WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveys cmb argument

  1. Can CMB surveys help the AGN community?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Partridge; Laura Bonavera; Marcos López-Caniego; Rahul Datta; Joaquin Gonzalez-Nuevo; Megan Gralla; Diego Herranz; Anne Lähteenmäki; Laura Mocanu; Heather Prince; Joaquin Vieira; Nathan Whitehorn; Lizhong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary projects to measure anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are now detecting hundreds to thousands of extragalactic radio sources, most of them blazars. As a member of a group of CMB scientists involved in the construction of catalogues of such sources and their analysis, I wish to point out the potential value of CMB surveys to studies of AGN jets and their polarization. Current CMB projects, for instance, reach mJy sensitivity, offer wide sky coverage, are "blind...

  2. Can CMB Surveys Help the AGN Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Partridge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary projects to measure anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB are now detecting hundreds to thousands of extragalactic radio sources, most of them blazars. As a member of a group of CMB scientists involved in the construction of catalogues of such sources and their analysis, I wish to point out the potential value of CMB surveys to studies of AGN jets and their polarization. Current CMB projects, for instance, reach mJy sensitivity, offer wide sky coverage, are “blind” and generally of uniform sensitivity across the sky (hence useful statistically, make essentially simultaneous multi-frequency observations at frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz, routinely offer repeated observations of sources with interesting cadences and now generally provide polarization measurements. The aim here is not to analyze in any depth the AGN science already derived from such projects, but rather to heighten awareness of their promise for the AGN community.

  3. Constraining interacting dark energy with CMB and BAO future surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Larissa; Zhao, Wen; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Quintin, Jerome

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we perform a forecast analysis to test the capacity of future baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to constrain phenomenological interacting dark energy models using the Fisher matrix formalism. We consider a Euclid-like experiment, in which BAO measurements are one of the main goals, to constrain the cosmological parameters of alternative cosmological models. Moreover, additional experimental probes can more efficiently provide information on the parameters forecast, justifying also the inclusion in the analysis of a future ground-based CMB experiment mainly designed to measure the polarization signal with high precision. In the interacting dark energy scenario, a coupling between dark matter and dark energy modifies the conservation equations such that the fluid equations for both constituents are conserved as the total energy density of the dark sector. In this context, we consider three phenomenological models that have been deeply investigated in literature over the past years. We find that the combination of both CMB and BAO information can break degeneracies among the dark sector parameters for all three models, although to different extents. We find powerful constraints on, for example, the coupling constant when comparing it with present limits for two of the models, and their future statistical 3 σ bounds could potentially exclude the null interaction for the combination of probes that is considered. However, for one of the models, the constraint on the coupling parameter does not improve the present result (achieved using a large combination of surveys), and a larger combination of probes appears to be necessary to eventually claim whether or not interaction is favored in that context.

  4. Cosmic Complementarity: H_0 and Omega_m from Combining CMB Experiments and Redshift Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Hu, Wayne; Tegmark, Max

    1998-01-01

    We show that upcoming CMB satellite experiments and large redshift surveys can be used together to yield 5% determinations of H_0 and Omega_m, an order of magnitude improvement over CMB data alone. CMB anisotropies provide the sound horizon at recombination as a standard ruler. For reasonable baryon fractions, this scale is imprinted on the galaxy power spectrum as a series of spectral features. Measuring these features in redshift space determines the Hubble constant, which in turn yields Om...

  5. Methods for solving reasoning problems in abstract argumentation - A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charwat, Günther; Dvořák, Wolfgang; Gaggl, Sarah A; Wallner, Johannes P; Woltran, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Within the last decade, abstract argumentation has emerged as a central field in Artificial Intelligence. Besides providing a core formalism for many advanced argumentation systems, abstract argumentation has also served to capture several non-monotonic logics and other AI related principles. Although the idea of abstract argumentation is appealingly simple, several reasoning problems in this formalism exhibit high computational complexity. This calls for advanced techniques when it comes to implementation issues, a challenge which has been recently faced from different angles. In this survey, we give an overview on different methods for solving reasoning problems in abstract argumentation and compare their particular features. Moreover, we highlight available state-of-the-art systems for abstract argumentation, which put these methods to practice.

  6. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys - IV. Joint constraints on lambda(0) and Omega(0) from gravitational lensing statistics and CMB anisotropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macias-Perez, JF; Helbig, P; Quast, R; Wilkinson, A; Davies, R

    We present constraints on the cosmological constant lambda(0) and the density parameter Omega(0) from joint constraints from the analyses of gravitational lensing statistics of the Jo- drell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS), optical gravitational lens surveys from the literature and CMB

  7. CMB Map Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bobin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the cosmological microwave background is of utmost importance for cosmology. However, its estimation from full-sky surveys such as WMAP or more recently Planck is challenging: CMB maps are generally estimated via the application of some source separation techniques which never prevent the final map from being contaminated with noise and foreground residuals. These spurious contaminations whether noise or foreground residuals are well known to be a plague for most cosmologically relevant tests or evaluations; this includes CMB lensing reconstruction or non-Gaussian signatures search. Noise reduction is generally performed by applying a simple Wiener filter in spherical harmonics; however, this does not account for the non-stationarity of the noise. Foreground contamination is usually tackled by masking the most intense residuals detected in the map, which makes CMB evaluation harder to perform. In this paper, we introduce a novel noise reduction framework coined LIW-Filtering for Linear Iterative Wavelet Filtering which is able to account for the noise spatial variability thanks to a wavelet-based modeling while keeping the highly desired linearity of the Wiener filter. We further show that the same filtering technique can effectively perform foreground contamination reduction thus providing a globally cleaner CMB map. Numerical results on simulated Planck data are provided.

  8. Statistical imprints of CMB B-type polarization leakage in an incomplete sky survey analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Larissa; Wang, Kai; Hu, Yangrui; Fang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Wen

    2017-01-01

    One of the main goals of modern cosmology is to search for primordial gravitational waves by looking on their imprints in the B-type polarization in the cosmic microwave background radiation. However, this signal is contaminated by various sources, including cosmic weak lensing, foreground radiations, instrumental noises, as well as the E-to-B leakage caused by the partial sky surveys, which should be well understood to avoid the misinterpretation of the observed data. In this paper, we adopt the E/B decomposition method suggested by Smith in 2006, and study the imprints of E-to-B leakage residuals in the constructed B-type polarization maps, Script B(hat n), by employing various statistical tools. We find that the effects of E-to-B leakage are negligible for the Script B-mode power spectrum, as well as the skewness and kurtosis analyses of Script B-maps. However, if employing the morphological statistical tools, including Minkowski functionals and/or Betti numbers, we find the effect of leakage can be detected at very high confidence level, which shows that in the morphological analysis, the leakage can play a significant role as a contaminant for measuring the primordial B-mode signal and must be taken into account for a correct explanation of the data.

  9. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Methodology and Projections for Joint Analysis of Galaxy Clustering, Galaxy Lensing, and CMB Lensing Two-point Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannantonio, T.; et al.

    2018-02-14

    Optical imaging surveys measure both the galaxy density and the gravitational lensing-induced shear fields across the sky. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration used a joint fit to two-point correlations between these observables to place tight constraints on cosmology (DES Collaboration et al. 2017). In this work, we develop the methodology to extend the DES Collaboration et al. (2017) analysis to include cross-correlations of the optical survey observables with gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Using simulated analyses, we show how the resulting set of five two-point functions increases the robustness of the cosmological constraints to systematic errors in galaxy lensing shear calibration. Additionally, we show that contamination of the SPT+Planck CMB lensing map by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is a potentially large source of systematic error for two-point function analyses, but show that it can be reduced to acceptable levels in our analysis by masking clusters of galaxies and imposing angular scale cuts on the two-point functions. The methodology developed here will be applied to the analysis of data from the DES, the SPT, and Planck in a companion work.

  10. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: the amplitudes of fluctuations in the 2dFGRS and the CMB, and implications for galaxy biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Ofer; Bridle, Sarah L.; Percival, Will J.; Peacock, John A.; Efstathiou, George; Baugh, Carlton M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bridges, Terry; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Dalton, Gavin; de Propris, Roberto; Driver, Simon P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jackson, Carole; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Maddox, Steve; Madgwick, Darren S.; Moody, Stephen; Norberg, Peder; Peterson, Bruce A.; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    2002-07-01

    We compare the amplitudes of fluctuations probed by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and by the latest measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. By combining the 2dFGRS and CMB data, we find the linear-theory rms mass fluctuations in 8 h-1Mpc spheres to be σ8m=0.73+/-0.05 (after marginalization over the matter density parameter Ωm and three other free parameters). This normalization is lower than the COBE normalization and previous estimates from cluster abundance, but it is in agreement with some revised cluster abundance determinations. We also estimate the scale-independent bias parameter of present-epoch Ls=1.9L* APM-selected galaxies to be b(Ls,z=0)=1.10+/-0.08 on comoving scales of 0.02marginalizing over other free parameters and fixing the spectral index n=1 and the optical depth due to reionization τ=0. We also study the best-fitting pair (Ωm, b), and the robustness of the results to varying n and τ. Various modelling corrections can each change the resulting b by 5-15 per cent. The results are compared with other independent measurements from the 2dFGRS itself, and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), cluster abundance and cosmic shear.

  11. A MEASUREMENT OF THE CORRELATION OF GALAXY SURVEYS WITH CMB LENSING CONVERGENCE MAPS FROM THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Van Engelen, A.; Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Biesiadzinski, T. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Busha, M. T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Dore, O. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, 1216 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, WISE, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 deg{sup 2} of sky, we detect a correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4{sigma}, with zero correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.

  12. Magnetized CMB anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2006-01-21

    Possible effects of large-scale magnetic fields on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are reviewed. Depending on the specific branch of the spectrum of plasma excitations, magnetic fields are treated either within a two-fluid plasma description or within an effective (one-fluid) approach. The uniform field approximation is contrasted with the fully inhomogeneous field approximation. It is argued that the interplay between CMB physics and large-scale magnetic fields will represent a rather interesting cross-disciplinary arena over the next few years. (topical review)

  13. Handbook of argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; Krabbe, E.C.W.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.; Verheij, B.; Wagemans, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook Argumentation Theory provides an up to date survey of the various theoretical contributions to the development of argumentation theory for all scholars interested in argumentation, informal logic and rhetoric. It describes the historical roots of modern argumentation theory that are

  14. Joint Planck and WMAP CMB map reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, J.; Sureau, F.; Starck, J.-L.; Rassat, A.; Paykari, P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel estimate of the cosmological microwave background (CMB) map by combining the two latest full-sky microwave surveys: WMAP nine-year and Planck PR1. The joint processing benefits from a recently introduced component separation method coined"local-generalized morphological component analysis" (LGMCA) and based on the sparse distribution of the foregrounds in the wavelet domain. The proposed estimation procedure takes advantage of the IRIS 100 μm as an extra observation on the galactic center for enhanced dust removal. We show that this new CMB map presents several interesting aspects: i) it is a full sky map without using any inpainting or interpolating method; ii) foreground contamination is very low; iii) the Galactic center is very clean with especially low dust contamination as measured by the cross-correlation between the estimated CMB map and the IRIS 100 μm map; and iv) it is free of thermal SZ contamination. Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. CMB anomalies after Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Dominik J.; Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-09-01

    Several unexpected features have been observed in the microwave sky at large angular scales, both by WMAP and by Planck. Among those features is a lack of both variance and correlation on the largest angular scales, alignment of the lowest multipole moments with one another and with the motion and geometry of the solar system, a hemispherical power asymmetry or dipolar power modulation, a preference for odd parity modes and an unexpectedly large cold spot in the Southern hemisphere. The individual p-values of the significance of these features are in the per mille to per cent level, when compared to the expectations of the best-fit inflationary ΛCDM model. Some pairs of those features are demonstrably uncorrelated, increasing their combined statistical significance and indicating a significant detection of CMB features at angular scales larger than a few degrees on top of the standard model. Despite numerous detailed investigations, we still lack a clear understanding of these large-scale features, which seem to imply a violation of statistical isotropy and scale invariance of inflationary perturbations. In this contribution we present a critical analysis of our current understanding and discuss several ideas of how to make further progress.

  16. Detectability of Galactic Faraday Rotation in multiwavelength CMB observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopanis, Matthew; Mauskopf, Philip; Bowman, Judd

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new cross-correlation method to detect and verify the astrophysical origin of Faraday Rotation (FR) in multiwavelength surveys. FR is well studied in radio astronomy from radio point sources but the λ2 suppression of FR makes detecting and accounting for this effect difficult at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. Therefore, statistical methods are used to attempt to detect FR in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Most estimators of the FR power spectrum rely on single-frequency data. In contrast, we investigate the correlation of polarized CMB maps with FR measure maps from radio point sources. We show a factor of ∼30 increase in sensitivity over single-frequency estimators and predict detections exceeding 10σ significance for a CMB-S4-like experiment. Improvements in observations of FR from current and future radio polarization surveys will greatly increase the usefulness of this method.

  17. Working Group Report: Dark Energy and CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S.; Honscheid, K.; Abazajian, K.; Carlstrom, J.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Kim, A.; Kirkby, D.; Lee, A.; Padmanabhan, N.; Rhodes, J.; Weinberg, D.

    2013-09-20

    The American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields initiated a long-term planning exercise over 2012-13, with the goal of developing the community's long term aspirations. The sub-group "Dark Energy and CMB" prepared a series of papers explaining and highlighting the physics that will be studied with large galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background experiments. This paper summarizes the findings of the other papers, all of which have been submitted jointly to the arXiv.

  18. Using inpainting to construct accurate cut-sky CMB estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetjen, H. F.; Fergusson, J. R.; Liguori, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.

    2017-02-01

    The direct evaluation of manifestly optimal, cut-sky cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum and bispectrum estimators is numerically very costly, due to the presence of inverse-covariance filtering operations. This justifies the investigation of alternative approaches. In this work, we mostly focus on an inpainting algorithm that was introduced in recent CMB analyses to cure cut-sky suboptimalities of bispectrum estimators. First, we show that inpainting can equally be applied to the problem of unbiased estimation of power spectra. We then compare the performance of a novel inpainted CMB temperature power spectrum estimator to the popular apodized pseudo-Cl (PCL) method and demonstrate, both numerically and with analytic arguments, that inpainted power spectrum estimates significantly outperform PCL estimates. Finally, we study the case of cut-sky bispectrum estimators, comparing the performance of three different approaches: inpainting, apodization and a novel low-l leaning scheme. Providing an analytic argument of why the local shape is typically most affected we mainly focus on local-type non-Gaussianity. Our results show that inpainting allows us to achieve optimality also for bispectrum estimation, but interestingly also demonstrate that appropriate apodization, in conjunction with low-l cleaning, can lead to comparable accuracy.

  19. A Measurement of CMB Cluster Lensing with SPT and DES Year 1 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, E.J.; et al.

    2017-08-03

    Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, resulting in a distinct imprint in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of this effect offers a promising way to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, particularly those at high redshift. We use CMB maps from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) survey to measure the CMB lensing signal around galaxy clusters identified in optical imaging from first year observations of the Dark Energy Survey. We detect lensing of the CMB by the galaxy clusters at 6.5$\\sigma$ significance. Using the measured lensing signal, we constrain the amplitude of the relation between cluster mass and optical richness to roughly $20\\%$ precision, finding good agreement with recent constraints obtained with galaxy lensing. The error budget is dominated by statistical noise but includes significant contributions from systematic biases due to the thermal SZ effect and cluster miscentering.

  20. Cosmology from CMB Polarization with POLARBEAR and the Simons Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Darcy; POLARBEAR Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    POLARBEAR is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The science goals of the POLARBEAR project are to do a deep search for CMB B-mode polarization created by inflationary gravitational waves, as well as characterize the CMB B-mode signal from gravitational lensing. POLARBEAR-1 started observations in 2012, and the POLARBEAR team has published a series of results from its first season of observations, including the first measurement of a non-zero B-mode polarization angular power spectrum, measured at sub-degree scales where the dominant signal is gravitational lensing of the CMB. Recently, we released an improved measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum, improving our band-power uncertainties by a factor of two, by adding new data from our second observing season and re-analyzing the combined data set.To further improve on these measurements, POLARBEAR is expanding to include an additional two telescopes with multi-chroic receivers observing at 95, 150, 220, and 270 GHz, known as the Simons Array. With high sensitivity and large sky coverage, the Simons Array will create a detailed survey of B-mode polarization, and its spectral information will be used to extract the CMB signal from astrophysical foregrounds. We will present the latest POLARBEAR results, as well as the status of development of the Simons Array and its expected capabilities.

  1. On the recovery of ISW fluctuations using large-scale structure tracers and CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavera, Laura; Barreiro, R. Belén; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Vielva, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a method to extract the signal induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It makes use of the Linear Covariance-Based filter introduced by Barreiro et al., and combines CMB data with any number of large-scale structure (LSS) surveys and lensing information. It also exploits CMB polarization to reduce cosmic variance. The performance of the method has been thoroughly tested with simulations taking into account the impact...

  2. Power filtration of CMB observational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, D.I.; Naselsky, P.; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a power filter Cp for linear reconstruction of the CMB signal from one-dimensional scans of observational maps. This Gp filter preserves the power spectrum of the CMB signal in contrast to the Wiener filter which diminishes the power spectrum of the reconstructed CMB signal. We...... demonstrate how peak statistics and a cluster analysis can be used to estimate the probability of the presence of a CMB signal in observational records. The efficiency of the G, filter is demonstrated on a toy model of an observational record consisting of a CMB signal and noise in the form of foreground...

  3. CMB delensing beyond the B modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Meyers, Joel; van Engelen, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure significantly impacts observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB): it smooths the acoustic peaks in temperature and E-mode polarization power spectra, correlating previously uncorrelated modes; and it converts E-mode polarization into B-mode polarization. The act of measuring and removing the effect of lensing from CMB maps, or delensing, has been well studied in the context of B modes, but little attention has been given to the delensing of the temperature and E modes. In this paper, we model the expected delensed T and E power spectra to all orders in the lensing potential, demonstrating the sharpening of the acoustic peaks and a significant reduction in lens-induced power spectrum covariances. We then perform cosmological forecasts, demonstrating that delensing will yield improved sensitivity to parameters with upcoming surveys. We highlight the breaking of the degeneracy between the effective number of neutrino species and primordial helium fraction as a concrete application. We also show that delensing increases cosmological information as long as the measured lensing reconstruction is included in the analysis. We conclude that with future data, delensing will be crucial not only for primordial B-mode science but for a range of other observables as well.

  4. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  5. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  6. THE ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECTRAL LINE INTENSITY MAPPING AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS AND CMB SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L.; Walter, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chluba, J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Lower Withington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Popping, G. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Cortes, P. [Joint ALMA Observatory—ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova, 3104, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL2333 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Riechers, D., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μ m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ( z  ∼ 6–7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T{sub B}  = 0.94 ± 0.09 μ K. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T{sub B}  = 0.55 ± 0.033 μ K. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  7. How CMB and large-scale structure constrain chameleon interacting dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriero, Daniel [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätstr. 25, Bielefeld (Germany); Das, Subinoy [Indian Institute of Astrophisics, Bangalore, 560034 (India); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: boriero@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: subinoy@iiap.res.in, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-07-01

    We explore a chameleon type of interacting dark matter-dark energy scenario in which a scalar field adiabatically traces the minimum of an effective potential sourced by the dark matter density. We discuss extensively the effect of this coupling on cosmological observables, especially the parameter degeneracies expected to arise between the model parameters and other cosmological parameters, and then test the model against observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and other cosmological probes. We find that the chameleon parameters α and β, which determine respectively the slope of the scalar field potential and the dark matter-dark energy coupling strength, can be constrained to α < 0.17 and β < 0.19 using CMB data and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. The latter parameter in particular is constrained only by the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Adding measurements of the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} tightens the bound on α by a factor of two, although this apparent improvement is arguably an artefact of the tension between the local measurement and the H{sub 0} value inferred from Planck data in the minimal ΛCDM model. The same argument also precludes chameleon models from mimicking a dark radiation component, despite a passing similarity between the two scenarios in that they both delay the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Based on the derived parameter constraints, we discuss possible signatures of the model for ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys.

  8. The Simons Array CMB polarization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebor, N.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barch, B.; Barron, D.; Beckman, S.; Bender, A.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunner, R.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; Fujino, T.; Fuller, G.; Gilbert, A. J.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Groh, J.; Hall, G.; Halverson, N.; Hamada, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howe, L.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Jaehnig, G.; Jaffe, A.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J. P.; Kazemzadeh, K.; Keating, B. G.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Kusaka, A.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leon, D.; Linder, E. V.; Lowry, L.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N.; Montgomery, J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Raum, C. R.; Rebeiz, G. M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K. M.; Segawa, Y.; Sherwin, B. D.; Shirley, I.; Siritanasak, P.; Steinmetz, L.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takatori, S.; Teply, G. P.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Zahn, A.; Zahn, O.

    2016-07-01

    The Simons Array is a next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment whose science target is a precision measurement of the B-mode polarization pattern produced both by inflation and by gravitational lensing. As a continuation and extension of the successful POLARBEAR experimental program, the Simons Array will consist of three cryogenic receivers each featuring multichroic bolometer arrays mounted onto separate 3.5m telescopes. The first of these, also called POLARBEAR-2A, will be the first to deploy in late 2016 and has a large diameter focal plane consisting of dual-polarization dichroic pixels sensitive at 95 GHz and 150 GHz. The POLARBEAR-2A focal plane will utilize 7,588 antenna-coupled superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out with SQUID amplifiers using frequency domain multiplexing techniques. The next two receivers that will make up the Simons Array will be nearly identical in overall design but will feature extended frequency capability. The combination of high sensitivity, multichroic frequency coverage and large sky area available from our mid-latitude Chilean observatory will allow Simons Array to produce high quality polarization sky maps over a wide range of angular scales and to separate out the CMB B-modes from other astrophysical sources with high fidelity. After accounting for galactic foreground separation, the Simons Array will detect the primordial gravitational wave B-mode signal to r > 0.01 with a significance of > 5σ and will constrain the sum of neutrino masses to 40 meV (1σ) when cross-correlated with galaxy surveys. We present the current status of this funded experiment, its future, and discuss its projected science return.

  9. CMB Anisotropy of Spherical Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Aurich, Ralf; Steiner, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The first-year WMAP data taken at their face value hint that the Universe might be slightly positively curved and therefore necessarily finite, since all spherical (Clifford-Klein) space forms M^3 = S^3/Gamma, given by the quotient of S^3 by a group Gamma of covering transformations, possess this property. We examine the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) for all typical groups Gamma corresponding to homogeneous universes. The CMB angular power spectrum and the temperature correlation function are computed for the homogeneous spaces as a function of the total energy density parameter Omega_tot in the large range [1.01, 1.20] and are compared with the WMAP data. We find that out of the infinitely many homogeneous spaces only the three corresponding to the binary dihedral group T*, the binary octahedral group O*, and the binary icosahedral group I* are in agreement with the WMAP observations. Furthermore, if Omega_tot is restricted to the interval [1.00, 1.04], the space described by T* is excl...

  10. Modeling CMB lensing cross correlations with CLEFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Chirag; White, Martin; Vlah, Zvonimir

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of surveys will soon map large fractions of sky to ever greater depths and their science goals can be enhanced by exploiting cross correlations between them. In this paper we study cross correlations between the lensing of the CMB and biased tracers of large-scale structure at high z. We motivate the need for more sophisticated bias models for modeling increasingly biased tracers at these redshifts and propose the use of perturbation theories, specifically Convolution Lagrangian Effective Field Theory (CLEFT). Since such signals reside at large scales and redshifts, they can be well described by perturbative approaches. We compare our model with the current approach of using scale independent bias coupled with fitting functions for non-linear matter power spectra, showing that the latter will not be sufficient for upcoming surveys. We illustrate our ideas by estimating σ8 from the auto- and cross-spectra of mock surveys, finding that CLEFT returns accurate and unbiased results at high z. We discuss uncertainties due to the redshift distribution of the tracers, and several avenues for future development.

  11. Earth's CMB topography and mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassak, T. M.; McNamara, A. K.; Zhong, S.; Garnero, E.

    2008-12-01

    Better understanding topography on Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB) may provide important constraints on mantle dynamics, specifically the style of mantle convection, and on lower mantle heterogeneity. For example, the origin of large, lowermost mantle low shear wave velocity provinces beneath the central Pacific and Africa is not well constrained, but are likely related to both mantle dynamics and CMB topography. Two competing hypotheses for these anomalies are: thermal upwellings (e.g., plume clusters) or large intrinsically dense piles of primitive mantle material (e.g., thermochemical piles). Here we discuss the results from our current 3D investigation of CMB topography in two styles of mantle convection: 1) an isochemical mantle with plume clusters, and 2) a thermochemical mantle with large, intrinsically dense piles. In this study, we numerically investigate 3D spherical models of mantle convection and calculate maps of topography (CMB and surface, with self-gravitation included) and geoid (CMB and surface). Maps of CMB topography and geoid (CMB and surface) are produced, and compared to observed CMB topography (e.g., Morelli and Dziewonski, 1987; Boschi and Dziewonski, 2000; Sze and van der Hilst, 2003) and surface geoid (e.g., Earth Geopotential Model, 1996). Our predicted surface geoid maps provide a key image of how CMB topography, for any given model, will affect the geoid. The results of this work emphasize the importance in using a suite of observables (in this case, topography and geoid maps for CMB and surface) to constrain whole mantle dynamics and lower mantle structure.

  12. Visual Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the use of verb argument structure by tracking participants' eye movements across a set of related pictures as they listened to sentences. The assumption was that listeners would naturally look at relevant pictures as they were mentioned or implied. The primary hypothesis was that a verb would implicitly introduce…

  13. Disformal transformations on the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal trans- formation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.

  14. A CMB/Dark Energy Cosmic Duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2004-01-01

    We investigate a possible connection between the suppression of the power at low multipoles in the CMB spectrum and the late time acceleration. We show that, assuming a cosmic IR/UV duality between the UV cutoff and a global infrared cutoff given by the size of the future event horizon, the equat......, the equation of state of the dark energy can be related to the apparent cutoff in the CMB spectrum. The present limits on the equation of state of dark energy are shown to imply an IR cutoff in the CMB multipole interval of 9>l>8.5....

  15. Bias to CMB lensing reconstruction from temperature anisotropies due to large-scale galaxy motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Simone; Hill, J. Colin

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is expected to be amongst the most powerful cosmological tools for ongoing and upcoming CMB experiments. In this work, we investigate a bias to CMB lensing reconstruction from temperature anisotropies due to the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect, that is, the Doppler shift of CMB photons induced by Compton scattering off moving electrons. The kSZ signal yields biases due to both its own intrinsic non-Gaussianity and its nonzero cross-correlation with the CMB lensing field (and other fields that trace the large-scale structure). This kSZ-induced bias affects both the CMB lensing autopower spectrum and its cross-correlation with low-redshift tracers. Furthermore, it cannot be removed by multifrequency foreground separation techniques because the kSZ effect preserves the blackbody spectrum of the CMB. While statistically negligible for current data sets, we show that it will be important for upcoming surveys, and failure to account for it can lead to large biases in constraints on neutrino masses or the properties of dark energy. For a stage 4 CMB experiment, the bias can be as large as ≈15 % or 12% in cross-correlation with LSST galaxy lensing convergence or galaxy overdensity maps, respectively, when the maximum temperature multipole used in the reconstruction is ℓmax=4000 , and about half of that when ℓmax=3000 . Similarly, we find that the CMB lensing autopower spectrum can be biased by up to several percent. These biases are many times larger than the expected statistical errors. We validate our analytical predictions with cosmological simulations and present the first complete estimate of secondary-induced CMB lensing biases. The predicted bias is sensitive to the small-scale gas distribution, which is affected by pressure and feedback mechanisms, thus making removal via "bias-hardened" estimators challenging. Reducing ℓmax can significantly mitigate the bias at the cost of a decrease

  16. Simulating CMB maps on a spherical cap with FFTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Eric; Bunn, Emory

    2018-01-01

    The current methods of simulating the Cosmic Microwave Background involve simulating the entire sky using spherical transforms. These methods are inefficient because most surveys only cover a fraction of the sky, so simulating the entire sky is very wasteful. One alternative method of CMB simulation is to simulate the random processes behind the CMB in a 3 dimensional box that contains the part of the sphere that we want to measure. Then, we can select the points we want from the box. This method should be more efficient than previous methods because it performs simulations over a box instead of a sphere. This allows us to use Fourier transforms instead of spherical harmonic transforms, which are much slower. For this method to work, there must be a 3 dimensional power spectrum defined on the box that has the same correlation function as the angular power spectrum. Since the angular power spectrum is known, this becomes a linear programming problem, where the constraints for the 3-D power spectrum are that it match the angular power spectrum and that it be non-negative. If a power spectrum satisfying these constraints exists, we can use it to simulate the CMB. We have found a power spectrum for some reasonable parameter values, and are working to find a more complete answer to this question.

  17. A new millimeter-wave camera for CMB observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboobaker, Asad Marfani

    Studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), driven by advances in detector and telescope technology, have transformed cosmology into a precise science. In this thesis we present a means of observing the CMB with a new class of detectors. Specifically, we present a description of the Column CAMera (CCAM), a prototype instrument for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT is designed to measure the CMB anisotropy up to l ~ 10, 000 and perform a galaxy cluster survey using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The CCAM instrument tests many of the technologies that will be used in the ACT receiver. We describe aspects of the design of CCAM's cryogenic systems, optics, detector array, and housekeeping system. CCAM observed the sky from Princeton in December, 2005. We measure the noise effective power (NEP) of the CCAM detectors on the sky to be ~ 1.3 × 10 - 17 -- 3 × 10 -17 W/[radical]Hz, comparable to what we expect from ACT. We measure the main beam profile using an astronomical point source using a simple model of the primary aperture intensity distribution. We investigate the sidelobes of the telescope response using the moon as a source and the same beam model as used for the main beam. Last, we examine the pixel-to-pixel covariance of the receiver at various steps during the mapmaking process and find that the cleaned data streams are not highly-correlated. The correlation properties of a point source map agree with the measured beam.

  18. The Damping Tail of CMB Anisotropies

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne; White, Martin

    1996-01-01

    By decomposing the damping tail of CMB anisotropies into a series of transfer functions representing individual physical effects, we provide ingredients that will aid in the reconstruction of the cosmological model from small-scale CMB anisotropy data. We accurately calibrate the model-independent effects of diffusion and reionization damping which provide potentially the most robust information on the background cosmology. Removing these effects, we uncover model-dependent processes such as ...

  19. Neutrinos and BBN (and the CMB)

    OpenAIRE

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    During Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), in the first 20 minutes of the evolution of the Universe, the light nuclides, D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li were synthesized in astrophysically interesting abundances. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) observed at present was last scattered some 400 thousand years later. BBN and the CMB (supplemented by more recent Large Scale Structure data), provide complementary probes of the early evolution of the Universe and enable constraints on the high temp...

  20. Constraints on the Cosmological Parameters using CMB observations

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Graca

    1999-01-01

    This paper covers several techniques of intercomparison of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and models of structure formation. It presents the constraints on several cosmological parameters using current CMB observations.

  1. Explicit argumentation instruction to facilitate conceptual understanding and argumentation skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda Cetin, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Argumentation is accepted by many science educators as a major component of science education. Many studies have investigated students' conceptual understanding and their engagement in argumentative activities. However, studies conducted in the subject of chemistry are very rare. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of argumentation-based chemistry lessons on pre-service science teachers' understanding of reaction rate concepts, their quality of argumentation, and their consideration of specific reaction rate concepts in constructing an argument. Moreover, students' perceptions of argumentation lessons were explored. Sample: There were 116 participants (21 male and 95 female), who were pre-service first-grade science teachers from a public university. The participants were recruited from the two intact classes of a General Chemistry II course, both of which were taught by the same instructor. Design and methods: In the present study, non-equivalent control group design was used as a part of quasi-experimental design. The experimental group was taught using explicit argumentation activities, and the control group was instructed using traditional instruction. The data were collected using a reaction rate concept test, a pre-service teachers' survey, and the participants' perceptions of the argumentation lessons questionnaire. For the data analysis, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, the Mann-Whitney U-test and qualitative techniques were used. Results: The results of the study indicated that an argumentation-based intervention caused significantly better acquisition of scientific reaction rate-related concepts and positively impacted the structure and complexity of pre-service teachers' argumentation. Moreover, the majority of the participants reported positive feelings toward argumentation activities. Conclusions: As students are encouraged to state and support their view in the chemistry classroom when studying reaction rate, it was

  2. Maximum a posteriori CMB lensing reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Julien; Lewis, Antony

    2017-09-01

    Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a valuable cosmological signal that correlates to tracers of large-scale structure and acts as a important source of confusion for primordial B -mode polarization. State-of-the-art lensing reconstruction analyses use quadratic estimators, which are easily applicable to data. However, these estimators are known to be suboptimal, in particular for polarization, and large improvements are expected to be possible for high signal-to-noise polarization experiments. We develop a method and numerical code, lensit, that is able to find efficiently the most probable lensing map, introducing no significant approximations to the lensed CMB likelihood, and applicable to beamed and masked data with inhomogeneous noise. It works by iteratively reconstructing the primordial unlensed CMB using a deflection estimate and its inverse, and removing residual lensing from these maps with quadratic estimator techniques. Roughly linear computational cost is maintained due to fast convergence of iterative searches, combined with the local nature of lensing. The method achieves the maximal improvement in signal to noise expected from analytical considerations on the unmasked parts of the sky. Delensing with this optimal map leads to forecast tensor-to-scalar ratio parameter errors improved by a factor ≃2 compared to the quadratic estimator in a CMB stage IV configuration.

  3. CMB (And Other) Challenges To BBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigman, G.; Kneller, J. P.; Zentner, A.

    2002-02-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a probe of the universal abundance of baryons when the universe was only a few minutes old. Recent observations of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) probe the baryon abundance when the universe was several hundred thousand years old. Observations of type Ia supernovae and clusters of galaxies in the very recent past, when the universe is several billion years old and older, provide a complementary measure of the baryon density in excellent agreement with the early universe values. The general agreement among the three measurements represents an impressive confirmation of the standard model of cosmology. However, there is a hint that the CMB observations may not be in perfect agreement with those from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). If this ``tension" between BBN and the CMB persists, the standard model of cosmology may need to be modified. Here, in a contribution dedicated to Silvia Torres-Peimbert and Manuel Peimbert, we describe how an asymmetry between neutrinos and antineutrinos (``neutrino degeneracy") has the potential for resolving this possible conflict between BBN and the CMB.

  4. Supporting Argumentation Schemes in Argumentative Dialogue Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Simon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary work into the exploitation of argumentation schemes within dialogue games. We identify a property of dialogue games that we call “scheme awareness” that captures the relationship between dialogue game systems and argumentation schemes. Scheme awareness is used to examine the ways in which existing dialogue games utilise argumentation schemes and consequently the degree with which a dialogue game can be used to construct argument structures. The aim is to develop a set of guidelines for dialogue game design, which feed into a set of Dialogue Game Description Language (DGDL extensions in turn enabling dialogue games to better exploit argumentation schemes.

  5. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavacoli, Gh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist, then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences; the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  6. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosein Tavacoly

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist , then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.   In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  7. Craig and Kalam Cosmological Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosein Tavacoly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Among different arguments for the existence of God the Kalam cosmological argument is a very famous one which is elaborated by Professor William lane Craig. Craig claims that the universe began to exist , then he continues to say: everything that begins to exist has a cause and therefore the universe has a cause. But how do we know that the universe began to exist? This premise forms the most important part of Craig’s contention, and he bolsters it by four arguments, the first two are driven from philosophy and the other two, which he prefers to name them “confirmations from sciences” are driven from sciences the first one evokes to big bang theory and the seconds to the second principle of thermodynamic which are respectively adopted from cosmology and physics.   In this essay we are going to survey Craig’s arguments and estimate their value and weight.

  8. CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzotti, A.; et al.

    2017-01-16

    We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg$^2$ patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the $\\textit{Herschel}$ $500\\,\\mu m$ map of the CIB. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range $300 < \\ell < 2300$; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from theory and simulations and to be robust against systematics. The null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at $6.9 \\sigma$. Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.

  9. CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, A.; Story, K. T.; Wu, W. L. K.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bock, J. J.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Citron, R.; Conley, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dodelson, S.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Viero, M. P.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Zemcov, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing-generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg2 patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the Herschel 500 μm map of the cosmic infrared background. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range 300work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.

  10. Modeling Atmospheric Emission for CMB Ground-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Elleflot, T.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Feeney, S.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N. J.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K. M.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takakura, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Whitehorn, N.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.

    2015-08-01

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  11. THE ARGUMENTATION IN GALATIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many exegetes set out to analyse not only rhetorical features in Galatians but also other features relating to Paul's argumentation. Still, the use of insights from modern argumentation theory has been modest and no full-fledged argumentation analyses of. Paul's argumentation have yet been attempted. However, modern ...

  12. Argumentation and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinelli, S.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role of argumentation in the health care domain. Argumentation and Health is a collection of essays by argumentation theorists reflecting on the way in which the institutional context of health care shapes the argumentative interaction. The

  13. CMB Temperature and Polarization Anisotropy Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    The tremendous experimental progress in cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy studies over the last few years has helped establish a standard paradigm for cosmology at intermediate epochs and has simultaneously raised questions regarding the physical processes at the two opposite ends of time. What is the physics behind the source of structure in the universe and the dark energy that is currently accelerating its expansion? We review the acoustic phenomenol...

  14. The Angular Trispectrum of the CMB

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    We study the general properties of the CMB temperature four-point function, specifically its harmonic analogue the angular trispectrum, and illustrate its utility in finding optimal quadratic statistics through the weak gravitational lensing effect. We determine the general form of the trispectrum, under the assumptions of rotational, permutation, and parity invariance, its estimators on the sky, and their Gaussian noise properties. The signal-to-noise in the trispectrum can be highly configu...

  15. Thermodynamics of SU(2 quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Ralf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of effective SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (antiselfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2 photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anticalorons of scale parameter ρ ∼ |φ|−1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anticaloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anticaloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2 Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2 photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2 vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center

  16. On the recovery of ISW fluctuations using large-scale structure tracers and CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavera, L.; Barreiro, R. B.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Vielva, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we present a method to extract the signal induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It makes use of the Linear Covariance-Based filter introduced by Barreiro et al., and combines CMB data with any number of large-scale structure (LSS) surveys and lensing information. It also exploits CMB polarization to reduce cosmic variance. The performance of the method has been thoroughly tested with simulations taking into account the impact of non-ideal conditions such as incomplete sky coverage or the presence of noise. In particular, three galaxy surveys are simulated, whose redshift distributions peak at low (z ≃ 0.3), intermediate (z ≃ 0.6) and high redshift (z ≃ 0.9). The contribution of each of the considered data sets as well as the effect of a mask and noise in the reconstructed ISW map is studied in detail. When combining all the considered data sets (CMB temperature and polarization, the three galaxy surveys and the lensing map), the proposed filter successfully reconstructs a map of the weak ISW signal, finding a perfect correlation with the input signal for the ideal case and around 80 per cent, on average, in the presence of noise and incomplete sky coverage. We find that including CMB polarization improves the correlation between input and reconstruction although only at a small level. Nonetheless, given the weakness of the ISW signal, even modest improvements can be of importance. In particular, in realistic situations, in which less information is available from the LSS tracers, the effect of including polarization is larger. For instance, for the case in which the ISW signal is recovered from CMB plus only one survey, and taking into account the presence of noise and incomplete sky coverage, the improvement in the correlation coefficient can be as large as 10 per cent.

  17. New material about Arguments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Argumentation set i lys af udvidet textbegreb, kommunikative funktioner, formel logik, Toulmins model, fejlslutninger samt retoriske virkemidler......Argumentation set i lys af udvidet textbegreb, kommunikative funktioner, formel logik, Toulmins model, fejlslutninger samt retoriske virkemidler...

  18. Den gode argumentations anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    God argumentation har tre dimensioner: Den er faktuelt retvisende, den er relevant, og den er vægtig. Desværre slipper politikerne ofte af sted med mangelfuld argumentation fordi de forklæder den godt. Derfor får du her de vigtigste redskaber til at spotte uskikkene i politisk argumentation...

  19. CMB temperature bispectrum induced by cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki

    2009-10-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectrum of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings is derived for small angular scales, under the assumption that the principal cause of temperature fluctuations is the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We provide analytical expressions for all isosceles triangle configurations in Fourier space. Their overall amplitude is amplified as the inverse cube of the angle and diverges for flat triangles. The isosceles configurations generically lead to a negative bispectrum with a power-law decay ℓ-6 for large multipole ℓ. However, collapsed triangles are found to be associated with a positive bispectrum whereas the squeezed triangles still exhibit negative values. We then compare our analytical estimates to a direct computation of the bispectrum from a set of 300 statistically independent temperature maps obtained from Nambu-Goto cosmic string simulations in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We find good agreement for the overall amplitude, the power-law behavior, and the angle dependency of the various triangle configurations. At ℓ˜500 the cosmic string Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect contributes approximately the same equilateral CMB bispectrum amplitude as an inflationary model with |fNLloc|≃103, if the strings contribute about 10% of the temperature power spectrum at ℓ=10. Current bounds on fNL are not derived using cosmic string bispectrum templates, and so our fNL estimate cannot be used to derive bounds on strings. However it does suggest that string bispectrum templates should be included in the search of CMB non-Gaussianities.

  20. Modelling Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom : Teachers perception and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probosari, R. M.; Sajidan; Suranto; Prayitno, B. A.; Widyastuti, F.

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher’s perception about scientific argumentation and how they practice it in their classroom. Thirty biology teachers in high school participated in this study and illustrated their perception of scientific argumentation through a questionnaire. This survey research was developed to measure teachers’ understanding of scientific argumentation, what they know about scientific argumentation, the differentiation between argument and reasoning, how they plan teaching strategies in order to make students’ scientific argumentation better and the obstacles in teaching scientific argumentation. The result conclude that generally, teachers modified various representation to accommodate student’s active participation, but most of them assume that argument and reasoning are similar. Less motivation, tools and limited science’s knowledge were considered as obstacles in teaching argumentation. The findings can be helpful to improving students’ abilities of doing scientific argumentation as a part of inquiry.

  1. Instability of reconstruction of the low CMB multipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naselsky, Pavel D.; Verkhodanov, Oleg V.; Nielsen, Mikkel T. B.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the bias of the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB map and show that it is closely related to the coefficient of cross-correlation K(l) of the true CMB and the foreground for each multipole l. We present analysis of the cross-correlation for the WMAP ILC quadrupole an...

  2. Pre-Inflationary Relics in the CMB?

    CERN Document Server

    Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.

    String Theory and Supergravity allow, in principle, to follow the transition of the inflaton from pre-inflationary fast roll to slow roll. This introduces an infrared depression in the primordial power spectrum that might have left an imprint in the CMB anisotropy, if it occurred at accessible wavelengths. We model the effect extending $\\Lambda$CDM with a scale $\\Delta$ related to the infrared depression and explore the constraints allowed by {\\sc Planck} data, employing also more conservative, wider Galactic masks in the low resolution CMB likelihood. In an extended mask with $f_{sky}=39\\%$, we thus find $\\Delta = (0.351 \\pm 0.114) \\times 10^{-3} \\, \\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$, at $99.4\\%$ confidence level, to be compared with a nearby value at $88.5\\%$ with the standard $f_{sky}=94\\%$ mask. With about 64 $e$--folds of inflation, these values for $\\Delta$ would translate into primordial energy scales ${\\cal O}(10^{14})$ GeV.

  3. Gravitational lensing of the CMB: A Feynman diagram approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Jenkins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS. We study the Hu–Okamoto quadratic estimator for extracting lensing from the CMB and derive the noise of the estimator up to O(ϕ4 in the lensing potential ϕ. By identifying the diagrams responsible for the previously noted large O(ϕ4 term, we conclude that the lensing expansion does not break down. The convergence can be significantly improved by a reorganization of the ϕ expansion. Our approach makes it simple to obtain expressions for quadratic estimators based on any CMB channel, including many previously unexplored cases. We briefly discuss other applications to cosmology of this diagrammatic approach, such as distortions of the CMB due to patchy reionization, or due to Faraday rotation from primordial axion fields.

  4. Real Space Approach to CMB deboosting

    CERN Document Server

    Yoho, Amanda; Starkman, Glenn D.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of our Galaxy's motion through the Cosmic Microwave Background rest frame, which aberrates and Doppler shifts incoming photons measured by current CMB experiments, has been shown to produce mode-mixing in the multipole space temperature coefficients. However, multipole space determinations are subject to many difficulties, and a real-space analysis can provide a straightforward alternative. In this work we describe a numerical method for removing Lorentz- boost effects from real-space temperature maps. We show that to deboost a map so that one can accurately extract the temperature power spectrum requires calculating the boost kernel at a finer pixelization than one might naively expect. In idealized cases that allow for easy comparison to analytic results, we have confirmed that there is indeed mode mixing among the spherical harmonic coefficients of the temperature. We find that using a boost kernel calculated at Nside=8192 leads to a 1% bias in the binned boosted power spectrum at l~2000, while ...

  5. Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kinney, William H.

    2013-05-01

    We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

  6. Magnetogenesis, spectator fields and CMB signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch

    2008-01-24

    A viable class of magnetogenesis models can be constructed by coupling the kinetic term of the hypercharge to a spectator field whose dynamics does not affect the inflationary evolution. The magnetic power spectrum is explicitly related to the power spectrum of (adiabatic) curvature inhomogeneities when the quasi-de Sitter stage of expansion is driven by a single scalar degree of freedom. Depending upon the value of the slow-roll parameters, the amplitude of smoothed magnetic fields over a (comoving) Mpc scale can be as large as 0.01-0.1 nG at the epoch of the gravitational collapse of the protogalaxy. The contributions of the magnetic fields to the Sachs-Wolfe plateau and to the temperature autocorrelations in the Doppler region compare favourably with the constraints imposed by galactic magnetogenesis. Stimulating lessons are drawn on the interplay between magnetogenesis models and their possible CMB signatures.

  7. CMB temperature trispectrum of cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki

    2010-03-01

    We provide an analytical expression for the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by cosmic strings. Our result is derived for the small angular scales under the assumption that the temperature anisotropy is induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. The trispectrum is predicted to decay with a noninteger power-law exponent ℓ-ρ with 6<ρ<7, depending on the string microstructure, and thus on the string model. For Nambu-Goto strings, this exponent is related to the string mean square velocity and the loop distribution function. We then explore two classes of wave number configuration in Fourier space, the kite and trapezium quadrilaterals. The trispectrum can be of any sign and appears to be strongly enhanced for all squeezed quadrilaterals.

  8. At analysere argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Kapitlet er et opgør med normative forestillinger om sund/usund argumentation og søger hen mod en dynamisk og kontekstuel argumentationsforståelse......Kapitlet er et opgør med normative forestillinger om sund/usund argumentation og søger hen mod en dynamisk og kontekstuel argumentationsforståelse...

  9. Arguments from parallel reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Jan Albert; Ribeiro, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a co-production by a proponent and an opponent who engage in a critical examination of their difference of opinion, aiming to resolve it on the merits of both sides, or so I assume in this paper. I shall investigate the consequences of this view for a particular type of argument

  10. Rethinking the Argumentative Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneer, David

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the construction of the argumentative essay as it is commonly presented in academic writing textbooks and classrooms for English language learners. The author first examines the traditional three-stage structure (thesis-argument-conclusion) and then problematizes it within a genre-based approach to academic writing. He…

  11. Quine's argument from despair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Quine's argument for a naturalized epistemology is routinely perceived as an argument from despair: traditional epistemology must be abandoned because all attempts to deduce our scientific theories from sense experience have failed. In this paper, I will show that this picture is historically

  12. Thermodynamical Arguments against Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The argument that the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution has recently been revived by anti-evolutionists. In its basic form, the argument asserts that whereas evolution implies that there has been an increase in biological complexity over time, the second law, a fundamental principle of physics, shows this to be…

  13. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ade, P.A.R; Rachen, J.P; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite...

  14. Antenna-Coupled TES Bolometer Arrays for CMB Polarimetry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and test transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer arrays for precision polarimetry of cosmic microwave background (CMB).  Verify that critical antenna...

  15. Working Around Cosmic Variance: Remote Quadrupole Measurements of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Arsalan; Bunn, Emory

    2018-01-01

    Anisotropies in the CMB maps continue to revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. However, the statistical interpretation of these anisotropies is tainted with a posteriori statistics. The problem is particularly emphasized for lower order multipoles, i.e. in the cosmic variance regime of the power spectrum. Naturally, the solution lies in acquiring a new data set – a rather difficult task given the sample size of the Universe.The CMB temperature, in theory, depends on: the direction of photon propagation, the time at which the photons are observed, and the observer’s location in space. In existing CMB data, only the first parameter varies. However, as first pointed out by Kamionkowski and Loeb, a solution lies in making the so-called “Remote Quadrupole Measurements” by analyzing the secondary polarization produced by incoming CMB photons via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. These observations allow us to measure the projected CMB quadrupole at the location and look-back time of a galaxy cluster.At low redshifts, the remote quadrupole is strongly correlated to the CMB anisotropy from our last scattering surface. We provide here a formalism for computing the covariance and relation matrices for both the two-point correlation function on the last scattering surface of a galaxy cluster and the cross correlation of the remote quadrupole with the local CMB. We then calculate these matrices based on a fiducial model and a non-standard model that suppresses power at large angles for ~104 clusters up to z=2. We anticipate to make a priori predictions of the differences between our expectations for the standard and non-standard models. Such an analysis is timely in the wake of the CMB S4 era which will provide us with an extensive SZ cluster catalogue.

  16. Parameterization of temperature and spectral distortions in future CMB experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitrou, Cyril; Stebbins, Albert

    2014-10-15

    CMB spectral distortions are induced by Compton collisions with electrons. We review the various schemes to characterize the anisotropic CMB with a non-Planckian spectrum. We advocate using logarithmically averaged temperature moments as the preferred language to describe these spectral distortions, both for theoretical modeling and observations. Numerical modeling is simpler, the moments are frame-independent, and in terms of scattering the mode truncation is exact.

  17. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    OpenAIRE

    Planck collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ℓ, covering 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ℓ ≲ 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties i...

  18. Connecting CMB anisotropy and cold dark matter phenomenology via reheating

    OpenAIRE

    Maity, Debaprasad; Saha, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the properties of dark matter has been proved to be one of the most challenging problems of particle phenomenology. In this paper, we tried to understand the phenomenology of dark matter in light of very well understood properties of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy. To connect these two, inflation and its subsequent evolution known as reheating phase play the important role. Following previous analysis, we first established one to one correspondence between the CMB ...

  19. CMB-S4 Technology Book, First Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abitbol, Maximilian H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); et al.

    2017-06-08

    CMB-S4 is a proposed experiment to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to nearly the cosmic variance limit for the angular scales that are accessible from the ground. The science goals and capabilities of CMB-S4 in illuminating cosmic inflation, measuring the sum of neutrino masses, searching for relativistic relics in the early universe, characterizing dark energy and dark matter, and mapping the matter distribution in the universe have been described in the CMB-S4 Science Book. This Technology Book is a companion volume to the Science Book. The ambitious science goals of the proposed "Stage-IV" CMB-S4 will require a step forward in experimental capability from the current Stage-III experiments. To guide this process, the community summarized the current state of the technology and identify R&D efforts necessary to advance it for possible use in CMB-S4. The book focused on the technical challenges in four broad areas: Telescope Design; Receiver Optics; Focal-Plane Optical Coupling; and Focal-Plane Sensor and Readout.

  20. Revisiting CMB constraints on warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Richa; Dasgupta, Arnab; Goswami, Gaurav; Prasad, Jayanti; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the constraints that Planck 2015 temperature, polarization and lensing data impose on the parameters of warm inflation. To this end, we study warm inflation driven by a single scalar field with a quartic self interaction potential in the weak dissipative regime. We analyse the effect of the parameters of warm inflation, namely, the inflaton self coupling λ and the inflaton dissipation parameter QP on the CMB angular power spectrum. We constrain λ and QP for 50 and 60 number of e-foldings with the full Planck 2015 data (TT, TE, EE + lowP and lensing) by performing a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis using the publicly available code CosmoMC and obtain the joint as well as marginalized distributions of those parameters. We present our results in the form of mean and 68 % confidence limits on the parameters and also highlight the degeneracy between λ and QP in our analysis. From this analysis we show how warm inflation parameters can be well constrained using the Planck 2015 data.

  1. Constraining warm inflation with CMB data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Bhattacharya, Sukannya; Dutta, Koushik; Gangopadhyay, Mayukh Raj

    2018-02-01

    We confront the warm inflation observational predictions directly with the latest CMB data. We focus on a linear temperature (T) dissipative coefficient combined with the simplest model of inflation, a quartic chaotic potential. Although excluded in its standard cold inflation version, dissipation reduces the tensor-to-scalar ratio and brings the quartic chaotic model within the observable allowed range. We will use the CosmoMC package to derive constraints on the model parameters: the combination of coupling constants giving rise to dissipation, the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom contributing to the thermal bath, and the quartic coupling in the inflaton potential. We do not assume a priori a power-law primordial spectrum, neither we fix the no. of e-folds at the horizon exit. The relation between the no. of e-folds and the comoving scale at horizon crossing is derived from the dynamics, depending on the parameters of the model, which allows us to obtain the k-dependent primordial power spectrum. We study the two possibilities considered in the literature for the spectrum, with the inflaton fluctuations having a thermal or a non-thermal origin, and discuss the ability of the data to constraint the model parameters.

  2. Defining Rhetorical Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a definition of rhetorical argumentation based on the theme of the argumentation, i.e., the issue in dispute - rather than its aim (e.g., to ‘win’) or its means (e.g., emotional appeals). The principal thinkers in the rhetorical tradition, from Aristotle onwards, saw...... rhetoric as practical reasoning, i.e., reasoning on proposals for action or choice, not on propositions that may be either true or false. Citing several contemporary philosophers, the article argues that such a definition acquits rhetorical argumentation of any culpable unconcern with truth and explains...... certain peculiar properties of it that tend to be under-theorized in argumentation theory....

  3. The argument of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Aberdein, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between argumentation theory and the philosophy of mathematical practice. It offers large array of examples ranging from the history of mathematics to formal proof verification.

  4. Optimization study for the experimental configuration of CMB-S4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Darcy; Chinone, Yuji; Kusaka, Akito; Borril, Julian; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Ferraro, Simone; Keskitalo, Reijo; Lee, Adrian T.; Roe, Natalie A.; Sherwin, Blake D.; Suzuki, Aritoki

    2018-02-01

    The CMB Stage 4 (CMB-S4) experiment is a next-generation, ground-based experiment that will measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization to unprecedented accuracy, probing the signature of inflation, the nature of cosmic neutrinos, relativistic thermal relics in the early universe, and the evolution of the universe. CMB-S4 will consist of O(500,000) photon-noise-limited detectors that cover a wide range of angular scales in order to probe the cosmological signatures from both the early and late universe. It will measure a wide range of microwave frequencies to cleanly separate the CMB signals from galactic and extra-galactic foregrounds. To advance the progress towards designing the instrument for CMB-S4, we have established a framework to optimize the instrumental configuration to maximize its scientific output. The framework combines cost and instrumental models with a cosmology forecasting tool, and evaluates the scientific sensitivity as a function of various instrumental parameters. The cost model also allows us to perform the analysis under a fixed-cost constraint, optimizing for the scientific output of the experiment given finite resources. In this paper, we report our first results from this framework, using simplified instrumental and cost models. We have primarily studied two classes of instrumental configurations: arrays of large-aperture telescopes with diameters ranging from 2–10 m, and hybrid arrays that combine small-aperture telescopes (0.5-m diameter) with large-aperture telescopes. We explore performance as a function of telescope aperture size, distribution of the detectors into different microwave frequencies, survey strategy and survey area, low-frequency noise performance, and balance between small and large aperture telescopes for hybrid configurations. Both types of configurations must cover both large (~ degree) and small (~ arcmin) angular scales, and the performance depends on assumptions for performance vs. angular scale

  5. Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yu Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial

  6. Kalam cosmological argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it will be presented polemics about kalam cosmological argument developed in medieval islamic theology and philosophy. Main moments of that polemics was presented for a centuries earlier in Philoponus criticism of Aristotle’s thesis that the world is eternal, and of impossibilty of actual infinity. Philoponus accepts the thesis that actual infinity is impossible, but he thinks that, exactly because of that, world cannot be eternal. Namely, according to Philoponus, something can­not come into being if its existence requires the preexistence of an infinite number of other things, one arising out of the other. Philoponus and his fellowers in medieval islamic theology (Al-Kindi and Al-Ghazali, called kalam theologians, have offered arguments against the conception of a temporally infinite universe, under­stood as a succesive causal chain. On other side, medieval islamic thinkers, called falasifah /philosophers/ or aristotelians (Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroës, have offered arguments in favor of Aristotele’s conception of the eternity of the universe. Decisive problem in disccusion between kalam i falsafa medieval muslim thinkers was the problem of infinity. They have offered very interesting arguments and counterarguments about concept of infinity. In this paper it will be presented some of the crucial moments of that arguments.

  7. External priors for the next generation of CMB experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott; Park, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    Planned cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can dramatically improve what we know about neutrino physics, inflation, and dark energy. The low level of noise, together with improved angular resolution, will increase the signal to noise of the CMB polarized signal as well as the reconstructed lensing potential of high redshift large scale structure. Projected constraints on cosmological parameters are extremely tight, but these can be improved even further with information from external experiments. Here, we examine quantitatively the extent to which external priors can lead to improvement in projected constraints from a CMB-Stage IV (S4) experiment on neutrino and dark energy properties. We find that CMB S4 constraints on neutrino mass could be strongly enhanced by external constraints on the cold dark matter density $\\Omega_{c}h^{2}$ and the Hubble constant $H_{0}$. If polarization on the largest scales ($\\ell<50$) will not be measured, an external prior on the primordial amplitude $A_{s}$ or the optical depth $\\tau$ will also be important. A CMB constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom, $N_{\\rm eff}$, will benefit from an external prior on the spectral index $n_{s}$ and the baryon energy density $\\Omega_{b}h^{2}$. Finally, an external prior on $H_{0}$ will help constrain the dark energy equation of state ($w$).

  8. To the problem of the secondary CMB anisotropy separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhodanov Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study contribution to the secondary anisotropy maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation which difficult to account for faint sources. Two effects are investigated. They are the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect connected with the inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons on hot electrons of cluster of galaxies, and contamination of the background by weak extragalctic sources. First, we study fields of the Planck CMB maps around radio sources of the RATAN-600 catalog. We see weak microwave sources which make an additional contribution to the secondary anisotropy on angular small scales (< 7′. An algorithm for selecting candidate objects with the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect was proposed, based on the use of data on the radio spectral indices and the signal in cosmic-microwave background maps. Second, applying the stacking method, we examine the areas of the CMB maps, constructed according to the Planck Space Observatory data in the neighborhood of different populations of radio sources and giant elliptical galaxies. The samples of objects include giant radio galaxies (GRG, radio sources, selected by the radio spectral index and redshift, as well as the gammaray bursts, used as a secondary comparative sample. The signal from this objects exists on CMB maps and its difference in the neighborhood of GRGs from the other types of objects was discovered.

  9. Argumentative Text Writing: Developmental Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Caroline; Coirier, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Describes the essential factors of developmental changes in argumentative writing behavior of children between the ages of 10 and 16, in particular on 4 tasks: an argumentative writing task, a textuality task, an argumentative script inference task, and an argumentativity judgment task. (SR)

  10. Icelandic Morphosyntax and Argument Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is about the elements that build verbs, the elements that introduce arguments, and how these elements interact to determine the interpretation of arguments and events. A theory of argument structure is a theory how arguments are introduced syntactically, interpreted semantically, and marked morphologically, and how this…

  11. CMBPol Mission Concept Study: Probing Inflation with CMB Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Daniel; Adshead, Peter; Amblard, Alexandre; Ashoorioon, Amjad; Bartolo, Nicola; Bean, Rachel; Beltran, Maria; de Bernardis, Francesco; Bird, Simeon; Chen, Xingang; Chung, Daniel Jun Hun; Colombo, Loris; Cooray, Asantha R.; Creminelli, Paolo; Dodelson, Scott; Dunkley, Joanna; Dvorkin, Cora; Easther, Richard; Finelli, Fabio; Flauger, Raphael; Hertzberg, Mark P.; Jones-Smith, Katherine; Kachru, Shamit; Kadota, Kenji; Khoury, Justin; Kinney, William H.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liddle, Andrew R.; Liguori, Michele; Lim, Eugene A.; Linde, Andrei D.; Matarrese, Sabino; Mathur, Harsh; McAllister, Liam; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Nicolis, Alberto; Pagano, Luca; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Peloso, Marco; Pogosian, Levon; Pierpaoli, Elena; Riotto, Antonio; Seljak, Uros; Senatore, Leonardo; Shandera, Sarah E.; Silverstein, Eva; Smith, Tristan; Vaudrevange, Pascal M.; Verde, Licia; Wandelt, Ben; Wands, David; Watson, Scott; Wyman, Mark; Yadav, Amit; Valkenburg, Wessel; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the utility of precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements as probes of the physics of inflation. We focus on the prospects for using CMB measurements to differentiate various inflationary mechanisms. In particular, a detection of primordial B-mode polarization would demonstrate that inflation occurred at a very high energy scale, and that the inflaton traversed a super-Planckian distance in field space. We explain how such a detection or constraint would illuminate aspects of physics at the Planck scale. Moreover, CMB measurements can constrain the scale-dependence and non-Gaussianity of the primordial fluctuations and limit the possibility of a significant isocurvature contribution. Each such limit provides crucial information on the underlying inflationary dynamics. Finally, we quantify these considerations by presenting forecasts for the sensitivities of a future satellite experiment to the inflationary parameters.

  12. A Bayesian framework for cosmic string searches in CMB maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuca, Razvan; Hernández, Oscar F.

    2017-08-01

    There exists various proposals to detect cosmic strings from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) or 21 cm temperature maps. Current proposals do not aim to find the location of strings on sky maps, all of these approaches can be thought of as a statistic on a sky map. We propose a Bayesian interpretation of cosmic string detection and within that framework, we derive a connection between estimates of cosmic string locations and cosmic string tension Gμ. We use this Bayesian framework to develop a machine learning framework for detecting strings from sky maps and outline how to implement this framework with neural networks. The neural network we trained was able to detect and locate cosmic strings on noiseless CMB temperature map down to a string tension of Gμ=5 ×10-9 and when analyzing a CMB temperature map that does not contain strings, the neural network gives a 0.95 probability that Gμ<=2.3×10-9.

  13. Can extragalactic foregrounds explain the large-angle CMB anomalies?

    CERN Document Server

    Rakic, A; Schwarz, Dominik J; Rakic, Aleksandar; Rasanen, Syksy; Schwarz, Dominik J

    2008-01-01

    We address the effect of an extended local foreground on the low-l anomalies found in the CMB. Recent X-ray catalogues point us to the existence of very massive superstructures at the 100 h^(-1) Mpc scale that contribute significantly to the dipole velocity profile. Being highly non-linear, these structures provide us a natural candidate to leave an imprint on the CMB sky via a local Rees-Sciama effect. We show that the Rees-Sciama effect of local foregrounds can induce CMB anisotropy of DeltaT/T ~ 10^(-5) and we analyse its impact on multipole power as well as the induced phase pattern on largest angular scales.

  14. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  15. Modified gravity: the CMB, weak lensing and general parameterisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shaun A.; Appleby, Stephen A.; Weller, Jochen

    2011-03-01

    We examine general physical parameterisations for viable gravitational models in the f(R) framework. This is related to the mass of an additional scalar field, called the scalaron, that is introduced by the theories. Using a simple parameterisation for the scalaron mass M(a) we show there is an exact correspondence between the model and popular parameterisations of the modified Poisson equation μ(a,k) and the ratio of the Newtonian potentials η(a,k). We argue that although f(R) models are well described by the general [μ(a,k),η(a,k)] parameterization, specific functional forms of μ,η in the literature do not accurately represent f(R) behaviour, specifically at low redshift. We subsequently construct an improved description for the scalaron mass (and therefore μ(a,k) and η(a,k)) which captures their essential features and has benefits derived from a more physical origin. We study the scalaron's observational signatures and show the modification to the background Friedmann equation and CMB power spectrum to be small. We also investigate its effects in the linear and non linear matter power spectrum-where the signatures are evident-thus giving particular importance to weak lensing as a probe of these models. Using this new form, we demonstrate how the next generation Euclid survey will constrain these theories and its complementarity to current solar system tests. In the most optimistic case Euclid, together with a Planck prior, can constrain a fiducial scalaron mass M0 = 9.4 × 10-30eV at the ~ 20% level. However, the decay rate of the scalaron mass, with fiducial value ν = 1.5, can be constrained to ~ 3% uncertainty.

  16. CMB anomalies from an inflationary model in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhi-Guo; Piao, Yun-Song [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Guo, Zong-Kuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)

    2014-08-15

    Recent Planck measurements show some CMB anomalies on large angular scales, which confirms the early observations by WMAP. We show that an inflationary model, in which before the slow-roll inflation the Universe is in a superinflationary phase, can generate a large-scale cutoff in the primordial power spectrum, which may account for not only the power suppression on large angular scales, but also a large dipole power asymmetry in the CMB. We discuss an implementation of our model in string theory. (orig.)

  17. Argumentation across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how different kinds of arguments are situated in academic contexts and provides an analysis of undergraduate writing assignments. Assignments were collected from the schools of business, education, engineering, fine arts, and interdisciplinary studies as well as the humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences in the…

  18. Slippery Slope Arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, W.; Chadwick, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Slippery slope arguments hold that one should not take some action (which in itself may be innocuous or even laudable) in order to prevent one from being dragged down a slope towards some clearly undesirable situation. Their typical purpose is to prevent changes in the status quo and, therefore,

  19. The Walking Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    This very brief item discusses the tendency of the highly gifted to be argumentative by nature, a characteristic described as being embedded in personality structure as well as measurable by two traits, perceiving and judging, in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. A number of suggestions are provided to parents and teachers for techniques to use in…

  20. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakayama, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Institute for Basic Science, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-10

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  1. A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.M.; et al.

    2017-04-01

    We present a new upper limit on CMB circular polarization from the 2015 flight of SPIDER, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for $B$-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the non-zero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the HWP polarization modulators, data from SPIDER's 2015 Antarctic flight provides a constraint on Stokes $V$ at 95 and 150 GHz from $33<\\ell<307$. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and SPIDER improves upon the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on $\\ell (\\ell+1)C_{\\ell}^{VV}/(2\\pi)$ ranging from 141 $\\mu K ^2$ to 203 $\\mu K ^2$ at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain stronger constraints on circular polarization.

  2. Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz...

  3. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, Jan; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best...

  4. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations in ...

  5. Symmetry and Antisymmetry of the CMB Anisotropy Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiseung Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given an arbitrary function, we may construct symmetric and antisymmetric functions under a certain operation. Since statistical isotropy and homogeneity of our Universe has been a fundamental assumption of modern cosmology, we do not expect any particular symmetry or antisymmetry in our Universe. Besides fundamental properties of our Universe, we may also figure our contamination and improve the quality of the CMB data products, by matching the unusual symmetries and antisymmetries of the CMB data with known contaminantions. If we let the operation to be a coordinate inversion, the symmetric and antisymmetric functions have even and odd-parity respectively. The investigation on the parity of the recent CMB data shows a large-scale odd-parity preference, which is very unlikely in the statistical isotropic and homogeneous Universe. We investigated the association of the WMAP systematics with the anomaly, but did not find a definite non-cosmological cause. Besides the parity anomaly, there is anomalous lack of large-scale correlation in CMB data. We show that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, phenomenologically identical with the lack of large-angle correlation.

  6. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates...

  7. The parenthood argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkulet, William

    2018-01-01

    Don Marquis is well known for his future like ours theory (FLO), according to which the killing beings like us is seriously morally wrong because it deprives us of a future we can value. According to Marquis, human fetuses possess a future they can come to value, and thus according to FLO have a right to life. Recently Mark Brown has argued that even if FLO shows fetuses have a right to life, it fails to show that fetuses have a right to use their mother's body, evoking Judith Jarvis Thomson's famous violinist case. In the wake of Brown's conclusion, Marquis presents a new argument-the parenthood argument (PA)-which he believes shows that abortion is seriously morally wrong. Here I argue that the PA fails to show abortion is seriously morally wrong for the same reasons FLO fails to show abortion is seriously morally wrong. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2014-02-01

    We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in order to characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, Gμ << 10-7, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.

  9. Collaborative argumentation in academic education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, A.; Andriessen, J.; Kanselaar, G.

    2002-01-01

    The general purpose of this research is to discover principles for the design of educational tasks that provoke collaborative argumentation. The specific research question concentrates on the relationship between question asking and argumentation and is examined in three different collaborative

  10. Evaluating science arguments: evidence, uncertainty, and argument strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Adam; Hahn, Ulrike

    2009-09-01

    Public debates about socioscientific issues are increasingly prevalent, but the public response to messages about, for example, climate change, does not always seem to match the seriousness of the problem identified by scientists. Is there anything unique about appeals based on scientific evidence-do people evaluate science and nonscience arguments differently? In an attempt to apply a systematic framework to people's evaluation of science arguments, the authors draw on the Bayesian approach to informal argumentation. The Bayesian approach permits questions about how people evaluate science arguments to be posed and comparisons to be made between the evaluation of science and nonscience arguments. In an experiment involving three separate argument evaluation tasks, the authors investigated whether people's evaluations of science and nonscience arguments differed in any meaningful way. Although some differences were observed in the relative strength of science and nonscience arguments, the evaluation of science arguments was determined by the same factors as nonscience arguments. Our results suggest that science communicators wishing to construct a successful appeal can make use of the Bayesian framework to distinguish strong and weak arguments. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  11. The anti-zombie argument

    OpenAIRE

    Frankish, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The zombie argument has come to occupy a central role in the case for a non-physicalist view of consciousness. This paper seeks to turn the tables on defenders of the argument ('zombists') by showing that a parallel argument can be run for physicalism. The argument invokes what I call anti-zombies – purely physical creatures that are nonetheless conscious. I show that, using the same resources as those employed by zombists, it is possible to construct an argument from the conceivability of an...

  12. Statistics As Principled Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Abelson, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    In this illuminating volume, Robert P. Abelson delves into the too-often dismissed problems of interpreting quantitative data and then presenting them in the context of a coherent story about one's research. Unlike too many books on statistics, this is a remarkably engaging read, filled with fascinating real-life (and real-research) examples rather than with recipes for analysis. It will be of true interest and lasting value to beginning graduate students and seasoned researchers alike. The focus of the book is that the purpose of statistics is to organize a useful argument from quantitative

  13. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-06-01

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments

  14. Argumentation in undergraduate chemistry laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joi Phelps

    To address the need for reform in undergraduate science education a new instructional model called Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) was developed and then implemented in a undergraduate chemistry course at a community college in the southeastern United States (Sampson, Walker, & Grooms, 2009; Walker, Sampson, & Zimmerman, in press). The ADI instructional model is designed to give a more central place to argumentation and the role of argument in the social construction of scientific knowledge. This research investigated the growth in the quality of the student generated arguments and the scientific argumentation that took place over the course of a semester. Students enrolled in two sections of General Chemistry I laboratory at the community college participated in this study. The students worked in collaborative groups of three or four. The students were given a variation of the same performance task three times during the semester in order to measure individual ability to use evidence and justify their choice of evidence with appropriate rationale. Five ADI investigations took place during the semester and the laboratory reports for each were collected from each student and the argument section of each report was scored. All the student groups were video recorded five times during the semester as they generated and evaluated arguments and the quality of the group argumentation was assessed using an instrument called the Assessment of Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom (ASAC) observation protocol. As time was the independent variable in this study a repeated measure ANOVA was used to evaluate the significance of student improvement in each area (argumentation, written argument and performance task) over the course of the semester (Trochim, 1999). In addition, a multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate how well the ASAC scores predicted individual scores on both the performance task and the written arguments (Green & Salkind, 2005). There was

  15. SPIDER: CMB Polarimetry from the Edge of Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, R.; et al.

    2017-11-28

    SPIDER is a balloon-borne instrument designed to map the polarization of the millimeter-wave sky at large angular scales. SPIDER targets the B-mode signature of primordial gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), with a focus on mapping a large sky area with high fidelity at multiple frequencies. SPIDER's first longduration balloon (LDB) flight in January 2015 deployed a total of 2400 antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) at 90 GHz and 150 GHz. In this work we review the design and in-flight performance of the SPIDER instrument, with a particular focus on the measured performance of the detectors and instrument in a space-like loading and radiation environment. SPIDER's second flight in December 2018 will incorporate payload upgrades and new receivers to map the sky at 285 GHz, providing valuable information for cleaning polarized dust emission from CMB maps.

  16. CMB-S4 Science Book, First Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazajian, Kevork N. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); et al.

    2016-10-09

    This book lays out the scientific goals to be addressed by the next-generation ground-based cosmic microwave background experiment, CMB-S4, envisioned to consist of dedicated telescopes at the South Pole, the high Chilean Atacama plateau and possibly a northern hemisphere site, all equipped with new superconducting cameras. CMB-S4 will dramatically advance cosmological studies by crossing critical thresholds in the search for the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves, in the determination of the number and masses of the neutrinos, in the search for evidence of new light relics, in constraining the nature of dark energy, and in testing general relativity on large scales.

  17. Large-Angle CMB Suppression and Polarisation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Copi, C.J.; Schwarz, D.J.; Starkman, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The anomalous lack of large angle temperature correlations has been a surprising feature of the CMB since first observed by COBE-DMR and subsequently confirmed and strengthened by WMAP. This anomaly may point to the need for modifications of the standard model of cosmology or may show that our Universe is a rare statistical fluctuation within that model. Further observations of the temperature auto-correlation function will not elucidate the issue; sufficiently high precision statistical observations already exist. Instead, alternative probes are required. In this work we explore the expectations for forthcoming polarisation observations. We define a prescription to test the hypothesis that the large-angle CMB temperature perturbations in our Universe represent a rare statistical fluctuation within the standard cosmological model. These tests are based on the temperature-Q Stokes parameter correlation. Unfortunately these tests cannot be expected to be definitive. However, we do show that if this TQ-correlati...

  18. POLARBEAR-2: an instrument for CMB polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barch, B.; Barron, D.; Bender, A.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Ducout, A.; Dünner, R.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; Fuller, G.; Gilbert, A. J.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Groh, J.; Hall, G.; Halverson, N.; Hamada, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howe, L.; Irie, F.; Jaehnig, G.; Jaffe, A.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J. P.; Kazemzadeh, K.; Keating, B. G.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kusaka, A.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leon, D.; Linder, E. V.; Lowry, L.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N.; Mizukami, K.; Montgomery, J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Raum, C. R.; Rebeiz, G. M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K. M.; Segawa, Y.; Sherwin, B. D.; Shirley, I.; Siritanasak, P.; Stebor, N.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takatori, S.; Teply, G. P.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Whitehorn, N.; Zahn, A.; Zahn, O.

    2016-07-01

    POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment that will be located in the Atacama highland in Chile at an altitude of 5200 m. Its science goals are to measure the CMB polarization signals originating from both primordial gravitational waves and weak lensing. PB-2 is designed to measure the tensor to scalar ratio, r, with precision σ(r) > 0:01, and the sum of neutrino masses, Σmz, with σ(Σmv) < 90 meV. To achieve these goals, PB-2 will employ 7588 transition-edge sensor bolometers at 95 GHz and 150 GHz, which will be operated at the base temperature of 250 mK. Science observations will begin in 2017.

  19. CMB bounds on tensor-scalar-scalar inflationary correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R.

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between one graviton and two scalars is enhanced in specific inflationary models, potentially leading to distinguishable signatures in the bispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. We develop the tools to examine such bispectrum signatures, and show a first application using WMAP temperature data. We consider several l-ranges, estimating the gtss amplitude parameter, by means of the so-called separable modal methodology. We do not find any evidence of a tensor-scalar-scalar signal at any scale. Our tightest bound on the size of the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator is derived from our measurement including all the multipoles in the range 2 first direct observational constraint on the primordial tensor-scalar-scalar correlation, and it will be cross-checked and improved by applying the same pipeline to high-resolution temperature and polarization data from Planck and forthcoming CMB experiments.

  20. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rath, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3 sigma). However, we find little evidence for non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance of the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist to scales corresponding to about l=600, and can be described in the low-l regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial powe...

  1. Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...

  2. CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.

  3. How to measure CMB polarization power spectra without losing information

    OpenAIRE

    Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica

    2000-01-01

    We present a method for measuring CMB polarization power spectra given incomplete sky coverage and test it with simulated examples such as Boomerang 2001 and MAP. By augmenting the quadratic estimator method with an additional step, we find that the E and B power spectra can be effectively disentangled on angular scales substantially smaller than the width of the sky patch in the narrowest direction. We find that the basic quadratic and maximum-likelihood methods display a unneccesary sensiti...

  4. Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, O.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Chicago U., KICP; Nguyen, H.; /Fermilab; Bischoff, C.; /Chicago U., KICP /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. /Chicago U., KICP

    2011-07-01

    B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature ({approx}10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.

  5. Optimal scan strategies for future CMB satellite experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher G. R.; Brown, Michael L.; Battye, Richard A.; Delabrouille, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    The B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is about four orders of magnitude fainter than the CMB temperature power spectrum. Any instrumental imperfections that couple temperature fluctuations to B-mode polarization must therefore be carefully controlled and/or removed. We investigate the role that a scan strategy can have in mitigating certain common systematics by averaging systematic errors down with many crossing angles. We present approximate analytic forms for the error on the recovered B-mode power spectrum that would result from differential gain, differential pointing and differential ellipticity for the case where two detector pairs are used in a polarization experiment. We use these analytic predictions to search the parameter space of common satellite scan strategies in order to identify those features of a scan strategy that have most impact in mitigating systematic effects. As an example, we go on to identify a scan strategy suitable for the CMB satellite proposed for the European Space Agency M5 call, considering the practical considerations of fuel requirement, data rate and the relative orientation of the telescope to the earth. Having chosen a scan strategy we then go on to investigate the suitability of the scan strategy.

  6. Tomography of the Reionization Epoch with Multifrequency CMB Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2006-12-01

    We study the constraints that future multifrequency cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments will be able to set on the metal enrichment history of the intergalactic medium at the epoch of reionization. We forecast the signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of the signal introduced into the CMB by resonant scattering off metals at the end of the cosmic dark ages. We take into account systematics associated with cross-channel calibration, errors in reconstruction of the point-spread function, and inaccurate foreground removal. We develop an algorithm to optimally extract the signal generated by metals during reionization and to accurately remove the contamination due to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Although demanding levels of foreground characterization and control of systematics are required, they are very distinct from those encountered in H I 21 cm studies and CMB polarization, and this fact encourages the study of resonant scattering off metals as an alternative way of conducting tomography of the reionization epoch. A realistic experiment, looking at clean regions of the sky, can detect changes of 3%-12% (95% confidence level) in the O III abundance (with respect to its solar value) in the redshift range z=12-22 for reionization redshift zre>10. However, for zretechnology.

  7. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...

  8. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  9. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  10. Een Scotistisch argument voor dualisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, G.J.; van Woudenberg, R.

    2010-01-01

    In his recent book Waar geest is, is vrijheid [Where there is mind, there is freedom], Guus Labooy sets forth an original and intriguing argument, inspired by the work of John Duns Scotus, for substance dualism in the philosophy of mind. In this paper we argue that his argument, although worthy of

  11. Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Räth, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates of the CMB that are compared to simulations using a fiducial ΛCDM model and incorporating essential aspects of the Planck measurement process. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice, and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3σ). However, we find little evidence of non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance in the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist on scales corresponding to about ℓ = 600 and can be described in the low-ℓ regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial power asymmetry is strongly scale-dependent and does not extend toarbitrarily small angular scales. Finally, it is plausible that some of these features may be reflected in the angular power spectrum of the data, which shows a deficit of power on similar scales. Indeed, when the power spectra of two hemispheres defined by a preferred direction are considered separately, one shows evidence of a deficit in power, while its opposite contains oscillations between odd and even modes that may be related to the parity violation and phase correlations also detected in the data. Although these analyses represent a step forward in building an understanding of the anomalies, a satisfactory explanation based on physically motivated models is still lacking.

  12. Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P. K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Liu, H.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold Spot" is detected with several methods, including map kurtosis, peak statistics, and mean temperature profile. We thoroughly probe the large-scale dipolar power asymmetry, detecting it with several independent tests, and address the subject of a posteriori correction. Tests of directionality suggest the presence of angular clustering from large to small scales, but at a significance that is dependent on the details of the approach. We perform the first examination of polarization data, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB fluctuations to date.

  13. Planck Visualization Project: Seeing and Hearing the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Veen, Jatila; Lubin, P. M.; 2; Alper, B.; 3; Smith, W.; 4; McGee, R.; 5; US Planck Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Planck Education and Public Outreach collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara and Purdue University have prepared a variety of materials to present the science goals of the Planck Mission to the public. Here we present our interactive simulation of the Cosmic Microwave Background, in which the user can change the ingredients of the universe and hear the different harmonics. We also present how we derive information about the early universe from the power spectrum of the CMB by using the physics of music for the public.

  14. EBEX: A Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel; Aboobaker, A. M.; Ade, P.; Aubin, F.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bandura, K.; Bao, C.; Borrill, J.; Didier, J.; Dobbs, M.; Gold, B.; Grain, J.; Grainger, W.; Hanany, S.; Helson, K.; Hillbrand, S. N.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, H.; Irwin, K.; Johnson, B.; Jaffe, A.; Jones, T. J.; Kisner, T.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A.; Leach, S.; Lee, A. T.; Levinson, L.; Limon, M.; MacDermid, K.; Miller, A. D.; Milligan, M.; Pascale, E.; Raach, K.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Sagiv, I.; Smecher, G.; Stompor, R.; Tristram, M.; Tucker, G. S.; Westbrook, B.; Zilic, K.

    2014-01-01

    The E and B Experiment (EBEX) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to probe polarization signals in the CMB resulting from primordial gravitational waves, gravitational lensing, and Galactic dust emission. EBEX is the first balloon-borne astrophysical polarimeter to use a continuously rotating achromatic half-wave plate on a superconducting magnetic bearing and over 1000 transition edge sensor bolometers read out with SQUID amplifiers. The instrument completed an 11 day flight over Antarctica in January 2013 and data analysis is underway. We will provide an overview of the experiment and the Antarctic flight, and give an update on the analysis.

  15. Dipole modulation in tensor modes: signatures in CMB polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Moslem [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Astronomy, P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work we consider a dipole asymmetry in tensor modes and study the effects of this asymmetry on the angular power spectra of CMB. We derive analytical expressions for the C{sub l}{sup TT} and C{sub l}{sup BB} in the presence of such dipole modulation in tensor modes for l < 100. We also discuss on the amplitude of modulation term and show that the C{sub l}{sup BB} is considerably modified due to this term. (orig.) 3.

  16. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    OpenAIRE

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.

    2015-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long ti...

  17. Galileon gravity in light of ISW, CMB, BAO and H0 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Janina; Zumalacárregui, Miguel; Montanari, Francesco; Barreira, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    Cosmological models with Galileon gravity are an alternative to the standard ΛCDM paradigm with testable predictions at the level of its self-accelerating solutions for the expansion history, as well as large-scale structure formation. Here, we place constraints on the full parameter space of these models using data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) (including lensing), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. We pay special attention to the ISW effect for which we use the cross-spectra, ClTg, of CMB temperature maps and foreground galaxies from the WISE survey. The sign of ClTg is set by the time evolution of the lensing potential in the redshift range of the galaxy sample: it is positive if the potential decays (like in ΛCDM), negative if it deepens. We constrain three subsets of Galileon gravity separately known as the Cubic, Quartic and Quintic Galileons. The cubic Galileon model predicts a negative ClTg and exhibits a 7.8σ tension with the data, which effectively rules it out. For the quartic and quintic models the ISW data also rule out a significant portion of the parameter space but permit regions where the goodness-of-fit is comparable to ΛCDM. The data prefers a non zero sum of the neutrino masses (∑mν ≈ 0.5eV) with ~ 5σ significance in these models. The best-fitting models have values of H0 consistent with local determinations, thereby avoiding the tension that exists in ΛCDM. We also identify and discuss a ~ 2σ tension that Galileon gravity exhibits with recent BAO measurements. Our analysis shows overall that Galileon cosmologies cannot be ruled out by current data but future lensing, BAO and ISW data hold strong potential to do so.

  18. Argument z celowości (The argument from design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Swinburne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Author argues that there are no formal fallacies in the argument from design, if the argument is articulated with suffi cient care. According to modern science, he distinguishes two types of order or harmony in the world: regularities of co-presence and regularities of succession. He goes on to claim that Hume’s criticism directed against the argument from design, presented in Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, used as its premises regularities of co-presence other than those produced by men, and did not appeal to the operation of regularities of succession. But a more developed science than Hume knew, more often appeals to the analogy of the order between the regularities of succession produced by human agents and those produced by the operation of natural laws. How strong this analogy is depends on whether the conclusion of the argument from design is true.

  19. Assessing and Supporting Argumentation with Online Rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyan; Zhang, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Writing and assessing arguments are important skills and there is evidence that using rubrics to assess the arguments of others can help students write better arguments. Thus, this study investigated whether students were able to write better arguments after using rubrics to assess the written arguments by peers. Students in 4 secondary 4 classes…

  20. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...

  1. CMB Imprints of a Pre-Inflationary Climbing Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, E.; Patil, S.P.; Sagnotti, A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the implications for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observables, of a class of pre-inflationary dynamics suggested by string models where SUSY is broken due to the presence of D-branes and orientifolds preserving incompatible portions of it. In these models the would-be inflaton is forced to emerge from the initial singularity climbing up a mild exponential potential, until it bounces against a steep exponential potential of "brane SUSY breaking" scenarios, and as a result the ensuing descent gives rise to an inflationary epoch that begins when the system is still well off its eventual attractor. If a pre-inflationary climbing phase of this type had occurred within 6-7 e-folds of the horizon exit for the largest observable wavelengths, displacement off the attractor and initial-state effects would conspire to suppress power in the primordial scalar spectrum, enhancing it in the tensor spectrum and typically superposing oscillations on both. We investigate these imprints on CMB observables over a...

  2. Foreground removal from CMB temperature maps using an MLP neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    CMB signal it is essential to minimize the systematic errors in the CMB temperature determinations. Following the available knowledge of the spectral behavior of the Galactic foregrounds simple power law-like spectra have been assumed. The feasibility of using a simple neural network for extracting...... the CMB temperature signal from the combined signal CMB and the foregrounds has been investigated. As a specific example, we have analysed simulated data, as expected from the ESA Planck CMB mission. A simple multilayer perceptron neural network with 2 hidden layers can provide temperature estimates over...... more than 80 per cent of the sky that are to a high degree uncorrelated with the foreground signals. A single network will be able to cover the dynamic range of the Planck noise level over the entire sky....

  3. MHz to THz: Spectral Modeling of CMB Foreground Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    Measurements of the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a critical test of the inflationary paradigm. Gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch in the early universe interact with the CMB to impart a characteristic signal in linear polarization. The distinctive spatial pattern and frequency dependence of the inflationary signal provide a unique signature to characterize physics at energies approaching Grand Unification, a trillion times beyond the energies accessible to direct experimentation using particle accelerators. Detecting the inflationary signal will be difficult. At predicted amplitudes of 30--100 nK, the signal is faint compared to astrophysical foreground emission from sources within the Galaxy. Measurements of the Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds show these sources to be more than an order of magnitude brighter than the inflationary signal. Robust detection and characterization of the gravity-wave signal requires subtracting these polarized foregrounds to accuracy of a few percent or better. Despite the importance of accurate foreground subtraction for both polarized and unpolarized CMB analyses, considerable uncertainty exists in the frequency dependence of the dominant synchrotron and dust foregrounds. Published maps of the synchrotron spectral index differ at levels Delta beta > 0.2, while estimates of the dust spectral index differ by comparable amounts. Foreground uncertainty at this level would prevent detection of the inflationary signal, even when scaled from nearby ``guard'' channels surrounding the foreground minimum near 60 GHz. We propose to use multi-frequency parametric fitting to model the frequency spectrum of diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky. Archival data sets spanning 5 decades in frequency from 22 MHz to 3 THz allow self-consistent determination of the spectral index and curvature for both synchrotron and dust emission. Broad frequency coverage minimizes confusion

  4. Function and Argument in Begriffsschrift

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badesa, C.; Bertran-San Millán, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2017), s. 316-341 ISSN 0144-5340 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : identity * Frege * logic * function * argument Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.286, year: 2016

  5. Collaborative argumentation in academic education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The general purpose of this research is todiscover principles for the design ofeducational tasks that provoke collaborativeargumentation. The specific research questionconcentrates on the relationship betweenquestion asking and argumentation and isexamined in three different collaborativelearning

  6. Defending Design Arguments Against Plantinga

    OpenAIRE

    von Wachter, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article criticises Alvin Plantinga's claim that basic design beliefs, which arise without a conscious inference, have more positive epistemic status than non-basic ones and that we cannot evaluate the probabilities involved in inferential, inductive design arguments.

  7. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente JULIÁN; Martí NAVARRO; Botti, Vicente; Stella HERAS

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support a...

  8. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  9. A 2500 square-degree CMB lensing map from combined South Pole Telescope and Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y.; et al.

    2017-05-01

    We present a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map produced from a linear combination of South Pole Telescope (SPT) and \\emph{Planck} temperature data. The 150 GHz temperature data from the $2500\\ {\\rm deg}^{2}$ SPT-SZ survey is combined with the \\emph{Planck} 143 GHz data in harmonic space, to obtain a temperature map that has a broader $\\ell$ coverage and less noise than either individual map. Using a quadratic estimator technique on this combined temperature map, we produce a map of the gravitational lensing potential projected along the line of sight. We measure the auto-spectrum of the lensing potential $C_{L}^{\\phi\\phi}$, and compare it to the theoretical prediction for a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology consistent with the \\emph{Planck} 2015 data set, finding a best-fit amplitude of $0.95_{-0.06}^{+0.06}({\\rm Stat.})\\! _{-0.01}^{+0.01}({\\rm Sys.})$. The null hypothesis of no lensing is rejected at a significance of $24\\,\\sigma$. One important use of such a lensing potential map is in cross-correlations with other dark matter tracers. We demonstrate this cross-correlation in practice by calculating the cross-spectrum, $C_{L}^{\\phi G}$, between the SPT+\\emph{Planck} lensing map and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (\\emph{WISE}) galaxies. We fit $C_{L}^{\\phi G}$ to a power law of the form $p_{L}=a(L/L_{0})^{-b}$ with $a=2.15 \\times 10^{-8}$, $b=1.35$, $L_{0}=490$, and find $\\eta^{\\phi G}=0.94^{+0.04}_{-0.04}$, which is marginally lower, but in good agreement with $\\eta^{\\phi G}=1.00^{+0.02}_{-0.01}$, the best-fit amplitude for the cross-correlation of \\emph{Planck}-2015 CMB lensing and \\emph{WISE} galaxies over $\\sim67\\%$ of the sky. The lensing potential map presented here will be used for cross-correlation studies with the Dark Energy Survey (DES), whose footprint nearly completely covers the SPT $2500\\ {\\rm deg}^2$ field.

  10. The deconstruction of safety arguments through adversarial counter-argument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, James M. [BAE Systems Systems Engineering Innovation Centre (SEIC), University of Loughborough (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: J.M.Armstrong@lboro.ac.uk; Paynter, Stephen E. [MBDA UK Ltd, Filton, Bristol (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stephen.paynter@mbda.co.uk

    2007-11-15

    The project Deconstructive Evaluation of Risk In Dependability Arguments and Safety Cases (DERIDASC) has recently experimented with techniques borrowed from literary theory as safety case analysis techniques [Armstrong. Danger: Derrida at work. Interdiscipl Sci Rev 2003;28(2):83-94. ; Armstrong J, Paynter S. Safe systems: construction, destruction, and deconstruction. In: Redmill F, Anderson T, editors. Proceedings of the 11th safety critical systems symposium, Bristol, UK. Berlin: Springer; 2003. p. 62-76. ISBN:1-85233-696-X. ]. This paper introduces our high-level framework for 'deconstructing' safety arguments. Our approach is quite general and should be applicable to different types of safety argumentation framework. As one example, we outline how the approach would work in the context of the Goal Structure Notation (GSN)

  11. CMB spectral distortions in generic two-field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Leskinen, Juuso; Nurmi, Sami; Takahashi, Tomo

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the CMB μ distortion in models where two uncorrelated sources contribute to primordial perturbations. We parameterise each source by an amplitude, tilt, running and running of the running. We perform a detailed analysis of the distribution signal as function of the model parameters, highlighting the differences compared to single-source models. As a specific example, we also investigate the mixed inflaton-curvaton scenario. We find that the μ distortion could efficiently break degeneracies of curvaton parameters especially when combined with future sensitivity of probing the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. For example, assuming bounds μ < 0.5 × 10‑8 and r<0.01, the curvaton contribution should either vanish or the curvaton should dominate primordial perturbations and its slow-roll parameter ηχ is constrained to the interval ‑0.007 < ηχ< 0.045.

  12. Future CMB cosmological constraints in a dark coupled universe

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Mena, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic Microwave Background satellite missions as the on-going Planck experiment are expected to provide the strongest constraints on a wide set of cosmological parameters. Those constraints, however, could be weakened when the assumption of a cosmological constant as the dark energy component is removed. Here we show that it will indeed be the case when there exists a coupling among the dark energy and the dark matter fluids. In particular, the expected errors on key parameters as the cold dark matter density and the angular diameter distance at decoupling are significantly larger when a dark coupling is introduced. We show that it will be the case also for future satellite missions as EPIC, unless CMB lensing extraction is performed.

  13. Low-l CMB power loss in string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander

    2013-09-15

    The lack of power on large scales (l CMB 2-point function power at low l, finding that the potential derived from string loops is not steep enough for this purpose. We introduce a steeper contribution to the potential, that dominates away from the inflationary region, and show that if properly tuned it can indeed lead to a spectrum with lack of power at large scales.

  14. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ℓ, covering 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ℓ ≲ 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher ℓs. For ℓ < 50, our likelihood exploits all Planck frequency channels from 30 to 353 GHz, separating the cosmological CMB signal from diffuse Galactic foregrounds through a physically motivated Bayesian component separation technique. At ℓ ≥ 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on a fine-grained set of angular cross-spectra derived from multiple detector combinations between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency channels, marginalising over power spectrum foreground templates. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on the final cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-ℓ cross-spectra with residuals below a few μK2 at ℓ ≲ 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard ΛCDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at ℓ ≲ 1500. One specific example is the

  15. Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lazanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.

  16. Rethinking CMB foregrounds: systematic extension of foreground parametrizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chluba, Jens; Hill, James Colin; Abitbol, Maximilian H.

    2017-11-01

    Future high-sensitivity measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and energy spectrum will be limited by our understanding and modelling of foregrounds. Not only does more information need to be gathered and combined, but also novel approaches for the modelling of foregrounds, commensurate with the vast improvements in sensitivity, have to be explored. Here, we study the inevitable effects of spatial averaging on the spectral shapes of typical foreground components, introducing a moment approach, which naturally extends the list of foreground parameters that have to be determined through measurements or constrained by theoretical models. Foregrounds are thought of as a superposition of individual emitting volume elements along the line of sight and across the sky, which then are observed through an instrumental beam. The beam and line-of-sight averages are inevitable. Instead of assuming a specific model for the distributions of physical parameters, our method identifies natural new spectral shapes for each foreground component that can be used to extract parameter moments (e.g. mean, dispersion, cross terms, etc.). The method is illustrated for the superposition of power laws, free-free spectra, grey-body and modified blackbody spectra, but can be applied to more complicated fundamental spectral energy distributions. Here, we focus on intensity signals but the method can be extended to the case of polarized emission. The averaging process automatically produces scale-dependent spectral shapes and the moment method can be used to propagate the required information across scales in power spectrum estimates. The approach is not limited to applications to CMB foregrounds, but could also be useful for the modelling of X-ray emission in clusters of galaxies.

  17. Peter Singer's argument for utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins by situating Singer within the British meta-ethical tradition. It sets out the main steps in his argument for utilitarianism as the 'default setting' of ethical thought. It argues that Singer's argument depends on a hierarchy of reasons, such that the ethical viewpoint is understood to be an adaptation--an extension--of a fundamental self-interest. It concludes that the argument fails because it is impossible to get from this starting-point in self-interest to his conception of the ethical point of view. The fundamental problem is its mixing the immiscible: the Humean subordination of reason to interest with the Kantian conception of reason as universal and authoritative.

  18. The argumentation in Galatians | Hietanen | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many exegetes set out to analyse not only rhetorical features in Galatians but also other features relating to Paul's argumentation. Still, the use of insights from modern argumentation theory has been modest and no full-fledged argumentation analyses of Paul's argumentation have yet been attempted. However, modern ...

  19. Vidensanvendelse og argumentation i rehabiliteringsteam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aner, Louise Glerup; Nedergård, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Siden 2013 har rehabiliteringsteam overtaget sagsbehandlerens opgave med at analysere og vurdere borgere i forhold til fleksjob og førtidspension. Artiklen undersøger, hvordan vidensanvendelse og argumentation konkret foregår i det tværfaglige rehabiliteringsteam.......Siden 2013 har rehabiliteringsteam overtaget sagsbehandlerens opgave med at analysere og vurdere borgere i forhold til fleksjob og førtidspension. Artiklen undersøger, hvordan vidensanvendelse og argumentation konkret foregår i det tværfaglige rehabiliteringsteam....

  20. Reflexive sig is an argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jóhannes Gísli Jónsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the simple reflexive pronoun sig is unambiguously a thematic argument in Icelandic. This is shown to be true not only of sig with naturally reflexive verbs but also of inherently reflexive sig. This view is mainly supported by two sets of facts: (i that sig is impossible with verbs that fail to theta-mark their object (middles and anticausatives, and (ii that case assignment works the same way for sig as for non- reflexive DP arguments. Potential counterarguments against my view involving focalization and reflexive passives are argued not to be valid.

  1. Integrated processing in multimodal argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, P.J. van den; Jiang, W.

    2011-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is simple. If the argumentative function of a multimodal narrative text requires the integration of the information from different modes, among which verbal ones, what model for the order of processing and the integration of information do we need to adopt?

  2. Obesitas: argument voor weigeren fertiliteitsbehandeling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Aafke M. H.; Mol, Ben Willem; Dondorp, Wybo J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity can lead to anovulation and subfertility. Around the world fertility treatment is withheld from women above a certain BMI, ranging from 25 to 40 kg/m2. The proponents of this policy use three different arguments to justify their restrictions: risks to the woman, health and wellbeing of the

  3. Constraining star formation through redshifted CO and CII emission in archival CMB data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric

    LCDM is a strikingly successful paradigm to explain the CMB anisotropy and its evolution into observed galaxy clustering statistics. The formation and evolution of galaxies within this context is more complex and only partly characterized. Measurements of the average star formation and its precursors over cosmic time are required to connect theories of galaxy evolution to LCDM evolution. The fine structure transition in CII at 158 um traces star formation rates and the ISM radiation environment. Cold, molecular gas fuels star formation and is traced well by a ladder of CO emission lines. Catalogs of emission lines in individual galaxies have provided the most information about CII and CO to-date but are subject to selection effects. Intensity mapping is an alternative approach to measuring line emission. It surveys the sum of all line radiation as a function of redshift, and requires angular resolution to reach cosmologically interesting scales, but not to resolve individual sources. It directly measures moments of the luminosity function from all emitting objects. Intensity mapping of CII and CO can perform an unbiased census of stars and cold gas across cosmic time. We will use archival COBE-FIRAS and Planck data to bound or measure cosmologically redshifted CII and CO line emission through 1) the monopole spectrum, 2) cross-power between FIRAS/Planck and public galaxy survey catalogs from BOSS and the 2MASS redshift surveys, 3) auto-power of the FIRAS/Planck data itself. FIRAS is unique in its spectral range and all-sky coverage, provided by the space-borne FTS architecture. In addition to sensitivity to a particular emission line, intensity mapping is sensitive to all other contributions to surface brightness. We will remove CMB and foreground spatial and spectral templates using models from WMAP and Planck data. Interlopers and residual foregrounds additively bias the auto-power and monopole, but both can still be used to provide rigorous upper bounds. The

  4. Using CMB data to constrain non-isotropic Planck-scale modifications to Electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, Giulia [Berkeley Lab and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Migliaccio, Marina [Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Roma (Italy); Pagano, Luca [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California (United States); Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza, P. le A. Moro 2, Roma (Italy); Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, via G. Saragat 1, Ferrara (Italy); Polenta, Gianluca, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@berkeley.edu, E-mail: Marina.Migliaccio@roma2.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: paolo.natoli@roma2.infn.it, E-mail: gianluca.polenta@asdc.asi.it [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center, c/o ESRIN, via Galileo Galilei, Frascati (Italy)

    2011-11-01

    We develop a method to constrain non-isotropic features of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization, of a type expected to arise in some models describing quantum gravity effects on light propagation. We describe the expected signatures of this kind of anomalous light propagation on CMB photons, showing that it will produce a non-isotropic birefringence effect, i.e. a rotation of the CMB polarization direction whose observed amount depends in a peculiar way on the observation direction. We also show that the sensitivity levels expected for CMB polarization studies by the Planck satellite are sufficient for testing these effects if, as assumed in the quantum-gravity literature, their magnitude is set by the minute Planck length.

  5. Planck 2015 results: XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based o...

  6. Improved method for detecting local discontinuities in CMB data by finite differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Jude; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    An unexpected distribution of temperatures in the CMB could be a sign of new physics. In particular, the existence of cosmic defects could be indicated by temperature discontinuities via the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. In this paper, we show how performing finite differences on a CMB map, with the noise regularized in harmonic space, may expose such discontinuities, and we report the results of this process on the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data.

  7. An Argumentation Framework based on Paraconsistent Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Takehisa; Sawamura, Hajime

    Argumentation is the most representative of intelligent activities of humans. Therefore, it is natural to think that it could have many implications for artificial intelligence and computer science as well. Specifically, argumentation may be considered a most primitive capability for interaction among computational agents. In this paper we present an argumentation framework based on the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Tolerance and acceptance of inconsistency that this logic has as its logical feature allow for arguments on inconsistent knowledge bases with which we are often confronted. We introduce various concepts for argumentation, such as arguments, attack relations, argument justification, preferential criteria of arguments based on social norms, and so on, in a way proper to the four-valued paraconsistent logic. Then, we provide the fixpoint semantics and dialectical proof theory for our argumentation framework. We also give the proofs of the soundness and completeness.

  8. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales ℓ ≳ 40. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with ℓ< 20 are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27μK averaged over 55' pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1μK averaged over 3.4 parcm pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1σ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses. However, the amplitude of primordial non-Gaussianity is consistent with zero within 2σ for all local, equilateral, and orthogonal configurations of the bispectrum

  9. The study of legal argumentation in argumentation theory and legal theory: approaches and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of how argumentation theorists, philosophers, legal theorists and legal philosophers approach questions about the standards for the correctness of legal argumentation. Ideas about the analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation, developed by influential

  10. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  11. Oscillations in the CMB from Axion Monodromy Inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flauger, Raphael; /Texas U.; McAllister, Liam; Pajer, Enrico; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Westphal, Alexander; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xu, Gang; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-12-01

    We study the CMB observables in axion monodromy inflation. These well-motivated scenarios for inflation in string theory have monomial potentials over super-Planckian field ranges, with superimposed sinusoidal modulations from instanton effects. Such periodic modulations of the potential can drive resonant enhancements of the correlation functions of cosmological perturbations, with characteristic modulations of the amplitude as a function of wavenumber. We give an analytical result for the scalar power spectrum in this class of models, and we determine the limits that present data places on the amplitude and frequency of modulations. Then, incorporating an improved understanding of the realization of axion monodromy inflation in string theory, we perform a careful study of microphysical constraints in this scenario. We find that detectable modulations of the scalar power spectrum are commonplace in well-controlled examples, while resonant contributions to the bispectrum are undetectable in some classes of examples and detectable in others. We conclude that resonant contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum are a characteristic signature of axion monodromy inflation that, in favorable cases, could be detected in near-future experiments.

  12. Dark matter CMB constraints and likelihoods for poor particle physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, James M.; Scott, Pat, E-mail: jcline@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: patscott@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    The cosmic microwave background provides constraints on the annihilation and decay of light dark matter at redshifts between 100 and 1000, the strength of which depends upon the fraction of energy ending up in the form of electrons and photons. The resulting constraints are usually presented for a limited selection of annihilation and decay channels. Here we provide constraints on the annihilation cross section and decay rate, at discrete values of the dark matter mass m{sub χ}, for all the annihilation and decay channels whose secondary spectra have been computed using PYTHIA in arXiv:1012.4515 (''PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection''), namely e, μ, τ, V → e, V → μ, V → τ, u, d s, c, b, t, γ, g, W, Z and h. By interpolating in mass, these can be used to find the CMB constraints and likelihood functions from WMAP7 and Planck for a wide range of dark matter models, including those with annihilation or decay into a linear combination of different channels.

  13. String Theory clues for the low-$\\ell$ CMB ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, N.

    2015-05-29

    "Brane Supersymmetry Breaking" is a peculiar string-scale mechanism that can unpair Bose and Fermi excitations in orientifold models. It results from the simultaneous presence, in the vacuum, of collections of D-branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS, and is closely tied to the scale of string excitations. It also leaves behind, for a mixing of dilaton and internal breathing mode, an exponential potential that is just too steep for a scalar to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, in this class of models the scalar can generically bounce off the exponential wall, and this dynamics brings along, in the power spectrum, an infrared depression typically followed by a pre-inflationary peak. We elaborate on a possible link between this type of bounce and the low-$\\ell$ end of the CMB angular power spectrum. For the first 32 multipoles, one can reach a 50 % reduction in $\\chi^{\\,2}$ with respect to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting.

  14. String theory clues for the low–ℓ CMB ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitazawa N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Brane Supersymmetry Breaking” is a peculiar string–scale mechanism that can unpair Bose and Fermi excitations in orientifold models. It results from the simultaneous presence, in the vacuum, of collections of D-branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS, and is closely tied to the scale of string excitations. It also leaves behind, for a mixing of dilaton and internal breathing mode, an exponential potential that is just too steep for a scalar to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, in this class of models the scalar can generically bounce off the exponential wall, and this dynamics brings along, in the power spectrum, an infrared depression typically followed by a pre–inflationary peak. We elaborate on a possible link between this type of bounce and the low–ℓ end of the CMB angular power spectrum. For the first 32 multipoles, one can reach a 50% reduction in χ2 with respect to the standard ΛCDM setting.

  15. Cosmic opacity to CMB photons and polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, L. P. L.; Bonometto, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Anisotropy data analysis leaves a significant degeneracy between primeval spectral index ( ns) and cosmic opacity to CMB photons ( τ). Low- l polarization measures, in principle, can remove it. We perform a likelihood analysis to see how cosmic variance possibly affects such a problem. We find that, for a sufficiently low noise level ( σPpix) and if τ is not negligibly low, the degeneracy is greatly reduced, while the residual impact of cosmic variance on ns and τ determinations is under control. On the contrary, if σPpix is too high, cosmic variance effects appear to be magnified. We apply general results to specific experiments and find that, if favorable conditions occur, it is possible that a 2- σ detection of a lower limit on τ is provided by the SPOrt experiment. Furthermore, if the PLANCK experiment will measure polarization with the expected precision, the error on low- l harmonics is adequate to determine τ, without significant magnification of the cosmic variance. This however indicates that high sensitivity might be more important than high resolution in τ determinations. We also outline that a determination of τ is critical to perform detailed analyses on the nature of dark energy and/or on the presence of primeval gravitational waves.

  16. A Guide to Designing Future Ground-based CMB Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W. L.K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo, Park, CA (United States); Errard, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dvorkin, C. [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Kuo, C. L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo, Park, CA (United States); Lee, A. T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonald, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Slosar, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zahn, O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), CA (United States)

    2014-02-18

    In this follow-up work to the High Energy Physics Community Summer Study 2013 (HEP CSS 2013, a.k.a. Snowmass), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage-IV Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment (CMB-S4) under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties in cosmological parameters in vΛCDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark-energy equation of state, dark-matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal as measured by DESI to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1-σ constraints: σ(Mv ) = 15 meV, σ(Neff ) = 0.0156, Dark energy Figure of Merit = 303, σ(pann) = 0.00588 x 3 x 10-26 cm3/s/GeV, σ( ΩK) = 0.00074, σ(ns) = 0.00110, σ( αs) = 0.00145, and σ(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependences of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

  17. CMB bounds on disk-accreting massive primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Calore, Francesca; Clesse, Sébastien; Kohri, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    Stellar-mass primordial black holes (PBH) have been recently reconsidered as a dark matter (DM) candidate after the aLIGO discovery of several binary black hole (BH) mergers with masses of tens of M⊙ . Matter accretion on such massive objects leads to the emission of high-energy photons, capable of altering the ionization and thermal history of the universe. This, in turn, affects the statistical properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Previous analyses have assumed spherical accretion. We argue that this approximation likely breaks down and that an accretion disk should form in the dark ages. Using the most up-to-date tools to compute the energy deposition in the medium, we derive constraints on the fraction of DM in PBH. Provided that disks form early on, even under conservative assumptions for accretion, these constraints exclude a monochromatic distribution of PBH with masses above ˜2 M⊙ as the dominant form of DM. The bound on the median PBH mass gets more stringent if a broad, log-normal mass function is considered. A deepened understanding of nonlinear clustering properties and BH accretion disk physics would permit an improved treatment and possibly lead to more stringent constraints.

  18. Modeling and replicating statistical topology and evidence for CMB nonhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J; Agami, Sarit; Pranav, Pratyush

    2017-11-07

    Under the banner of "big data," the detection and classification of structure in extremely large, high-dimensional, data sets are two of the central statistical challenges of our times. Among the most intriguing new approaches to this challenge is "TDA," or "topological data analysis," one of the primary aims of which is providing nonmetric, but topologically informative, preanalyses of data which make later, more quantitative, analyses feasible. While TDA rests on strong mathematical foundations from topology, in applications, it has faced challenges due to difficulties in handling issues of statistical reliability and robustness, often leading to an inability to make scientific claims with verifiable levels of statistical confidence. We propose a methodology for the parametric representation, estimation, and replication of persistence diagrams, the main diagnostic tool of TDA. The power of the methodology lies in the fact that even if only one persistence diagram is available for analysis-the typical case for big data applications-the replications permit conventional statistical hypothesis testing. The methodology is conceptually simple and computationally practical, and provides a broadly effective statistical framework for persistence diagram TDA analysis. We demonstrate the basic ideas on a toy example, and the power of the parametric approach to TDA modeling in an analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) nonhomogeneity. Published under the PNAS license.

  19. Gravity with free initial conditions: A solution to the cosmological constant problem testable by CMB B -mode polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Tomonori

    2017-10-01

    In standard general relativity the universe cannot be started with arbitrary initial conditions, because four of the ten components of the Einstein's field equations (EFE) are constraints on initial conditions. In the previous work it was proposed to extend the gravity theory to allow free initial conditions, with a motivation to solve the cosmological constant problem. This was done by setting four constraints on metric variations in the action principle, which is reasonable because the gravity's physical degrees of freedom are at most six. However, there are two problems about this theory; the three constraints in addition to the unimodular condition were introduced without clear physical meanings, and the flat Minkowski spacetime is unstable against perturbations. Here a new set of gravitational field equations is derived by replacing the three constraints with new ones requiring that geodesic paths remain geodesic against metric variations. The instability problem is then naturally solved. Implications for the cosmological constant Λ are unchanged; the theory converges into EFE with nonzero Λ by inflation, but Λ varies on scales much larger than the present Hubble horizon. Then galaxies are formed only in small Λ regions, and the cosmological constant problem is solved by the anthropic argument. Because of the increased degrees of freedom in metric dynamics, the theory predicts new non-oscillatory modes of metric anisotropy generated by quantum fluctuation during inflation, and CMB B -mode polarization would be observed differently from the standard predictions by general relativity.

  20. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente JULIÁN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  1. Persuasive argumentation as a cultural practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Gałkowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article author traces relation between argumentation and cultural practice. The first part focuses on definition of argumentation in informal logic tradition. In particular, it discusses argument in terms of verbal and social activity involving the use of everyday language. Author claims that there is no argumentation beyond language. The second part explains persuasive argumentation as a form of cultural practice. The persuasive arguments found in “social practice” can be understood as a social activity, analysable within the context of a given cultural system. Author refers to an approach taking the argumentative expression as a certain type of communicative practice, directed towards respecting, recognising or accepting specific actions. The inclusion of persuasive argumentation in the “circuit of cultural activities” to be studied makes it possible to compare this type of argumentation with other social practices, and to posit a clear historical dimension in the study of argumentation. It also makes it possible to view persuasive argumentation as one of many cultural activities aimed at changing or perpetuating behaviours, attitudes, thinking, etc. The third part of the paper concerns the problem of humanistic interpretation of persuasive argumentation. Author attempts to develop this intuition, at the same time demonstrating the problems that arise from this approach. In conclusion, author tries to analyze argumentation in terms of culture theory and humanistic interpretation.

  2. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  3. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  4. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  5. Social argumentation in online synchronous communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiono, Ivan

    In education, argumentation has an increasing importance because it can be used to foster learning in various fields including philosophy, history, sciences, and mathematics. Argumentation is also at the heart of scientific inquiry. Many educational technology researchers have been interested in finding out how technologies can be employed to improve students' learning of argumentation. Therefore, many computer-based tools or argumentation systems have been developed to assist students in their acquisition of argumentation skills. While the argumentation systems incorporating online debating tools present a good resource in formal settings, there is limited research revealing what argumentative skills students are portraying in informal online settings without the presence of a moderator. This dissertation investigates the nature of argumentative practices in a massively multiplayer online game where the system successfully incorporates the authentic use of online synchronous communication tools and the patterns that emerge from the interplay between a number of contextual variables including synchronicity, interest, authenticity, and topical knowledge.

  6. An argumentation framework with backing and undercutting

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Andrea; García, Alejandro Javier; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we will combine two important notions for the argumentation community into Abstract Argumentation Frameworks (AFs). These notions correspond to Toulmin’s backings and Pollock’s undercutting defeaters. We will define Backing-Undercutting Argumentation Frameworks (BUAFs), an extension of AFs that includes a specialized support relation, a distinction between different attack types, and a preference relation among arguments. Thus, BUAFs will provide a more concrete approach to repre...

  7. Giving Reasons, A Contribution to Argumentation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bermejo-Luque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Giving Reasons: A Linguistic-pragmatic-approach to Argumentation Theory (Springer, 2011, I provide a new model for the semantic and pragmatic appraisal of argumentation. This model is based on a characterization of argumentation as a second order speech-act complex. I explain the advantages of this model respecting other proposals within Argumentation Theory, such as Pragma-dialectics, Informal Logic, the New Rhetoric or the Epistemic Approach.

  8. Over-expressed CmbT multidrug resistance transporter improves the fitness of Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipić Brankica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the over-expression of CmbT multidrug resistance transporter on the growth rate of Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was studied. L. lactis is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB widely used as a starter culture in dairy industry. Recently characterized CmbT MDR transporter in L. lactis confers resistance to a wide variety of toxic compounds as well as to some clinically relevant antibiotics. In this study, the cmbT gene was over-expressed in the strain L. lactis NZ9000 in the presence of nisin inducer. Over-expression of the cmbT gene in L. lactis NZ9000 was followed by RT-PCR. The obtained results showed that the cmbT gene was successfully over-expressed by addition of sub-inhibitory amounts of nisin. Growth curves of L. lactis NZ9000/pCT50 over-expressing the cmbT gene and L. lactis NZ9000 control strain were followed in the rich medium as well as in the chemically defined medium in the presence solely of methionine (0.084 mM or mix of methionine and cysteine (8.4 mM and 8.2 mM, respectively. Resulting doubling times revealed that L. lactis NZ9000/pCT50 had higher growth rate comparing to the control strain. This could be a consequence of the CmbT efflux activity, which improves the fitness of the host bacterium through the elimination of toxic compounds from the cell.

  9. Social Argumentation in Online Synchronous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The ability to argue well is a valuable skill for students in both formal and informal learning environments. While many studies have explored the argumentative practices in formal environments and some researchers have developed tools to enhance the argumentative skills, the social argumentation that is occurring in informal spaces has yet to be…

  10. Cognitive semiotics in argumentation; a theoretical exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070378096

    2015-01-01

    Argumentation is a cognitive category. Texts cannot be said to be argumentation, nor can argumentation be said to lie in texts. This is an almost trivial semiotic point of departure, but it is quite relevant nevertheless. In this contribution, three reasons are developed to emphasize and to

  11. Van Inwagen on the Cosmological Argument | Brueckner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his book Metaphysics, Peter van Inwagen constructs a version of the Cosmological Argument which does not depend on the Principle of Sufficient Reason. He goes on to reject the argument. In this paper, I construct an alternative version of the Cosmological Argument that uses some of van Inwagen's insights and yet is ...

  12. Promoting Students' Attention to Argumentative Reasoning Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Kurtz, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Argument-based interventions in science education have largely been motivated by the perspective that students lack knowledge of argument. Recent studies, however, suggest that contextual factors influence students' argument quality. The authors hypothesize that a key limiting factor lies in students' abilities to recognize when to employ…

  13. Argument Status and PP-Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Julie E.; Blodgett, Allison

    2006-01-01

    Prepositional phrase attachment was investigated in temporarily ambiguous sentences. Both attachment site (noun phrase or verb phrase) and argument status (argument or adjunct) were manipulated to test the hypothesis that arguments are processed differently than adjuncts. Contrary to this hypothesis, some previous research suggested that arguments…

  14. Effects of Dyadic Interaction on Argumentative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Deanna; Shaw, Victoria; Felton, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that thinking about a topic enhances later reasoning quality about that topic. Found that, when young adolescents and adults discussed capital punishment, their range of different arguments increased, they shifted from one-sided to two-sided arguments, arguments were based within a framework of alternatives, and they were more…

  15. Teaching and Learning, Stories and Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govier, Trudy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains and illustrates a method of argumentative reconstruction that may be used in the teaching of stories. Without maintaining that argument is superior to narrative or that all narratives should be cast as arguments, I illustrate the benefits of this approach for critical thinking and the discussion that ensues when one seeks to…

  16. Unveiling hidden black holes in the cosmic web: Dark matter halos of WISE quasars from Planck CMB lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickox, Ryan

    The WISE and Planck surveys have now produced groundbreaking data sets which, in concert, can be exploited to obtain revolutionary constraints on the evolution of structure in the Universe. One particularly powerful application of WISE has been to uncover millions of the previously "hidden" obscured quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes that are shrouded in gas and dust and so are not detectable using traditional ground-based optical and near-IR techniques. Recently, Planck has produced the most precise all-sky map to date of dark matter structures via the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose to combine these data sets to obtain a uniquely powerful measurement of the link between rapidly growing black holes and their host dark matter structures, by cross-correlating the density field of WISE-selected quasars with the CMB lensing convergence maps obtained from Planck. This proposal will build on our current ADAP program (NNX12AE38G), which studies the host dark matter halos of WISE-selected quasars via spatial clustering. NNX12AE38G involves a detailed characterization of the redshifts, luminosities, and spectral energy distributions of WISE-selected quasars and uses new techniques to measure how quasars cluster around themselves. NNX12AE38G has contributed to more than 10 journal articles and 5 conference proceedings. Building on our current work, an even more complete understanding of the link between black holes and their host dark matter structures is possible if we employ an independent method for measuring the clustering bias (and thus characteristic halo mass) of the quasar population. This has recently become possible using CMB lensing maps. In the past two years, our team has conducted an initial analysis covering 2500 square degrees using WISE-selected quasars and lensing maps from the South Pole Telescope (Geach, Hickox, Myers et al., 2013), and have implemented this technique with Planck over part of the SDSS region

  17. On Kant’s Transcendental Argument(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Katrechko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Presented in the “Critique of Pure Reason” transcendental philosophy is the first theory of science, which seeks to identify and study the conditions of the possibility of cognition. Thus, Kant carries out a shift to the study of ‘mode of our cognition’ and TP is a method, where transcendental argumentation acts as its essential basis. The article is devoted to the analysis of the transcendental arguments. In § 2 the background of ТА — transcendental method of Antiquity and Leibniz’s Principle of Sufficient Reason — are analyzed and their comparison with ТА is given. § 3 is devoted to the analysis of TA in the broad and narrow senses; a formal propositional and presupposition models are proposed. In § 4 I discuss the difference between TA and metaphysics’ modes of reasoning. It analyzes the Kant’s main limitations of the use TA shows its connection with the Modern Age and contemporary science.

  18. Laypeople’s Evaluation of Arguments : Are Criteria for Argument Quality Scheme-Specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, Peter Jan; Šorm, Ester; Timmers, Rian; Hoeken, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Can argumentation schemes play a part in the critical processing of argumentation by lay people? In a qualitative study, participants were invited to come up with strong and weak arguments for a given claim and were subsequently interviewed for why they thought the strong argument was stronger than

  19. The Life-Embeddedness of Argumentation: A Prelude to Treating Arguments as Exhortations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy

    Argumentation is fundamentally exhortative: arguments can be understood as invitations to emulate the lives of those who make the arguments. The human exemplar of an argument's substance, e.g. Jesus Christ as exemplar of Christianity, is the paradigm for this theory in which the arguer's identity is seen both as equal in importance to and…

  20. Oral genres, argumentation and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda G. O. Aquino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at dealing with issues related to language spoken in the classroom, focusing on discursive practices that highlight argumentation. We believe that the discussions that were made around genres, especially guided by the studies of Bakhtin and Text Linguistics, have been providing a breakthrough towards the necessity for the school to promote language teaching through the discursive genre approach. That is what we expect to be happening since both writing and spoken modalities deserve space in learning. We believe that oral genres demand that teachers acquire specific knowledge of the features of spoken language interaction that arise from its use in practical situations. Because these studies are recent among our researchers (not longer than three decades, they should still be very present in our discussions. In this paper, we focus on a specific genre of oral tradition – the debate. It is ideal for knowledge building and taking a stand at issues that arise in society, all of which is particularly important to the school. Besides contributing to the development of skills required by certain sociodiscursive practices, it is proposed that the teaching of argumentation in oral genres concentrate on the observation of selected strategies in interactions. We are particularly interested in interactions that emerge when one interaction party is trying to persuade the other. The corpus consists of the transcriptions of debates which occurred both in the classroom and in other contexts, such as the media. The methodological approach is done by identifying the arguments and their strategic use in specific situations. The theoretical discussion rests on the works of Orecchioni (2010, Marcuschi (2004, Dolz and Schneuwly (2004, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1996 [1958], among others.

  1. Zero expression of arguments in Old Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Old Scandinavian (represented here by Old Danish) allowed zero arguments (null-arguments) in any nominal (argument) position, that is: for NPs as subjects, objects and in PPs. In generative grammar, zero arguments are held to be variants of pronouns, but in this article, I shall claim that zero...... equivalent. By reducing these two categories to one single underlying category, such as pro, one would miss this point. On the contrary, zero arguments are arguably full-bodied signs with their own content, thus corresponding to Melčuk’s Zero Sign Introduction Principle....

  2. Den argumentative teksttype i reklamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    1998-01-01

    - and macropropositions, it is a multicriterial model which takes into account both the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of texts. However, the model seems to offer some problems in establishing the limits between the argumentative and the descriptive text type. This imprecision is apparently due to the lack......The text-typology model developed by Jean-Michel Adam is one of the most well-defined and operational models if one wants to categorize whole texts or text fragments into smaller units. Given that a texttype is the result of specific functional and structural relations between micro...

  3. Baryons still trace dark matter: Probing CMB lensing maps for hidden isocurvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristan L.; Muñoz, Julian B.; Smith, Rhiannon; Yee, Kyle; Grin, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Compensated isocurvature perturbations (CIPs) are primordial fluctuations that balance baryon and dark-matter isocurvature to leave the total matter density unperturbed. The effects of CIPs on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are similar to those produced by weak lensing of the CMB: smoothing of the power spectrum and generation of non-Gaussian features. Here, an entirely new CIP contribution to the standard estimator for the lensing-potential power spectrum is derived. Planck measurements of the temperature and polarization power spectrum, as well as estimates of CMB lensing, are used to place limits on the variance of the CIP fluctuations on CMB scales, Δrms2(RCMB). The resulting constraint of Δrms2(RCMB)<4.3 ×10-3 at 95% confidence level (CL) using this new technique improves on past work by a factor of ˜3 . We find that for Planck data our constraints almost reach the sensitivity of the optimal CIP estimator. The method presented here is currently the most sensitive probe of the amplitude of a scale-invariant CIP power spectrum, ACIP, placing an upper limit of ACIP<0.017 at 95% CL. Future measurements of the large-scale CMB lensing-potential power spectrum could probe CIP amplitudes as low as Δrms2(RCMB)=8 ×10-5 at 95% CL (corresponding to ACIP=3.2 ×10-4).

  4. Detecting relic gravitational waves in the CMB: The contamination caused by the cosmological birefringence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation is an excellent information channel for the detection of relic gravitational waves. However, the detection is contaminated by the B-mode polarization generated by some other effects. In this paper, we discuss the contaminations caused by the cosmological birefringence, which converts the CMB E-mode to the B-mode, and forms the effective noise for the detection of gravitational waves. We find that this contamination is significant, if the rotation angle is large. However, this kind of B-mode can be properly de-rotated, and the effective noises can be greatly reduced. We find that, comparing with the contaminations caused by cosmic weak lensing, the residual polarization generated by the cosmological birefringence is negligible for the detection of relic gravitational waves in the CMB.

  5. CMB signatures of metal-free star formation and Planck 2015 polarization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Vinicius; Lidz, Adam; Heinrich, Chen He; Hu, Wayne

    2017-06-01

    Standard analyses of the reionization history of the Universe from Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements consider only the overall optical depth to electron scattering (τ), and further assume a step-like reionization history. However, the polarization data contain information beyond the overall optical depth, and the assumption of a step-like function may miss high redshift contributions to the optical depth and leads to biased τ constraints. Accounting for its full reionization information content, we reconsider the interpretation of Planck 2015 Low-Frequency Instrument (LFI) polarization data using simple, yet physically motivated reionization models. We show that these measurements still, in fact, allow a non-negligible contribution from metal-free (Pop-III) stars forming in mini-haloes of mass M ˜ 105-106 M⊙ at z ≳ 15, provided this mode of star formation is fairly inefficient. We find that an early, self-regulated phase of Pop-III star formation with a gradual, plateau feature in the ionization history provides a good match to the Planck LFI measurements. In this case, as much as 20 per cent of the volume of the Universe is ionized by z ˜ 20. Although preferred when the full information content of the data is incorporated, this model would spuriously be disfavoured in the standard analysis. This preference is driven mostly by excess power from E-mode polarization at multipoles of 10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 20, which may reflect remaining systematic errors in the data, a statistical fluctuation or signatures of the first stars. Measurements from the Planck High-Frequency Instrument should be able to confirm or refute this hint and future cosmic-variance-limited E-mode polarization surveys can provide substantially more information on these signatures.

  6. Argumentation in Science Class: Its Planning, Practice, and Effect on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Anju

    Studies have shown an association between argumentative discourse in science class, better understanding of science concepts, and improved academic performance. However, there is lack of research on how argumentation can increase student motivation. This mixed methods concurrent nested study uses Bandura's construct of motivation and concepts of argumentation and formative feedback to understand how teachers orchestrate argumentation in science class and how it affects motivation. Qualitative data was collected through interviews of 4 grade-9 science teachers and through observing teacher-directed classroom discourse. Classroom observations allowed the researcher to record the rhythm of discourse by characterizing teacher and student speech as teacher presentation (TP), teacher guided authoritative discussion (AD), teacher guided dialogic discussion (DD), and student initiation (SI). The Student Motivation Towards Science Learning survey was administered to 67 students before and after a class in which argumentation was used. Analysis of interviews showed teachers collaborated to plan argumentation. Analysis of discourse identified the characteristics of argumentation and provided evidence of students' engagement in argumentation in a range of contexts. Student motivation scores were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests, which showed no significant change. However, one construct of motivation---active learning strategy---significantly increased. Quantitative findings also indicate that teachers' use of multiple methods in teaching science can affect various constructs of students' motivation. This study promotes social change by providing teachers with insight about how to engage all students in argumentation.

  7. Argumentation for coordinating shared activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    an increasing need for space missions to be able to collaboratively (and competitively) develop plans both within and across missions. In addition, interacting spacecraft that interleave onboard planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other prior to execution. In domains where missions have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, the missions will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus with in their imposed deadlines. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities over the lifetimes of multiple agents and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We investigate variations of a few simple protocols based on argumentation and distributed constraints satisfaction techniques and evaluate their abilities to reach consistent solutions according to computation, time, and communication costs in an abstract domain where spacecraft propose joint measurements.

  8. Belief Revision and Argumentation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falappa, Marcelo Alejandro; Kern-Isberner, Gabriele; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    Belief revision is the process of changing beliefs to adapt the epistemic state of an agent to a new piece of information. The logical formalization of belief revision is a topic of research in philosophy, logic, and in computer science, in areas such as databases or artificial intelligence. On the other hand, argumentation is concerned primarily with the evaluation of claims based on premises in order to reach conclusions. Both provide basic and substantial techniques for the art of reasoning, as it is performed by human beings in everyday life situations and which goes far beyond logical deduction. Reasoning, in this sense, makes possible to deal successfully with problems in uncertain, dynamic environments and has been promoting the development of human societies.

  9. A CMB foreground study in WMAP data: Extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It serves as a primary tool to understand the global properties, content and evolution of the universe. Since 2001, NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite has been napping the full sky anisotropy with unprecedented accuracy, precision and reliability. The CMB angular power spectrum calculated from the WMAP full sky maps not only enables accurate testing of cosmological models, but also places significant constraints on model parameters. The CMB signal in the WMAP sky maps is contaminated by microwave emission from the Milky Way and from extragalactic sources. Therefore, in order to use the maps reliably for cosmological studies, the foreground signals must be well understood and removed from the maps. This thesis focuses on the separation of two foreground contaminants from the WMAP maps: extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission. Extragalactic point sources constitute the most important foreground on small angular scales. Various methods have been applied to the WMAP single frequency maps to extract sources. However, due to the limited angular resolution of WMAP, it is possible to confuse positive CMB excursions with point sources or miss sources that are embedded in negative CMB fluctuations. We present a novel CMB-free source finding technique that utilizes the spectrum difference of point sources and CMB to form internal linear combinations of multifrequency maps to suppress the CMB and better reveal sources. When applied to the WMAP 41, 64 and 94 GHz maps, this technique has not only enabled detection of sources that are previously cataloged by independent methods, but also allowed disclosure of new sources. Without the noise contribution from the CMB, this method responds rapidly with the integration time. The number of detections varies as 0( t 0.72 in the two-band search and 0( t 0.70 in the three-band search from one year to five years

  10. Argumentative Support for Structured HACCP Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROZA, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an argumentation based decision support system for implementing the Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP standard in food industry. Our analysis starts by identifying the adequate technical instrumentation needed for supporting different aspects of the HAACP system. An integrated architectural solution is presented. The framework is built around concept maps and it exploits the integration of ontologies with argumentation theory by using the Argument Interchange Format ontology.

  11. Humanist Principles Underlying Philosophy of Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Boger

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This discussion reviews the thinking of some prominent philosophers of argument to extract principles common to their thinking. It shows that a growing concern with dialogical pragmatics is better appreciated as a part of applied ethics than of applied epistemology. The discussion concludes by indicating a possible consequence for philosophy of argument and invites further discussion by asking whether argumentation philosophy has an implicit, underlying moral, or even political, posture.

  12. Analyzing Argumentation In Rich, Natural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Reznitskaya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of research on the development of argument- ation in elementary school children. It presents a theoretical framework detailing psychological mechanisms responsible for the acquisition and transfer of argumentative discourse and demonstrates several applications of the framework, described in sufficient detail to guide future empirical investigations of oral, written, individual, or group argumentation performance. Software programs capable of facilitating data analysis are identified and their uses illustrated. The analytic schemes can be used to analyze large amounts of verbal data with reasonable precision and efficiency. The conclusion addresses more generally the challenges for and possibilities of empirical study of the development of argumentation.

  13. Survey Strategy Optimization for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, F.; Stevens, J. R.; Hasselfield, M.; Alonso, D.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K. T.; Devlin, M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in the sensitivity and the angular resolution of the instruments dedicated to the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). ACTPol is the first polarization receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and is observing the CMB sky with arcmin resolution over approximately 2000 square degrees. Its upgrade, Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT), will observe the CMB in five frequency bands and over a larger area of the sky. We describe the optimization and implementation of the ACTPol and AdvACT surveys. The selection of the observed fields is driven mainly by the science goals, that is, small angular scale CMB measurements, B-mode measurements and cross-correlation studies. For the ACTPol survey we have observed patches of the southern galactic sky with low galactic foreground emissions which were also chosen to maximize the overlap with several galaxy surveys to allow unique cross-correlation studies. A wider field in the northern galactic cap ensured significant additional overlap with the BOSS spectroscopic survey. The exact shapes and footprints of the fields were optimized to achieve uniform coverage and to obtain cross-linked maps by observing the fields with different scan directions. We have maximized the efficiency of the survey by implementing a close to 24-hour observing strategy, switching between daytime and nighttime observing plans and minimizing the telescope idle time. We describe the challenges represented by the survey optimization for the significantly wider area observed by AdvACT, which will observe roughly half of the low-foreground sky. The survey strategies described here may prove useful for planning future ground-based CMB surveys, such as the Simons Observatory and CMB Stage IV surveys.

  14. SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$ at high redshifts and the value of $H_0$

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a high-$z$ cosmological model to compute the co-moving sound horizon $r_s$ at baryon freeze-out following hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional CMB photon gas by SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavors of massless neutrinos ($N_\

  15. Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consi...

  16. Planck 2013 results. XXVII. Doppler boosting of the CMB: Eppur si muove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Our velocity relative to the rest frame of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) generates a dipole temperature anisotropy on the sky whichhas been well measured for more than 30 years, and has an accepted amplitude of v/c = 1.23 x 10-3, or v = 369 km-1. In addition to thissignal generated by Dop...

  17. Cysteine-mediated gene expression and characterization of the CmbR regulon in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Afzal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the transcriptomic response of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 to cysteine. Transcriptome comparison of the D39 wild-type strain grown at a restricted concentration of cysteine (0.03 mM to one grown at a high concentration of cysteine (50 mM in chemically-define medium (CDM revealed elevated expression of various genes/operons, i.e. spd-0150, metQ, spd-0431, metEF, gshT, spd-0618, fhs, tcyB, metB-csd, metA, spd-1898, yvdE, and cysK, likely to be involved in the transport and utilization of cysteine and/or methionine. Microarray-based data were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Promoter lacZ-fusion studies and quantitative RT-PCR data showed that the transcriptional regulator CmbR acts as a transcriptional repressor of spd-0150, metEF, gshT, spd-0618, tcyB, metA, and yvdE, putatively involved in cysteine uptake and utilization. The operator site of CmbR in the promoter regions of CmbR-regulated genes is predicted and confirmed by mutating or deleting CmbR operator sites from the promoter regions of these genes.

  18. A Multiscale pipeline for the search of string-induced CMB anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei Sadr, A.; Movahed, S. M. S.; Farhang, M.; Ringeval, C.; Bouchet, F. R.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a multiscale edge-detection algorithm to search for the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins imprints of a cosmic string (CS) network on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Curvelet decomposition and extended Canny algorithm are used to enhance the string detectability. Various statistical tools are then applied to quantify the deviation of CMB maps having a CS contribution with respect to pure Gaussian anisotropies of inflationary origin. These statistical measures include the one-point probability density function, the weighted two-point correlation function (TPCF) of the anisotropies, the unweighted TPCF of the peaks and of the up-crossing map, as well as their cross-correlation. We use this algorithm on a hundred of simulated Nambu-Goto CMB flat sky maps, covering approximately 10 per cent of the sky, and for different string tensions Gμ. On noiseless sky maps with an angular resolution of 0.9 arcmin, we show that our pipeline detects CSs with Gμ as low as Gμ ≳ 4.3 × 10-10. At the same resolution, but with a noise level typical to a CMB-S4 phase II experiment, the detection threshold would be to Gμ ≳ 1.2 × 10-7.

  19. Neural correlates of verb argument structure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen C; Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Parrish, Todd B; Gitelman, Darren R; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2007-11-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that processing of word classes, such as verbs and nouns, is associated with distinct neural mechanisms. Such studies also suggest that subcategories within these broad word class categories are differentially processed in the brain. Within the class of verbs, argument structure provides one linguistic dimension that distinguishes among verb exemplars, with some requiring more complex argument structure entries than others. This study examined the neural instantiation of verbs by argument structure complexity: one-, two-, and three-argument verbs. Stimuli of each type, along with nouns and pseudowords, were presented for lexical decision using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design. Results for 14 young normal participants indicated largely overlapping activation maps for verbs and nouns, with no areas of significant activation for verbs compared to nouns, or vice versa. Pseudowords also engaged neural tissue overlapping with that for both word classes, with more widespread activation noted in visual, motor, and peri-sylvian regions. Examination of verbs by argument structure revealed activation of the supramarginal and angular gyri, limited to the left hemisphere only when verbs with two obligatory arguments were compared to verbs with a single argument. However, bilateral activation was noted when both two- and three-argument verbs were compared to one-argument verbs. These findings suggest that posterior peri-sylvian regions are engaged for processing argument structure information associated with verbs, with increasing neural tissue in the inferior parietal region associated with increasing argument structure complexity. These findings are consistent with processing accounts, which suggest that these regions are crucial for semantic integration.

  20. Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation System to Improve Argumentation Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Jack, Brady Michael; Huang, Tai-Chu; Yang, Jin-Tan

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated how the instruction of argumentation skills could be promoted by using an online argumentation system. This system entitled `Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation' (CAWA) system was based on cognitive apprenticeship model. One hundred eighty-nine fifth grade students took part in this study. A quasi-experimental design was adopted and qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this online system in measuring students' progress in learning argumentation. The results of this study showed that different teaching strategies had effects on students' use of argumentation in the topics of daily life and the concept of `vision.' When the CAWA system was employed during the instruction and practice of argumentation on these two topics, the students' argumentation performance improved. Suggestions on how the CAWA system could be used to enhance the instruction of argumentation skills in science education were also discussed.

  1. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generate an Argument: An Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    The Generate an Argument instructional model was designed to engage students in scientific argumentation. By using this model, students develop complex reasoning and critical-thinking skills, understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge, and improve their communication skills (Duschl and Osborne 2002). This article describes the…

  3. A general account of argumentation with preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modgil, Sanjay; Prakken, Henry

    This paper builds on the recent ASPIC(+) formalism, to develop a general framework for argumentation with preferences. We motivate a revised definition of conflict free sets of arguments, adapt ASPIC(+) to accommodate a broader range of instantiating logics, and show that under some assumptions, the

  4. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  5. Rowe's Argument from Improvability | Almeida | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since that is impossible, there exist no perfectly good beings. I show that Rowe's argument assumes that the concept of a maximally great being is incoherent. Since we are given no reason to believe that the concept of a maximally great being is incoherent we have no reason to believe Rowe's Argument from Improvability ...

  6. Analysis and evaluation of argumentative discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; van Eemeren, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Although Renkema’s Introduction to Discourse Studies (2004: Chap. 12) provides a useful introduction to the study of argumentation, this brief account does not provide a full characterization of the field. Among the dominant approaches to argumentative discourse a general distinction can be made

  7. Improving the Metaphysical Argument against Free Will ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galen Strawson and Saul Smilansky have offered a well-known argument that free will does not exist because the control involved is so robust that it would require influence over an infinite series of prior decisions. (Strawson 1986, 1994, 2002, Smilansky 2000, 2002) Unfortunately, while this metaphysical argument has ...

  8. Assessment of Uncertainty-Infused Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Liu, Ou Lydia; Pallant, Amy; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Buck, Zoë E.

    2014-01-01

    Though addressing sources of uncertainty is an important part of doing science, it has largely been neglected in assessing students' scientific argumentation. In this study, we initially defined a scientific argumentation construct in four structural elements consisting of claim, justification, uncertainty qualifier, and uncertainty…

  9. Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    In this paper we study in detail the effect of our recently proposed model of parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating varying alpha on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photon passing through the intra galaxy-cluster medium (ICM). The ICM is well known to be composed of magnetized plasma. According to our model, the polarization and intensity of the CMB would be affected when traversing through the ICM due to non-trivial scalar photon interactions. We have calculated the evolution of such polarization and intensity collectively, known as the stokes parameters of the CMB photon during its journey through the ICM and tested our results against the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) measurement on Coma galaxy cluster. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter, {beta}, and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. Using the derived constrained on the photon-to-scalar conversion probability, {bar P}{sub {gamma}{yields}{phi}}, for Coma cluster in ref.[34] we found a contour plot in the ({omega},{beta}) parameter plane. The {beta} = 0 line in this parameter space corresponds to well-studied Maxwell-dilaton type models which has lower bound on {omega} {approx}> 6.4 x 10{sup 9} GeV. In general, as the absolute value of {beta} increases, lower bound on {omega} also increases. Our model in general predicts the modification of the CMB polarization with a non-trivial dependence on the parity violating coupling parameter {beta}. However, it is unconstrained in this particular study. We show that this effect can in principle be detected in the future measurements on CMB polarization such that {beta} can also be constrained.

  10. Ali Observatory in Tibet: a unique northern site for future CMB ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based CMB observations have been performed at the South Pole and the Atacama desert in Chile. However, a significant fraction of the sky can not be observed from just these two sites. For a full sky coverage from the ground in the future, a northern site for CMB observation, in particular CMB polarization, is required. Besides the long-thought site in Greenland, the high altitude Tibet plateau provides another opportunity. I will describe the Ali Observatory in Tibet, located at N32°19', E80°01', as a potential site for ground-based CMB observations. The new site is located on almost 5100m mountain, near Gar town, where is an excellent site for both infrared and submillimeter observations. Study with the long-term database of ground weather stations and archival satellite data has been performed. The site has enough relative height on the plateau and is accessible by car. The Shiquanhe town is 40 mins away by driving, and a recently opened airport with 40 mins driving, the site also has road excess, electricity, and optical fiber with fast internet. Preliminary measurement of the Precipitable Water Vapor is ~one quarter less than 0.5mm per year and the long term monitoring is under development. In addition, surrounding higher sites are also available and could be further developed if necessary. Ali provides unique northern sky coverage and together with the South Pole and the Atacama desert, future CMB observations will be able to cover the full sky from ground.

  11. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature...

  12. Perceptions of Prospective Biology Teachers on Scientific Argumentation in Microbiology Inquiry Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviati, E.; Widodo, A.; Purwianingsih, W.; Riandi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Inquiry laboratory activity and scientific argumentation in science education should be promoted and explicitly experienced by prospective biology teacher students in classes, including in microbiology courses. The goal of this study is to get information about perceptions of prospective biology teachers on scientific argumentation in microbiology inquiry lab activities. This study reported the result of a survey research to prospective biology teachers about how their perception about microbiology lab classes and their perception about inquiry and argumentation in microbiology lab activities should be. The participants of this study were 100 students of biology education department from an institute in Cirebon, West Java taking microbiology lecture during the fifth semester. The data were collected using questionnaire to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prospective biology teachers about microbiology, inquiry lab activities and argumentation. The result showed that students thought that the difficulties of microbiology as a subject were the lack of references and the way lecturer teaching. The students’ perception was that argumentation and inquiry should be implemented in microbiology courses and lab activities. Based on the data from questionnaire, It showed that prospective biology teacher students had very little knowledge about scientific argumentation and its implementation in science education. When the participants made arguments based on the problems given, they showed low quality of arguments.

  13. Mutagenesis of the HMGB (high-mobility group B) protein Cmb1 (cytosine-mismatch binding 1) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: effects on recognition of DNA mismatches and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Christophe; Zurbriggen, Karin; Fleck, Oliver

    2003-06-01

    Cmb1 (cytosine-mismatch binding 1) is a high-mobility group (HMG) protein of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which consists of 223 amino acids and has a single HMG domain at the C-terminal end. We have created several mutant and deletion forms of the Cmb1 protein and studied the effects on general DNA binding and specific binding to DNA mismatches and damaged DNA. Cmb1Delta41 (i.e. Cmb1 from which the 41 N-terminal amino acids have been deleted) bound specifically to cytosine-containing mismatches, to the cisplatin-induced intrastrand cross-links cis -GG and cis -AG and to an O (6)-methylguanine lesion. DNA binding was not affected when the 45 N-terminal amino acids were deleted, but was abolished in the absence of the 50 N-terminal amino acids, and was reduced when Cmb1 was truncated by between five and eleven C-terminal amino acids. Cmb1, both with and without the C-terminal truncations, retained its DNA binding affinity after heating at 95 degrees C. The cmb1 gene was induced when S. pombe cells were treated with cisplatin. Mitotic mutation rates were increased in a S. pombe cmb1 null mutant and in a cmb1-(1-212) mutant, which encodes a Cmb1 protein lacking the 11 C-terminal amino acids. We conclude that mutation avoidance by Cmb1 is distinct from Msh2-dependent mismatch repair, but related to nucleotide excision repair.

  14. Revisiting the argument from fetal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most famous, and most derided, arguments against the morality of abortion is the argument from potential, which maintains that the fetus' potential to become a person and enjoy the valuable life common to persons, entails that its destruction is prima facie morally impermissible. In this paper, I will revisit and offer a defense of the argument from potential. First, I will criticize the classical arguments proffered against the importance of fetal potential, specifically the arguments put forth by philosophers Peter Singer and David Boonin, by carefully unpacking the claims made in these arguments and illustrating why they are flawed. Secondly, I will maintain that fetal potential is morally relevant when it comes to the morality of abortion, but that it must be accorded a proper place in the argument. This proper place, however, cannot be found until we first answer a very important and complex question: we must first address the issue of personal identity, and when the fetus becomes the type of being who is relevantly identical to a future person. I will illustrate why the question of fetal potential can only be meaningfully addressed after we have first answered the question of personal identity and how it relates to the human fetus.

  15. Reinstatement and Specificty in Argumentation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Andres Alessio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinstatement is a principle of argumentation systems that enables the justification of a defeated argument when all its defeaters are in turn ultimately defeated. Some counterexamples to reinstatement have been offered in the literature. Specifically, counterexamples suggest that reinstatement cannot be taken as a general principle of defeasible argumentation because the reinstated arguments may support incorrect conclusions. Some authors argued that the problems are not due to reinstatement but to the formalization of those examples. Then, the solution is to make the language expressive enough to obtain the correct results. They also warn that one should avoid tinkering with the formalization in concrete examples just to get a desired outcome. Therefore, this approach should be combined with the search of general principles for choosing the proper formalization. Taking into account that finding general principles of representation could be a hard enterprise, the goal of this thesis is to identify some criterion that allows i. neutralize the counterexamples, ii. preserve the original formal language as much as possible, and iii. maintain reinstatement as a general principle. To identify that criterion, counterexamples are analyzed and possible causes of the problem are detected. As a result it is found that the preference by specificity among arguments can be used to obtain that criterion. Three approaches based on specificity are proposed and evaluated. Two of them introduce alternative defeat relations among arguments. The third one is based on filtering the non maximally specific arguments.

  16. Reconsidering Kantian arguments against organ selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt

    2016-03-01

    Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way.

  17. Design Argumentation in Academic Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Fritsch, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    argumentation and report on initial experiences from interaction design teaching activities. We discuss how this approach allows students to build up a shared and rigorous design vocabulary in order to formulate valid claims when arguing for and through their design work based on empirical, theoretical......We explore design argumentation as a resource when teaching interaction design in a university setting. We propose that design argumentation can help bridge between practice-based design education and theoretical issues from university curricula. In this paper, we outline the idea of design...

  18. Integrated argument-based inquiry with multiple representation approach to promote scientific argumentation skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminar, Iin; Muslim, Liliawati, Winny

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify student's written argument embedded in scientific inqury investigation and argumentation skill using integrated argument-based inquiry with multiple representation approach. This research was using quasi experimental method with the nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Sample ot this research was 10th grade students at one of High School in Bandung using two classes, they were 26 students of experiment class and 26 students of control class. Experiment class using integrated argument-based inquiry with multiple representation approach, while control class using argument-based inquiry. This study was using argumentation worksheet and argumentation test. Argumentation worksheet encouraged students to formulate research questions, design experiment, observe experiment and explain the data as evidence, construct claim, warrant, embedded multiple modus representation and reflection. Argumentation testinclude problem which asks students to explain evidence, warrants, and backings support of each claim. The result of this research show experiment class students's argumentation skill performed better than control class students that of experiment class was 0.47 and control class was 0.31. The results of unequal variance t-test for independent means show that students'sargumentationskill of experiment class performed better significantly than students'sargumentationskill of control class.

  19. Guidelines for writing an argumentative essay

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Egurnova

    2014-01-01

    The guidelines below are intended for teachers, professors, students, and the public at large who are interested in the issues of English writing culture. They provide a detailed plan for completing the writing task–writing an argumentative essay.

  20. An Elegant Argument that P≠NP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feinstein C. A

    2011-01-01

    In this note, we present an elegant argument that P , NP by demonstrating that the Meet-in-the-Middle algorithm must have the fastest running-time of all deterministic and exact algorithms which solve...

  1. Argumentation and Multi-Agent Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, S; Jennings, NR

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.

  2. Fermi non-detections of X-ray Jets and Implications for the IC/CMB Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Peter; Meyer, Eileen; Georganopoulos, Markos; Keenan, Mary; DeNigris, Natalie; Hewitt, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory has discovered kpc-scale X-ray jets in many powerful quasars over the past 2 decades (Harris & Krawczynski, 2006). In many cases these X-rays cannot be explained by the extension of the radio-optical spectrum produced by synchrotron-emitting electrons in the jet, since the observed X-ray flux is too high and/or the X-ray spectral index is too hard. A widely accepted model for the X-ray emission, first proposed by Celotti et al. (2001) and Tavecchio et al. (2000), posits that the X-rays are produced when relativistic electrons in the jet up-scatter ambient cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons via inverse Compton scattering from microwave to X-ray energies (the IC/CMB model). However, explaining the X-ray emission for these jets with the IC/CMB model requires high levels of IC/CMB γ-ray emission (Georganopoulos et al., 2006), which we are looking for using the Fermi/LAT γ-ray space telescope. Another viable model for the large scale jet X-ray emission, favored by the results of Meyer et al. (2015) and Meyer & Georganopoulos (2014), is a second population of synchrotron-emitting electrons with up to multi-TeV energies. In contrast with the second synchrotron interpretation; the IC/CMB model requires jets with high kinetic powers which can exceed the Eddington luminosity which remain highly relativistic up to kpc scales. I will present recently obtained deep γ-ray upper-limits from the Fermi/LAT which rule out the IC/CMB model in many sources previously modeled with IC/CMB, and discuss the properties of the growing sample of non-IC/CMB multiple spectral component (MSC) jets and the implications for jet energetics and environmental impact.

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Likelihood for Small-Scale CMB Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, J.; Calabrese, E.; Sievers, J.; Addison, G. E.; Battaglia, N.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunner, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope has measured the angular power spectra of microwave fluctuations to arcminute scales at frequencies of 148 and 218 GHz, from three seasons of data. At small scales the fluctuations in the primordial Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) become increasingly obscured by extragalactic foregounds and secondary CMB signals. We present results from a nine-parameter model describing these secondary effects, including the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ and kSZ) power; the clustered and Poisson-like power from Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) sources, and their frequency scaling; the tSZ-CIB correlation coefficient; the extragalactic radio source power; and thermal dust emission from Galactic cirrus in two different regions of the sky. In order to extract cosmological parameters, we describe a likelihood function for the ACT data, fitting this model to the multi-frequency spectra in the multipole range 500 cosmological parameter estimation

  4. Extraction Of Cobalt From Spent CMB Catalyst Using Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo S.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The metal extraction from spent CMB catalyst using supercritical CO2(scCO2 was investigated with single organic system, binary organic system and ternary organic system to extract metal ions. Leaching solution of spent CMB catalyst containing 389 mg L−1 Co2+, 187 mg L−1 Mn2+, 133 mg L−1 Na+, 14.97 mg L−1 Ca2+ and 13.2 mg L−1 Mg2+. The method consists of scCO2/ligands complexation process and metal extraction process at 60°C and 200bar. The result showed the Co and Mn was selectively extracted from Mg, Ca and Na in the ternary system of mixture of Cyanex272, DEA and Alamine304-I.

  5. The Lyman-α power spectrum—CMB lensing convergence cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Slosar, Anže

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the three-point correlation between the Lyman-α forest and the CMB weak lensing (δF δF κ) expressed as the cross-correlation between the CMB weak lensing field and local variations in the forest power spectrum. In addition to the standard gravitational bispectrum term, we note the existence of a non-standard systematic term coming from mis-estimation of the mean flux over the finite length of Lyman-α skewers. We numerically calculate the angular cross-power spectrum and discuss its features. We integrate it into zero-lag correlation function and compare our predictions with recent results by Doux et al. We find that our predictions are statistically consistent with the measurement, and including the systematic term improves the agreement with the measurement. We comment on the implication of the response of the Lyman-α forest power spectrum to the long-wavelength density perturbations.

  6. The sensitivity argument against child euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2017-04-05

    Is there a moral difference between euthanasia for terminally ill adults and euthanasia for terminally ill children? Luc Bovens considers five arguments to this effect, and argues that each is unsuccessful. In this paper, I argue that Bovens' dismissal of the sensitivity argument is unconvincing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Emotions in Argumentation: an Empirical Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Benlamine, Sahbi; Chaouachi, Maher; Villata, Serena; Cabrio, Elena; Frasson, Claude; Gandon, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Argumentation is often seen as a mechanism to support different forms of reasoning such that decision-making and persuasion, but all these approaches assume a purely rational behavior of the involved actors. However, humans are proved to behave differently, mixing rational and emotional attitudes to guide their actions, and it has been claimed that there exists a strong connection between the argumentation process and the emotions felt by people involved in such proces...

  8. Neural Correlates of Verb Argument Structure Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen C.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that processing of word classes, such as verbs and nouns, is associated with distinct neural mechanisms. Such studies also suggest that subcategories within these broad word class categories are differentially processed in the brain. Within the class of verbs, argument structure provides one linguistic dimension that distinguishes among verb exemplars, with some requiring more complex argument structure entries than others. This study examined the neura...

  9. Bandpass mismatch error for satellite CMB experiments I: estimating the spurious signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong Hoang, Duc; Patanchon, Guillaume; Bucher, Martin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Banerji, Ranajoy; Ishino, Hirokazu; Hazumi, Masashi; Delabrouille, Jacques

    2017-12-01

    Future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) satellite missions aim to use the B mode polarization to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio r with a sensitivity σr lesssim 10-3. Achieving this goal will not only require sufficient detector array sensitivity but also unprecedented control of all systematic errors inherent in CMB polarization measurements. Since polarization measurements derive from differences between observations at different times and from different sensors, detector response mismatches introduce leakages from intensity to polarization and thus lead to a spurious B mode signal. Because the expected primordial B mode polarization signal is dwarfed by the known unpolarized intensity signal, such leakages could contribute substantially to the final error budget for measuring r. Using simulations we estimate the magnitude and angular spectrum of the spurious B mode signal resulting from bandpass mismatch between different detectors. It is assumed here that the detectors are calibrated, for example using the CMB dipole, so that their sensitivity to the primordial CMB signal has been perfectly matched. Consequently the mismatch in the frequency bandpass shape between detectors introduces differences in the relative calibration of galactic emission components. We simulate this effect using a range of scanning patterns being considered for future satellite missions. We find that the spurious contribution to r from the reionization bump on large angular scales (l < 10) is ≈ 10-3 assuming large detector arrays and 20 percent of the sky masked. We show how the amplitude of the leakage depends on the nonuniformity of the angular coverage in each pixel that results from the scan pattern.

  10. Planck CMB anomalies: astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects and the curse of masking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassat, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique (LASTRO), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 51 Chemin des Maillettes, Observatoire de Sauverny, Versoix, CH-1290 (Switzerland); Starck, J.-L.; Paykari, P.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J., E-mail: anais.rassat@epfl.ch, E-mail: jstarck@cea.fr, E-mail: paniez.paykari@cea.fr, E-mail: florent.sureau@cea.fr, E-mail: jbobin@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM, UMR CEA-CNRS-Paris, Irfu, SAp, CEA Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex, F-91191 France (France)

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download here http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html.

  11. Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planc...

  12. Searching for a holographic connection between dark energy and the low-l CMB multipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2004-01-01

    We consider the angular power spectrum in a finite universe with different boundary conditions and perform a fit to the CMB, LSS and supernova data. A finite universe could be the consequence of a holographic constraint, giving rise to an effective IR cutoff at the future event horizon. In such a......We consider the angular power spectrum in a finite universe with different boundary conditions and perform a fit to the CMB, LSS and supernova data. A finite universe could be the consequence of a holographic constraint, giving rise to an effective IR cutoff at the future event horizon....... In such a model there is a cosmic duality relating the dark energy equation of state and the power spectrum, which shows a suppression and oscillatory behaviour that is found to describe the low l features extremely well. However, much of the discussion here will also apply if we actually live inside an expanding...... bubble that describes our universe. The best fit to the CMB and LSS data turns out to be better than in the standard Lambda-CDM model, but when combined with the supernova data, the holographic model becomes disfavored. We speculate on the possible implications....

  13. Optimal limits on primordial magnetic fields from CMB temperature bispectrum of passive modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Nitta, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2012-03-01

    We investigate bounds on the strength of the primordial magnetic field (PMF) from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectra of the intensity (temperature) modes induced from the auto- and cross-correlated bispectra of the scalar and tensor components of the PMF anisotropic stress. At first, we construct a general formula for the CMB intensity and polarization bispectra from PMFs composed of any type of perturbation. Then we derive an approximate expression which traces the exact shape of the CMB bispectrum in order to reduce the computation time with respect to a large number of the multipole configurations, and also show that the non-Gaussian structure coming from PMFs is classified as the local-type configuration. Computing the signal-to-noise ratio on the basis of the approximate formula with the information of the instrumental noises and resolutions, we find expected upper bounds on the magnetic field strength, when the magnetic spectrum is nearly scale invariant (nB = -2.9), smoothed on 1Mpc scale at 95% confidence level from the WMAP and PLANCK experiments as B1Mpc < 4.0-6.7nG and 3.8-6.5nG, respectively, depending on the energy scale of the magnetic field production from 1014GeV to 103GeV. Our new consequences imply slight overestimations by the previous rough discussions.

  14. Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongliang, E-mail: hjiangag@connect.ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Liu, Tao, E-mail: taoliu@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Sun, Sichun, E-mail: sichun@uw.edu [Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wang, Yi, E-mail: phyw@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-10

    Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs), such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and the electroweak (EW) ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs) which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG). The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.

  15. Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs, such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT and the electroweak (EW ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB. If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG. The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.

  16. Application of beam deconvolution technique to power spectrum estimation for CMB measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihänen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Reinecke, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present two novel methods for the estimation of the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. We assume an absolute CMB experiment with arbitrary asymmetric beams and arbitrary sky coverage. The methods differ from the earlier ones in that the power spectrum is estimated directly from the time-ordered data, without first compressing the data into a sky map, and they take into account the effect of asymmetric beams. In particular, they correct the beam-induced leakage from temperature to polarization. The methods are applicable to a case where part of the sky has been masked out to remove foreground contamination, leaving a pure CMB signal, but incomplete sky coverage. The first method (deconvolution quadratic maximum likelihood) is derived as the optimal quadratic estimator, which simultaneously yields an unbiased spectrum estimate and minimizes its variance. We successfully apply it to multipoles up to ℓ = 200. The second method is derived as a weak-signal approximation from the first one. It yields an unbiased estimate for the full multipole range, but relaxes the requirement of minimal variance. We validate the methods with simulations for the 70 GHz channel of Planck surveyor, and demonstrate that we are able to correct the beam effects in the TT, EE, BB and TE spectra up to multipole ℓ = 1500. Together, the two methods cover the complete multipole range with no gap in between.

  17. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; hide

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  18. A Bibliography of Argumentation and Debate for 1975-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Russell T., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents listings covering history and practice of argumentation, theory of argumentation, scholastic forensics, experimental studies, interpersonal conflicts, political campaign communication, and articles of general interest. (JMF)

  19. Improving Undergraduates' Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fung, Yong Mei; Mei, Hooi Chee

    2015-01-01

    When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003...

  20. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  1. On the argument that enhancement is "cheating".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, M

    2008-02-01

    One frequently used argument in the discussion on human enhancement is that enhancement is a form of cheating. This argument is well-known in relation to doping in sports, but recently it has also been used with regard to cognitive enhancement in the context of education and exams. This paper analyses the enhancement-is-cheating argument by comparing sports and education, and by evaluating how the argument can be interpreted in both contexts. If cheating is understood as breaking the rules in order to gain an unfair advantage over others, it can be argued that some enhancements are a form of cheating. This problem of cheating is, however, relatively easy to remedy by either changing the rules, or by instituting controls and sanctions. This does not, therefore, constitute a categorical objection to enhancement. A further analysis of the intuitions behind the enhancement-is-cheating argument, however, shows that if sports and education are understood as "practices", with their own internal goods and standards of excellence, some potential problems of enhancement can be articulated. These concern the internal goods and standards of excellence that are characteristic of specific practices. Seen from this perspective, the important question is how enhancement technologies might be embedded in specific practices--or how they might corrode them.

  2. Argumentation Ethics and The Philosophy of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Dun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available When H.-H. Hoppe claimed (in A Theory of Socialism and Capitalism, 1989 that the principles of libertarianism were argumentatively irrefutable, both the logical coherence and the relevance of his “argument from argumentation” were criticized. While occasionally some of these criticisms still crop up, this paper defends Hoppe’s claim against them from the vantage point of the author’s own work (in Dutch on the ethics of dialogue in the nineteen-seventies. It presents a more detailed and systematic presentation of the “argument from argumentation” than Hoppe had need for in the particular context of his book. It makes a distinction between arguments about principles and arguments about particular cases in which these principles may be invoked; and between the normative validity (as a matter of principle of certain presumptions and the fact that in particular cases these presumptions hold only in principle and can be refuted by the evidence pertaining to the cases.

  3. Argument, Counterargument, and Integration? Patterns of Argument Reappraisal in Controversial Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronostay, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Being challenged by opposing views in a controversial discussion can stimulate the production of more elaborate and sophisticated argumentations. According to the model of argument reappraisal (Leitão, 2000), such processes require transactivity, meaning that students do not only give reasons to support their own position (e.g., pro/contra…

  4. An Argument for Argument: What High School Students Need To Know about Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Donals, Michael

    Argument can be seen to connect writing in the high schools and colleges. Argument is the instrument people use to probe, in a principled way, other people's statements about who they are, what they know, and how they understand the circumstances in which they live and communicate with one another. Rhetoric is finding the available means of…

  5. Coordinating Scientific Argumentation and the Next Generation Science Standards through Argument Driven Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Jonathon; Enderle, Patrick; Sampson, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Scientific argumentation is an essential activity for the development and refinement of scientific knowledge. Additionally, fostering argumentation related to scientific concepts can help students engage in a variety of essential scientific practices and enhance their science content knowledge. With the increasing prevalence and emphasis on…

  6. Argument to Foster Scientific Literacy: A Review of Argument Interventions in K-12 Science Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of scientific literacy has led to a steady increase in argument-based interventions in science education contexts. It has been suggested that student participation in argument develops communication skills, metacognitive awareness, critical thinking, an understanding of the culture and practice of science, and scientific literacy.…

  7. Measuring CMB polarization from ISS: the SPOrt experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, L.P.L. [Physics Dep. ' G. Occhialini' , Universita di Milano-Bicocca and INFN sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3 I-20126 Milan (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    The SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) experiment aims to measure CMBP (cosmic microwave background polarization) on about 80% of the sky from space. Selected by ESA to fly on board the ISS in 2006, it is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). As shown also by the recent WMAP release, CMBP data, besides of removing various degeneracies among cosmological parameters, provided new and important information on the cosmic opacity {tau} and, therefore, on very early cosmic objects which reionized the world at z {approx} 15. Most such information is obtained from low-l spectral components, that SPOrt, with its HPBW resolution of 7 degrees will explore with a high level of sensitivity. The 4 polarimeters of SPOrt work at 22, 32 and (2x) 90 GHz. At lower frequencies they will provide a (nearly) all-sky survey of Galactic synchrotron polarized emission, while data at the higher frequency will measure the CMBP signal. Correlating SPOrt with anisotropy data, by other experiments, shall therefore provide significant cosmological information. We performed a number of simulations of SPOrt performance, aimed to determine how far {tau} and/or other parameter(s) concerning reionization are constrained by the expected data. We also considered a possible interplay between reionization histories and Dark Energy nature. Besides of information on technological developments for systematics reduction, long term stability and observing time efficiency, we report here recent outputs on the expected SPOrt performance in constraining cosmological models.

  8. Mutagenesis of the HMGB (high-mobility group B) protein Cmb1 (cytosine-mismatch binding 1) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: effects on recognition of DNA mismatches and damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Christophe; Zurbriggen, Karin; Fleck, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Cmb1 (cytosine-mismatch binding 1) is a high-mobility group (HMG) protein of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which consists of 223 amino acids and has a single HMG domain at the C-terminal end. We have created several mutant and deletion forms of the Cmb1 protein and studied the effects on general DNA binding and specific binding to DNA mismatches and damaged DNA. Cmb1Delta41 (i.e. Cmb1 from which the 41 N-terminal amino acids have been deleted) bound specifically to cytosine-containing mismatches...

  9. PBR theorem and Einstein's quantum hole argument

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2013-01-01

    This note discusses the latest hot topic: Quantum states: ontic or epistemic? and the PBR theorem. Upon reading Einstein's views on quantum incompleteness in publications or in his correspondence after 1935 (the EPR paradox), one gets a very intense feeling of deja-vu. Einstein presents a quantum hole argument, which somewhat reminds of the hole argument in his 1914 "Entwurf" general theory of relativity. In their paper, PBR write the following: "an important step towards the derivation of our result is the idea that the quantum state is physical if distinct quantum states correspond to non-overlapping distributions for [the set of possible physical states that a system can be in]", and they then refer to Einstein's argument and views.

  10. Animal mind and the argument from design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, M S; Wasserman, E A

    1995-03-01

    The argument from design has played an important role in the history of philosophy and biology. Paley, the 19th-century theologian, was struck by the bodily complexity and adaptive fit of animals to their environments; he used the argument from design to prove the existence of God. Darwin, however, provided the natural evolutionary mechanisms that eliminated the need for positing a divine creator to explain the structure of animals; he was thus able to treat the historical problem of organic evolution by providing a historical solution. Today, some students of behavior are similarly struck by the complexity of animals' actions and their adaptive fit to the environment. Like Paley, they use the argument from design, but to prove the existence of a conscious designer inside the head of the animal--the mind. This mentalistic approach suffers from many of the philosophical and empirical problems that plagued similar efforts in the past.

  11. After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Zohar

    2013-05-01

    The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack.

  12. Argumentative Polylogues: Beyond Dialectical Understanding of Fallacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Marcin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dialectical fallacies are typically defined as breaches of the rules of a regulated discussion between two participants (di-logue. What if discussions become more complex and involve multiple parties with distinct positions to argue for (poly-logues? Are there distinct argumentation norms of polylogues? If so, can their violations be conceptualized as polylogical fallacies? I will argue for such an approach and analyze two candidates for argumentative breaches of multi-party rationality: false dilemma and collateral straw man.

  13. Non-Discriminating Arguments and Their Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    by an automatic analysis. Following this, we define a transformation procedure, called discriminator slicing, that removes the non-discriminating arguments, resulting in a program whose computation trees are isomorphic to those of the original program.  Finally, we show how the results of the original program can...... be reconstructed from trace of the transformed program with the original arguments.   Thus the overall result is a two-stage execution of a program, which can be applied usefully in several contexts;  we describe a case study in optimising computations in the probabilistic logic program language PRISM, and discuss...

  14. A Robust Geometric Model for Argument Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Cristina; Croce, Danilo; Basili, Roberto; de Cao, Diego

    Argument classification is the task of assigning semantic roles to syntactic structures in natural language sentences. Supervised learning techniques for frame semantics have been recently shown to benefit from rich sets of syntactic features. However argument classification is also highly dependent on the semantics of the involved lexicals. Empirical studies have shown that domain dependence of lexical information causes large performance drops in outside domain tests. In this paper a distributional approach is proposed to improve the robustness of the learning model against out-of-domain lexical phenomena.

  15. Planck CMB Anomalies: Astrophysical and Cosmological Secondary Effects and the Curse of Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassat, Anais

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes are available online.

  16. SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.

  17. Characterization of Detectors and Instrument Systematics for the SPIDER CMB Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Rebecca Suzanne

    We know from the CMB and observations of large-scale structure that the universe is extremely flat, homogenous, and isotropic. The current favored mechanism for generating these characteristics is inflation, a theorized period of exponential expansion of the universe that occurred shortly after the Big Bang. Most theories of inflation generically predict a background of stochastic gravitational waves. These gravitational waves should leave their unique imprint on the polarization of the CMB via Thompson scattering. Scalar perturbations of the metric will cause a pattern of polarization with no curl (E-mode). Tensor perturbations (gravitational waves) will cause a unique pattern of polarization on the CMB that includes a curl component (B-mode). A measurement of the ratio of the tensor to scalar perturbations (r ) tells us the energy scale of inflation. Recent measurements by the BICEP2 team detect the B-mode spectrum with a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r=0.2 (+0.05, -0.07). An independent confirmation of this result is the next step towards understanding the inflationary universe. This thesis describes my work on a balloon-borne polarimeter called SPIDER, which is designed to illuminate the physics of the early universe through measurements of the cosmic microwave background polarization. SPIDER consists of six single-frequency, on-axis refracting telescopes contained in a shared-vacuum liquid-helium cryostat. Its large format arrays of millimeter-wave detectors and tight control of systematics will give it unprecedented sensitivity. This thesis describes how the SPIDER detectors are characterized and calibrated for flight, as well as how the systematics requirements for the SPIDER system are simulated and measured.

  18. Searching for hidden mirror symmetries in CMB fluctuations from WMAP 7 year maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finelli, Fabio; Gruppuso, Alessandro [INAF/IASF-BO, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Paci, Francesco [Laboratoire Astroparticule and Cosmologie (APC), CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Starobinsky, Alexey A., E-mail: finelli@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: fpaci@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    We search for hidden mirror symmetries at large angular scales in the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination map of CMB temperature anisotropies using global pixel based estimators introduced for this aim. Two different axes are found for which the CMB intensity pattern is anomalously symmetric (or anti-symmetric) under reflection with respect to orthogonal planes at the 99.84(99.96)% CL (confidence level), if compared to a result for an arbitrary axis in simulations without the symmetry. We have verified that our results are robust to the introduction of the galactic mask. The direction of such axes is close to the CMB kinematic dipole and nearly orthogonal to the ecliptic plane, respectively. If instead the real data are compared to those in simulations taken with respect to planes for which the maximal mirror symmetry is generated by chance, the confidence level decreases to 92.39(76.65)%. But when the effect in question translates into the anomalous alignment between normals to planes of maximal mirror (anti)-symmetry and these natural axes mentioned. We also introduce the representation of the above estimators in the harmonic domain, confirming the results obtained in the pixel one. The symmetry anomaly is shown to be almost entirely due to low multipoles, so it may have a cosmological and even primordial origin. Contrary, the anti-symmetry one is mainly due to intermediate multipoles that probably suggests its non-fundamental nature. We have demonstrated that these anomalies are not connected to the known issue of the low variance in WMAP observations and we have checked that axially symmetric parts of these anomalies are small, so that the axes are not the symmetry ones.

  19. Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.

  20. The Role of the CMB in Redshift Related Departures from the Gao–Solomon Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    A strong correlation between the far-IR and HCN(1‑0) line luminosities, known as the Gao–Solomon relation, has been observed to hold over more than 10 orders of magnitude in the local universe. Departures from this relation at redshifts ≳1.5 have been interpreted as evidence for increased dense gas star formation efficiency in luminous galaxies during the period of peak of star formation in the history of the universe. We examine whether the offsets from the relation can be explained by the hotter Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at high redshift, which, due to a loss of contrast against the hotter background, reduces the observable molecular-line flux far more significantly than the far-IR continuum bands. Simple line-of-sight modeling argues for highly significant departures from the Gao–Solomon relation at high redshift for kinetic temperatures ∼15 K, while more complex toy-galaxy models based on NGC 1068 suggest a much weaker effect with the galaxy integrated HCN line flux falling by only 10% at z = 3, within the intrinsic scatter of the relation. We conclude that, while the CMB is unlikely to explain the deviations reported in the literature, it may introduce a second-order effect on the relation by raising the low-luminosity end of the Gao–Solomon relation in cooler galaxies. A similar examination of the CO-IR relation finds tantalizing signs of the CMB having a measurable effect on the integrated CO emission in high-redshift galaxies, but these signs cannot be confirmed with the current data.

  1. The argumentative impact of causal relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    1996-01-01

    such as causality, explanation and justification. In certain types of discourse, causal relations also imply an intentional element. This paper describes the way in which the semantic and pragmatic functions of causal markers can be accounted for in terms of linguistic and rhetorical theories of argumentation....

  2. Teaching Argumentation by Using Facebook Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Today argumentation is widely emphasized in the policy documents in Europe, and the US. Once we look at the literature in the last two decades, many studies noted students' challenges in this process. On the other side of the coin, we see in-service teachers with problems to support this process. Unfortunately, very few studies focused on this…

  3. An Argument for Design Space Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Halskov, Kim; Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen

    2016-01-01

    by design activities. Third we are prompted to challenge these constraints and reconsider disregarded opportunities. To support this argument, we revisit key activities from two projects in our interaction design lab’s portfolio, selected because of the detailed documentation available. We also introduce...

  4. Dialectical profiles and indicators of argumentative moves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Houtlosser, P.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.; van Eemeren, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of argumentation is prospering. After its brilliant start in Antiquity, highlighted in the classical works of Aristotle, after an alternation of ups and downs during the following millennia, in the post-Renaissance period its gradual decline set in. Revitalization took place only after

  5. Beskrivelse, redegørelse, argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbæk, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Foredraget vil redegøre for en eksperimentel undersøgelse af, hvorvidt fremstillingsformer er noget, som læsere af tekster, kan identificere. Der er valgt tekster af typerne beskrivelse, redegørelse og argumentation. Forsøgsdeltagerne bliver bedt om, at kategorisere teksterne ved at benytte de tre...

  6. CASE: A Configurable Argumentation Support Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, O.; McLaren, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main challenges in tapping the full potential of modern educational software is to devise mechanisms to automatically analyze and adaptively support students' problem solving and learning. A number of such approaches have been developed to teach argumentation skills in domains as diverse as science, the Law, and ethics. Yet,…

  7. Contesting Pornography: Terministic Catharsis and Definitional Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Catherine Helen

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the debates over the MacKinnon-Dworkin Anti-Pornography Ordinance to explore one instance of definitional argument: the attempt to effect a redefinition. Argues that advocates for a definitional shift created the possibility for a "terministic catharsis" by simultaneously locating pornography in multiple locations on the pentad,…

  8. Ill-posed equations with transformed argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gramsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the operator transforming the argument of a function in the L2-setting. Here this operator is unbounded and closed. For the approximate solution of ill-posed equations with closed operators, we present a new view on the Tikhonov regularization.

  9. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  10. Social values as arguments : similar is convincing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, Gregory R; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., "equality leads to freedom"). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the

  11. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  12. The multimodal argumentation of persuasive counter discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    are given prominence in the argumentation by examining their complex interplay and functional differentiation. The ways in which speech, writing and images articulate the counter discourse occupy a central position in the analysis. A special focus is put on the multimodal configuration of specific.......) Multimodality in Corporate Communication.Web genres and discursive identity. Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp. 31-55....

  13. Test Fairness and Toulmin's Argument Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnan, Antony John

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to Xiaoming Xi's article titled "How do we go about investigating test fairness?" In this response, the author focuses on test fairness and Toulmin's model of argument structure, Xi's proposal, and the challenges the proposal brings. Xi proposes an approach to investigating test fairness to guide…

  14. Analysis of Students' Arguments on Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Nicolai; Harms, Ute; Prechtl, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to reveal students' argumentation skills in the context of the topic of evolution. Transcripts from problem-centred interviews on secondary students' beliefs about evolutionary processes of adaptation were analysed using a content analysis approach. For this purpose two categorical systems were…

  15. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe ...

  16. Online Moderation of Synchronous E-Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asterhan, Christa S. C.; Schwarz, Baruch B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present findings on moderation of synchronous, small-group argumentation in blended, co-located learning environments. Drawing on findings from the literature on human facilitation of dialogue in face-to-face settings, we first elaborate on the potential promise of this new practice. However, little is known about what…

  17. Argumentative moves in a thought experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, O.E.

    2015-01-01

    A thought experiment is a form of academic interaction in which two or more scholars discuss based on an imaginary scenario the acceptability of an aca-demic claim. The argumentative dimension of thought experiments has been the subject of intense debates: for some scholars, thought experiments are

  18. Modelling verb selection within argument structure constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusevych, Yevgen; Alishahi, Afra; Backus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the nature of cognitive associations between verbs and argument structure constructions (ASCs). Existing research has shown that distributional and semantic factors affect speakers' choice of verbs in ASCs. A formal account of this theory has been proposed by Ellis,

  19. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  20. A combined view of sterile-neutrino constraints from CMB and neutrino oscillation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bridle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform a comparative analysis of constraints on sterile neutrinos from the Planck experiment and from current and future neutrino oscillation experiments (MINOS, IceCube, SBN. For the first time, we express joint constraints on Neff and meffsterile from the CMB in the Δm2, sin2⁡2θ parameter space used by oscillation experiments. We also show constraints from oscillation experiments in the Neff, meffsterile cosmology parameter space. In a model with a single sterile neutrino species and using standard assumptions, we find that the Planck 2015 data and the oscillation experiments measuring muon-neutrino (νμ disappearance have similar sensitivity.

  1. CMB constraints on the inflaton couplings and reheating temperature in α-attractor inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Marco; Kang, Jin U.; Mun, Ui Ri

    2017-11-01

    We study reheating in α-attractor models of inflation in which the inflaton couples to other scalars or fermions. We show that the parameter space contains viable regions in which the inflaton couplings to radiation can be determined from the properties of CMB temperature fluctuations, in particular the spectral index. This may be the only way to measure these fundamental microphysical parameters, which shaped the universe by setting the initial temperature of the hot big bang and contain important information about the embedding of a given model of inflation into a more fundamental theory of physics. The method can be applied to other models of single field inflation.

  2. Quality, Evolution, and Positional Change of University Students' Argumentation Patterns about Organic Agriculture during an Argument-Critique-Argument Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Mey; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, evolution, and position of university students' argumentation about organic agriculture over a 4-week argument-critique-argument e-learning experience embedded in a first year university biology course. The participants (N = 43) were classified into three groups based on their…

  3. Consequentialism, complacency, and slippery slope arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Justin; Cocking, Dean

    2005-01-01

    The standard problem with many slippery slope arguments is that they fail to provide us with the necessary evidence to warrant our believing that the significantly morally worse circumstances they predict will in fact come about. As such these arguments have widely been criticised as 'scare-mongering'. Consequentialists have traditionally been at the forefront of such criticisms, demanding that we get serious about guiding our prescriptions for right action by a comprehensive appreciation of the empirical facts. This is not surprising, since consequentialism has traditionally been committed to the idea that right action be driven by empirical realities, and this hard-headed approach has been an especially notable feature of Australian consequentialism. But this apparent empirical hard-headedness is very selective. While consequentialists have understood their moral outlook and commitments as guided by a partnership with empirical science - most explicitly in their replies to the arguments of their detractors - some consequentialists have been remarkably complacent about providing empirical support for their own prescriptions. Our key example here is the consequentialist claim that our current practises of partiality in fact maximise the good, impartially conceived. This claim has invariably been made without compelling support for the large empirical claims upon which it rests, and so, like the speculative empirical hand-waving of weak slippery slope arguments, it seems similarly to be undermined. While these arguments have presented us with 'wishful thinking' rather than 'scare-mongering', we argue in this paper that their complacency in meeting the relevant empirical justificatory burden remains much the same.

  4. Identification of Justification Types and Discourse Markers in Turkish Language Teacher Candidates' Argumentative Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Esra Nur

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify discourse markers used in justification types in Turkish language teacher candidates' argumentative texts. Survey model was used since it was aimed to determine the categories into which support and refutation justifications are split and to identify the discourse markers which express these categories.…

  5. Crafting an Argument in Steps: A Writing Process Model for Graduate and Professional Students with LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallestinova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses argument pedagogy for graduate and professional students with learning disabilities (LD) in the context of academic writing. To understand the nature and types of writing problems that graduate and professional students with LD experience, the author presents results of a university-wide survey with the students who did and did…

  6. Instructional Dissent as an Expression of Students' Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Myers, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if college students' verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness traits promote their tendencies to engage in instructional dissent (i.e., expressive, rhetorical, vengeful). Participants were 172 undergraduate students who completed a self-report survey measuring these traits and their dissent practices…

  7. Getting leverage on inflation with a large photometric redshift survey

    CERN Document Server

    Basse, Tobias; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We assess the potential of a future large-volume photometric redshift survey to constrain observational inflationary parameters using three large-scale structure observables: the angular shear and galaxy power spectra, and the cluster mass function measured through weak lensing. When used in combination with Planck-like CMB measurements, we find that the spectral index n_s can be constrained to a 1 sigma precision of up to 0.0025. The sensitivity to the running of the spectral index can potentially improve to 0.0017, roughly a factor of five better than the present 1 sigma~constraint from Planck and auxiliary CMB data, allowing us to test the assumptions of the slow-roll scenario with unprecedented accuracy. Interestingly, neither CMB+shear nor CMB+galaxy nor CMB+clusters alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined power of all three probes that conspires to break the different parameter degeneracies inherent in each type of observations. We make our forecast software publicly available vi...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CMB intensity map from WMAP and Planck PR2 data (Bobin+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, J.; Sureau, F.; Starck, J.-L.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel estimation of the CMB map reconstructed from the Planck 2015 data (PR2) and the WMAP nine-year data (Bennett et al., 2013ApJS..208...20B), which updates the CMB map we published in (Bobin et al., 2014A&A...563A.105B). This new map is based on the sparse component separation method L-GMCA (Bobin et al., 2013A&A...550A..73B). Additionally, the map benefits from the latest advances in this field (Bobin et al., 2015, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 63, 1199), which allows us to accurately discriminate between correlated components. In this update to our previous work, we show that this new map presents significant improvements with respect to the available CMB map estimates. (3 data files).

  9. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Fermi Non-detections of Four X-Ray Jet Sources and Implications for the IC/CMB Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Peter; Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Keenan, M. E.; DeNigris, N. S.; Hewitt, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Since its launch in 1999, the Chandra X-ray observatory has discovered several dozen X-ray jets associated with powerful quasars. In many cases, the X-ray spectrum is hard and appears to come from a second spectral component. The most popular explanation for the kpc-scale X-ray emission in these cases has been inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by relativistic electrons in the jet (the IC/CMB model). Requiring the IC/CMB emission to reproduce the observed X-ray flux density inevitably predicts a high level of gamma-ray emission, which should be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). In previous work, we found that gamma-ray upper limits from the large-scale jets of 3C 273 and PKS 0637-752 violate the predictions of the IC/CMB model. Here, we present Fermi/LAT flux density upper limits for the X-ray jets of four additional sources: PKS 1136-135, PKS 1229-021, PKS 1354+195, and PKS 2209+080. We show that these limits violate the IC/CMB predictions at a very high significance level. We also present new Hubble Space Telescope observations of the quasar PKS 2209+080 showing a newly detected optical jet, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array band 3 and 6 observations of all four sources, which provide key constraints on the spectral shape that enable us to rule out the IC/CMB model.

  11. Argumentation research and its implications in science preservice teachers’ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review of argumentation research in sciences, it is motivated by the idea that recent advances in argumentation studies indicate that the topic of argumentation should be included in the curriculum and in science teachers’ preservice training. Firstly, some theoretical and practical benefits and developments of argumentation in sciences are exposed, localizing the field with Didactic of Science. Secondly, the intentions of researches which have explored ways for including argumentation in science preservice teachers training are described. Thirdly, the literature is analyzed in order to elucidate the implications of this localization. Finally, recommendations for the inclusion of argumentation in science preservice teachers’ training are proposed.

  12. Local properties of the large-scale peaks of the CMB temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, we study the largest structures of the CMB temperature measured by Planck in terms of the most prominent peaks on the sky, which, in particular, are located in the southern galactic hemisphere. Besides these large-scale features, the well-known Cold Spot anomaly is included in the analysis. All these peaks would contribute significantly to some of the CMB large-scale anomalies, as the parity and hemispherical asymmetries, the dipole modulation, the alignment between the quadrupole and the octopole, or in the case of the Cold Spot, to the non-Gaussianity of the field. The analysis of the peaks is performed by using their multipolar profiles, which characterize the local shape of the peaks in terms of the discrete Fourier transform of the azimuthal angle. In order to quantify the local anisotropy of the peaks, the distribution of the phases of the multipolar profiles is studied by using the Rayleigh random walk methodology. Finally, a direct analysis of the 2-dimensional field around the peaks is performed in order to take into account the effect of the galactic mask. The results of the analysis conclude that, once the peak amplitude and its first and second order derivatives at the centre are conditioned, the rest of the field is compatible with the standard model. In particular, it is observed that the Cold Spot anomaly is caused by the large value of curvature at the centre.

  13. Constraints on reconstructed dark energy model from SN Ia and BAO/CMB observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamon, Abdulla Al [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)

    2017-01-15

    The motivation of the present work is to reconstruct a dark energy model through the dimensionless dark energy function X(z), which is the dark energy density in units of its present value. In this paper, we have shown that a scalar field φ having a phenomenologically chosen X(z) can give rise to a transition from a decelerated to an accelerated phase of expansion for the universe. We have examined the possibility of constraining various cosmological parameters (such as the deceleration parameter and the effective equation of state parameter) by comparing our theoretical model with the latest Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation observations. Using the joint analysis of the SN Ia+BAO/CMB dataset, we have also reconstructed the scalar potential from the parametrized X(z). The relevant potential is found, a polynomial in φ. From our analysis, it has been found that the present model favors the standard ΛCDM model within 1σ confidence level. (orig.)

  14. Probing features in inflaton potential and reionization history with future CMB space observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Paoletti, Daniela; Ballardini, Mario; Finelli, Fabio; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the prospects of probing features in the primordial power spectrum with future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization measurements. In the scope of the inflationary scenario, such features in the spectrum can be produced by local non-smooth pieces in an inflaton potential (smooth and quasi-flat in general) which in turn may originate from fast phase transitions during inflation in other quantum fields interacting with the inflaton. They can fit some outliers in the CMB temperature power spectrum which are unaddressed within the standard inflationary ΛCDM model. We consider Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) as a theoretical framework leading to improvements in the fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data in comparison with the standard inflationary models, although not at a statistically significant level. We show that some type of features in the potential within the WWI models, leading to oscillations in the primordial power spectrum that extend to intermediate and small scales can be constrained with high confidence (at 3σ or higher confidence level) by an instrument as the Cosmic ORigins Explorer (CORE). In order to investigate the possible confusion between inflationary features and footprints from the reionization era, we consider an extended reionization history with monotonic increase of free electrons with decrease in redshift. We discuss the present constraints on this model of extended reionization and future predictions with CORE. We also project, to what extent, this extended reionization can create confusion in identifying inflationary features in the data.

  15. Including birefringence into time evolution of CMB: current and future constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubitosi, G.; Pagano, L. [Physics Department and INFN, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, M., E-mail: g.gubitosi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: martinelli@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    We introduce birefringence effects within the propagation history of CMB, considering the two cases of a constant effect and of an effect that increases linearly in time, as the rotation of polarization induced by birefringence accumulates during photon propagation. Both cases result into a mixing of E and B modes before lensing effects take place, thus leading to the fact that lensing is acting on spectra that are already mixed because of birefringence. Moreover, if the polarization rotation angle increases during propagation, birefringence affects more the large scales that the small scales. We put constraints on the two cases using data from WMAP 9yr and BICEP 2013 and compare these results with the constraints obtained when the usual procedure of rotating the final power spectra is adopted, finding that this dataset combination is unable to distinguish between effects, but it nevertheless hints for a non vanishing value of the polarization rotation angle. We also forecast the sensitivity that will be obtained using data from Planck and PolarBear, highlighting how this combination is capable to rule out a vanishing birefringence angle, but still unable to distinguish the different scenarios. Nevertheless, we find that the combination of Planck and PolarBear is sensitive enough to highlight the existence of degeneracies between birefringence rotation and gravitational lensing of CMB photons, possibly leading to false detection of non standard lensing effects if birefringence is neglected.

  16. Primordial Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai G. Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields are everywhere in nature, and they play an important role in every astronomical environment which involves the formation of plasma and currents. It is natural therefore to suppose that magnetic fields could be present in the turbulent high-temperature environment of the big bang. Such a primordial magnetic field (PMF would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical framework which we have developed to calculate the PMF power spectrum to high precision. Using this formulation, we summarize calculations of the effects of a PMF which take accurate quantitative account of the time evolution of the cutoff scale. We review the constructed numerical program, which is without approximation, and an improvement over the approach used in a number of previous works for studying the effect of the PMF on the cosmological perturbations. We demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales. We also summarize the current constraints on the PMF amplitude Bλ and the power spectral index nB which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework.

  17. The argument from intrinsic value: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Dean

    2000-07-01

    In his recent book Abortion and Unborn Human Life, Patrick Lee develops an argument for foetal personhood based on intrinsic value. Lee argues that since the foetus is identical with the rational, self-conscious being who will exist a few years later, and since this rational, self-conscious being indisputably is intrinsically valuable, therefore the foetus must already be intrinsically valuable; for nothing can come to be at one time but become intrinsically valuable at another. I show that this argument fails on two counts. First, the crucial premise that a thing's intrinsic value must derive from its essential properties is question-begging and devoid of support. Second, that premise is inconsistent with the pro-life position.

  18. Architecture-based regulatory compliance argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihaylov, Boyan; Onea, Lucian; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2016-01-01

    Standards and regulations are difficult to understand and map to software, which makes compliance with them challenging to argue for software products and development process. This is problematic since lack of compliance may lead to issues with security, safety, and even to economic sanctions....... An increasing number of applications (for example in healthcare) are expected to have to live up to regulatory requirements in the future, which will lead to more software development projects having to deal with such requirements. We present an approach that models regulations such that compliance arguments...... the approach on the migration of the telemedicine platform Net4Care to the cloud, where certain regulations (for example privacy) should be concerned. The approach has the potential to support simpler compliance argumentation with the eventual promise of safer and more secure applications....

  19. Argumentation: A Methodology to Facilitate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhene, Agnes

    2017-06-20

    Caring is a difficult nursing activity that involves a complex nature of a human being in need of complex decision-making and problem solving through the critical thinking process. It is mandatory that critical thinking is facilitated in general and in nursing education particularly in order to render care in diverse multicultural patient care settings. This paper aims to describe how argumentation can be used to facilitate critical thinking in learners. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that is contextual was used. Purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample and Miles and Huberman methodology of qualitative analysis was used to analyse data. Lincoln and Guba's strategies were employed to ensure trustworthiness, while Dhai and McQuoid-Mason's principles of ethical consideration were used. Following data analysis the findings were integrated within literature which culminated into the formulation of guidelines that can be followed when using argumentation as a methodology to facilitate critical thinking.

  20. Verbal directionality and argument alternation in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    (wards) an explicit or implicit goal. The object of a directional verb may play another role in the event described by the sentence than the object of the corresponding simple (and non-directional) verb. This gives rise to so-called argument alternation, in that, for instance, an object and an instrumental adverbial...... of a simple verb may correspond to, respectively, a goal adverbial and an object of the directional verb. Another type of argument alternation results from the possibility of expressing a goal as an object of an applicative verb with an intransitive or transitive base.......The derivational morphology of verbs in Dinka includes a distinction between direction towards the deictic center (centripetal) and a direction not towards the deictic center (centrifugal). A goal adverbial requires a directional verb, and an object of such a verb refers to something that moves to...

  1. Theory Reform caused by an Argumentation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-13

    not force an argument structure on the user. In this respect, it differs from lunk lank and other outlining tools which force the user to employ a tree...Eisenhower Avenue Alexandria, VA 22333 Alexandria, VA 22333 Dr. Keith Holyoak Dr. Wayne Harvey University of Michigan SRI International Human Performance...15213 Bolling AF3, DC 20332 Dr. Marian Stearns Dr. Kikum: Tatsuoka SRI International CERL 333 Ravenswood Ave. 252 Engineering Research Room B-S324

  2. INTERVENING IN COLLECTIVITIES USING PERSUASIVE ARGUMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Prat-i-Pubill, Queralt; Lozano, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prior research claims that argumentative persuasion, or meaning-making, can be used to successfully intervene in organizational settings. However, it is not clear how persuasive narratives affect individuals and how meaning-making is operationalized. The present study uses linguistics and ethology research to explain how meaning is created and structured. These are alternative disciplines to the rhetoric, narrative and storytelling currently utilized in management. We explain how to reach hum...

  3. Kant's Transcendental Arguments as Conceptual Proofs | Stapleford ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is an attempt to explain what a transcendental argument is for Kant. The interpretation is based on a reading of the “Discipline of Pure Reason,” sections 1 and 4, of the first Critique. The author first identifies several statements that Kant makes about the method of proof he followed in the “Analytic of Principles,” ...

  4. Teaching Argumentation by Using Facebook Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Delen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today argumentation is widely emphasized in the policy documents in Europe, and the US. Once we look at the literature in the last two decades, many studies noted students’ challenges in this process. On the other side of the coin, we see inservice teachers with problems to support this process. Unfortunately, very few studies focused on this issue by studying pre-service teachers. By using Facebook groups as a discussion tool, this study focuses on supporting pre-service teachers when engaging in argumentation. Before starting the course none of pre-service teachers (N=58 could design an activity that includes justifying the evidence (reasoning. During the course, 12 groups made presentations and other groups critiqued these presentations. Once the instructor publicly started making comments in the Facebook page to discuss which groups are performing better, the level of critique in student responses started including more details about argumentation. This positive change supported almost all students in designing activities that focus on using evidence and connecting to reasoning at the end of the course.

  5. Argumentation and Inference: A Unified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fouqueré

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper to use Ludics as a unified framework for the analysis of dialogue and the reasoning system. Not only is Ludics a logical theory, but it may also be built by means of concepts of game theory. We first present the main concepts of Ludics. A design is an abstraction and a generalization of the concept of proof. Interaction between designs is equivalent to cut elimination or modus ponens in logical theories. It appears to be a natural means for representing dialogues and also for reasoning. A design is a set of sequences of alternate actions, similar to a move in game theory. We apply Ludics to argumentative dialogues. We discuss how to model the speech acts of argumentative dialogues in terms of dialogue acts. A dialogue act is given by a Ludics action together with the expression that reveals the action in a turn of speech. We show also how arguments may be stored in a commitment state used for reasoning. Finally we revisit an example of juridical dialogue that has been analyzed by Prakken in a different framework.

  6. Design as Value Celebration: Rethinking Design Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces knowledge of the rhetorical genre of epideictic to design. The aim is to provide designers with concepts that stimulate their ability to deliberate about design choices and explore the arguments they may be making about the human-made world. The article begins with explora......, situational perspectives, and rhetorical genres, the article concludes that designers can benefit from perceiving their design as value celebration rather than problem solving.......This article introduces knowledge of the rhetorical genre of epideictic to design. The aim is to provide designers with concepts that stimulate their ability to deliberate about design choices and explore the arguments they may be making about the human-made world. The article begins...... with explorations of how to perceive the situations that designers may address; it then provides rhetorical perspectives that may be useful when creating design arguments; finally, examples of how to use these rhetorical perspectives in design are provided. Based on analyzed examples and theories on design problems...

  7. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  8. Construction of Argumentative Discourse in Foucaltian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Michelan de Azevedo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the argumentative scheme described by New Rhetoric in order to discuss how the organization of reasonings by association and dissociation can be analyzed in Foucault’s studies (2008 [1969], 2004 [1971] on the constitution of discourse in society, aiming to promote a reflection about the possibilities of analysis of high school students productions and about the organization of argument teaching in basic education. Through an interpretative methodology (ERICKSON, 1986, we seek to understand the discursive movements gathered from productions made during the National Secondary Education Examination in 2004 and to indicate alternatives to develop pedagogical practices committed to the formation of a critical subject. Illustrative analyzes indicate that students prepare reflections authorized by certain discursive formation, task that requires the definition of an identity and the preparing of arguments aligned to the political choices discursively adopted. Thus, it becomes evident the need to diversify the teaching and learning processes when one want to expand the possibilities of the subject to take any stance relative to other positions.

  9. "Evidence" Under a Magnifying Glass: Thoughts on Safety Argument Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, P. J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Common definitions of "safety case" emphasize that evidence is the basis of a safety argument, yet few widely referenced works explicitly define "evidence". Their examples suggest that similar things can be regarded as evidence. But the category evidence seems to contain (1) processes for finding things out, (2) information resulting from such processes, and (3) relevant documents. Moreover, any item of evidence could be replaced by further argument. Normative models of informal argumentation do not offer clear guidance on when a safety argument should cite evidence rather than appeal to a more detailed argument. Disciplines such as the law address the problem with a practical, domain-specific epistemology. In this paper, we explore these problems associated with evidence citations in safety arguments, identify goals for a theory of safety argument evidence and a practical safety argument epistemology, propose a model of safety evidence citation that advances the identified goals, and present a related extension to the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN).

  10. A Bibliography of Argumentation and Debate for 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureton, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 65 items appearing in 1974 in seven areas: history and practice of argumentation, theory of argumentation, scholastic forensics, experimental studies; interpersonal conflicts, political campaign communication, and articles of general interest. (JMF)

  11. Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness: Relations with Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Cherie L.; Cegala, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Finds that persons scoring positively on argumentativeness and negatively on aggressiveness reported behaviors consistent with the authoritative parenting style and that negative argumentativeness and positive aggressiveness is associated with the authoritarian prototype. (SR)

  12. 17 CFR 201.451 - Oral argument before the Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for any such changes. No visual aids may be used at oral argument unless copies have been provided to... determines that the presentation of facts and legal arguments in the briefs and record and the decisional...

  13. Superiors' Argumentativeness and Verbal Agressiveness as Predictors of Subordinates' Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Dominic A.; Gorden, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Supported the hypothesis that the more employees perceive their supervisors as high in argumentativeness and low in verbal aggressiveness, the more the subordinates also will be argumentative (i.e., assertive) and have job satisfaction. (PD)

  14. Speech Act Theory and the Study of Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkemans A. Francisca Snoeck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available :In this paper, the influence of speech act theory and Grice’s the- ory of conversational implicature on the study of argumentation is discussed. First, the role that pragmatic insights play in van Eemeren and Grootendorst’s pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation and Jackson and Jacobs’ conver- sational approach to argumentation is described. Next, a number of examples of recent work by argumentation scholars is presented in which insights from speech act theory play a prominent role.

  15. Measuring galaxy cluster masses with CMB lensing using a Maximum Likelihood estimator: statistical and systematic error budgets for future experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Patil, Sanjaykumar; Baxter, Eric J.; Bianchini, Federico; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Manzotti, Alessandro; Reichardt, Christian L.

    2017-08-01

    We develop a Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE) to measure the masses of galaxy clusters through the impact of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that, at low noise levels in temperature, this optimal estimator outperforms the standard quadratic estimator by a factor of two. For polarization, we show that the Stokes Q/U maps can be used instead of the traditional E- and B-mode maps without losing information. We test and quantify the bias in the recovered lensing mass for a comprehensive list of potential systematic errors. Using realistic simulations, we examine the cluster mass uncertainties from CMB-cluster lensing as a function of an experiment's beam size and noise level. We predict the cluster mass uncertainties will be 3 - 6% for SPT-3G, AdvACT, and Simons Array experiments with 10,000 clusters and less than 1% for the CMB-S4 experiment with a sample containing 100,000 clusters. The mass constraints from CMB polarization are very sensitive to the experimental beam size and map noise level: for a factor of three reduction in either the beam size or noise level, the lensing signal-to-noise improves by roughly a factor of two.

  16. Constraints from the CMB temperature and other common observational data sets on variable dark energy density models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetzer, Philippe; Tortora, Crescenzo

    2011-08-01

    The thermodynamic and dynamical properties of a variable dark energy model with density scaling as ρx∝(1+z)m, z being the redshift, are discussed following the outline of Jetzer et al. [P. Jetzer, D. Puy, M. Signore, and C. Tortora, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43, 1083 (2011).GRGVA80001-770110.1007/s10714-010-1091-4]. These kinds of models are proven to lead to the creation/disruption of matter and radiation, which affect the cosmic evolution of both matter and radiation components in the Universe. In particular, we have concentrated on the temperature-redshift relation of radiation, which has been constrained using a very recent collection of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature measurements up to z˜3. For the first time, we have combined this observational probe with a set of independent measurements (Supernovae Ia distance moduli, CMB anisotropy, large-scale structure and observational data for the Hubble parameter), which are commonly adopted to constrain dark energy models. We find that, within the uncertainties, the model is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant which does not exchange any particles with other components. Anyway, while temperature measurements and Supernovae Ia tend to predict slightly decaying models, the contrary happens if CMB data are included. Future observations, in particular, measurements of CMB temperature at large redshift, will allow to give firmer bounds on the effective equation of state parameter weff of this kind of dark energy model.

  17. A Comparison of Biology Majors' Written Arguments across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schen, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Argumentation in science is the process of coordinating theory and evidence to justify conclusions. This practice is at the heart of scientific journal writing and communication, but little is known regarding the argument quality of college science majors, the future scientists. Studies on written arguments at the college level have focused…

  18. That’s No Argument! The Ultimate Criticism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.; van Laar, Jan Albert; Garssen, Bart J.; Godden, David; Mitchell, Gordon; Snoeck Henkemans, A. Francisca

    What if in discussion the critic refuses to recognize an emotionally expressed (alleged) argument of her interlocutor as an argument? In this paper, we shall deal with this reproach, which taken literally amounts to a charge of having committed a fallacy of non-argumentation. As such it is a very

  19. Integrating Multimodal Arguments into High School Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Emily; Butler, Tracy; Reinking, David

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a formative experiment investigating how an intervention that engaged students in constructing multimodal arguments could be integrated into high school English instruction to improve students' argumentative writing. The intervention entailed three essential components: (a) construction of arguments defined as claims, evidence, and…

  20. Promoting Scientific Literacy through the Online Argumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how the scientific competencies advocated by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) could be improved by using online argumentation. An online argumentation system served as an aid for argumentation instruction and activities among students during the experiment. Seventy-one 10th grade high school…

  1. Logical Fallacies in Indonesian EFL Learners' Argumentative Writing: Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoiri, Niamika; Widiati, Utami

    2017-01-01

    In argumentative writing, the presence of logical fallacy, which can be simply defined as error in reasoning, shows either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points that will undermine the strength of a claim. Despite its significant role in determining the quality of an argument, the topic of logical fallacy has not been widely explored in the…

  2. Tracking Heroin Chic: The Abject Body Reconfigures the Rational Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Christine L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a recent fashion trend known as "heroin chic" challenges conventional modes of argumentation. Considers how its popularization of abject, emaciated bodies presents an alternative to a logic of rationalism that grounds traditional argumentation. Discusses how by foregrounding corporeal performativity as a form of argument,…

  3. From Formalism to Inquiry: A Model of Argument in "Antigone."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastely, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a definition for a formalist approach to teaching argument and discusses limitations and serious problems with this approach. Discusses "Antigone" as a representative text for teaching argument because it challenges the very possibility of argument. Proposes that literary texts such as "Antigone" be taught as…

  4. Scaffolding for Argumentation in Hypothetical and Theoretical Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wan-Yun; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of online argumentation scaffolding on students' argumentation involving hypothetical and theoretical biological concepts. Two types of scaffolding were developed in order to improve student argumentation: continuous scaffolding and withdraw scaffolding. A quasi-experimental design was used with four…

  5. Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory: Inquiry and Confirmatory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments--reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research…

  6. Arguing about desirable consequences: what constitutes a convincing argument?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeken, Hans; Timmers, R.H.M.; Schellens, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Argument quality has consistently been shown to have strong and lasting persuasive effects. The question is what criteria people use to distinguish strong from weak arguments and how these criteria relate to the ones proposed in normative argumentation theory. In an experiment 235 participants

  7. Reconstructing argumentative discourse with the help of speech act conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; van Eemeren, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    In order to be able to develop adequate tools for analysing argumentative discourse, a consistent and coherent research programme is needed which encompasses five components. In the pragma-dialectical argumentation theory an approach to the analysis of argumentation is proposed in which these five

  8. Animacy, Argument Structure and Unaccusatives in Child English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, M.; Schaeffer, J.; Becker, M.; Grinstead, J.; Rothman, J.

    2013-01-01

    We offer evidence that children correctly represent unaccusative verbs as taking a single internal argument, rather than an external argument, and they raise this argument to subject position via A-movement, contra Babyonyshev et al. (2001). Our primary evidence comes from the distribution of

  9. Arguments from Physics in Mathematical Proofs: An Educational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gila; Jahnke, Hans Niels

    2002-01-01

    Investigates what the role of arguments from physics within mathematical proof is, and how this role should be reflected in the classroom. Presents examples showing the fruitfulness of center of gravity arguments in terms of geometrical configuration and the laws of the lever. Discusses educational advantages of the use of arguments from physics…

  10. Strong focussing of S- and P-waves turning near the CMB beneath Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, S.; Nowacki, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Large-low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs), two equatorial and nearly antipodal regions of large-scale reductions in seismic S-wave velocities, are the dominant features in tomographic models of Earth's lowermost mantle. Located beneath Africa and the Pacific, these structures are commonly interpreted as thermo-chemical piles, although a purely thermal origin is also discussed. Their connection to Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), flood basalts, mantle plumes and geochemical reservoirs is strongly debated in part because their detailed structure is still poorly known. Here we use records of P and Pdiff from the medium aperture, short-period, vertical component Yellowknife array (YKA) located in northern Canada and S and Sdiff from stations of the Canadian POLARIS network to extract velocity and directivity information directly from the seismic wavefield. We use high-resolution array processing techniques to increase the accuracy of the measurements. The directivity information extracted from the seismic array data provides additional and previously unused data on lower mantle structure. Using seismicity from the western Pacific rim allows good sampling of the lowermost mantle in the region of the Pacific LLSVP and the northern Pacific. The directivity information extracted from the array data using the high-resolution F-statistic shows strong azimuthal deviations of the wavefield (up to 15°) in the central Pacific that are localized within a few degrees of previously mapped strong seismic velocity reductions. We use the combined information from P/Pdiff and S/Sdiff, with full-waveform synthetic modelling, to track a wavefield defocussing structure to at least 300 km above the core mantle boundary (CMB). The defocussing at this lower mantle anomaly is in agreement with a roughly cylindrical structure with a diameter of a few degrees that rises a few hundred kilometers above the CMB. The general location of the defocussing anomaly is close to the Hawaiian hotspot

  11. Toulmin's argument pattern as a "horizon of possibilities" in the study of argumentation in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erduran, Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Kim and Roth (this issue) purport to draw on the social-psychological theory of L. S. Vygotsky in order to investigate social relations in children's argumentation in science topics. The authors argue that the argumentation framework offered by Stephen Toulmin is limited in addressing social relations. The authors thus criticize Toulmin's Argument Pattern (TAP) as an analytical tool and propose to investigate the genesis of evidence-related practices (especially burden of proof) in second- and third-grade children by studying dialogical interactions. In this paper, I illustrate how Toulmin's framework can contribute to (a) the study of "social relations", and (b) provide an example utilizing a theoretical framework on social relations, namely Engeström's Activity Theory framework, and (c) describe how we have used the Activity Theory along with TAP in order to understand the development of argumentation in the practices of science educators. Overall, I will argue that TAP is not inherently incapable of addressing social relational aspects of argumentation in science education but rather that science education researchers can transform theoretical tools such as Toulmin's framework intended for other purposes for use in science education research.

  12. WMAP7 and future CMB constraints on annihilating dark matter: implications for GeV-scale WIMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütsi, G.; Chluba, J.; Hektor, A.; Raidal, M.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: We calculate constraints from current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements on annihilating dark matter (DM) with masses below the electroweak scale: mDM = 5 - 100 GeV. In particular, we assume the S-wave annihilation mode to be dominant, and focus our attention on the lower end of this mass range, as DM particles with masses mDM ~ 10 GeV have recently been claimed to be consistent with the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA results, while also providing viable DM candidates to explain the measurements of Fermi and WMAP haze. We study the model (in)dependence of the CMB power spectra on particle physics DM models, large-scale structure formation and cosmological uncertainties. We attempt to find a simple and practical recipe for estimating current and future CMB bounds on a broad class of DM annihilation models. Methods: We use a model-independent description for DM annihilation into a wide set of Standard Model particles simulated by PYTHIA Monte Carlo. Our Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations used for finding model constraints involve realistic CMB likelihoods and assume a standard 6-parameter ΛCDM background cosmological model, which is extended by two additional DM annihilation parameters: mDM and ⟨ σAυ ⟩ /mDM. Results: We show that in the studied DM mass range the CMB signal of DM annihilations is independent of the details of large-scale structure formation, distribution, and profile of DM halos and other cosmological uncertainties. All particle physics models of DM annihilation can be described with only one parameter, the fraction of energy carried away by neutrinos in DM annihilation. As the main result we provide a simple and rather generic fitting formula for calculating CMB constraints on the annihilation cross section of light WIMPs. We show that thermal relic DM in the CoGeNT, DAMA/LIBRA favored mass range is in a serious conflict with present CMB data for the annihilation channels with few neutrinos, and will definitely be tested

  13. On-Line Synchronous Scientific Argumentation Learning: Nurturing Students' Argumentation Ability and Conceptual Change in Science Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuan-Hue; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the difference in effectiveness between two on-line scientific learning programs--one with an argumentation component and one without an argumentation component--on students' scientific argumentation ability and conceptual change. A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Two classes of 8th grade…

  14. Finslerian dipolar modulation of the CMB power spectra at scales 2 < l < 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Lin, Hai-Nan [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2017-05-15

    A common explanation for the CMB power asymmetry is to introduce a dipolar modulation at the stage of inflation, where the primordial power spectrum is spatially varying. If the universe in the stage of inflation is Finslerian, and if the Finsler spacetime is non-reversible under parity flip, x → -x, then a three dimensional spectrum which is a function of wave vector and direction is valid. In this paper, a three dimensional primordial power spectrum with preferred direction is derived in the framework of Finsler spacetime. It is found that the amplitude of dipolar modulation is related to the Finslerian parameter, which in turn is a function of wave vector. The angular correlation coefficients are presented, and the numerical results for the anisotropic correlation coefficients over the multipole range 2 < l < 600 are given. (orig.)

  15. Fast and accurate CMB computations in non-flat FLRW universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Tram, Thomas, E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: thomas.tram@epfl.ch [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    We present a new method for calculating CMB anisotropies in a non-flat Friedmann universe, relying on a very stable algorithm for the calculation of hyperspherical Bessel functions, that can be pushed to arbitrary precision levels. We also introduce a new approximation scheme which gradually takes over in the flat space limit and leads to significant reductions of the computation time. Our method is implemented in the Boltzmann code class. It can be used to benchmark the accuracy of the camb code in curved space, which is found to match expectations. For default precision settings, corresponding to 0.1% for scalar temperature spectra and 0.2% for scalar polarisation spectra, our code is two to three times faster, depending on curvature. We also simplify the temperature and polarisation source terms significantly, so the different contributions to the C{sub ℓ} 's are easy to identify inside the code.

  16. Wavelet reconstruction of E and B modes for CMB polarization and cosmic shear analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Büttner, Martin; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2017-04-01

    We present new methods for mapping the curl-free (E-mode) and divergence-free (B-mode) components of spin 2 signals using spin directional wavelets. Our methods are equally applicable to measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the shear of galaxy shapes due to weak gravitational lensing. We derive pseudo- and pure wavelet estimators, where E-B mixing arising due to incomplete sky coverage is suppressed in wavelet space using scale- and orientation-dependent masking and weighting schemes. In the case of the pure estimator, ambiguous modes (which have vanishing curl and divergence simultaneously on the incomplete sky) are also cancelled. On simulations, we demonstrate the improvement (i.e. reduction in leakage) provided by our wavelet space estimators over standard harmonic space approaches. Our new methods can be directly interfaced in a coherent and computationally efficient manner with component separation or feature extraction techniques that also exploit wavelets.

  17. Studying Heavy Ion Collisions Using Methods From Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaardhøje J. J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a framework for studying the morphology of high-multiplicity events from relativistic heavy ion collisions using methods commonly employed in the analysis of the photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the distribution of the number density of (charged particles expressed in polar and azimuthal coordinates into a sum of spherical harmonic functions. We present an application of the method exploting relevant symmetries to the study of azimuthal correlations arizing from collective flow among charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss perspectives for event-by- event analyses, which with increasing collision energy will eventually open entirely new dimensions in the study of ultrarelaticistic heavy ion reactions.

  18. CMB anomalies and the effects of local features of the inflaton potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, Alexander Gallego [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Romano, Antonio Enea [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); University of Torino, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Gariazzo, Stefano [University of Torino, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Recent analysis of the WMAP and Planck data have shown the presence of a dip and a bump in the spectrum of primordial perturbations at the scales k = 0.002 Mpc{sup -1}, respectively. We analyze for the first time the effects of a local feature in the inflaton potential to explain the observed deviations from scale invariance in the primordial spectrum. We perform a best-fit analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature and polarization data. The effects of the features can improve the agreement with observational data respect to the featureless model. The best-fit local feature affects the primordial curvature spectrum mainly in the region of the bump, leaving the spectrum unaffected on other scales. (orig.)

  19. CMB B-mode auto-bispectrum produced by primordial gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Hiroaki W. H.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational waves from inflation induce polarization patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It is known that there are only two types of non-Gaussianities of the gravitational waves in the most general covariant scalar field theory having second-order field equations, namely, generalized G-inflation. One originates from the inherent non-Gaussianity in general relativity, and the other from a derivative coupling between the Einstein tensor and the scalar field. We calculate polarization bispectra induced by these non-Gaussianities by transforming them into separable forms by virtue of the Laplace transformation. It is shown that future experiments can constrain the new one but cannot detect the general relativistic one.

  20. BOOMERanG: a scanning telescope for 10 arcminutes resolution CMB maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Artusa, R.; Bock, J. J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B. P.; de Bernardis, P.; de Troia, G.; Farese, P. C.; Giacometti, M.; Hristov, V. V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Martinis, L.; Mason, P. V.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C. B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P. L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J. E.; Scaramuzzi, F.

    1999-05-01

    The BOOMERanG experiment is a stratospheric balloon telescope intended to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy at angular scales between a few degrees and ten arcminutes. The experiment features a wide focal plane with 16 detectors in the frequency bands centered at 90, 150, 220, 400 GHz, with FWHM ranging between 18 and 10 arcmin. It will be flown on a long duration (7-14 days) flight circumnavigating Antarctica at the end of 1998. The instrument was flown with a reduced focal plane (6 detectors, 90 and 150 GHz bands, 25 to 15 arcmin FWHM) on a qualification flight from Texas, in August 1997. A wide (~300 deg2, i.e. about 5000 independent beams at 150 GHz) sky area was mapped in the constellations of Capricornus, Aquarius, Cetus, with very low foreground contamination. The instrument was calibrated using the CMB dipole and observations of Jupiter. The LDB version of the instrument has been qualified and shipped to Antarctica.

  1. Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, suc...

  2. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hamann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies......We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes...... in a fiducial LambdaCDM cosmology, a number that is quite conservative compared with existing estimates because of our choice of model parameter space and analysis method, but still represents a factor of 3 to 8 improvement over using either CMB+galaxy clustering+cosmic shear data, or CMB+cluster mass function...

  3. Against the golden rule argument against abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonin-Vail, D

    1997-01-01

    R.M. Hare and Harry J. Gensler have each argued that abortion can be shown to be immoral by appealing to a version of the golden rule. I argue that both versions of the golden rule argument against abortion should be rejected: each rests on a version of the golden rule which is objectionable on independent grounds, each is unable to support its conclusion when the rule is satisfactorily modified, and each is unable to avoid the implication that contraception is as wrong as abortion and for the same reason. In addition, some further problems particular to each position are identified.

  4. Writing for publication: argument and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    The rules for writing a research report for publication are well defined but are much less clear for scholarly scientific papers. The purpose of this paper is to enable new writers to confidently apply the skills of scientific writing within a scholarly paper for publication. Similarities and differences between scientific argument and debating are discussed. Achieving the right 'tone' and emphasis in writing is considered. How to use the correct verb tense is outlined. The importance of a clearly defined question is explained. The elements of an effective scholarly paper are presented and examples given. The elements are the: question, thesis, introduction, body of the paper, conclusion and finally, an abstract.

  5. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  6. Group decision support using Toulmin argument structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering; Sage, A.P. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the need for sound science, technology, and management assessment relative to environmental policy decision making through an approach that involves a logical structure for evidence, a framed decision-making process, and an environment that encourages group participation. Toulmin-based logic possesses these characteristics and is used as the basis for development of a group decision support system. This system can support several user groups, such as pesticide policy-making experts, who can use the support system to state arguments for or against an important policy issue, and pest management experts, who can use the system to assist in identifying and evaluating alternatives for controlling pests on agricultural commodities. The resulting decision support system assists in improving the clarity of the lines of reasoning used in specific situations; the warrants, grounds, and backings that are used to support claims and specific lines of reasoning; and the contradictions, rebuttals, and arguments surrounding each step in the reasoning process associated with evaluating a claim or counterclaim. Experts and decisions makers with differing views can better understand each other`s thought processes. The net effect is enhanced communications and understanding of the whole picture and, in many cases, consensus on decisions to be taken.

  7. Towards an experimental account of argumentation: the case of the slippery slope and the ad hominem arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLillo-Unglaube

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Argumentation is a crucial component of our lives. Although in the absence of rational debate our legal, political, and scientific systems would not be possible, there is still no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Furthermore, classical theories of argumentation are normative (i.e. the acceptability of an argument is determined by a set of norms or logical rules, which sometimes creates a dissociation between the theories and people’s behavior. We think the current challenge for psychology is to bring together the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation. In this Perspective, we exemplify this point by analyzing two cases of argumentative structures experimentally studied in the context of cognitive psychology. Specifically, we focus on the slippery slope argument and the ad hominem argument under the frameworks of Bayesian and pragma-dialectics approaches, respectively. We think employing more descriptive and experimental accounts of argumentation would help Psychology to bring closer the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation with the final goal of establishing an integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation.

  8. Risk and Argument: A Risk-based Argumentation Method for Practical Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Tun, Thein Tan; Yu, Yijun; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Nuseibeh, Bashar

    When showing that a software system meets certain security requirements, it is often necessary to work with formal and informal descriptions of the system behavior, vulnerabilities, and threats from potential attackers. In earlier work, Haley et al. [1] showed structured argumentation could deal

  9. Argument-Counterargument Structure in Indonesian EFL Learners' English Argumentative Essays: A Dialogic Concept of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusfandi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential use of the argument-counterargument structure in English L2 essays written by Indonesian EFL learners. It examines whether L2 proficiency affects the use of opposing views in their essays, and measures whether there is a correlation between the use of the rhetorical structure and the participants' overall…

  10. A cohort of novice Danish science teachers: Background in science and argumentation about science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Lund Nielsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified: There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being stundent centred, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus on students’ activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers’ own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching science.

  11. Halo Pressure Profile through the Skew Cross-power Spectrum of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect and CMB Lensing in Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Nicholas; Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) skewness power spectrum in Planck , using frequency maps of the HFI instrument and the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) component map. The two-to-one skewness power spectrum measures the cross-correlation between CMB lensing and the thermal SZ effect. We also directly measure the same cross-correlation using the Planck CMB lensing map and the SZ map and compare it to the cross-correlation derived from the skewness power spectrum. We model fit the SZ power spectrum and CMB lensing–SZ cross-power spectrum via the skewness power spectrum to constrain the gas pressure profile of dark matter halos. The gas pressure profile is compared to existing measurements in the literature including a direct estimate based on the stacking of SZ clusters in Planck .

  12. A Theological Argument for an Everett Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2012-01-01

    Science looks for the simplest hypotheses to explain observations. Starting with the simple assumption that {\\em the actual world is the best possible world}, I sketch an {\\it Optimal Argument for the Existence of God}, that the sufferings in our universe would not be consistent with its being alone the best possible world, but the total world could be the best possible if it includes an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God who experiences great value in creating and knowing a universe with great mathematical elegance, even though such a universe has suffering. God seems loathe to violate elegant laws of physics that He has chosen to use in His creation, such as Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism or Einstein's equations of general relativity for gravity within their classical domains of applicability, even if their violation could greatly reduce human suffering (e.g., from falls). If indeed God is similarly loathe to violate quantum unitarity (though such violations by judicious collapses of the w...

  13. Agrotourism-Representative Issues And Pro Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many governments from European Union recognize the fact that agrotourism and rural tourism represents one way that can save the agriculture in that in the coming year’s rural tourism and agrotourism will become representative elements for rural area, the arguments of this representativity being the purpose of this paper. The rural area offers great opportunities for development of agrotourism, practicing of its being necessary in the current period. At the majority of rural settlements, the defining emblematic is multiple: the quality of landscape and warmth of the inhabitants, works of art and popular technique, traditional occupations, costumes, customs, traditions, cuisine, resources, etc. To these is added also the awareness, by small farmers, of the need to diversify agricultural activity, both in and outside the farm, by engaging in other activities, with non-agricultural character, from which agrotourism is one of the most circulated.

  14. Using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to develop effective argumentation skills in high school advanced placement physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heglund, Brian

    Educators recognize the importance of reasoning ability for development of critical thinking skills, conceptual change, metacognition, and participation in 21st century society. There is a recognized need for students to improve their skills of argumentation, however, argumentation is not explicitly taught outside logic and philosophy---subjects that are not part of the K-12 curriculum. One potential way of supporting the development of argumentation skills in the K-12 context is through incorporating Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to evaluate arguments. This quasi-experimental study tested the effects of such argument mapping software and was informed by the following two research questions: 1. To what extent does the collaborative use of Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate competing theories influence the critical thinking skill of argument evaluation, metacognitive awareness, and conceptual knowledge acquisition in high school Advanced Placement physics, compared to the more traditional method of text tables that does not employ Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping? 2. What are the student perceptions of the pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment? This study examined changes in critical thinking skills, including argumentation evaluation skills, as well as metacognitive awareness and conceptual knowledge, in two groups: a treatment group using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate physics arguments, and a comparison group using text tables to evaluate physics arguments. Quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting and analyzing data were used to answer the research questions. Quantitative data indicated no significant difference between the experimental groups, and qualitative data suggested students perceived pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment, such as self-reported sense of improvement in argument

  15. Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, I.e., a pixel-based likelihood at low multipoles (ℓ< 30) and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher multipoles. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy brought by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck, in particular with regard to small-scale foreground properties. Progress in the modelling of foreground emission enables the retention of a larger fraction of the sky to determine the properties of the CMB, which also contributes to the enhanced precision of the spectra. Improvements in data processing and instrumental modelling further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish the robustness and accuracy of the likelihood results, from temperature alone, from polarization alone, and from their combination. For temperature, we also perform a full likelihood analysis of realistic end-to-end simulations of the instrumental response to the sky, which were fed into the actual data processing pipeline; this does not reveal biases from residual low-level instrumental systematics. Even with the increase in precision and robustness, the ΛCDM cosmological model continues to offer a very good fit to the Planck data. The slope of the primordial scalar fluctuations, ns, is confirmed smaller than unity at more than 5σ from Planck alone. We further validate the robustness of the

  16. Stasislæren – en schweizerkniv til argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    Antikkens retorikere bestræbte sig ihærdigt på at sætte retorikken i system. Et resultat af deres indsats er stasislæren: et universalværktøj som kan bruges til argumentation i alle slags sager. Ved dets hjælp kan man sammensætte slagkraftige argumenter og sikre at tilhørerne bygger deres stilling......-tagen på solid argumentation....

  17. Bipolarity in argumentation graphs: Towards a better understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Cayrol, Claudette; Lagasquie-Schiex, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Different abstract argumentation frameworks have been used for various applications within multi-agents systems. Among them, bipolar frameworks make use of both attack and support relations between arguments. However, there is no single interpretation of the support, and the handling of bipolarity cannot avoid a deeper analysis of the notion of support.In this paper we consider three recent proposals for specializing the support relation in abstract argumentation: the ...

  18. A generalization of Dung's Abstract Framework for Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Parsons, Simon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most widely studied systems of argumentation is the one described by Dung in a paper from 1995. Unfortunately, this framework does not allow for joint attacks on arguments, which we argue must be required of any truly abstract argumentation framework. A few frameworks can be said to al...... the semantics associated with the original framework to this generalization, and prove that all results in the paper by Dung have an equivalent in this more abstract framework....

  19. Social Media Argumentation Mining: The Quest for Deliberateness in Raucousness

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajder, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Argumentation mining from social media content has attracted increasing attention. The task is both challenging and rewarding. The informal nature of user-generated content makes the task dauntingly difficult. On the other hand, the insights that could be gained by a large-scale analysis of social media argumentation make it a very worthwhile task. In this position paper I discuss the motivation for social media argumentation mining, as well as the tasks and challenges involved.

  20. Does Putnam's Argument Beg the Question against the Skeptic?

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Olaf L.

    2001-01-01

    Are we perhaps in the "matrix", or anyway, victims of perfect and permanent computer simulation? No. The most convincing—and shortest—version of Putnam's argument against the possibility of our eternal envattment is due to Crispin Wright (1994). It avoids most of the misunderstandings that have been elicited by Putnam's original presentation of the argument in "Reason, Truth and History" (1981). But it is still open to the charge of question-begging. True enough, the premisses of the argument...

  1. Does Putnam's Argument Beg the Question against the Skeptic?

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Olaf L.

    2001-01-01

    Bekommen wir vielleicht alle unsere Sinneseindrücke aus einem gigantischen Simulationscomputer? Nein. Von Crispin Wright stammt die beste und kürzeste Fassung des Arguments von Hilary Putnam, wonach wir nicht seit jeher Gehirne im Tank sein können (oder Opfer der "Matrix"). Wright vermeidet die meisten Missverständnisse, denen die ursprüngliche Fassung des Arguments aus "Reason, Truth and History" (Putnam 1981) ausgesetzt war. Nichtsdestoweniger droht dem Argument selbst in Wrights Fassung di...

  2. Degree-2 in the Transition Zone and Near the CMB: Bottom up Tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Lekic, V.; Tsai, V. C.; Dziewonski, A. M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Matas, J.; Panero, W. R.; Romanowicz, B.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Cooperative Institute for Deep Earth Research (CIDER) program facilitated collaboration between researchers from seismology, geodynamics, mineral physics, and geochemistry to study, model and better understand the interior of the Earth. Through this multidisciplinary approach, we have developed a self- consistent paradigm of mantle structure and dynamics. Geochemical studies necessitate multiple mantle components, a requirement that can be met by a layered mantle structure with the 660-km discontinuity serving as a boundary between a depleted upper mantle and undepleted lower mantle. Seismological studies show strong evidence for reorganization of flow at the 660 km discontinuity, but some tomographic models also suggest a significant mass flux across this depth. We investigate the possibility that the large low-velocity seismic anomalies beneath south Africa and the central Pacific are thermochemical reservoirs that may serve as the undepleted, undegassed mantle end-member commonly seen in intraplate volcanics. These superplumes may represent an extension of the degree-2 heterogeneity dominating the deepest 500-1000 km of the lower mantle, and may comprise >20% of the mantle by volume. A comparison of S-velocity anomalies in the mantle with the slab reconstruction model of Lithgow-Bertelloni and Richards (1998) reveals a high degree-2 correlation between these models; in general, the slab model has much more power in higher harmonics. However, for degree-2, the slab density anomaly integrated over the upper mantle has the same pattern as the velocity anomalies at the bottom of the transition zone, but not at other depths in the upper mantle, suggesting that the transition zone acts as a low-pass filter, preferentially removing shorter wavelengths of mantle flow. The degree-2 velocity anomaly just above the core-mantle boundary (CMB) parallels the last 120 Ma of slab signal integrated over the entire mantle, indicating a long-lived origin of this boundary

  3. Galaxy clustering, CMB and supernova data constraints on ϕCDM model with massive neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a scalar field dark energy model (i.e., ϕCDM model with massive neutrinos, where the scalar field possesses an inverse power-law potential, i.e., V(ϕ∝ϕ−α (α>0. We find that the sum of neutrino masses Σmν has significant impacts on the CMB temperature power spectrum and on the matter power spectrum. In addition, the parameter α also has slight impacts on the spectra. A joint sample, including CMB data from Planck 2013 and WMAP9, galaxy clustering data from WiggleZ and BOSS DR11, and JLA compilation of Type Ia supernova observations, is adopted to confine the parameters. Within the context of the ϕCDM model under consideration, the joint sample determines the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the Thomson scattering optical depth due to reionization, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ⁎=(1.0415−0.0011+0.0012×10−2, τ=0.0914−0.0242+0.0266, Ωbh2=0.0222±0.0005, Ωch2=0.1177±0.0036, and ns=0.9644−0.0119+0.0118, respectively, at 95% confidence level (CL. It turns out that α<4.995 at 95% CL for the ϕCDM model. And yet, the ΛCDM scenario corresponding to α=0 is not ruled out at 95% CL. Moreover, we get Σmν<0.262 eV at 95% CL for the ϕCDM model, while the corresponding one for the ΛCDM model is Σmν<0.293 eV. The allowed scale of Σmν in the ϕCDM model is a bit smaller than that in the ΛCDM model. It is consistent with the qualitative analysis, which reveals that the increases of α and Σmν both can result in the suppression of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, when α is larger, in order to avoid suppressing the matter power spectrum too much, the value of Σmν should be smaller.

  4. Using Argumentation to Foster Learning about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B. W.

    2012-12-01

    Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the

  5. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  6. Concepts and Contexts – Argumentative Forms of Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas; Nørholm Just, Sine; Bengtsson, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The notion of framing has become central in the field of argumentation. The question is, however, what we gain from studying the process of argumentation through framing, since framing is itself a broad concept in need of specification. Different traditions understand the term differently......, and it is necessary to determine what argumentative forms the concept of framing actually covers. In this paper we argue that framing refers to at least two different argumentative forms. One is an internal definition of the concepts in question; the other is an external shift in the context of the case. In making...

  7. Fregego krytyka dowodu ontologicznego (FREGE'S CRITICISM OF THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gut

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reconstructs Frege's criticism of the ontological argument for the existence of God on the basis of various remarks scattered in his writings. The material is organized in such a way as to: (a reveal a logical structure of the argument; (b show and discern various presupposition of a logical, semantical and ontological character; and (c indicate some essential weaknesses of the ontological argument. It is argued that Frege's critical commentaries on this argument are essentially connected to four solutions, stating that: (1 the difference between a name and a predicate is categorical; (2 the existential judgement possesses a different logical structure than the singular judgement; (3 in the characteristic of concepts marks and properties should be distinguished; (4 the ascription of number contains the statement about a concept. In order to make Frege's argumentation as understandable as possible it is confronted with Kant's criticism of ontological argument. The analysis carried on in the above-described way reveals a number of shortcomings which discredit the ontological argument. For example, the paper shows that the analysis of predication of oneness (Einzigkeit does not lead to the affirmation of God's existence. Moreover, it shows that in that argument the term God is used in two different semantic roles; that some theses that should constitute the argument's conclusion, are already assumed; and that sense-condition and truth-conditions are not distinguished.Other author's publications:

  8. Response to 'Fear of death and the symmetry argument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Deng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article is a response to 'Fear of death and the symmetry argument', in this issue. In that article, the author discusses the above Lucretian symmetry argument, and proposes a view that justifies the existing asymmetry in our attitudes towards birth and death. I begin by distinguishing this symmetry argument from a different one, also loosely inspired by Lucretius, which also plays a role in the article. I then describe what I take to be the author's solution to the original symmetry argument (i.e. the one above and explain why I am unpersuaded by it.

  9. Metacognition in argument generation: the misperceived relationship between emotional investment and argument quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan R; Tynan, Mara E; Cuthbert, Andy S; O'Quinn, Juliette K

    2017-05-29

    Overestimation of one's ability to argue their position on socio-political issues may partially underlie the current climate of political extremism in the U.S. Yet very little is known about what factors influence overestimation in argumentation of socio-political issues. Across three experiments, emotional investment substantially increased participants' overestimation. Potential confounding factors like topic complexity and familiarity were ruled out as alternative explanations (Experiments 1-3). Belief-based cues were established as a mechanism underlying the relationship between emotional investment and overestimation in a measurement-of-mediation (Experiment 2) and manipulation-of-mediator (Experiment 3) design. Representing a new bias blind spot, participants believed emotional investment helps them argue better than it helps others (Experiments 2 and 3); where in reality emotional investment harmed or had no effect on argument quality. These studies highlight misguided beliefs about emotional investment as a factor underlying metacognitive miscalibration in the context of socio-political issues.

  10. In the south slavonic garden: landscaping the landscape od arguments and non-arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Marelj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of the so-called Cognate Object Construction with particular reference to Serbo-Croatian and Slovene. The relevance of an examination of such morphologically robust languages is manifold. It facilitates an understanding of some of the puzzling properties of the construction cross linguistically, offers a way of explaining the noted disagreement regarding judgments found in the literature on Germanic languages such as English and also presents a clear case where (contrary to the dominant view in the literature morphology seems to deceive, rather than inform us, about syntax. Based on a barrage of tests, I argue that there are two types of cognate objects: arguments and non-arguments. Extending the treatment of modifiers within the Davidsonian tradition to the latter, I analyse them as first-order predicates. This allows me to capture their core properties, among which is the obligatory modification, something unaccounted for in the literature. The semantic parallelism between the adverbial modifiers and non-ACOs extends to the syntax as well. Treating non-ACOs as adjuncts solves the problem of the scarcity of syntactic space that arises with unaccusative verbs that license them. ACOs, on the other hand, behave syntactically and semantically like run-of-the-mill arguments and a run-of-the-mill transitive syntax can be maintained (for a majority of them instead.

  11. North-South non-Gaussian asymmetry in Planck CMB maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernui, A. [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, São Cristóvão, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro – RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, A.F. [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 37500-903 Itajubá – MG (Brazil); Pereira, T.S., E-mail: abernui@gmail.com, E-mail: adhimar@unifei.edu.br, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, Km 380, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of a statistical analysis performed with the four foreground-cleaned Planck maps by means of a suitably defined local-variance estimator. Our analysis shows a clear dipolar structure in Planck's variance map pointing in the direction (l,b) ≅ (220°,-32°), thus consistent with the North-South asymmetry phenomenon. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous findings, removing the CMB quadrupole and octopole makes the asymmetry stronger. Our results show a maximal statistical significance, of 98.1% CL, in the scales ranging from ℓ=4 to ℓ=500. Additionally, through exhaustive analyses of the four foreground-cleaned and individual frequency Planck maps, we find unlikely that residual foregrounds could be causing this dipole variance asymmetry. Moreover, we find that the dipole gets lower amplitudes for larger masks, evidencing that most of the contribution to the variance dipole comes from a region near the galactic plane. Finally, our results are robust against different foreground cleaning procedures, different Planck masks, pixelization parameters, and the addition of inhomogeneous real noise.

  12. A String-Inspired Model for the Low-$\\ell$ CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, N.

    2015-07-09

    We present a semi--analytic exploration of some low--$\\ell$ angular power spectra inspired by "Brane Supersymmetry Breaking". This mechanism splits Bose and Fermi excitations in String Theory, leaving behind an exponential potential that is just too steep for the inflaton to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, the scalar generically bounces against the exponential wall, which typically introduces an infrared depression and a pre--inflationary peak in the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. We elaborate on a possible link between this phenomenon and the low--$\\ell$ CMB. For the first 32 multipoles, combining the hard exponential with a milder one leading to $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ and with a small gaussian bump we have attained a reduction of $\\chi^{\\,2}$ to about 46% of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting, with both WMAP9 and PLANCK 2013 data. This result corresponds to a $\\chi^{\\,2}/DOF$ of about 0.45, to be compared with a $\\Lambda$CDM value of about 0.85. The preferred choices ...

  13. Testing string vacua in the lab. From a hidden CMB to dark forces in flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele; Goodsell, Mark; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenolgy

    2011-03-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of the phenomenological properties of hidden Abelian gauge bosons with a kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon within type IIB flux compactifications. We study the interplay between moduli stabilisation and the Green-Schwarz mechanism that gives mass to the hidden photon paying particular attention to the role of D-terms. We present two generic classes of explicit Calabi-Yau examples with an isotropic and an anisotropic shape of the extra dimensions showing how the last case turns out to be very promising to make contact with current experiments. In fact, anisotropic compactifications lead naturally to a GeV-scale hidden photon (''dark forces'' that can be searched for in beam dump experiments) for an intermediate string scale; or even to an meV-scale hidden photon (which could lead to a ''hidden CMB'' and can be tested by light-shining-through-a-wall experiments) in the case of TeV-scale strings. (orig.)

  14. Arguments completed in suit over Internet censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-31

    Closing remarks on the Communications Decency Act, requiring Internet providers to censor materials that may be unsuitable for minors, were heard on May 10, 1996. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is leading the challenge to the law. Because information about HIV necessarily must deal with sexual practices, HIV/AIDS service providers would be forced to either avoid talking about the subject or find ways to prevent minors from accessing the information. During the oral arguments, U.S. Justice Department attorney Anthony Coppolino tried to show that the Internet is more like a broadcast medium such as television or radio and is different from newspapers, which enjoy a constitutional protection against government censorship. ACLU attorney Christopher Hansen disagreed, saying the reverse is true. The ACLU said parental control mechanisms such as SurfWatch, Net Nanny, and Cyberpatrol are commercially available to parents who wish to restrict their children's Internet access and are more effective than the government's proposal. The court is expected to rule on the lawsuit in several weeks. An appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court is expected, regardless of the outcome.

  15. Two Studies Examining Argumentation in Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Jones, Sarah; Doherty, John

    2008-01-01

    Asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) would seem to be an ideal medium for supporting development in student argumentation. This paper investigates this assumption through two studies. The first study compared asynchronous CMC with face-to-face discussions. The transactional and strategic level of the argumentation (i.e. measures of…

  16. Supporting Fifth-Grade ELLs' Argumentative Writing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hallaron, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports instruction supporting the development of fifth grade English learners' argumentative writing in an English language arts setting. Arguments analyzed for the study were produced by the same students on two occasions, roughly 3 months apart. In the first instance, students discussed the source text in detail, but were given no…

  17. Semiotic and Theoretic Control in Argumentation and Proof Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Sabena, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We present a model to analyze the students' activities of argumentation and proof in the graphical context of Elementary Calculus. The theoretical background is provided by the integration of Toulmin's structural description of arguments, Peirce's notions of sign, diagrammatic reasoning and abduction, and Habermas' model for rational behavior.…

  18. Social Media: How the Next Generation Can Practice Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Amber; Craig-Hare, Jana; Ault, Marilyn; Ellis, James; Bulgren, Janis

    2017-01-01

    In this article the authors share how social media, paired with gaming and in-class supports, can facilitate the practice of scientific argumentation and report data that show how students can learn and practice argumentation through these highly interactive and engaging mediums. Social media will continue to evolve and fluctuate in popularity,…

  19. Visualising Knowledge from Chat Debates in Argument Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, T.; Marttunen, M.; Laurinen, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether combining chat discussion and construction of an argument diagram stimulates students to formulate new ideas in practising argumentation. In this study, 16 secondary school students discussed vivisection and gender equality in pairs using both free and structured chat tools. In structured chat, the students selected…

  20. Argumentation in Secondary School Students' Structured and Unstructured Chat Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Timo; Marttunen, Miika; Laurinen, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Joint construction of new knowledge demands that persons can express their statements in a convincing way and explore other people's arguments constructively. For this reason, more knowledge on different means to support collaborative argumentation is needed. This study clarifies whether structured interaction supports students' critical and…

  1. Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Walton, D. “The Carneades Argumentation Framework,” 195–207. Proceedings from COMMA 󈧊: Computational Models of Argument. Edited by P. E. Dunne & T. J...1997] Groarke, L. A., Tindale, C. W., & Fisher, L. Good Reasoning Matters! A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking. Oxford University Press

  2. Discourse analysis and argumentation theory: the case of television talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rees, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper, in discussing the six studies that make up this special issue of the Journal of Pragmatics on argumentation and television talk shows, offers reflections on the relationship between discourse analysis and argumentation theory. First, a brief sketch of both discourse analysis and

  3. A formal account of complex argumentation in a critical discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Mohammed, D.; Lewiński, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I present a dialogue game approach to the argumentation stage of a critical discussion. This formal perspective on the pragma-dialectical ideal model is meant to facilitate a contribution of pragma-dialectical theorising to the field of argumentation and computation. The dialogue game

  4. Prospective teachers’ opinions of argument culture in the classroom environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senar ALKIN-ŞAHİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the opinions of prospective teachers’ related to argument culture in the classroom environment. The data stems from a phenomenological study including 12 prospective teachers attending the education faculty of a Turkish state university for the 2013-2014 academic year. Data collected from focus group interviews were thematically analyzed. Findings indicated that prospective teachers were aware of the pedagogical value of the argument culture. Argument culture was mostly associated with democratic environment, effective listening, and critical thinking skills, respect and tolerance. Nevertheless, prospective teachers did not characterize their classroom environment as open to argument. These perceptions stem from being silenced, suppressed or negatively criticized when opposing thoughts were presented. Results revealed that political, philosophical and sexual topics were avoided in classroom settings. Additionally, valued people and evolution are among the most avoided subjects. Students’ prejudices and taboos related to specific subjects were found to be barriers to the argument culture. Teacher training programs and social culture were seen to be the other factors negatively affecting argument culture. Overall, argument culture in the classroom environment seems to be problematic in several ways. Especially, the question of how to build an argument culture is worth thinking about.

  5. We have yet to see the "visual argument"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, O.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I defend two skeptical claims regarding current research on visual arguments and I explain how these claims reflect upon past and future research. The first claim is that qualifying an argument as being visual amounts to a category mistake; the second claim is that past analyses of

  6. Resource Allocation and Justice-based Arguments for Funding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    4 days ago ... This is doable and requires no rocket science ingenuity as similar healthcare issues appear in many nations. Collective social protection and fair opportunity arguments. Basically, two principal arguments, including collective social protection and fair opportunity, support a moral right to government-funded ...

  7. The Relationship between Communicator Style, Argumentativeness, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaguro, Ellen W.; Pearson, Judy C.

    A study determined the relationship between communicator style and argumentativeness and clarified the relationship between psychological gender and communicator style. Three hundred and fourteen college students enrolled in introductory health and communication courses responded to the Communicator Style Measure, the Argumentativeness Scale, and…

  8. Citation Behaviors Observed in Japanese EFL Students' Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko

    2014-01-01

    Effective use of outside source texts is one of the key components of successful academic writing. This study aims at clarifying Japanese university EFL students' citation behaviors in producing argumentative writing. Twenty-six Japanese university EFL students wrote an argumentative essay. Their essays were analyzed quantitatively by six…

  9. Improving Undergraduates' Argumentative Group Essay Writing through Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Yong Mei; Mei, Hooi Chee

    2015-01-01

    When writing an argumentative essay, writers develop and evaluate arguments to embody, initiate, or simulate various kinds of interpersonal and textual interaction for reader consideration (Wu & Allison, 2003). This is quite challenging for English as a second language (ESL) learners. To improve the quality of their writing, students need to…

  10. Argumentation: A Forgotten Object of Research in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Monzón Laurencio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Argumentation has been, since the beginnings of Western culture, a fundamental tool of thought, and part of the university studies that today face many challenges, some of which require the development of this skill. However, in Mexico, research on this subject is practically nonexistent. This article briefly discusses the state-of-the-art research on argumentation in Latin America.

  11. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the…

  12. The Carneades model of argument and burden of proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Prakken, Henry; Walton, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    We present a formal, mathematical model of argument structure and evaluation, taking seriously the procedural and dialogical aspects of argumentation. The model applies proof standards to determine the acceptability of statements on an issue-by-issue basis. The model uses different types of premises

  13. Constructing Scientific Arguments Using Evidence from Dynamic Computational Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and argumentation are two important scientific practices students need to develop throughout school years. In this paper, we investigated how middle and high school students (N = 512) construct a scientific argument based on evidence from computational models with which they simulated climate change. We designed scientific argumentation…

  14. The Possibility of Inductive Moral Arguments | Nelson | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is it possible to have moral knowledge? 'Moral justification skeptics' hold it is not, because moral beliefs cannot have the sort of epistemic justification necessary for knowledge. This skeptical stance can be summed up in a single, neat argument, which includes the premise that 'Inductive arguments from non-moral premises ...

  15. Rap and Technology Teach the Art of Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Rosalie

    2017-01-01

    How can teachers integrate rap and technology strategies to teach students with learning disabilities the art of persuasive argument writing? This teacher research study presents creative new approaches for teaching argument writing. Strategies used in the study helped college freshmen with learning disabilities (LD) succeed in developing…

  16. Validity Arguments for Diagnostic Assessment Using Automated Writing Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Carol A.; Cotos, Elena; Lee, Jooyoung

    2015-01-01

    Two examples demonstrate an argument-based approach to validation of diagnostic assessment using automated writing evaluation (AWE). "Criterion"®, was developed by Educational Testing Service to analyze students' papers grammatically, providing sentence-level error feedback. An interpretive argument was developed for its use as part of…

  17. Mindfulness and an Argument for Tier 1, Whole School Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Shannon K.; Collins, James; Toms, Ozalle; Gwalla-Ogisi, Nomsa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an argument for implementing mindfulness supports within a school that adheres to the principles of whole schooling. First, the authors synthesize the research related to the use of mindfulness-based activities in schools. Next, they provide an argument for implementing mindfulness supports within a school that adheres to the…

  18. Approaching Factors and Dimensions with Explanation-Based Argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Current research in legal argumentation theory tries to bridge the gap be-tween representations of the arguments brought by parties, and representations of factors and dimensions, as used in case-based reasoning frameworks. The present paper targets the same objective, but taking an alternative

  19. Developing the language of argument: a bilingual approach | Cattell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A core component of Afrikaans for Academic Purposes is argument and the encouragement of a critical approach to language. This article reflects on the bilingual development of the language of argument and critical thinking in the course, maintaining learners' language identity as first language speakers of Afrikaans.

  20. Regulatory Evolution and Theoretical Arguments in Evolutionary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    The "cis"-regulatory hypothesis is one of the most important claims of evolutionary developmental biology. In this paper I examine the theoretical argument for "cis"-regulatory evolution and its role within evolutionary theorizing. I show that, although the argument has some weaknesses, it acts as a useful example for the importance of current…

  1. A Bibliography of Argumentation and Debate for 1977-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Russell T., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of works published between 1977 and 1978 covering seven topics: (1) history and practice of argumentation; (2) theory of argumentation; (3) scholastic forensics; (4) experimental studies; (5) interpersonal conflicts; (6) political campaign communication; and (7) general interest articles. (JMF)

  2. Argumentation as pedagogy for social justice through science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is then suggested that argumentation as pedagogy in science education is dialogical by nature and can contribute towards social transformation. Debates about socio-scientific issues in the public domain require the skills that argumentation promotes and it is proposed that social justice pedagogy can make a contribution.

  3. Towards an argumentative dialogue between local knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards an argumentative dialogue between local knowledge and official school curriculum: a case of local curriculum in Mozambique. ... reappropriation of both kinds of knowledge, that is, the space where the “silent coexistence” will be transformed into an “argumentative dialogue” between local and modern knowledge.

  4. Viewing the study of argumentation as normative pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; Capone, A.; Lo Piparo, F.; Carapezza, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we explain that the pragma-dialectical approach to argumentation involves at the same time a pragmatic and a critical treatment of argumentative discourse. Starting from the speech act dimension of pragmatics, we indicate for each of the five components of the pragma-dialectical

  5. OpenArgue: Supporting Argumentation to Evolve Secure Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yijun; Tun, Thein Tan; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Nuseibeh, Bashar

    When software systems are verified against security requirements, formal and informal arguments provide a structure for organizing the software artifacts. Our recent work on the evolution of security-critical software systems demonstrates that our argumentation technique is useful in limiting the

  6. Learning about Plate Tectonics through Argument-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Perry D.; Samuels, Boba

    2010-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental study (N = 60), grade 7/8 teachers students were taught to write arguments in content-area subjects. After instruction, students drew on document portfolios to write on a new topic: "Do the continents drift?" In a MANCOVA, students who participated in argument instruction scored significantly higher than a control…

  7. Speech act theory and the study of argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of speech act theory and Grice’s theory of conversational implicature on the study of argumentation is discussed. First, the role that pragmatic insights play in van Eemeren and Grootendorst’s pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation and Jackson and Jacobs’

  8. The Acquisition of Verb Argument Structure in Basilectal Jakarta Indonesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, Lanny

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the acquisition of verb argument structure in the basilectal subvariety of Jakarta Indonesian (henceforth, bJI). There are two characteristics of bJI that potentially affect the acquisition of verb argument structure. First, bJI sentences can surface not only in the full frame but also in truncated frames. Second, the…

  9. On Evidence and Argument in Phenomenological Research | Walsh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Set against a background of calls for evidence-based practice, this paper explores the role of evidence and argument in phenomenological research. Drawing on Smith's (1998) analysis of original argument, the author considers how evidence can be discerned, understood, and communicated, and the resulting kinds and ...

  10. From arguments to constraints on a Bayesian network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bex, F.J.; Renooij, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a way to derive constraints for a Bayesian Network from structured arguments. Argumentation and Bayesian networks can both be considered decision support techniques, but are typically used by experts with different backgrounds. Bayesian network experts have the mathematical

  11. Argumentation based joint learning: a novel ensemble learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Xu

    Full Text Available Recently, ensemble learning methods have been widely used to improve classification performance in machine learning. In this paper, we present a novel ensemble learning method: argumentation based multi-agent joint learning (AMAJL, which integrates ideas from multi-agent argumentation, ensemble learning, and association rule mining. In AMAJL, argumentation technology is introduced as an ensemble strategy to integrate multiple base classifiers and generate a high performance ensemble classifier. We design an argumentation framework named Arena as a communication platform for knowledge integration. Through argumentation based joint learning, high quality individual knowledge can be extracted, and thus a refined global knowledge base can be generated and used independently for classification. We perform numerous experiments on multiple public datasets using AMAJL and other benchmark methods. The results demonstrate that our method can effectively extract high quality knowledge for ensemble classifier and improve the performance of classification.

  12. Argumentation based joint learning: a novel ensemble learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junyi; Yao, Li; Li, Le

    2015-01-01

    Recently, ensemble learning methods have been widely used to improve classification performance in machine learning. In this paper, we present a novel ensemble learning method: argumentation based multi-agent joint learning (AMAJL), which integrates ideas from multi-agent argumentation, ensemble learning, and association rule mining. In AMAJL, argumentation technology is introduced as an ensemble strategy to integrate multiple base classifiers and generate a high performance ensemble classifier. We design an argumentation framework named Arena as a communication platform for knowledge integration. Through argumentation based joint learning, high quality individual knowledge can be extracted, and thus a refined global knowledge base can be generated and used independently for classification. We perform numerous experiments on multiple public datasets using AMAJL and other benchmark methods. The results demonstrate that our method can effectively extract high quality knowledge for ensemble classifier and improve the performance of classification.

  13. Epistemic Purposes to Prompt Argumentation in inquiry-based classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tadeu Ferraz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growth in interest on argumentation in research on science education, in this paper our goal is to propose an overview of actions taken by a teacher that made possible to establish and mediate production of arguments by the students in classroom. For this purpose, we analyze a physics lesson where discussions were about light duality, through a planned inquiry-based sequence teaching. We developed a set of codes called Epistemic Purposes for Promotion of Argumentation that allow understanding teacher's purposes as well his actions to promote argumentation among students during inquiry-based lessons. According to theoretical proposition and empirical analysis, it was revealed that the construction of arguments by students has a high dependence on how ideas are problematized by teacher. The construction of understanding  by students requires teacher actions that result in contributions of different kinds.

  14. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  15. Argumentation and Indigenous Knowledge: Socio-Historical Influences in Contextualizing an Argumentation Model in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martinez, Alejandro J.

    2011-01-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and…

  16. Using a Modified Argument-Driven Inquiry to Promote Elementary School Students' Engagement in Learning Science and Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lu, Ying-Yan; Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a modified argument-driven inquiry approach on Grade 4 students' engagement in learning science and argumentation in Taiwan. The students were recruited as an experimental group (EG, n?=?36) to join a 12-week study, while another 36 Grade 4 students from the same schools were randomly selected to be the…

  17. Supporting Use of Evidence in Argumentation through Practice in Argumentation and Reflection in the Context of SOCRATES Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanou, Kalypso; Constantinou, Costas P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how students used evidence in argumentation while they engaged in argumentive and reflective activities in the context of a designed learning environment. A Web-based learning environment, SOCRATES, was developed, which included a rich data base on the topic of climate change. Sixteen 11th graders, working with…

  18. Argumentation, confrontation et violence verbale fulgurante Argumentative Processes, Confrontation and Acute Verbal Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Moïse

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Si nous avons défini la violence verbale fulgurante comme une montée en tension caractérisée par des actes menaçants directs (provocation, menace, insultes… et la violence polémique comme un discours à visée argumentative mobilisant des procédés discursifs indirects (implicites, ironie…, on ne peut considérer ces deux types de discours comme hermétiques. À travers des scènes de violences verbales quotidiennes dans l’espace public et institutionnel (contrôles, convocations, verbalisations…, constituées pour un DVD pédagogique, il s’agit de montrer comment dans des interactions caractérisées par la violence fulgurante, certains procédés argumentatifs particuliers et que nous décrirons, sont utilisés, avec force efficacité, à des fins de déstabilisation et de prise de pouvoir sur l’autre. Our research has defined severe verbal abuse as built up tension characterized by directly threatening acts (such as provocation, threats, insults, and polemical violence as argumentative discourse which mobilizes indirect discursive devices, such as implicit discourse relations and irony. Yet, neither type of discourse can be considered to be impervious to mutual influence. Based on the content of an educational DVD featuring acted out scenes of daily verbal abuse taking place in public and institutional spaces (i.e., checks, summons, fines, we will show how specific argumentative devices, which we will describe, are very efficiently used within interactions that are characterised by severe abuse, with the aim of destabilizing and taking control over somebody.

  19. Ceci n’est pas un argument appropré (this is not a proper argument)

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Geraldine Mary

    2016-01-01

    This provocation poses questions of various sizes ‘inspired’ by some of the written publications that have theorised the concept of Practice as Research and drawing on lessons learnt from supervising PhD’s (with and without PaR). It consists of ‘musing’ rather than a proper argument and makes reference to feminism. Some readers might find both of these things very irritating. Throughout the course of its musing, questions asked include: ‘Is it acceptable to start a sentence with ‘And’ in acad...

  20. Using CMB spectral distortions to distinguish between dark matter solutions to the small-scale crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diacoumis, James A. D.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The dissipation of small-scale perturbations in the early universe produces a distortion in the blackbody spectrum of cosmic microwave background photons. In this work, we propose to use these distortions as a probe of the microphysics of dark matter on scales 1 Mpc-1lesssim k lesssim 104 Mpc-1. We consider in particular models in which the dark matter is kinetically coupled to either neutrinos or photons until shortly before recombination, and compute the photon heating rate and the resultant μ-distortion in both cases. We show that the μ-parameter is generally enhanced relative to ΛCDM for interactions with neutrinos, and may be either enhanced or suppressed in the case of interactions with photons. The deviations from the ΛCDM signal are potentially within the sensitivity reach of a PRISM-like experiment if σDM-γ gtrsim 1.1 × 10-30 (mDM/GeV) cm2 and σDM-ν gtrsim 4.8 × 10-32 (mDM/GeV) cm2 for time-independent cross sections, and σ0DM-γ gtrsim 1.8 × 10-40 (mDM/GeV) cm2 and σ0DM-ν gtrsim 2.5 × 10-47 (mDM/GeV) cm2 for cross sections scaling as temperature squared, coinciding with the parameter regions in which late kinetic decoupling may serve as a solution to the small-scale crisis. Furthermore, these μ-distortion signals differ from those of warm dark matter (no deviation from ΛCDM) and a suppressed primordial power spectrum (a strongly suppressed or negative μ-parameter), demonstrating that CMB spectral distortion can potentially be used to distinguish between solutions to the small-scale crisis.

  1. A critical review of PASBio's argument structures for biomedical verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence

    2006-11-24

    Propositional representations of biomedical knowledge are a critical component of most aspects of semantic mining in biomedicine. However, the proper set of propositions has yet to be determined. Recently, the PASBio project proposed a set of propositions and argument structures for biomedical verbs. This initial set of representations presents an opportunity for evaluating the suitability of predicate-argument structures as a scheme for representing verbal semantics in the biomedical domain. Here, we quantitatively evaluate several dimensions of the initial PASBio propositional structure repository. We propose a number of metrics and heuristics related to arity, role labelling, argument realization, and corpus coverage for evaluating large-scale predicate-argument structure proposals. We evaluate the metrics and heuristics by applying them to PASBio 1.0. PASBio demonstrates the suitability of predicate-argument structures for representing aspects of the semantics of biomedical verbs. Metrics related to theta-criterion violations and to the distribution of arguments are able to detect flaws in semantic representations, given a set of predicate-argument structures and a relatively small corpus annotated with them.

  2. A critical review of PASBio's argument structures for biomedical verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen K Bretonnel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propositional representations of biomedical knowledge are a critical component of most aspects of semantic mining in biomedicine. However, the proper set of propositions has yet to be determined. Recently, the PASBio project proposed a set of propositions and argument structures for biomedical verbs. This initial set of representations presents an opportunity for evaluating the suitability of predicate-argument structures as a scheme for representing verbal semantics in the biomedical domain. Here, we quantitatively evaluate several dimensions of the initial PASBio propositional structure repository. Results We propose a number of metrics and heuristics related to arity, role labelling, argument realization, and corpus coverage for evaluating large-scale predicate-argument structure proposals. We evaluate the metrics and heuristics by applying them to PASBio 1.0. Conclusion PASBio demonstrates the suitability of predicate-argument structures for representing aspects of the semantics of biomedical verbs. Metrics related to theta-criterion violations and to the distribution of arguments are able to detect flaws in semantic representations, given a set of predicate-argument structures and a relatively small corpus annotated with them.

  3. Structure and pragmatics in informal argument: circularity and question-begging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Sarah K.

    2003-04-01

    Most everyday arguments are informal, as contrasted with the formal arguments of logic and mathematics. Whereas formal argument is well understood, the nature of informal argument is more elusive. A recent study by Rips (2002) provides further evidence regarding the roles of structure and pragmatics in informal argument.

  4. The potential of the CMB305 vaccine regimen to target NY-ESO-1 and improve outcomes for synovial sarcoma and myxoid/round cell liposarcoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Seth M

    2018-02-01

    Synovial Sarcoma (SS) and Myxoid Round Cell Liposarcoma (MRCL) are devastating sarcoma subtypes with few treatment options and poor outcomes in the advanced setting. However, both these diseases may be ideal for novel immunotherapies targeting the cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the novel NY-ESO-1 targeted vaccine regimen, CMB305. This regimen uses a unique integration-deficient, dendritic-cell targeting lentiviral vector from the ZVex® platform, LV305, in order to prime NY-ESO-1 specific T cells. LV305 has single agent activity, and, in one case, caused a durable partial response in a refractory SS patient. CMB305 also includes a boost from a NY-ESO-1 protein vaccine given along with a potent toll-like-4 receptor agonist, glycopyranosyl lipid A. CMB305 induces NY-ESO-1 specific T cell responses in both SS and MRC patients and these patients had excellent overall survival (OS) outcomes in the initial phase I study. Expert commentary: CMB305 is a therapeutic vaccine regimen targeting NY-ESO-1 based on the lentiviral vaccine vector, LV305. Phase I studies have proven this vaccine is active immunologically. Data suggesting this vaccine may improve OS for SS and MRCL patients is exciting but early, and on-going work is testing the impact of CMB305 on patient outcomes.

  5. The Evaluation of Argument Mapping as a Learning Tool: Comparing the Effects of Map Reading versus Text Reading on Comprehension and Recall of Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Hogan, Michael J.; Stewart, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the effects on comprehension and memory of learning via text versus learning via argument map. Argument mapping is a method of diagrammatic representation of arguments designed to simplify the reading of an argument structure and allow for easy assimilation of core propositions and relations. In the current study, 400…

  6. Boonin on the future-like-ours argument against abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    I argue that David Boonin has failed in his attempt to undermine Donald Marquis's future-like-ours argument against abortion. I show that the ethical principle advanced by Boonin in his critique to that argument is unable, contrary to what he claims, to account for the wrongness of infanticide. Then I argue that Boonin's critique misrepresents Marquis's argument. Although there is a way to restate his critique in order to avoid the misrepresentation, the success of such restatement is precluded by the wrongness of infanticide.

  7. On Argument-Adjunct Asymmetry of Sluicing in Mandarin Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Chi Lee

    2005-01-01

    This study attempts to account for the argument-adjunct asymmetry of Sluicing in Mandarin Chinese. Such an asymmetry is empirically demonstrated by a language-particular phenomenon, so-called shi-support, which is also the last resort (Chomsky, 1995a) of our linguistic mechanism. In the current related literature, shi-support is obligatory for wh-arguments but optional for wh-adjuncts (Wang, 2002). However, I argue that at the PF level shi-support is even optional for wh-arguments; that is, i...

  8. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Student Panel Discussion to Practice Argumentation Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gensowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics students are used to lectures of the “chalk-and-talk” variety. In this project, I develop, describe, and evaluate a pedagogical intervention that provides students with the opportunity to practice their argumentation skills. The development of these skills is not usually part of the core curriculum. For this project, a panel discussion format is used to enable students to develop arguments using empirical evidence, and generally navigate a space where there is no single right or wrong answer. The peer-learning environment allows students to develop argumentation and evaluation skills in a setting where they receive informal formative assessment.

  10. Argumentation Key to Communicating Climate Change to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Argumentation plays an important role in how we communicate climate change science to the public and is a key component integrated throughout the Next Generation Science Standards. A scientific argument can be described as a disagreement between explanations with data being used to justify each position. Argumentation is social process where two or more individuals construct and critique arguments (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Nussbaum, 1997). Sampson, Grooms, and Walker's (2011) developed a framework for understanding the components of a scientific argument. The three components start with a claim (a conjecture, conclusion, explanation, or an answer to a research question). This claim must fit the evidence (observations that show trends over time, relationships between variables or difference between groups). The evidence must be justified with reasoning (explains how the evidence supports the explanation and whey it should count as support). In a scientific argument, or debate, the controversy focuses on how data were collected, what data can or should be included, and what inferences can be made based on a set of evidence. Toulmin's model (1969) also includes rebutting or presenting an alternative explanation supported by counter evidence and reasoning of why the alternative is not the appropriate explanation for the question of the problem. The process of scientific argumentation should involve the construction and critique of scientific arguments, one that involves the consideration of alternative hypotheses (Lawson, 2003). Scientific literacy depends as much on the ability to refute and recognize poor scientific arguments as much as it does on the ability to present an effective argument based on good scientific data (Osborne, 2010). Argument is, therefore, a core feature of science. When students learn to construct a sound scientific argument, they demonstrate critical thinking and a mastery of the science being taught. To present a convincing argument in support of

  11. Perelman, argument ad hominem et ethos rhétorique Perelman, ad Hominem Argument, and Rhetorical Ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La conception de Perelman sur le rôle des personnes dans l’argumentation est l’une des marques les plus caractéristiques de sa rupture avec les hypothèses cartésiennes sur le raisonnement. Alors que le paradigme rationaliste cherchait à minimiser ou à éliminer les considérations personnelles comme étant dilatoires et non pertinentes dans ce cadre, Perelman insiste sur le fait que l’argumentation met inévitablement l’accent sur les personnes spécifiques impliquées dans l’argumentation et que la relation entre le locuteur et ce qui est dit est toujours pertinente et importante. En adoptant cette position, Perelman ressuscite implicitement la conception classique de la preuve par le caractère (argument par l’ethos ou « ethotique ». Mais, bien que la Nouvelle Rhétorique consacre une large place au débat sur l’acte et la personne dans l’argumentation, elle n’accorde pas beaucoup de réflexion au concept classique et mélange différentes approches à l’intérieur de la tradition. Le résultat est que Perelman traite le rôle du locuteur dans l’argumentation uniquement en référence à des techniques abstraites et ne prend pas en compte l’importance de l’examen des cas particuliers pour éclairer la compréhension du fonctionnement de l’argument ethotique en situation dans le contexte complexe de son utilisation effective. Par conséquent, la prise en compte par Perelman du rôle de la personne dans l’argumentation doit être complétée par la référence à des études de cas et c’est dans ce but que j’étudie l’argument ethotique dans le célèbre essai de W. E. B. DuBois « Sur M. Booker T. Washington et autres ».Perelman’s view of the role of persons in argument is one of the most distinctive features of his break with Cartesian assumptions about reasoning. Whereas the Rationalist paradigm sought to minimize or eliminate personal considerations by dismissing them as distracting and

  12. The Connection and Distinction between the Design Argument with the Teleological Argument and the Best Creational System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ramin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The design argument faced with big different writings in its Western background so that these writings have essential difference with each others. The design argument is posteriori demonstration for the existence of God which by analogy or induction and partial or general instances of the order in nature tries to affirm the intelligent designer.  Since the concepts of design and end have firm connection with each other in the Western writings of this design but the concepts of purposiveness of divine acts, purposiveness of nature and its best system is assumed the same with each other and obvious confusion has been made between the design argument with the teleological argument and the best creational system. The aim of the article is to consider order in the world based upon the united components of a system (design argument, final cause (teleological argument and best system (best creational system argument and also to manifest the connection and distinction of these three reasoning. 

  13. Regional modeling of lateral heterogeneity near the CMB from central America to the eastern part of the Pacific LLSVP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lateral structure variations at the base of the mantle are not precisely known. There is currently an active debate on the wavelengths of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) topography, the lateral variations on Vp and Vs, anisotropy and the trade-offs between them. Most seismological studies compare 1D or 3D global models to local observations of relatively-weak seismic phases but with strong CMB interaction, such as PcP, ScS, PcS and Sdiff. To reduce upper Mantle contamination these observations are conventionally measured relative to much strong reference phases, such as P and S. The two major observations are travel-times differences and amplitude ratios. Current major challenges in extracting clean observations are low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of CMB phases, and interference with a plethora of mantle phases. Low SNR hinders the extraction of accurate observations in low-magnitude events. While, PcP and ScS is frequently hidden in the coda of P and S, respectively, especially at large distance. Additional, s and p depth phases from P and S overlap precious portions of PcP and ScS phases for intermediate depth events. We face these problems using high-density seismic networks. We introduce seismic data-processing techniques that use dense arrays to create filters that separate locally signals in slowness, without compromising resolution. We specifically use the local slant-stack transform in the time-scale domain (Ventosa et al., EUSIPCO, 2011) to decompose each seismogram in slowness in a scale-smart way, merging the wavelet and local slant-stack transforms. In the particular case of PcP-P, we are able to extract accurate observations for events with magnitude of mW>5.4 and maximum distances up to 80 degrees. We conduct a regional study of the CMB structure from central America to the edge of the Pacific large-low shear-velocity provinces (LLSVP). Our approach allows us to sample regions of the eastern Pacific LLSVP boundary with unprecedented resolution, and

  14. Cross-Linguistic Evidence and the Licensing of Implicit Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kardos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the occurrence and the licensing of implicit object arguments, also referred to in the literature as null complements or understood arguments. Functionalist accounts (such as those by Groefsema and Németh T. which are couched in a relevance-theoretic framework have repeatedly claimed that this phenomenon is fundamentally dependent on dis-course-interpretational factors. In particular, it has been stated that implicit arguments can be used in Hungarian in a rather unrestricted way, and their occurrence is only limited by considerations of interpretability. We argue against both of these positions and try to show that cross-linguistic data can assist in revealing the circular nature and ultimate inadequacy of existing functional accounts of implicit argument licensing.

  15. Synthetic Biology and the Argument from Continuity with Established Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    ) that it ignores the distinction between what reasons we have and what we should do all things considered. I then illustrate the Continuity Argument and its problems in the case where human manipulation of organisms’ genetic makeup is a suggested reason for finding synthetic biology problematic. Finally, I suggest......Defenders of synthetic biology commonly make reference to the fact that established technologies, such as domestication or selective breeding, share some of the features of synthetic biology that critics argue make it ethically problematic. In this chapter, I reconstruct such references...... as instances of a type of argument which I dub the Continuity Argument. Roughly, the Continuity Argument seeks to show that if we are not disposed to reject the established technology, then features that this technology share with synthetic biology cannot provide reasons to find it ethically problematic. I...

  16. On solutions of a Volterra integral equation with deviating arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diana Julie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we establish the existence and asymptotic characterization of solutions to a nonlinear Volterra integral equation with deviating arguments. Our proof is based on measure of noncompactness and the Schauder fixed point theorem.

  17. A Bibliography of Argumentation and Debate for 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Russell T., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Includes materials from major speech publications and scholarly publications sponsored by other disciplines. Covers the history, practice, and theory of argumentation; scholastic forensics; experimental studies; interpersonal conflicts; political campaign communication; and articles of general interest. (PD)

  18. Automatic Verb Classification Based on Statistical Distributions of Argument Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paola Merlo; Suzanne Stevenson

    2001-01-01

    .... Especially important is knowledge about verbs, which are the primary source of relational information in a sentence-the predicate-argument structure that relates an action or state to its participants (i.e...

  19. Automatic Predicate Argument Analysis of the Penn TreeBank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, Martha; Rosenzweig, Joseph; Cotton, Scott

    2001-01-01

    ... had/presided over a meeting/conference with B There are several different lexical items that can be used to refer to the same type of event, and several different predicate argument patterns that can be...

  20. Rhetorical Tools for Discovery and Amplification of Design Arguments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg

    2017-01-01

    the argumentative perspective is to demonstrate how rhetorical theory on discovery and amplification of arguments may lend support to designers in two ways. One is for the purpose of exploring abundant ways of designing design methods and processes. Two is to support designers in discovering persuasive arguments......In this article design processes and designed artifacts are perceived as instances of argumentation. A design process is defined as a process of deliberation about what to do when seeking to design artifacts that aim to be persuasive about how we are to lead our lives. The intention of employing...... about their choices. The article provides examples of how such a rhetorical design process may be carried out in practice....

  1. Poetic Logic: The Metaphoric Form as a Foundation for a Theory of Tropological Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, John E.; Leeper, Karla K.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on the function of metaphor in argument. Compares the positions of Kenneth Burke and Paul Ricoeur on the function and evaluation of argument, concluding that Ricoeur's position supplements Burke's view of tropological argument. (NH)

  2. The Study of the Students' Collocation Performance in Argumentative Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Oktavera, Haryati

    2014-01-01

    Collocation is used by most of the native speaker in both writing and speaking authentic English. This paper focused on knowing the students' collocation knowledge by examining their lexical and grammatical collocation performance in their argumentative writing. This research, therefore, conducted by analyzing deeply 10 argumentative writings of the third semester students of PBI STAIN JuraiSiwo Metro in academic year 2013/2014. The result of this research showed that there were 41 % errors f...

  3. Homosexual marriage: The Victory of Political Correctness and Bad Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Sesardić, Neven

    2007-01-01

    Many Western intellectuals, especially those in humanities and social sciences, think that it can be easily shown that the persistent and massive opposition to same-sex marriage is rationally indefensible and that it is merely a result of prejudice or religious fanaticism. But a more detailed analysis of some of these widely accepted arguments against the conservative position reveals that these arguments are in fact based on logical fallacies and serious distortions of conservative critic...

  4. Homosexual marriage: The Victory of Political Correctness and Bad Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Sesardic

    2007-01-01

    Many Western intellectuals, especially those in humanities and socialsciences, think that it can be easily shown that the persistent and massive opposition to same-sex marriage is rationally indefensible and that it is merely a result of prejudice or religious fanaticism. But a more detailed analysis of some of these widely accepted arguments against the conservative position reveals that these arguments are in fact based on logical fallacies and serious distortions of conservative criticisms...

  5. A taxonomy for argumentative frameworks based on labelled deduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chesñevar, Carlos Iván

    2001-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence has long dealt with the issue of finding a suitable formalization for reasoning with incomplete and potentially inconsistent information. Defeasible argumentation [SL92,CML00,PraVre99] has proven to be a successful approach in many respects, since it naturally resembles many aspects of commonsense reasoning (see [CML00,PraVre99] for details). Besides, recent work [PraVre99,BDKT97] has shown that defeasible argumentation constitutes a confluence point for characterizing...

  6. A Framework for Combining Defeasible Argumentation with Labeled Deduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chesñevar, Carlos Iván; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, there has been an increasing demand of a variety of logical systems, prompted mostly by applications of logic in AI and other related areas. Labeled Deductive Systems (LDS) were developed as a flexible methodology to formalize such a kind of complex logical systems. Defeasible argumentation has proven to be a successful approach to formalizing commonsense reasoning, encompassing many other alternative formalisms for defeasible reasoning. Argument-based frameworks share some...

  7. Negotiation and argumentation in multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) composed of autonomous agents representing individuals or organizations and capable of reaching mutually beneficial agreements through negotiation and argumentation are becoming increasingly important and pervasive.Research on both automated negotiation and argumentation in MAS has a vigorous, exciting tradition. However, efforts to integrate both areas have received only selective attention in the academia and the practitioner literature. A symbiotic relationship could significantly strengthen each area's progress and trigger new R&D challenges and prospects toward t

  8. On the history of the Argument from Design in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Alan H.

    2017-04-01

    The Argument from Design is possibly the oldest attempt to 'prove' the existence of a deity, or, at least, to persuade people that it is reasonable to believe in one. Although the Argument has often been used in the context of biology, its use in the context of astronomy is arguably earlier. In this paper, its history in astronomical contexts is traced from ancient times to modern discussions of the 'fine tuning' of the Universe.

  9. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stachel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein’s formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann’s critique, as well as Hilbert’s reformulation and Darmois’ formulation of the general-relativistic Cauchy problem. The 1970s saw a revival of interest in the hole argument, growing out of attempts to answer the question: Why did three years elapse between Einstein’s adoption of the metric tensor to represent the gravitational field and his adoption of the Einstein field equations? The main part presents some modern mathematical versions of the hole argument, including both coordinate-dependent and coordinate-independent definitions of covariance and general covariance; and the fiber bundle formulation of both natural and gauge natural theories. By abstraction from continuity and differentiability, these formulations can be extended from differentiable manifolds to any set; and the concepts of permutability and general permutability applied to theories based on relations between the elements of a set, such as elementary particle theories. We are closing with an overview of current discussions of philosophical and physical implications of the hole argument.

  10. The Hole Argument and Some Physical and Philosophical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, John

    2014-01-01

    This is a historical-critical study of the hole argument, concentrating on the interface between historical, philosophical and physical issues. Although it includes a review of its history, its primary aim is a discussion of the contemporary implications of the hole argument for physical theories based on dynamical, background-independent space-time structures. The historical review includes Einstein's formulations of the hole argument, Kretschmann's critique, as well as Hilbert's reformulation and Darmois' formulation of the general-relativistic Cauchy problem. The 1970s saw a revival of interest in the hole argument, growing out of attempts to answer the question: Why did three years elapse between Einstein's adoption of the metric tensor to represent the gravitational field and his adoption of the Einstein field equations? The main part presents some modern mathematical versions of the hole argument, including both coordinate-dependent and coordinate-independent definitions of covariance and general covariance; and the fiber bundle formulation of both natural and gauge natural theories. By abstraction from continuity and differentiability, these formulations can be extended from differentiable manifolds to any set; and the concepts of permutability and general permutability applied to theories based on relations between the elements of a set, such as elementary particle theories. We are closing with an overview of current discussions of philosophical and physical implications of the hole argument.

  11. Interacting scalar tensor cosmology in light of SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD observational data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Sayed Wrya; Saaidi, Khaled [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikhahmadi, Haidar [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Advance Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS) Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Ali [Sanandaj Branch Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this work, an interacting chameleon-like scalar field scenario, by considering SNeIa, CMB, BAO, and OHD data sets, is investigated. In fact, the investigation is realized by introducing an ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state, which mimics the behavior of chameleon-like models. Based on this assumption, some cosmological parameters, including the Hubble, deceleration, and coincidence parameters, in such a mechanism are analyzed. It is realized that, to estimate the free parameters of a theoretical model, by regarding the systematic errors it is better that the whole of the above observational data sets would be considered. In fact, if one considers SNeIa, CMB, and BAO, but disregards OHD, it maybe leads to different results. Also, to get a better overlap between the contours with the constraint χ{sub m}{sup 2} ≤ 1, the χ{sub T}{sup 2} function could be re-weighted. The relative probability functions are plotted for marginalized likelihood L(Ω{sub m0}, ω{sub 1}, β) according to the two dimensional confidence levels 68.3, 90, and 95.4%. Meanwhile, the value of the free parameters which maximize the marginalized likelihoods using the above confidence levels are obtained. In addition, based on these calculations the minimum value of χ{sup 2} based on the free parameters of the ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state is achieved. (orig.)

  12. The cross correlation between the 21-cm radiation and the CMB lensing field: a new cosmological signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinotto, Alberto [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations through the 21-cm intensity mapping technique at redshift z {<=} 4 has the potential to tightly constrain the evolution of dark energy. Crucial to this experimental effort is the determination of the biasing relation connecting fluctuations in the density of neutral hydrogen (HI) with the ones of the underlying dark matter field. In this work I show how the HI bias relevant to these 21-cm intensity mapping experiments can successfully be measured by cross-correlating their signal with the lensing signal obtained from CMB observations. In particular I show that combining CMB lensing maps from Planck with 21-cm field measurements carried out with an instrument similar to the Cylindrical Radio Telescope, this cross-correlation signal can be detected with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of more than 5. Breaking down the signal arising from different redshift bins of thickness {Delta}z = 0.1, this signal leads to constraining the large scale neutral hydrogen bias and its evolution to 4{sigma} level.

  13. Does argumentation matter? A systematic literature review on the role of argumentation in doctor-patient communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Nanon; Schulz, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In view of a growing interest in argumentative discourse in the context of patient-centered consultation and shared decision making, this article explores the role that argumentation has been attributed in the literature on doctor-patient consultation so far. It studies to what extent theories and concepts of argumentation have been applied by scholars from various fields in order to analyze, understand, facilitate, and improve the argumentative nature of medical consultation. It reports on an extensive and systematic literature search-using eight online databases, expert suggestions, and a manual search-and the subsequent evaluation of 1,330 abstracts on the basis of strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Forty relevant scientific contributions are grouped into four main categories and discussed accordingly: (a) argumentation theory, (b) discourse analysis, (c) medical informatics, and (d) medical ethics. Because of its systematic approach, this study forms a solid starting point for further integration of argumentation theoretical insights into contemporary views of patient-centered medicine and evidence-based medicine. It provides suggestions for further interdisciplinary and theory-driven research with a strong focus on empirical reality. Doing so, a preliminary model is proposed that outlines the potential effects of the quality of doctors' communication on proximal, intermediate, and long-term consultation outcomes.

  14. Using instruments to understand argument structure: Evidence for gradient representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Lilia; Rawlins, Kyle; Landau, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    The arguments of a verb are commonly assumed to correspond to the event participants specified by the verb. That is, drink has two arguments because drink specifies two participants: someone who drinks and something that gets drunk. This correspondence does not appear to hold, however, in the case of instrumental participants, e.g. John drank the soda with a straw. Verbs such as slice and write have been argued to specify an instrumental participant, even though instruments do not pattern like arguments given other criteria. In this paper, we investigated how instrumental verbs are represented, testing the hypothesis that verbs such as slice encode three participants in the same way that dative verbs such as lend encode three participants. In two experiments English-speakers reported their judgments about the number of participants specified by a verb, e.g., that drink specifies two participants. These judgments indicate that slice does not encode three distinct arguments. Nonetheless, some verbs were systematically more likely to elicit the judgment that the instrument is specified by the verb, a pattern that held across individual subjects. To account for these findings, we propose that instruments are not independent verbal arguments but are represented in a gradient away: an instrument may be a more or less salient part of the force exerted by an agent. These results inform our understanding of the relationship between argument structure and event representation, raising questions concerning the role of arguments in language processing and learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparative Study of Argument from Primordial Nature and Argument from General Consensus on the Demonstration of Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abdoli Mehrjardi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidences suggest that human beings have been always in search of God in some form. Some believe that man is born with this divine sense. This ubiquitous quality of human beings is called primordial nature (fitrah. Many scholars have tried to demonstrate the existence of God through this shared quality of human individuals. In Islamic thought this latter intellectual effort has been designated as "argument from primordial nature" and in western theological and philosophical thought it is known as "argument from general consensus". Although these arguments have some differences in their general settings and attitudes; but they both resort to human general divine attitude to demonstrate the existence of God. In this essay we have sought to propound the views of those scholars who have dealt with this argument at length. Reflecting on the general form of the expositions shows that the expositions of argument from primordial nature and argument from general consensus cannot demonstrate the existence of God without basing themselves on the principle of causation or human existential poverty. Via comparative assessment of these two arguments we have turned to the critiques which have been leveled against them and laid bare their similarities and differences. Of course there are some differences between the argument from primordial nature in Islam and the argument from general consensus in west. This essay seeks to assay the key expositions which have been offered of these arguments in Islamic and western philosophies. It seems that among Moslem philosophers, Mulla Sadra from the early generation, Allameh Tabtabaei, Imam Khomeini, Jawadi Amuli and Mutahari from later generation, have paid more attention to this argument. Among western scholars one can mention William James, Charles Hodge, James Joyce, Paul Tillich and Seneca who have made more direct remarks on this argument. John Locke is also against this argument. This is why we have

  16. Reply to Marquis: how things stand with the 'future like ours' argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2012-09-01

    In an earlier essay in this journal I critiqued Don Marquis's well-known argument against abortion. I distinguished two versions of Marquis's argument, which I refer to as 'the essence argument' and 'the sufficient condition argument'. I presented two counterexamples showing that the essence argument was mistaken, and I argued that the sufficient condition argument should be rejected because Marquis had not adequately responded to an important objection to it. In response to my critique, Marquis put forward in this journal a revised version of his argument. In his modified approach he no longer advocates the essence argument and he offers a new version of the sufficient condition argument. In the current essay, I discuss how Marquis's revised argument deals with my original objections, and I argue that his new sufficient condition argument is unsuccessful.

  17. Alternatives of materialism in the light of the zombie argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Sepetyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of the implications of the zombie argument, which is one of the most influential arguments in the modern philosophy of mind, for the ontological theories of interactionism, panpsychism, and idealism. It is argued that the zombie argument does not beg the question against interactionism, because it was advanced not against interactionism but against materialism, and supporters of interactionism do not share one of its premises. Accordingly, the argument leaves open the issue of the choice between the main alternatives of materialism – epiphenomenalism, interactionism, panpsychism, and idealism. However, an analogous argument can be advanced against panpsychism, to show that the possibility of explaining the emergence of the mind (self on the way of attributing phenomenal states to fundamental physical entities is just as problematic as materialistic explanations. It is also argued that idealism, in order to avoid solipsism, should incorporate a version of mind­body dualism: even on the supposition that physical reality has eventually ideal nature, is a system of phenomena of the universal supermind (God, we as mental subjects (our minds, or selves are something different from physical reality, and any its parts and aspects, – in particular, our bodies and brains.

  18. Mentoring and Argumentation in a Game-Infused Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Deena L.; Parekh, Priyanka

    2017-11-01

    Engaging in argumentation from evidence is challenging for most middle school students. We report the design of a media-based mentoring system to support middle school students in engaging in argumentation in the context of a game-infused science curriculum. Our design emphasizes learners apprenticing with college student mentors around the socio-scientific inquiry of a designed video game. We report the results of a mixed-methods study examining the use of this media-based mentoring system with students ages 11 through 14. We observed that the discourse of groups of students that engaged with the game-infused science curriculum while interacting with college student mentors via a social media platform demonstrated statistically significant higher ratings of cognitive, epistemic, and social aspects of argumentation than groups of students that engaged with the social media platform and game-infused science curriculum without mentors. We further explored the differences between the Discourses of the mentored and non-mentored groups. This analysis showed that students in the mentored groups were invited, guided, and socialized into roles of greater agency than students in the non-mentored groups. This increased agency might explain why mentored groups demonstrated higher levels of scientific argumentation than non-mentored groups. Based on our analyses, we argue that media-based mentoring may be designed around a video game to support middle school students in engaging in argumentation from evidence.

  19. The myth of the best argument: power, deliberation and reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, L

    2001-03-01

    Power in communication takes two main forms. As 'external' power, it consists in the ability to acknowledge or disregard a speaker or a discourse. As 'internal' power, it is the ability of an argument to eliminate other arguments by demonstrating its superiority. A positive or negative value may be ascribed to these forms of power. Four ideal-typical positions are discussed--strategy, technocracy, constructionism, and deliberation. Public deliberation has three virtues--civic virtue, governance virtue and cognitive virtue. Deliberation lowers the propensity to, and the benefit of, strategic behaviour. It also increases knowledge, enhancing the quality of decisions. For Habermas, the unity of reason is expressed in the possibility of agreement on the most convincing argument. However, sometimes conflicts are deep-lying, principles and factual descriptions are profoundly different, and uncertainty is radical. The best argument cannot be found. There is no universal reason. The question is whether non-strategic agreement may spring from the incommensurability of languages. In search of an answer, Rawls's concept of overlapping consensus, the feminist theory of the public sphere, and the idea of deliberation as co-operation are discussed. The argument developed is that the approach to deliberative democracy may be renewed by rethinking its motivational and cognitive elements. Public deliberation is grounded on a pre-political level of co-operation. Intractable controversies may be faced at the level of practices, looking for local, contextual answers.

  20. A critique of "the best secular argument against abortion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C

    2008-10-01

    Don Marquis has put forward a non-religious argument against abortion based on what he claims is a morally relevant similarity between killing adult human beings and killing fetuses. He asserts that killing adults is wrong because it deprives them of their valuable futures. He points out that a fetus's future includes everything that is in an adult's future, given that fetuses naturally develop into adults. Thus, according to Marquis, killing a fetus deprives it of the same sort of valuable future that an adult is deprived of in being killed and this makes abortion seriously wrong. Commentators have raised a number of objections to Marquis's argument, to which he has satisfactorily responded. In this paper, difficulties with Marquis's argument that have not been considered by previous commentators are pointed out. A main thesis of this paper is that Marquis does not adequately defend his argument against several important objections that he himself has raised. These new considerations support the view that Marquis's argument is unsuccessful.

  1. Verb Argument Structure in Narrative Speech: Mining AphasiaBank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutina, Svetlana; Richardson, Jessica D; den Ouden, Dirk B

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that verb argument structure characteristics (such as the number of participant roles in the situation described by the verb) can facilitate or hinder aphasic language production and comprehension in constrained laboratory tasks. This research needs to be complemented by studies of narrative or unrestricted speech, which can capture the spontaneous selection of verbs and grammatical structures by people with aphasia and may be particularly sensitive to the relative cost of access to different verb types in more natural conditions. Focusing on the number of subcategorization options, we investigated verb argument structure effects in a large sample of narratives from AphasiaBank, by speakers with aphasia, as well as control speakers without brain damage. Verb argument structure complexity did not negatively affect verb selection in any type of aphasia. However, people with aphasia, particularly with Broca's aphasia, used verbs in less complex and diverse ways, with fewer arguments and less diverse subcategorization options. In line with previous research, this suggests that deficits in verb use in aphasia are likely due to difficulties with the online application of or partial damage to verb argument structure knowledge. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. For Argument's Sake: the shadow side of argumentation and debate in the science classroom (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbeco, M.; McCaffrey, M.

    2013-12-01

    Though the science on climate change is clear, those dismissive of current findings and future projections continue to influence the public sphere. This is never more problematic than in an educational setting, where a concern for fairness has driven the push for unscientific material to be used to balance the science. The introduction of the Next Generation Science Standards in many states across the country, which emphasizes the use of argumentation as a theme for engaging students in critical thinking, and the appeal of having students 'debate' politically controversial concepts such as climate change could unintentionally undermine the science by casting doubt and manufacturing 'controversy' where scientifically there is none. How can scientists help support teachers to use appropriate material for educating about climate change? Where is the line between supporting good science and activism? How can teachers separate the science from the politics without undermining its value in informing policy decisions? In this presentation, we will address how teachers can manage these challenges to engage students about politically and socially controversial topics while maintaining a clear, current and robust scientific basis for instruction.

  3. Fostering revision of argumentative writing through structured peer assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Chin; Chuang, Min-Tun

    2013-02-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the effect of structured peer assessment on revision of an argumentative writing. Two intact classes (N = 22, 26) were randomly assigned to be the trained and control groups. The latter received no facilitative resources, while the former participated in structured peer assessment based on Calibrated Peer Review, a web-based program purposefully designed for students to receive peer-assessment training, assess their peers' writing, and make written commentary online. At the end of the treatment, both groups revised their writing. The trained group revised their writing more extensively, outperforming the control group on frequency and type of revision, as well as the holistic quality of argumentative writing. After structured peer assessment, participants of the trained group became critical of their own work and invested more effort in spontaneous revision to produce higher-quality argumentative writing.

  4. Individual Differences in the "Myside Bias" in Reasoning and Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined the "myside bias" in reasoning, evaluating written arguments, and writing argumentative essays. Previous research suggests that some people possess a fact-based argumentation schema and some people have a balanced argumentation schema. I developed reliable Likert scale instruments (1-7 rating) for these constructs…

  5. The Nature of the Arguments for Creationism, Intelligent Design, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ralph M.; Church, Rebecca A.; Draznin-Nagy, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Seventy-two Internet documents promoting creationism, intelligent design (I.D.), or evolution were selected for analysis. The primary goal of each of the 72 documents was to present arguments for creationism, I.D., or evolution. We first identified all arguments in these documents. Each argument was then coded in terms of both argument type…

  6. Promoting argumentation competence: Extending from first- to second-order scaffolding through adaptive fading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Kirschner, Paul A.; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Argumentation is fundamental for many learning assignments, ranging from primary school to university and beyond. Computer-supported argument scaffolds can facilitate argumentative discourse along with concomitant interactive discussions among learners in a group (i.e., first-order argument

  7. Primordial non-Gaussianity and Dark Energy constraints from Cluster Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; Vale, Chris; /Fermilab; Kadota, Kenji; /Fermilab /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Frieman, Joshua; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron.

    2006-09-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys will be a powerful probe of dark energy. At the same time, cluster abundances is sensitive to any non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field. It is therefore possible that non-Gaussian initial conditions might be misinterpreted as a sign of dark energy or at least degrade the expected constraints on dark energy parameters. To address this issue, we perform a likelihood analysis of an ideal cluster survey similar in size and depth to the upcoming South Pole Telescope/Dark Energy Survey (SPT-DES).We analyze a model in which the strength of the non-Gaussianity is parameterized by the constant f{sub NL}; this model has been used extensively to derive Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy constraints on non-Gaussianity, allowing us to make contact with those works. We find that the constraining power of the cluster survey on dark energy observables is not significantly diminished by non-Gaussianity provided that cluster redshift information is included in the analysis. We also find that even an ideal cluster survey is unlikely to improve significantly current and future CMB constraints on non-Gaussianity. However, when all systematics are under control, it could constitute a valuable cross check to CMB observations.

  8. The case against libertarian arguments for compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Justin

    2017-11-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Jason Brennan correctly notes that libertarians struggle to justify a policy of compulsory vaccination. The most straightforward argument that justifies compulsory vaccination is that such a policy promotes welfare. But libertarians cannot make this argument because they claim that the state is justified only in protecting negative rights, not in promoting welfare. I consider two representative libertarian attempts to justify compulsory vaccination, and I argue that such arguments are unsuccessful. They either fail to show that the state is justified in implementing the policy or overgeneralise. I suggest that Brennan's solution is especially well motivated insofar as it addresses the shortcomings of these arguments. Brennan argues that we violate the rights of others by participating in an activity that imposes an unacceptable collective risk of harm. Going unvaccinated is an activity that imposes an unacceptable collective risk of harm, and thus amounts to a rights violation. So, the state can implement a policy of compulsory vaccination I object, however, that Brennan's delineation of acceptable and unacceptable risk implicitly rests on classical liberal rather than libertarian principles; he justifies compulsory vaccination on the grounds that it promotes welfare. I also object that Brennan's argument would entail significant departures from libertarian institutional arrangements. This leaves libertarians with a choice: they can develop new arguments to demonstrate that their position is compatible with compulsory vaccination, or they can accept that their view entails the impermissibility of compulsory vaccination, and argue that this is not an unpalatable implication of their view. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The handicap principle and the argument of subversion from within

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the very disparate positions that various actors have taken towards the argument of subversion from within (a classical argument against the evolution of altruism by group selection) in a set of related debates on group selection, altruism and the handicap principle. Using...... connected to important epistemological differences related in part (but not solely) to their disciplinary background. Apart from conflicting evolutionary views concerning the theoretical feasibility of the handicap effect, these antagonists both differed in the confidence they ascribed to mathematical...

  10. The argument of the knowledge creator in Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay proposes to identify the argument of the knowledge creator in Nietzsche's philosophy. Based on this, it is neither intended to reduce the argument to Nietzsche`s, nor the latter to the former. Identifying them in this study means to lead them to converge into elements which make them almost undistinguished, claiming that such similarity already predicts their differences. It is planned with such procedure to intensify the creative aspect of Nietzsche's philosophy, as well as to suggest a new scope for our intellectual capacity by taking a connection between knowing and creating as a matter of human condition itself.

  11. The Slippery Slope Argument in the Ethical Debate on Genetic Engineering of Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    This article applies tools from argumentation theory to slippery slope arguments used in current ethical debates on genetic engineering. Among the tools used are argumentation schemes, value-based argumentation, critical questions, and burden of proof. It is argued that so-called drivers such as social acceptance and rapid technological development are also important factors that need to be taken into account alongside the argumentation scheme. It is shown that the slippery slope argument is basically a reasonable (but defeasible) form of argument, but is often flawed when used in ethical debates because of failures to meet the requirements of its scheme.

  12. Experiments on the CMB Spectrum, Big Jets Model and Their Implications for the Missing Half of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Leonardo; Hsu, Jong-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Based on the limiting continuation of Lorentz-Poincaré invariance, we propose an alternative formulation of the generalized Planck distribution for inertial and noninertial frames. The Lorentz invariant Planck distribution law leads to a new physical interpretation of the dipole anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The Big Jets model predicts a distant `antimatter blackbody,' whose radiations could make 50% of the sky very slightly warmer than the isotropic CMB temperature TCMB with a cosine function. The other 50% of the sky has the same isotropic temperature TCMB. Thus, we could have a pseudo-dipole anisotropy because the microwaves emitted from the antimatter blackbody are totally absorbed by our matter blackbody. We suggest that accurate data of satellite experiments might be used to search for the pseudo-dipole anisotropy and the missing half of the antimatter universe.

  13. The Effect of Toulmin’s Model of Argumentation Within TWPS Strategy on Students’ Critical Thinking on Argumentative Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartoyo

    2015-12-01

    Key Words: critical thinking, Toulmin’s model of argumentation, argumentative essay, Think-Write-Pair-Share strategy Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki efektivitas model argumentasi Toulmin dalam strategi TWPS pada kemampuan berpikir kritis esai argumentative mahasiswa. Desain kuasi-eksperi-mental digunakan dengan pretest-posttest dan nonrandomized control group. Subjek dari penelitian ini adalah 38 mahasiswa semester IV di Jurusan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Negeri Malang. Kelompok eksperimen diteliti dengan menggunakan model argumentasi dalam strategi TWPS sedangkan kelom-pok kontrol diteliti tanpa strategi TWPS. Kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa diukur dengan menggunakan uji esai argumentatif. ANCOVA digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis. Temuan menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan pada kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa. Namun, model argumentasi Toulmin dalam strategi TWPS terbukti meningkatkan berpikir kritis siswa seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai rata-rata. Kata kunci: berpikir kritis, model argumentasi toulmin, esai argumentatif, Think-Pair-Share Write- strategy

  14. The impact of design-based modeling instruction on seventh graders' spatial abilities and model-based argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, William J.

    Due to the call of current science education reform for the integration of engineering practices within science classrooms, design-based instruction is receiving much attention in science education literature. Although some aspect of modeling is often included in well-known design-based instructional methods, it is not always a primary focus. The purpose of this study was to better understand how design-based instruction with an emphasis on scientific modeling might impact students' spatial abilities and their model-based argumentation abilities. In the following mixed-method multiple case study, seven seventh grade students attending a secular private school in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States underwent an instructional intervention involving design-based instruction, modeling and argumentation. Through the course of a lesson involving students in exploring the interrelatedness of the environment and an animal's form and function, students created and used multiple forms of expressed models to assist them in model-based scientific argument. Pre/post data were collected through the use of The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotation, the Mental Rotation Test and interviews. Other data included a spatial activities survey, student artifacts in the form of models, notes, exit tickets, and video recordings of students throughout the intervention. Spatial abilities tests were analyzed using descriptive statistics while students' arguments were analyzed using the Instrument for the Analysis of Scientific Curricular Arguments and a behavior protocol. Models were analyzed using content analysis and interviews and all other data were coded and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings in the area of spatial abilities included increases in spatial reasoning for six out of seven participants, and an immense difference in the spatial challenges encountered by students when using CAD software instead of paper drawings to create models. Students perceived 3D printed

  15. A general schema for generating argumentation semantics from logic programming semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Osorio Galindo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by considering the idea that argumentation semantics can be viewed as a special form of logic programming semantics with negation as failure, we show that any logic programming semantics as the stable model semantics, the minimal models, etc., can define candidate argumentation semantics. These new argumentation semantics will overcome some of the problems of the Dung's argumentation semantics that have been discussed in the literature. The new argumentation semantics are based...

  16. The Integration of Vocabulary and Effective Sentence Mastery Towards Students' Argumentative Writing Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Rafida, Tien

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this result to reveal the integrated of vocabulary and effective sentence mastery against the argumentation writing skill students' PBI-SU FITK UIN the hypothesis proposed in this results are : (1) vocabulary mastery contribute to the argument to the arguments writing skill of students; (2) effective sentence mastery contribute to the argument writing skill of student; (3) vocabulary mastery and effective sentence mastery together contribute to the argument writing skill of studen...

  17. Measurements of the Temperature and E-Mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, J.W.; et al.

    2017-07-28

    We present measurements of the $E$-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum ($EE$) and temperature-$E$-mode cross-power spectrum ($TE$) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We now report the $EE$ and $TE$ power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range $50 < \\ell \\leq 8000$, and detect the first nine acoustic peaks in the $EE$ spectrum with high signal-to-noise. These measurements are the most sensitive to date of the $EE$ and $TE$ angular polarization power spectra at $\\ell > 1050$ and $\\ell > 1475$, respectively. The observations cover $500\\, \\rm{deg}^2$ of sky, a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol power spectrum releases, leading to more than a factor of two reduction in bandpower uncertainties. The additional sky coverage increases our sensitivity to the photon-diffusion damping tail of the CMB angular power spectra, which enables tighter constraints on $\\Lambda CDM$ model extensions such as primordial helium content $Y_\\rm{p}$ and effective number of relativistic species $N_\\rm{eff}$. Furthermore, after masking all sources with unpolarized flux $>50$ mJy we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of $D_\\ell < 0.10 \\mu{\\rm K}^2$ at $\\ell=3000$. This limit is a factor of four lower than the previous best upper limit, and suggests that the $EE$ damping tail is brighter than foregrounds to at least $\\ell = 4100$ with modest source masking. Finally, we find cosmological parameter constraints consistent with those for $Planck$ temperature when fitting SPTpol data at $\\ell < 1000$. However, including SPTpol data at $\\ell > 1000$ results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate ($H_0 = 71.2 \\pm 2.1\\,\\mbox{km}\\,s^{-1}\\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations ($\\sigma_8 = 0.77 \\pm 0.02$). (Abridged).

  18. Measurements of the Temperature and E-mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H-M.; Citron, R.; Moran, C. Corbett; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Lowitz, A.; Manzotti, A.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Schaffer, K. K.; Sievers, C.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Veach, T.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.

    2018-01-10

    We present measurements of the E-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum (EE) and temperature-E-mode cross-power spectrum (TE) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We report the power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range 50 < l <= 8000 and detect nine acoustic peaks in the EE spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratio. These measurements are the most sensitive to date of the EE and TE power spectra at l > 1050 and l > 1475, respectively. The observations cover 500 deg(2), a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol analyses, which increases our sensitivity to the photon diffusion damping tail of the CMB power spectra enabling tighter constraints on Lambda CDM model extensions. After masking all sources with unpolarized flux > 50 mJy, we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of D-l= l(l + 1)C-l/2 pi < 0.107 mu K-2 at l = 3000, suggesting that the EE damping tail dominates foregrounds to at least l = 4050 with modest source masking. We find that the SPTpol data set is in mild tension with the Lambda CDM model (2.1 sigma), and different data splits prefer parameter values that differ at the similar to 1 sigma level. When fitting SPTpol data at l < 1000, we find cosmological parameter constraints consistent with those for Planck temperature. Including SPTpol data at l > 1000 results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate (H-0 = 71.3 +/- 2.1 km s(-1) Mpc(-1)) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations (sigma(8) = 0.77 +/- 0.02).

  19. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  20. Argumentation in elementary science education: addressing methodological issues and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru

    2017-11-01

    In this review essay I respond to issues raised in Mijung Kim and Wolff-Michael Roth's paper titled "Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms", which presents a study dealing with dialogical argumentation in early elementary school classrooms. Since there is very limited research on lower primary school students' argumentation in school science, their paper makes a contribution to research on children's argumentation skills. In this response, I focus on two main issues to extend the discussion in Kim and Roth's paper: (a) methodological issues including conducting a quantitative study on children's argumentation levels and focusing on children's written argumentation in addition to their dialogical argumentation, and (b) investigating children's conceptual understanding along with their argumentation levels. Kim and Roth emphasize the difficulty in determining the level of children's argumentation through the Toulmin's Argument Pattern and lack of high level arguments by children due to their difficulties in writing texts. Regarding these methodological issues, I suggest designing quantitative research on coding children's argument levels because such research could potentially provide important findings on children's argumentation. Furthermore, I discuss alternative written products including posters, figures, or pictures generated by children in order to trace children's arguments, and finally articulating argumentation and conceptual understanding of children.