 2007-08, as part of an effort to expand education-related faculty development offerings on campus, the University of Tennessee Health Science Center surveyed faculty members in an effort to identify faculty development activities that would be of interest. Factor analysis of survey data indicated that faculty interests in the areas of teaching and learning can be grouped into six dimensions: development of educational goals and objectives, the use of innovative teaching techniques, clinical teaching, improving traditional teaching skills, addressing teaching challenges, and facilitating participation. There were significant differences in the level of interest in education-related faculty development activities by academic rank and by the college of appointment. Full professors expressed somewhat less interest in faculty development activities than faculty members of lower ranks. Faculty members in the Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry expressed somewhat greater interest in faculty development to improve traditional teaching skills. The policy implications of the survey results are discussed, including the need for faculty development activities that target the needs of specific faculty groups.
AYUNINGSIH, IKA KUSTI
Ayuningsih, Ika Kusti. 2014. The Hedging of Maxims by David Beckham in Google+ Interview. Study Program of English, Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies, Universitas Brawijaya.Supervisor: Iis Nur Rodliyah; Co-supervisor: Agus GozaliKeywords: Pragmatics, Cooperative Principle, Maxim, Hedging, Google+ Interview Communication is the process of exchanging information. In conversation, speakers sometimes use particular words or phrases to mitigate their statements a...
Patients' values and preferences of the expected efficacy of hip arthroscopy for osteoarthritis: a protocol for a multinational structured interview-based study combined with a randomised survey on the optimal amount of information to elicit preferences.
Zhang, Yuqing; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Agoritsas, Thomas; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Alexander, Paul; Imam, Maha; Yoo, Daniel; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Thabane, Lehana; Schünemann, Holger; Guyatt, Gordon H
Symptomatic hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling condition with up to a 25% cumulative lifetime risk. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is effective in relieving patients' symptoms and improving function. It is, however, associated with substantial risk of complications, pain and major functional limitation before patients can return to full function. In contrast, hip arthroscopy (HA) is less invasive and can postpone THA. However, there is no evidence regarding the delay in the need for THA that patients would find acceptable to undergoing HA. Knowing patients' values and preferences (VP) on this expected delay is critical when making recommendations regarding the advisability of HA. Furthermore, little is known on the optimal amount of information regarding interventions and outcomes needed to present in order to optimally elicit patients' VP. We will perform a multinational, structured interview-based survey of preference in delay time for THA among patients with non-advanced OA who failed to respond to conservative therapy. We will combine these interviews with a randomised trial addressing the optimal amount of information regarding the interventions and outcomes required to elicit preferences. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either a short or a long format of health scenarios of THA and HA. We will determine each patient's VP using a trade-off and anticipated regret exercises. Our primary outcomes for the combined surveys will be: (1) the minimal delay time in the need for THA surgery that patients would find acceptable to undertaking HA, (2) patients' satisfaction with the amount of information provided in the health scenarios used to elicit their VPs. The protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HIREB13-506). We will disseminate our study findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and make them available to guideline makers issuing recommendations addressing HA and
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
Izmirli, Serdar; Phillips, Clive J C
The attitudes of veterinary faculty toward animal welfare were surveyed in four Australian and three Turkish veterinary schools. The former were considered to be typical of modern Western schools, with a faculty of more than 40% women and a primary focus on companion animals, whereas the latter were considered to represent more traditional veterinary teaching establishments, with a faculty of 88% men and a primary focus on livestock. A total of 116 faculty responded to the survey (42 Australian and 74 Turkish faculty members), for response rates of 30% and 33%, respectively. This survey included demographic questions as well as questions about attitudes toward animal-welfare issues. Women were more concerned than men about animal-welfare issues, especially the use of animals in experiments, zoos, entertainment, and sports and for food and clothing. Total scores demonstrated different concerns among Turkish and Australian faculty. The study demonstrates that the veterinary faculty of these two countries have different concerns for animal welfare, concerns that should be acknowledged in considering the welfare attitudes that students may adopt.
Ghahrani, Nassim; Siamian, Hasan; Balaghafari, Azita; Aligolbandi, Kobra; Vahedi, Mohammad
One of the most common ways that in most countries and Iran in determining the status of teacher training is the evaluation by students. The most common method of evaluation is the survey questionnaire provided to the study subjects, comprised of questions about educational activities. The researchers plan to evaluate the opinion of students and faculty members about the effect of the faculty performance evaluation at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2014-15. In this descriptive cross-sectional survey of attitudes of students and professors base their evaluation on the impact on their academic performance, have been studied. The populations were 3904 students and 149 faculty members of basic sciences Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Sample of 350 students and 107 students using Cochran formula faculty members through proportional stratified random sampling was performed. The data of the questionnaire with 28 questions on a Likert Spectrum, respectively. Statistical Analysis Data are descriptive and inferential statistics using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test is done. Based on the results obtained from total of 350 students, 309 students and from total of 107 faculty members, 76 faculty of basic sciences, participated in this study. The most of the students, 80 (25.9%) of the Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences and most of the faculty of basic sciences, 33 (4.43) of the medicine science faculty. Comments Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in comparison to the scope of the evaluation should test using Binominal test; we can conclude that in the field of regulatory, scientific, educational, and communications arena, there were no significant differences between the views of students. The greatest supporter of the education of 193 (62%) and most challengers of exam 147 (48%), respectively. Regarding the viewpoints of the faculty members at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences towards the evaluation domains, using binomial test
Barr, Anna Louise; Knight, Louise; Franҫa-Junior, Ivan; Allen, Elizabeth; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
Underreporting of childhood sexual abuse is a major barrier to obtaining reliable prevalence estimates. We tested the sensitivity and specificity of the face-to-face-interview (FTFI) method by comparing the number of disclosures of forced sex against a more confidential mode of data collection, the sealed-envelope method (SEM). We also report on characteristics of individuals associated with non-disclosure in FTFIs. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014, with n = 3843 children attending primary school in Luwero District, Uganda. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and mixed effects logistic regression models tested factors associated with disclosure in one or both modes. In the FTFI, 1.1% (n = 42) of children reported ever experiencing forced sex, compared to 7.0% (n = 268) in the SEM. The FTFI method demonstrated low sensitivity (13.1%, 95%CI 9.3-17.7%) and high specificity (99.8%, 95%CI 99.6-99.9%) in detecting cases of forced sex, when compared to the SEM. Boys were less likely than girls to disclose in the FTFI, however there was no difference in prevalence by sex using the SEM (aOR = 0.91, 95%CI 0.7-1.2; P = 0.532). Disclosing experience of other forms of sexual violence was associated with experience of forced sex for both modes of disclosure. The SEM method was superior to FTFIs in identifying cases of forced sex amongst primary school children, particularly for boys. Reporting of other forms of sexual violence in FTFIs may indicate experience of forced sex. Future survey research, and efforts to estimate prevalence of sexual violence, should make use of more confidential disclosure methods to detect childhood sexual abuse.
Guglielmotti, Paola; Isabella, Giovanni; Tiziana LAZZARI; Varanini, Gian Maria
The first part of this interview addresses the cultural, social and political milieu that shaped Hagen Keller’s education in Germany, the relations with both his mentor Gerd Tellenbach and the other scholars; the approach to prosopography to understand the power structures. Then the interview examines the Roman experience in the Sixties (a scientific and also human one); the book Adelsherrschaft und ständische Gesellschaft and the debate that has attracted; the relationship between local hist...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Yakov Sinai is the recipient of the 2014 Abel Prize of the Norvegian Academy of Science and Letters. The interview was originally published in the September 2014 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society.......Yakov Sinai is the recipient of the 2014 Abel Prize of the Norvegian Academy of Science and Letters. The interview was originally published in the September 2014 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society....
Interview with John Brooks Slaughter, recent president of Occidental College, focuses on his leadership during a period when the college dramatically increased its minority enrollment, recruited an impressively diverse faculty, and launched various community outreach programs. Explores Slaughter's views concerning diversity as part of a college's…
Blau, Peter M.
High salaries, specialized academic departments, and academic tradition facilitate faculty and student recruitment. Large institutions meet these criteria with greater ease than small, although size does act as an impediment. Particularistic preferences do exercise some influences on the overall recruitment picture. (JH)
Gaff, Jerry G.
Teaching improvement and institutional renewal efforts often face pessimism about change, if not suspicion and resistance, but faculty teams can overcome these problems through an action-oriented but low-profile "organic" approach. The need for personal invitations by colleagues is shown. (Author/LBH)
Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Microcomputing Program.
The preparation of Drexel University faculty for the introduction of a microcomputing program is described. Faculty training had to be done on a variety of levels, from basic training in computer operation for the novice to advanced training in highly technical procedures and languages. Maximum faculty participation was sought throughout the…
Premkumar, Kalyani; Moshynskyy, Anton; Sakai, Damon H.; Fong, Sheri F. T.
Faculty Development (FD) is a vital component across the medical education continuum of undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing medical education. However, the positioning of FD in medical institutions varies widely. The perceptions of faculty on FD should be examined in order to provide effective FD. The perceptions of faculty involved in…
Determinants of agreement between self-reported and parent-assessed quality of life for children in Germany-results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to quantify the level of agreement between self-reporting and proxy-assessment of children's health-related quality of life using KINDL-R in a large population based study in Germany and to identify factors which are associated with agreement. Methods The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents included the KINDL-R questionnaire on health-related quality of life. 6388 children and adolescents filled in the questionnaire while their parents answered the proxy version. Means and standard deviation for the self- and proxy ratings, and also the Pearson und Intra-Class correlation coefficients for the absolute agreement were calculated. The relationship between other variables and parent-child agreement were determined by means of logistic regression. Results In the 'Physical', 'Self-esteem' and 'School' dimension and for the 'Total' score, the parents significantly overestimated the quality of life of their child. In contrast, the quality of life of the children in the dimensions 'Psychological well-being' and 'Family' were considerably underestimated by the parents. The proportion of parent-child ratings in agreement (difference Conclusions Our study shows that parental reports cannot adequately replace self-assessment for 11-17 year olds. In view of the different underlying perspectives, the parental assessments should where possible only be regarded as providing supplementary information.
[Sociodemographic characteristics in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) - operationalisation and public health significance, taking as an example the assessment of general state of health].
Lange, M; Kamtsiuris, P; Lange, C; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Stolzenberg, H; Lampert, T
The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) was conducted from May 2003 to May 2006 by the Robert Koch Institute in 167 communities representative of Germany. By collecting comprehensive and nationally representative data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years, the study aimed to fill a longstanding evidence gap. Data from 17,641 study participants will be analysed in a timely and systematic manner by the Robert Koch Institute. Initially mainly descriptive analyses as presented in the current special issue on the KiGGS study, provide information on the distribution of main health characteristics according to sociodemographic key variables, including age, sex, region of residence (former East/West Germany), social status, and migrant background. We report here the rationale for a standard set of stratifying variables and the operationalisation of composite variables. Furthermore, we illustrate the public health relevance of the observed group differences using the example of an important health indicator: parents' evaluation of their children's general state of health.
[Suspected adverse reactions after vaccination. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents. Part 2: predictors of parental reporting of suspected adverse reactions after vaccinations].
Poethko-Müller, C; Atzpodien, K; Schmitz, R; Schlaud, M
Each method to monitor vaccine safety has strengths and limitations. Therefore, vaccine safety monitoring should rely on different types of data sources. Methods commonly rely on patient-reported adverse reactions. Little is, however, known about factors that may affect the probability with which patients report adverse reactions to vaccines. From 2003-2006, the representative National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents ("Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey", KiGGS) retrospectively collected information about vaccines, vaccination dates, and suspected vaccine related adverse reactions from a total of 17,641 participants (vaccinations were more likely reported from parents living in former West Germany compared to former East Germany (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.08-2.39), parents of children with special health care needs (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.08-2.04), and from parents reporting reservations against vaccinations (OR 3.29; 95% CI 2.28-4.75). Parental reporting of adverse vaccine reactions appears to be associated with parental perception and assessment of possible adverse vaccine reactions, as well as with the parents' attitude towards immunization in general.
Wu, Peili; Zhou, Chu; Zhou, Yang; Ren, Xianlong; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Junshi; Deng, Xiaojun; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou
Face-to-face interview (FTFI) and polling booth survey (PBS) were applied to compare the high risk behavior among HIV-positive clients of female sex workers (CFSWs). This study was conducted in antiretroviral therapy (ART) out-patients centers in Hengyang city, where clients who had been informed on their HIV-positive status for 6 months or longer were recruited. FTFI was first used to tackle on 8 sensitive questions related to sexual behavior, followed by PBS to poke on the same questions. Results from FTFI and PBS were then compared. Compared with FIFI, results in the PBS showed higher proportion of participants who reported "having had history of sexually transmitted diseases before knowing that they were infected with HIV" (40.6% vs. 24.2%) but lower proportions on "frequency of having sex with regular sexual partner less than 4 times per month" and "using condoms consistently with regular sexual partners in past 6 months (44.4% vs. 63.0%)". There were no significant differences in the remaining 5 questions shown in the results from the two methods. HIV-positive CFSWs continued to practice unsafe sexual behaviors after knowing their HIV related status. Compared with FTFI, PBS seemed to have revealed higher proportion of unsafe sex behaviors, so as to generated more reliable data. While comparing with PBS, the traditional FTFI might have underestimated the risk behaviors among those HIV-positive CFSWs.
To maximize their effectiveness, faculty developers should not merely advocate for an active learning approach but also enact it in their own workshops and service-oriented interactions with faculty, even extending to their use of outreach and social media.
Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha
This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.
Gary, Jodie C; Gosselin, Kevin; Bentley, Regina
The attitudes of faculty towards interprofessional education (IPE) and teamwork impact the education of health professions education (HPE) students. This paper reports on a study evaluating attitudes from health professions educators towards IPE and teamwork at one academic health science center (HSC) where modest IPE initiatives have commenced. Drawing from the results of a previous investigation, this study was conducted to examine current attitudes of the faculty responsible for the training of future healthcare professionals. Survey data were collected to evaluate attitudes from HSC faculty, dentistry, nursing, medicine, pharmacy and public health. In general, positive HSC faculty attitudes towards interprofessional learning, education, and teamwork were significantly predicted by those affiliated with the component of nursing. Faculty development aimed at changing attitudes and increasing understanding of IPE and teamwork are critical. Results of this study serve as an underpinning to leverage strengths and evaluate weakness in initiating IPE.
Carlson, Joanne S
This study sought to determine job characteristics influencing retention of part-time clinical nurse faculty teaching in pre-licensure nursing education. Large numbers of part-time faculty are needed to educate students in the clinical setting. Faculty retention helps maintain consistency and may positively influence student learning. A national sample of part-time clinical nurse faculty teaching in baccalaureate programs responded to a web-based survey. Respondents were asked to identify the primary reason for wanting or not wanting to continue working for a school of nursing (SON). Affinity for students, pay and benefits, support, and feeling valued were the top three reasons given for continuing to work at an SON. Conflicts with life and other job responsibilities, low pay, and workload were the top three reasons given for not continuing. Results from this study can assist nursing programs in finding strategies to help reduce attrition among part-time clinical faculty.
Rogér, James M; Wehmeyer, Meggan M H; Milliner, Matthew S
During the inaugural year (2006-07) of the Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program (ADCFP), 110 faculty members at ten different dental schools were interviewed by dental students who were participating as ADCFP fellows in this year-long program designed to introduce them to faculty roles and activities and help them gain an appreciation for the rewards and issues associated with academic life. The goals, format, and components of the ADCFP are described in a companion article in this issue of the Journal of Dental Education. One of the fellows' assignments during the ADCFP was to interview faculty at various academic ranks who had differing degrees of work emphasis in teaching, research, service/patient care, and administration. Sixty-nine (63 percent of the total) of these interviews were reviewed and analyzed by the authors, who were student fellows in the ADCFP during 2006-07. The purpose of these interviews was to provide the fellows with insight into the positive aspects and challenges in becoming and remaining a dental school faculty member. This aggregate perspective of the interviews conducted at ten dental schools highlights the motivations and challenges that confront a dentist during the process of choosing a career in academic dentistry and determining if dental education is a good fit for each individual who elects to pursue this pathway. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed several factors consistently identified by faculty across the schools as being positive influences on the quality of the academic work environment and career satisfaction: mentorship and student interaction, opportunities for scholarship (research and discovery), job diversity, intellectual challenge, satisfaction with the nature of academic work, lifestyle/family compatibility, flexibility, lifelong learning, professional duty, and lab responsibility. A series of negative themes were also consistently identified: bureaucracy/administrative burdens and barriers, time
Lombardi, David A; Wirtz, Anna; Willetts, Joanna L; Folkard, Simon
Fatigue has been linked to adverse safety outcomes, and poor quality or decreased sleep has been associated with obesity (higher body mass index, BMI). Additionally, higher BMI is related to an increased risk for injury; however, it is unclear whether BMI modifies the effect of short sleep or has an independent effect on work-related injury risk. To answer this question, the authors examined the risk of a work-related injury as a function of total daily sleep time and BMI using the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is an in-person household survey using a multistage, stratified, clustered sample design representing the US civilian population. Data were pooled for the 7-yr survey period from 2004 to 2010 for 101 891 "employed" adult subjects (51.7%; 41.1 ± yrs of age [mean ± SEM]) with data on both sleep and BMI. Weighted annualized work-related injury rates were estimated across a priori defined categories of BMI: healthy weight (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99), and obese (BMI: ≥30) and also categories of usual daily sleep duration: sleep duration and BMI, controlling for weekly working hours, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, type of pay, industry, and occupation. No significant interaction was found between usual daily sleep duration and BMI (p = .72); thus, the interaction term of the final logistic model included these two variables as independent predictors of injury, along with the aforementioned covariates. Statistically significant covariates (p ≤ .05) included age, sex, weekly work hours, occupation, and if the worker was paid hourly. The lowest categories of usual sleep duration (sleep), whereas sleeping >7-8 h did not significantly elevate risk. The adjusted injury risk odds ratio (OR) for a worker with a usual daily sleep of BMI, the adjusted injury risk OR comparing workers who were obese (BMI: ≥30) to healthy weight workers (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99) to healthy weight risk was elevated, but not statistically significant (OR = 1
Elif Bugra KUZU DEMIR
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the findings of an exploratory, qualitative phenomenological study and investigates opinions and evaluations of faculty members about trolls encountered in social media and mass medium. The research was carried out in Anadolu University in Turkey. A total of 18 faculty members from 9 faculties in 12 different departments responded to 4 interview questions. Faculty members' views on trolls were elicited through 2 rounds of semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings were based on content analyses of interview transcripts. Results are presented in four categories which emerged from perceptions, strategies, incidences and feelings. Trolls’ aims and their success in doing so when it comes to the research group are discussed. This research concludes that purity, hazard and intelligence of trolls are still dubious facts for the Anadolu University faculty members.
SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...
Bess, James L.
The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…
The objective of this study is to identify the factors that shift the demand curve for faculty at not-for-profit private institutions. It is unique in that to the author's knowledge no other study has directly addressed the question of how the positive correlation between average faculty salaries and faculty-student ratios can be reconciled with…
Lynn, Christine; Hales, Jonathan A; Wiener, Paul
Internships can help hospitality faculty build industry relationships while also ensuring the best and most current training for their students. Many hospitality organizations have structured faculty internships available or are willing to work with faculty to provide individualized internship opportunities. Career and technical educators in…
Looper, Philip; George, David; Johnson, Eric J.; Conway, Susan E.
Objective: To examine the perceptions among faculty and health professional students regarding mandatory vaccination policies on a health sciences campus. Participants: A total of 296 faculty and 244 students completed surveys during Fall 2015. Methods: The online survey administered to individuals who received the influenza vaccine during the…
Ali E. Oskouei
Full Text Available The Dean of Faculties is normally selected by the Chancellor of Universities. The democratic way of selecting a dean of faculties is an innovative procedure that first happened in 2013 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A brief survey of the faculties revealed that there were some disadvantages of this procedure. An insufficient number of candidates, obligation in nomination in some cases, casting ballots only by faculty members, and lack of future and strategic plans by candidates are some deficits in the process that brought some risk to the faculties and sometimes unrest to TUMS. These risks made the process more dangerous than it used to be previously, when we used more traditional ways of selecting a dean of faculty. In order to prevent possible risks to the faculty and university, we offer some suggestions to make the ground ready for democratic practices in selecting a dean of faculty.
Rainer Schnell; Frauke Kreuter
"Data used in nationwide face-to-face surveys are almost always collected in multistage cluster samples. The relative homogeneity of the clusters selected in this way can lead to design effects at the sampling stage. Interviewers can further homogenize answers within the small geographic clusters that form the sampling points. The study presented here was designed to distinguish between interviewer effects and sampling-point effects using interpenetrated samples for conducting ...
Carlson, Joanne S
This study helps to quantify and describe orientation, evaluation, and integration practices pertaining to part-time clinical nursing faculty teaching in prelicensure nursing education programs. A researcher designed Web-based survey was used to collect information from a convenience sample of part-time clinical nursing faculty teaching in prelicensure nursing programs. Survey questions focused on the amount and type of orientation, evaluation, and integration practices. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results. Respondents reported on average four hours of orientation, with close to half reporting no more than two hours. Evaluative feedback was received much more often from students than from full-time faculty. Most respondents reported receiving some degree of mentoring and that it was easy to get help from full-time faculty. Respondents reported being most informed about student evaluation procedures, grading, and the steps to take when students are not meeting course objectives, and less informed about changes to ongoing curriculum and policy.
Morse, Gwen Goetz
This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
Leonello, Valéria Marli; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos
To analyze the characteristics of faculty work in nursing higher education. An exploratory qualitative study with a theoretical-methodological framework of dialectical and historical materialism. The faculty work process was adopted as the analytical category, grounded on conceptions of work and professionalism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 faculty members from three higher education institutions in the city of São Paulo, classified according to the typology of institutional contexts. The faculty members at these higher education institutions are a heterogeneous group, under different working conditions. Intensification and precarious conditions of the faculty work is common to all three contexts, although there are important distinctions in the practices related to teaching, research and extension. Faculty professionalization can be the starting point for analyzing and coping with such a distinct reality of faculty work and practice.
Valéria Marli Leonello
Full Text Available Objective To analyze the characteristics of faculty work in nursing higher education. Method An exploratory qualitative study with a theoretical-methodological framework of dialectical and historical materialism. The faculty work process was adopted as the analytical category, grounded on conceptions of work and professionalism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 faculty members from three higher education institutions in the city of São Paulo, classified according to the typology of institutional contexts. Results The faculty members at these higher education institutions are a heterogeneous group, under different working conditions. Intensification and precarious conditions of the faculty work is common to all three contexts, although there are important distinctions in the practices related to teaching, research and extension. Conclusion Faculty professionalization can be the starting point for analyzing and coping with such a distinct reality of faculty work and practice.
Slavin, S J; Wilkes, M S; Usatine, R P
To assess the acquisition of clinical knowledge and skills by faculty teaching in Doctoring. Thirty-six faculty teaching in Doctoring II were given surveys at the start and end of six educational modules. These surveys assessed faculty perceptions of their own knowledge and skills related to key learning objectives for each module. Pre-test and post-test means were compared using paired t-tests and 95% confidence limits were calculated. The average response rate was 72% for each module. Faculty reported increases in knowledge and skills for each of the six modules. Post-test mean ratings were significantly higher than pre-test mean ratings for 48 out of the 56 learning objectives. The greatest increases were seen in the domestic violence and smoking cessation modules. Faculty rated tutorial sessions with students highest in terms of contribution to their own learning. The results suggest that faculty acquire new knowledge and skills as a result of teaching in Doctoring. Problem-based courses such as Doctoring that deal in an integrated fashion with subjects such as ethics, law, prevention, evidence-based medicine and domestic violence can serve as important and effective vehicles for faculty development.
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson
We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....
Dahl, Patricia P.; Bonham, Gene, Jr.; Reddington, Frances P.
This exploratory research surveyed faculty who instruct in community colleges from 18 states about their attitudes toward the concealed carry gun policies that allow appropriately licensed citizens to carry a handgun in public places such as college campuses. Building upon previous research involving 4-year institutions, we surveyed 1,889…
Darby, Alexa; Newman, Gabrielle
This qualitative study provides a theoretical framework for understanding faculty members' motivation to persist in utilizing academic service-learning pedagogy. Twenty-four faculty members from a private liberal arts university in the southeastern United States were interviewed about the benefits and challenges of teaching academic…
Gonyo, Claire P.; Cantwell, Brendan
This qualitative study involved interviews of 32 faculty principle investigators at three research institutions and explored how they view the role of students within physical and life science labs. We used socialization theory and student engagement literature to analyze faculty views, which can contribute to student investment in STEM fields.…
Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.
This qualitative study investigates the perspectives of faculty teaching engagement in a uniquely designed, collaborative urban-focused teacher education program. The study analyzes interviews conducted with seven participating faculty from both the School of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences in an urban university. The findings…
Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.
Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…
Terosky, Aimee LaPointe; Gonzales, Leslie D.
In this study we extended Neumann's scholarly learning theory (2009)?and Hansen's theory on vocation (1994, 1995) to explore the scholarly learning of faculty members employed at institutional types not typically recognized for faculty work beyond teaching. Through interviews with 22 participants, we studied the content of and reasons for…
Latz, Amanda O.; Rediger, James N.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand if and how community college faculty construct work-life balance, as our review of the literature pointed toward a lack of research on this topic. Twenty-eight community college faculty members were interviewed, and six major findings were generated through the data analysis. Metaphors…
Hassouneh, Dena; Lutz, Kristin F.; Beckett, Ann K.; Junkins, Edward P.; Horton, LaShawn L.
Introduction Faculty of color in schools of medicine play an essential role in addressing health disparities, increasing diversity in healthcare, and improving health professions education. Yet inadequate progress has been made in increasing the numbers of faculty of color in medical schools. The reasons for this gap, and ways to address it, are poorly understood. Methods We conducted a grounded theory study of 25 of faculty from groups historically underrepresented in academic medicine at 17 schools in the United States. Faculty were interviewed in person (n=4, 16%) and by telephone (n=21, 84%). Results We identified two processes that contribute to a greater understanding of the experiences of faculty of color: patterns of exclusion and control, and surviving and thriving. We also identified one outcome – faculty of color having influence. Conclusions Strong support from leaders, mentors, and peers to nurture and protect faculty of color in schools of medicine is needed to counteract the negative effects of racism and to promote the positive effects this group has on diversity and excellence in medical education. Specific strategies for survival and success are described. PMID:25472784